How to use Longitudinal in a sentence

longitudinal
  • The leaf-stalks and flowerstalks are traversed by longitudinal air-passages, whose disposition varies in different species.

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  • In the one the pattern consists of narrow vertical stripes, and in the other of longitudinal or obliquely longitudinal stripes, which, on the sides of the body, tend to assume a spiral or sub-circular arrangement characteristic of the blotched tabby.

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  • The young tissue of the stelar cylinder, in the case of the modified siphonostele characteristic of the dicotyledonous stem, differs from the adjoining pith and cortex in its narrow elongated cells, a difference produced by the stopping of transverse and the increased frequency of longitudinal divisions.

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  • The cells not only fuse together in longitudinal and transverse rows, but put out transverse projections, which fuse with others of a similar nature, and thus form an anastomosing network of tubes which extends to all parts of the plant.

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  • In humming-birds and petrels the trachea is partly divided by a vertical, longitudinal, cartilaginous septum.

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  • It occurs in two different forms. In the Ratitae, except Rhea, it consists mainly of a right and left united half (corpora fibrosa), with a deep longitudinal furrow on the dorsal side, and much resembles the same organ in crocodiles and tortoises.

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  • The muscular layers are thinner in the aquatic forms, which possess only a single row of longitudinal fibres, or (Enchytraeidae) two layers.

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  • In the bulky forms colorless branches frequently grow out from some of the cortical cells, and, pushing among the already-formed threads in a longitudinal direction, serve to strengthen the thallus by weaving its original threads together.

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  • The internal tissue of the body of the solid higher Fungi, particularly the elongated stalks (stipes) of the fructifications of the Agarics, consists of hyphae running in a longitudinal direction, which no doubt serve for the conduction of organic food substances, just as do the trumpet-hyphae, similar in appearance, though not in origin, of the higher Brown Seaweeds.

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  • The thin-walled spiral or annular tracheae of the protoxylem allow of longitudinal stretching brought about by the active growth in length of the neighboring living parenchymatous cells of a growing organ.

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  • As they pass into this position they undergo a longitudinal splitting by which the chromatin in each chromosome becomes divided into equal halves.

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  • It has been suggested that synapsis may be connected with the early longitudinal splitting of the thread or with the pairing of the chromosomes, but it is possible that it may be connected with the transference of nucleolar substance to the nuclear thread.

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  • They may consist of earth with a retaining wall along the tracks and with the surface gravelled or paved with stone or asphalt, or they may be constructed entirely of timber, or they may be formed of stone slabs supported on longitudinal walls.

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  • They are distinguished essentially from the British type of carriage by having in the centre of the body a longitudinal passage, about 2 ft.

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  • In 1893 the construction was completed in Budapest of an underground railway with a thin, flat roof, consisting of steel beams set close together, with small longitudinal jack arches between them, the street pavement .

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  • The fruit is a capsule splitting generally by three longitudinal slits forming valves which remain united above and below.

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  • On the other hand, additional longitudinal trunks are sometimes developed, the chief one of which is a supra-intestinal vessel lying below the dorsal vessel and closely adherent to the walls of the oesophagus in which region it appears.

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  • Pull the chairs apart until the monofilament line is taut.There are many things that can be taught using a slinky including learning what types of nodes there are, antinodes, sound columns and longitudinal waves.

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  • Where the depth to rail-level was too great for cut-and-cover methods, ordinary tunnelling processes were used; and where the trench was too shallow for the arched roof, heavy girders, sometimes of cast iron, bridged it between the side walls, longitudinal.

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  • The Mecaptera, with their predominantly longitudinal wing-nervuration, serve as a link between the Neuroptera and the Trichoptera, their retention of small cerci being an archaic character which stamps them as synthetic in type, but does not necessarily remove them from orders which agree with them in most points of structure but which have lost the cerci.

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  • Carinthia possesses a great number of Alpine lakes, which, unlike the other Alpine lakes, lie in the longitudinal valleys.

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  • Protonemertini, in which there are two layers of dermal muscles, external circular and internal longitudinal; the nervous system lies external to the circular muscles; the mouth lies behind the level of the brain; the proboscis has no stylet; there is no caecum to the intestine.

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  • Heteronemertini, in which the dermal musculature is in three layers, an external longitudinal, a middle circular, an internal longitudinal; the nervous system lies between the first and second of these layers; the outer layer of longitudinal muscles is a new development; there is no intestinal caecum; no stylets on the proboscis and the mouth is behind the level of the brain.

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  • The first three orders, which have a double muscular layer, external circular and internal longitudinal, are sometimes grouped together as the Dimyaria; the Heteronemertini, in which a third coat of longitudinal muscles arises outside the circular layer, are then placed in a second branch, the Trimyaria.

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  • It then often retains its vitality for a long time, apparently crawling as if it were itself a worm, a phenomenon which is at least partially explained by the extraordinary development of nervous tissue, equally distributed all through the walls of the proboscis, and either united into numerous longitudinal nerve-stems (Drepanophorus, Amphiporus) or spread out into a uniform and comparatively thick layer (Cerebratulus, sp.).

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  • The proboscis, which is thus an eminently muscular organ, is composed of two or three, sometimes powerful, layers of muscles - one of longitudinal and one or two of circular fibres.

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  • In the posterior retractor the longitudinal fibres become united into one bundle, which, as noticed above, is inserted in the wall of the sheath.

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  • The passage from this tegumentary layer to the subjacent longitudinal muscular one is gradual, no membrane separating them.

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  • The second is common to all the Heteronemertines, as well as to Polia and Valencinia, and also comprehends three layers, of which, however, two are longitudinal, viz.

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  • The Heteronemertini thus appear to have developed an extra layer of longitudinal fibres internally to those which they inherited from more primitive ancestors, whereas the Metanemertini are no longer in possession of the internal circular layer, but have on the contrary largely developed the external circular one, which has dwindled away in the Heteronemertini.

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  • In addition to the musculature of the proboscis and proboscidian sheath, longitudinal muscular fibres are found in the walls of the oesophagus, whilst transverse ones are numerous and united into vertical dissepiments between the successive intestinal caeca, thus bringing about a very regular internal metamerization.

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  • As central organs we have to note the brain-lobes and the longitudinal lateral cords which form one continuous unsegmented mass of fibrous and cellular nerve-tissue.

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  • In Carinella, where the longitudinal nerve-stems are situated exteriorly to the muscular layers, this plexus, although present, is much less dense, and can more fitly be compared to a network with wide meshes.

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  • In both cases it can be shown to be in immediate continuity with the coating of nerve-cells forming part of the longitudinal cords.

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  • In the Metanemertini, where the longitudinal stems lie inside the muscular body-wall, definite and metamerically placed nerve branches spring from them and divide dichotomously in the different tissues they innervate.

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  • In others there is an approximation of the lateral stems towards the median ventral line (Drepanophorus); in a genus of Heteronemertines (Langia), on the other hand, an arrangement occurs by which the longitudinal stems are no longer lateral, but have more or less approached each other dorsally.

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  • In all Heteronemertines there is on each side of the head a longitudinal slit of varying length but generally considerable depth, in the bottom of which the dark red brain is very plainly visible by transparency.

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  • The oesophagus is the anterior portion of the digestive canal; its walls are folded longitudinally, comparatively thick and provided with longitudinal muscular fibres.

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  • Outside the wall of the oesophagus a vascular space has been detected which is in direct continuity with the longitudinal blood-vessels.

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  • The longitudinal bloodvessels do the same.

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  • The chief vessels are three longitudinal trunks, a median and two lateral ones.

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  • Special mention must be made of the delicate transverse vessels regularly connecting the longitudinal and the lateral ones.

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  • Two lateral longitudinal lacunae form, so to say, the forerunners of the lateral vessels.

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  • A median longitudinal vessel and transverse connecting trunks have not as yet been detected.

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  • Each consists of a more or less coiled, ciliated, longitudinal canal, which on its external surface gives origin to one or more transverse canals, which pass to the exterior and open a little way behind the mouth on the sides of the body.

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  • On its inner surface the longitudinal canal is adpressed to the lateral bloodvessel, and gives off a number of small, blind caeca or tags, each of which ends in a small clump of cells.

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  • Montgomery has also described certain spaces which may be coelomic lying between the alimentary canal and the inner longitudinal layer of muscles in the Heteronemertini.

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  • Inside the syncytium is a not very regular layer of circular muscle fibres, and within this again some rather scattered longitudinal fibres; there is no endothelium.

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  • Except for the absence of 'the longitudinal fibres the skin of the proboscis resembles that of the body, but the fluid-containing tubules of the latter are shut off from those of the body.

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  • The stem was in fact !'cut into longitudinal strips for the purpose of being converted into the writing material, those from the centre of the plant being the broadest and most valuable.

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  • The gill-pores occur on each side of the dorsal aspect of the worm in a longitudinal series at the base of a shallow groove, the branchial groove.

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  • An important feature is the occurrence in some species (Ptychoderidae) of paired longitudinal pleural or lateral folds of the body which are mobile, and can be approximated at their free edges so as to close in the dorsal surface, embracing both the median dorsal nerve-tract and the branchial grooves with the gill-pores, so as to form a temporary peri-branchial and medullary tube, open behind where the folds cease.

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  • A typical feature of the north-eastern border of the high plateau is a succession of broad longitudinal 5 valleys along its outer base, ' The wide area between the middle Lena and the Amur, as well as the hilly tracts west of Lake Baikal, and the Yeniseisk mining region are in this condition.

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  • A, Larva which has just left brood-pouch; B, longitudinal section through a somewhat later stage; C, the fully formed embryo just before fixing - the neo-embryo of Beecher.

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  • This has an oblong, dish-shaped hearth of acid or basic fire-brick built into a wrought-iron pan, which rests on transverse rails supported by longitudinal walls.

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  • Honda subjected tubes of iron, steel and nickel to the simultaneous action of circular and longitudinal fields, and observed the changes of length when one of the fields was varied while the other remained constant at different successive values from zero upwards.

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  • It has been suggested 2 that an iron rod under magnetization may be in the same condition as if under a mechanically applied longitudinal stress tending to shorten the iron.

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  • The whole of the rod will therefore be subject to a compressive longitudinal stress P, the associated contraction R, expressed as a fraction of the original length, being R = P/M = (B 2 -H2)/87-M, where M is Young's modulus.

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  • The effects of longitudinal pressure are opposite to those of traction; when the cyclic condition has been reached, pressure reduces the magnetization of iron in weak fields and increases it in strong fields (Ewing, Magnetic Induction, 1900, 223).

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  • Ewing has also examined the effects produced by longitudinal compression upon the susceptibility and retentiveness of nickel, and found, as was to be expected, that both were greatly increased by pressure.

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  • The twist effect exhibited by iron under moderate longitudinal magnetization has been called by Knott a positive Wiedemann effect; if the twist were reversed, the other conditions remaining the same, the sign of the Wiedemann effect would be negative.

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  • The wire is subject to two superposed magnetizations, the one longitudinal, the other circular, due to the current traversing the wire; the resultant magnetization is consequently in the direction of a screw or spiral round the wire, which will be right-handed or left-handed according as the relation between the two magnetizations is right-handed or left-handed; the magnetic expansion or contraction of the metal along the spiral lines of magnetization produces the Wiedemann twist.

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  • Maxwell has also given an explanation of the converse effect, namely, the production of longitudinal magnetization by twisting a wire when circularly magnetized by a current passing through it.

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  • Twisting a circularly magnetized wire produces longitudinal magnetization.

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  • Longitudinal stress produces change of magnetization.

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  • This was seen in longitudinal sections, as shown in fig.

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  • The corolla is generally funnelshaped, more rarely bell-shaped or tubular; the outer face is often marked out in longitudinal areas, five well-defined areas tapering from base to apex, and marked with longitudinal striae corresponding to the middle of the petals, and alternating with five non-striated weaker triangular areas; in the bud the latter are folded inwards, the stronger areas being exposed and showing a twist to the right.

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  • Some importance attaches to the form of the pollen grains; the two principal forms are ellipsoidal with longitudinal bands forming the Convolvulus-type, and a spherical form with a spiny surface known as the Ipomaea-type.

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  • The leading idea of Cuvier, his four embranchemens, was confirmed by the Russo-German naturalist Von Baer (1792-1876), who adopted Cuvier's divisions, speaking of them as the peripheric, the longitudinal, the massive, and the vertebrate types of structure.

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  • When parallel rays fall directly upon a spherical mirror the longitudinal aberration is only about one-eighth as great as for the most favourably shaped single lens of equal focal length and aperture.

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  • Pacas may be distinguished from agoutis by their heavier and more compact build, the longitudinal rows of light spots on the fur, the five-toed hind-feet, and the peculiar structure of the skull, in which the cheek-bones are expanded to form large capsules on the sides of the face, each enclosing a cavity opening on the side of the cheek.

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  • According to this, the shoot of the vine is a "sympodium," consisting of a number of "podia" placed one over the other in longitudinal series.

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  • Each cansists of an eversible hollow tentacle provided with hooklets and capable of introversion within a mem The excretory organs consist of flame-cells, richly convoluted canaliculi, and a pair of longitudinal canals leading to the exterior by one or more pores.

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  • The muscles are composed of outer circular and inner longitudinal layers, and of branched dorso-ventral fibres.

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  • At the two extremities of New Caledonia, parallel longitudinal ranges of mountains enclose valleys; for the rest the island consists essentially of confused masses and ranges of mountains, rising to an extreme elevation of 5387 ft., the plains being chiefly the deltas of rivers.

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  • The fillers or inner contents of the cigar must be of uniform quality, and so packed and distributed in a longitudinal direction that the tobacco may burn uniformly and the smoke can be freely drawn from end to end.

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  • In many places longitudinal dunes are found exceeding a day's journey in length, the valleys between which take three or four hours to cross; but the most striking feature of the Nafud are the high crescent-shaped sand-hills, known locally as falk or falj, described by Blunt and Huber, who devoted some time to their investigation.

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  • The wings exhibit six longitudinal veins (seven in Heptaphlebomyia), two of which are characteristically forked.

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  • Above Lima the western chain of the Andes is composed of porphyritic tuffs and massive limestones, while the longitudinal valley of the Oroya is hollowed in carbonaceous sandstones.

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  • The railway connexions are with Ovalle to the S., and Vicuña (or Elqui) to the E., but the proposed extension northward of Chile's longitudinal system would bring Coquimbo into direct communication with Santiago.

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  • This layer also forms the attachment for the muscles, of which there are two enveloping coats, a circular and a longitudinal layer and also dorso-ventral fibres.

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  • This spur, which attains the length of nearly an inch, is traversed by a minute canal, terminating in a fine longitudinal slit near the point, and connected at its base with the duct of a large gland situated at the back part of the thigh.

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  • The coloration of tsetse-flies is sombre and inconspicuous; the brownish or greyish-brown thorax usually exhibits darker longitudinal markings, and when the insect is at rest the abdomen or hinder half of the body is entirely concealed by the brownish wings.

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  • The scales are sometimes rounded behind, but generally rhombic in shape and more or less elongate; they may be quite smooth or provided with a longitudinal ridge or keel in the middle line.

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  • Externally they are easily distinguished by the absence of a longitudinal groove on the skin.

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  • Apart from this feature the Trichoptera also differ from the typical Neuroptera in the relatively simple, mostly longitudinal neuration of the wings, the absence or obsolescence of the mandibles and the semi-haustellate nature of the rest of the mouth-parts.

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  • Straits have been formed (I) by fracture across isthmuses, and such may be by longitudinal fracture as in the Strait of Bab-el-Mandeb, or transverse fracture as in the Strait of Gibraltar or Cook Strait; (2) by erosion, e.g.

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  • No organs of circulation or respiration are known; but the nervous system is well developed, and consists of a pair of ganglia corresponding with the limbs and connected by longitudinal commissural chords.

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  • The rocking-bar is moved by a rack g into which a pinion on a cross-spindle j gears; the cross-spindle is moved by means of a worm-wheel into which a worm on the longitudinal FIG.

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  • All the American species are of a nearly uniform dark brown or blackish colour when adult; but it is a curious circumstance that when young (and in this the Malay species conforms with the others) they are conspicuously marked with spots and longitudinal stripes of white or fawn colour on a darker ground.

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  • All the flowers of each triplet of spikelets on both sides of the rachis are fertile and produce ripe fruits; hence the ear produces six longitudinal rows of grain.

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  • In liquids sound waves are longitudinal as they are in air.

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  • But the waves on the surface of a liquid, which are not of the sound kind, are both longitudinal and transverse, the compound nature being easily seen in watching the motion of a floating particle.

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  • We can represent waves of longitudinal displacement by a curve, and this enables us to draw very important conclusions in a very simple way.

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  • The chief experimental basis for supposing that a train of longitudinal waves with displacement curve of this kind arouses the sensation of a pure tone is that the more nearly a source is made to vibrate with a single simple harmonic motion, and therefore, presumably, the more nearly it sends out such a harmonic train, the more nearly does the note heard approximate to a single pure tone.

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  • Since the curve represents a longitudinal disturbance in air it is always continuous, at a finite distance from the axis, and with only one ordinate for each abscissa.

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  • If U 4 is the velocity of longitudinal waves along the sounder, and 1 the length of the sounder, the frequency of vibration is U 8 /2l.

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  • Subject to a limitation which we shall examine later, the velocity of a longitudinal disturbance along a wire or rod depends only on the material of the rod, and not upon the cross-section.

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  • Since the forces called into play by an extension or compression of the material are proportional to the cross-section, it follows that if we consider any case and then another case in which, with the same longitudinal disturbance, the cross-section is doubled, the force in the second case is doubled as well as the mass to be moved.

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  • The longitudinal extension is dy/dx, and therefore the radial contraction is n/r= udy/dx.

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  • If r is of the order of A, n is of the order of y; and the kinetic energy of the radial motion is of the same order as that of the longitudinal motion.

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  • There are fifteen main transverse girders to each shore span, with nine longitudinal girders between each pair.

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  • For railway bridges it commonly consists of cross girders, attached to or resting on the main girders, and longitudinal rail girders or stringers carried by the cross girders and directly supporting the sleepers and rails.

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  • Provision is made for longitudinal expansion due to change of temperature, for distortion due to the sun acting on one side of the structure, and for the wind acting on one side of the bridge.

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  • A remarkable feature of the belt is the longitudinal chain of broad valleys - the Great Appalachian Valley - which, in the southerly sections divides the mountain system into two subequal portions, but in the northernmost lies west of all the ranges possessing typical Appalachian features, and separates them from the Adirondack group. The mountain system has no axis of dominating altitudes, but in every portion the summits rise to rather uniform heights, and, especially in the central section, the various ridges and intermontane valleys have the same trend as the system itself.

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  • Former tributaries have given place to others developed with reference to the distribution of more or less easily eroded strata, the present longitudinal valleys being determined by the out-crop of soft shales or soluble limestones, and the parallel ridges upheld by hard sandstones or schists.

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  • They consist of longitudinal columns, each composed of an immense number of "electric plates."

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  • The essential characteristic of the Cricetines is to be found in the upper cheek-teeth, which (as shown in the figure of those of Cricetus in the article RODENTIA) have their cusps arranged in two longitudinal rows separated by a groove.

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  • Besides the circular subumbral muscles, there may be others running in a radial direction, chiefly developed as the longitudinal retractor muscles of the manubrium.

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  • This typically consists of two concentric zones, the trochus and cingulum, often separated by a groove or gutter which may be finely ciliated; but in several genera of no close affinity, where it is very oblique to the longitudinal axis of the body, it is represented by a general ciliation of the surface (Taphrocampa, Rattulus, Copeus, Adineta).

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  • Until recently the process has been considered as an actual longitudinal splitting of the flagellum, following upon the separation of the two daughter-kinetonuclei.

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  • The middle section of the Appalachians, rather arbitrarily limited by the Hudson and the James rivers, may be described first because it contains the best representation of the three longitudinal belts of which the mountain system as a whole is The Middle composed.

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  • The watercourses to-day are, as a rule, longitudinal, following the strike of the weaker strata in paths that they appear to have gained by spontaneous adjustment during the long Mesozoic cycle; but now and again they cross from one longitudinal valley to another by a transverse course, and there they have cut down sharp notches or water-gaps in the hard strata that elsewhere stand up in the long even-crested ridges.

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  • The feature referred to results from the occurrence here of a weak basal formation of clay overlaid by more resistant sandy strata; the clay belt has been stripped for a score or more of miles from its original inland overlap, and worn down in a longitudinal inner lowland, while the sandy belt retains a significant altitude of 200 or 300 ft.

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  • There is good reason for believing that at least along the southern border of New England a narrow coastal plain was for a time added to the continental border; and that, as in the New Jersey section the plain was here stripped from a significant breadth of inland overlap and worn down so as to form an inner lowland enclosed by a longitudinal upland or cuesta; and that when this stage was reached a submergence, of the kind which has produced the many embayments of the New England coast, drowned the outer part of thy plain and the inner lowland, leaving only the higher parts of the cuesta as islands.

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  • When the two lowlands are traced eastward they become confluent after the Niagara limestone has faded away in central New York, and the single lowland is continued under the name of Mohawk Valley, an east-west longitudinal depression that has been eroded on a belt of relatively weak strata between the resistant crystalline rocks of the Adirondacks on the north and the northern escarpment of the Appalachian plateau (Catskills-Helderbergs) on the south; forming a pathway of great historic and economic importance between the Atlantic seaports and the interior.

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  • More important is San Francisco Bay, situated about midway on the Pacific coast of the United States, the result of a moderate depression whereby a transverse valley, formerly followed by Sacramento river through the outermost of the Coast ranges, has been converted into a narrow straitthe Golden Gate and a wider intermont longitudinal valley has been flooded, forming the expansion of the inner bay.

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  • To the north, the floor of the depression is for the most part above baselevel, and hence is dissected by open valleys, partly longitudinal, partly transverse, among hills of moderate relief.

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  • They may be distinguished from the Neuroptera by the elongation of the head into a beak, the small prothorax, the narrow, elongate wings with predominantly longitudinal neuration, the presence of abdominal cerci and the cruciform larva.

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  • At the base of each wing projects a dorsal lobe - the jugumand the neuration is predominantly longitudinal, resembling so closely that of the lower Lepidoptera (q.v.) that a nearer relationship of the Trichoptera to that order than to any group of the old Linnean Neuroptera is certain.

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  • When it is slit open from in front a longitudinal ridge is seen in its posterior wall, which is called the verumontanum or crista urethra, and on each side of this is a longitudinal depression, the prostatic sinus, into which numerous ducts of the prostate open, though some of them open on to the antero-lateral surface.

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  • In this the crowns of the molars are more or less shortened, with their cusps either arranged in longitudinal lines, or forming four upper and three lower more or less distinct oblique ridges.

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  • The humerus lacks a foramen at the lower end; and the molar teeth, as explained and illustrated in the article Vole, consist of two longitudinal rows of triangular alternating vertical prisms, and may be either rootless or rooted.

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  • The nervous system, though centralized at one end of the body, contains diffused nerve-cells in the course of its tracts, which are disposed in two or more longitudinal bundles interconnected by transverse bands.

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  • The kakapo is about the size of a raven, of a green or brownishgreen colour, thickly freckled and irregularly barred with dark brown, and dashed here and there with longitudinal stripes .of light yellow.

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  • B has reference to horizontal forces acting in a longitudinal direction in the ship, and caused partly by the permanent magnetism of hard iron, partly by vertical induction in vertical soft iron either before or abaft the compass.

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  • The skin consists of a transparent cuticle excreted by the underlying ectoderm, the cells of which though usually one-layered may be heaped up into several layers in the head; beneath this is a basement membrane, and then a layer of longitudinal muscle fibres which are limited inside by a layer of peritoneal cells.

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  • The mouth, a longitudinal slit, opens on to the ventral surface of the head.

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  • The valleys rarely exceed more than a few miles in width, are usually steep-sided, and frequently are traversed by longitudinal ranges of hills and cross ridges; but the Pennsylvania portion of the Appalachian or Great Valley, which forms a distinct division of the central province and lies between the South Mountains and the long rampart of Blue Mountain, is about to m.

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  • Extending in longitudinal dimensions 257 ft., it is FIG.

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  • But it varies much in form and scaling, and some most aberrant varieties have been fixed by artificial selection, the principal being the king-carp or mirror-carp, in which the scales are enlarged and reduced in number, forming more or less regular longitudinal series on the sides, and the leather-carp, in which the scales have all but disappeared, the fish being covered with a thick, leathery skin.

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  • Most of the piles driven in Great Britain have been made on the Hennebique system with four or six longitudinal steel rods tied together by stirrups or loops at frequent intervals.

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  • In the other view the spermatia are the male sexual cells and thus A, Optical longitudinal section of the ex are rightly named; it tremity of a thin branch of the thallus should, however, be which has become transparent in pointed out that this solution of potash.

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  • At other times the spores are divided by both transverse and longitudinal septa producing the muriform (murali-divided) spore so called from the resemblance of the individual chambers to the stones in a wall.

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  • The dorsal integument or mantle bears, not a simple shell, but eight calcareous plates in longitudinal series articulating with each other.

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  • The oxygenated blood is carried from each gill by an efferent vessel on the external or pallial side of the axis to another longitudinal vessel which leads to the auricle on each side.

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  • A small longitudinal projection in the ventral groove represents the A, Lateral view.

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  • Unlike the northern, the southern affluents of the Ombilin do not follow longitudinal valleys hemmed in by the Barisan range and ranges of slate, limestone and sandstone.

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  • South of the Middengebergte, however, the northern affluents of the Batang Hari, the Seliti, Gumanti, Si Potar, Mamun and Pangean, at least those in the west, again run in longitudinal valleys.

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  • Such are the valley of Korinchi, with the river of the same name, between the peak of Korinchi and Mt Raja; the valleys of Serampei and Sungei Tenang (as imperfectly known as that of the Korinchi), in which are to be sought the sources of the Tambesi and Asei, both affluents of the Jambi; the longitudinal valley of Kedah K i?

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  • The southernmost longitudinal valley of Sumatra is that of the Semangka, which flows into the bay of the same name.

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  • Blowing over land and in the direction of the longitudinal valleys, the south-east wind is comparatively dry, and thus favours the formation of steppes in the north such as the Toba plains.

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  • The two longitudinal lines are the railway den Helder via Haarlem (1862-1867), 1 Rotterdam (1839-1847), and Zwaluwe (1869-1877) to Antwerp (1852-1855), belonging to the Holland railway company, and the State railway from Leeuwarden and Groningen (1870) (junction at Meppel, 1867) Zwolle (1866) - Arnhem (1865)- Nijmwegen (1879) - Venlo (1883) - Maastricht (1865).

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  • By longitudinal segmentation we have a leaf formed consisting of sheath, stalk and blade; or one or other of these may be absent, and thus stalked, sessile, sheathing, &c., leaves are produced.

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  • Polygordius and Protodrilus live in sand, but while the former moves by means of the contraction of its body-wall muscles, Protodrilus can progress by the action of the bands of cilia surrounding its segments, and of the longitudinal ciliated ventral groove.

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  • The body is composed of a large number of segments; the prostomium bears a pair of tentacles; the nervous system consists of a brain and longitudinal ventral nerve cords closely connected with the epidermis (without distinct ganglia), widely separated in Saccocirrus, closely approximated in Protodrilus, fused together in Polygordius; the coelom is well developed, the septa are distinct, and the dorsal and ventral longitudinal mesenteries are complete; the nephridia are simple, and open into the coelom.

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  • Within the circular muscles is a layer of longitudinal muscles, very often broken into bundles, the number of which is often of specific importance.

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  • Oblique muscles sometimes lie between the circular and longitudinal sheaths.

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  • There is a welldeveloped brain dorsal, to the mouth; this gives off a pair of oesophageal commissures, which surround the oesophagus and unite in a median ventral nerve-cord which runs between the longitudinal muscles to the posterior end of the body.

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  • This, with Physcosoma, has its longitudinal muscles divided up into some 17-41 bundles.

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  • C. porosus or biporcatus is easily recognised by the prominent longitudinal ridge which extends in front of each eye.

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  • It appears that the four peninsulas are traversed in the direction of their longitudinal axis by mountain chains 3000 to 4000 ft.

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  • The pollen is set free by the opening (dehiscence) of the anther, generally by means of longitudinal slits, but sometimes by pores, as in the heath family (Ericaceae), or by valves, as in the barberry.

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  • It is further stated by Olive that the chromosomes undergo longitudinal fission, and that for the same species the same number of chromosomes appear at each division.

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  • Multiplication takes place in some cases by the endogenous formation of zoospores, the organism having come to rest; in others by longitudinal division, when the organism is still motile.

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  • The segment so cut off does not usually divide again by means of a transverse wall, nor indeed by a longitudinal wall which passes through the organic axis of the cell.

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  • These ridges are separated by longitudinal and furrowed by transverse valleys.

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  • Seen from an eminence on their surface, the inference is irresistible that these plateaus are fragments of the original tableland, trenched into segments by the formation of the longitudinal and transverse valleys.

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  • The longitudinal valleys, which run in the same general direction as the ridges - that is, north-east and south-west--have had their trend defined by geological structure, such as a line of dislocation (the Great Glen), or the plications of the rocks (Lochs Ericht, Tay and Awe, and most of the sea lochs of Argyllshire).

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  • The crumpling of the earth's crust which folded the rocks of the Highlands and Southern Uplands probably upraised above the sea a series of longitudinal ridges having a general north-easterly direction.

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  • The earliest rain that fell upon these ridges would run off them, first in transverse watercourses down each short slope, and then in longitudinal depressions wherever such had been formed during the terrestrial disturbance.

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  • West of that line, however, they abound in both the longitudinal and the transverse valleys.

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  • Other important longitudinal lakes are Lochs Tay, Awe, Ericht and Shiel.

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  • Along the shores of the lakes the cordillera may be described as a double range, consisting of two series of ridges divided by a great longitudinal valley.

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  • The thread spun by the jenny could not, however, be used except as weft, being destitute of the firmness or hardness required in the longitudinal threads or warp. Arkwright supplied this deficiency by the invention of the spinning-frame, which spins a vast number of threads of any degree of fineness and hardness.

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  • The belts of non-resistant rock have been worn away, leaving longitudinal valleys separated by hard rock ridges.

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  • When extraneous forces act on the bars themselves the stress in each bar no longer consists of a simple longitudinal tension or thrust.

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  • This frustum is made always to turn along with the shaft by being fitted on a square portion of it, or by means of a rib and groove, or otherwise, but is capable of a slight longitudinal motion, so as to be pressed into, or withdrawn from, the hollow cone by means of a lever.

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  • These myotomes enable it to swim rapidly with characteristic serpentine undulations of the body, the movements being effected by the alternate contraction and relaxation of the longitudinal muscles on both sides.

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  • The ventral side of the body in the atrial region is broad and convex, so that the body presents the appearance of a spherical triangle in transverse section, the apex being formed by the dorsal fin and the angles bordered by two hollow folds, the metapleural folds, each of which contains a continuous longitudinal lymph-space, the metapleural canal.

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  • Some of them are relics of the longitudinal moraines of the ice-sheet, and they run north-west to south-east, parallel to the striation of the rocks and to the countless parallel troughs excavated by the ice in the hard rocks in the same direction; while the Lojo As, which runs from HangOudd to Vesi-jarvi, and is continued farther east under the name of Salpausellia, parallel to the shore of the Gulf of Finland, are remainders of the frontal moraines, formed at a period when the ice-sheet remained for some time stationary during its retreat.

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  • Perhaps the most constant and obvious distinction between this species and the next is the arrangement of the stripes on the hinder part of the back, where there are a number of short transverse bands reaching to the median longitudinal dorsal stripe, and unconnected with the uppermost of the broad stripes which pass obliquely across the haunch from the flanks towards the root of the tail.

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  • There is often a median longitudinal stripe under the chest.

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  • There is a strongly marked median longitudinal ventral black stripe, to which the lower ends of the transverse side stripes are usually united, but the dorsal stripe (also strongly marked) is completely isolated in its posterior half, and the uppermost of the broad haunch stripes runs nearly parallel to it.

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  • The great longitudinal valley of Chile runs approximately, but only approximately, along the boundary between the two zones.

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  • About the same time the government began the construction of a longitudinal trunk line running southward from Santiago midway between the Andes and the Coast range, and connecting with all the provincial capitals and prominent ports.

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  • The completion of the Trans-Andean railway between Valparaiso and Buenos Aires was bound to be of immense commercial and industrial value; and eventually the making of a longitudinal railway route uniting the nitrate province of the north with Santiago, and Santiago with Puerto Montt in the distant south, opened up further important prospects.

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  • The numerous male catkins are generally arranged in dense whorls around the bases of the young shoots; the anther-scales, surmounted by a crest-like appendage, shed their abundant pollen by longitudinal slits; the two ovules at the base of the inner side of each fertile cone-scale develop into a pair of winged seeds, which drop from the opening scales when mature - as in the allied genera.

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  • The first two premolars are compressed, with cutting longitudinal edges, the anterior one is deciduous, being lost about the time the second one replaces the milk-molar, so that three premolars are never found in place and use in the same individual.

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  • The stomach is large and very complex, its walls being puckered by longitudinal muscular bands into a number of folds.

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  • Hence the film is stable as regards longitudinal displacements.

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  • Their ectodermal muscles are mainly longitudinal, their endodermal muscles are circularly arranged on the body-wall.

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  • The cheek-prominences are of an intense blue, the effect of which is heightened by deeply sunk longitudinal furrows of a darker tint, while the central line and termination of the nose are bright scarlet.

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  • Of the last, occurring mainly in the north, the chief are the longitudinal valley stretching from near the Herat frontier through Meshed, Kuchan and Shirvan to Bujnurd, the Derrehgez district, which lies on the northern skirt of the outer range projecting into the Akhal Tekkeh domain, now Russian territory, and the districts of Nishapur and Sabzevar which lie south of the Binalud and Jagatai ranges.

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  • Endodermal muscles are found in the phacellae, and in such forms as Lucernaria, longitudinal (vertical) muscular tracts or bands are found in the taeniolae, which, according to some authorities, are xxiv.

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  • Each taeniola bears a strongly developed longitudinal muscle-band, stated by Claus and Chun to be developed from the endoderm, like the retractor muscles of the anthopolyp, but by other investigators it is affirmed that each retractor muscle of the scyphistoma arises from the lining of a funnel-shaped ectodermal ingrowth (" Septaltrichter ") growing down from the peristome inside each taeniola, in a manner similar to the infundibular cavities of Lucernaria, which in their turn are homologous with the sub f genital cavities of Scypho l A .` medusae.

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  • The four longitudinal gastric ridges are seen by transparency.

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  • The whole length of the alimentary canal is provided, as a rule, with muscular fibres, both circular and longitudinal, running in its walls, and, in addition, there may be muscle-bands running between the gut and the body-wall.

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  • In the higher groups the two halves of the chain are more or less closely approximated and coalesced, and, in addition, a concentration of the ganglia in a longitudinal direction takes place, leading ultimately, in many cases, to the formation of an unsegmented ganglionic mass representing the whole of the ventral chain.

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  • The species resembles a wolf in size, and is greyish-brown in colour, marked with indistinct longitudinal stripes of a darker hue, while the legs are transversely striped.

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  • In both orographical systems the principal rivers start nearly all together from a central nucleus, and in both cases they radiate to opposite quarters of the compass; but whereas in the Alps the Rhone and the Rhine, flowing south-west and north-east respectively, follow longitudinal valleys, and the Aar and the Ticino, flowing north-west and south-east respectively, follow transverse valleys, in the Caucasus the streams which flow south-west and north-east, namely, the headwaters of the Rion and the Terek, travel along transverse valleys, and those of the Kura and the Kuban, flowing south-east and north-west respectively, traverse longitudinal valleys.

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  • Beyond, again, lies a broad furrow, or ` longitudinal fold,' as geologists call it, parallel to the ridges, and then rises the last elevation, a belt of low calcareous hills, on which, here and there among the waves of beech forest, purple or blue with distance, a white cliff retains its local colour and shines like a patch of fresh snow.

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  • These basins or ` longitudinal folds ' are enclosed on the south by the long high ridge of dark slates, which extends parallel to the crystalline [main] chain from the neighbourhood of Sukhum-Kale to the Krestovaya Gora [pass of Darial.] Behind this slate crest spreads a confused multitude of hills, Jurassic and Cretaceous in their formation..

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  • The filaments elongate rapidly at flowering-time, and the lightly versatile anthers empty an abundance of finely granular smooth pollen through a longitudinal slit.

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  • The single blowhole is a longitudinal slit, placed at the upper and anterior extremity of the head to the left side of the middle line.

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  • The ripe seed, which grows as large as a rather small plum, is enclosed by a thick, fleshy envelope covering a hard woody shell with two or rarely three longitudinal keels.

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  • The finer branches are green, and bear a close resemblance to the stems of Equisetum and to the slender twigs of Casuarina; the surface of the long internodes is marked by fine longitudinal ribs, and at the nodes are borne pairs of inconspicuous scale-leaves.

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  • Between the Western and the Central Cordilleras is a longitudinal depression along which the river Cauca finds its way towards the sea.

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  • By means of the stinging nettle-cells or nematocysts with which the tentacles are thickly covered, living organisms of various kinds are firmly held and at the same time paralysed or killed, and by means of longitudinal muscular fibrils formed from the cells of the ectoderm the tentacles are contracted and convey the food to the mouth.

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  • The mesenteries are provided with well-developed longitudinal retractor muscles, supported on longitudinal folds or plaits of the mesogloea, so that in cross-section they have a branched appearance.

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  • A rod-like supporting axis of peculiar texture is developed in the longitudinal partition, and a longitudinal canal is hollowed out on either side of the axis in the substance of the longitudinal partition, so that there are four stem-canals in all.

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  • The stomodaeum is compressed laterally, and is furnished with two longitudinal grooves, a sulcus and a sulculus.

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  • The mesenteries are numerous, and the longitudinal muscles, though distinguishable, are so feebly developed that there are no musclebanners.

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  • This sicula, which had originally the shape of a hollow cone, is formed of two portions or regions - an upper and smaller (apical or embryonic) portion, marked by delicate longitudinal lines, and having a fine tabular thread (the nema) proceeding from its apex; and a lower (thecal or apertural) portion, marked by transverse lines of growth and widening in the direction of the mouth, the lip or apertural margin of which forms the broad end of the sicula.

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  • In the case of the southern continents the difficulty is, however, to determine whether allied groups of mammals (and other animals) have reached their present isolated habitats by dispersal from the north along widely sundered longitudinal lines, or whether such a distribution implies the former existence of equatorial land-connexions.

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  • For example, where the high plateau of the Libyan desert descends into a longitudinal valley between Syrtis and the Nile delta there are a few spots where the water comes to the surface or is found in shallow wells.

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  • A, Longitudinal section of the rhizome, including a node and portions of the adjoining internodes; k, septum between the two internodal cavities, hh; gg, vascular bundles; 1, vallecular canal; s, leaf-sheath.

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  • The leaves have a single main bundle, and in the mesophyll are four longitudinal series of large intercellular spaces separated by transverse diaphragms. The sporangia, which are situated singly on the adaxial surface of the leaves, between their insertion on the stem and the ligule, arise from a considerable number of epidermal cells.

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  • The sori are developed in depressions and are thus protected within the resistent outer wall of the sporocarp. There are usually four sori in Pilularia, while in Marsilia they form two longitudinal rows.

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  • The ripe fruit or grain, sometimes called the "berry," the matured state of the ovary and its contents, is oblong or ovoid, with a longitudinal furrow on one side.

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  • The ovary adheres firmly to the seed in the interior, so that on examining a longitudinal section of the grain by the microscope the outer layer is seen to consist of epidermal cells, of which the uppermost are prolonged into short hairs to cover the apex of the grain.

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  • Between these three or four longitudinal incisions are then made, the utmost care being taken not to injure the inner bark.

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  • The principal blood-channels are two longitudinal vessels which run down the entire length of the body, and are known as the " afferent " vessel (af) and the " efferent " vessel (ef) respectively, from their relation to the tentacles.

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  • To measure the difference between the longitudinal co-ordinates of two objects by means of a graduated circle the instruments must turn on an axis parallel to the principal axis of the system of coordinates, and the plane of the graduated circle must be at right angles to that axis, and, therefore, parallel to the principal co-ordinate plane.

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  • The motion of the graduated circle in passing from one pointing to the other is the measure of the difference between the longitudinal co-ordinates of the two objects.

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  • Baron divides the flora into three distinctly marked " regions," which run in a longitudinal direction, following approximately the longer axis of the island, and are termed respectively eastern, western and central.

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  • Whilst northern Africa was being folded, the East African plateau was broken up by a series of longitudinal rifts extending from Nyasaland to Egypt.

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  • They generally lived in separate houses, but formed a community having a common church in which the sexes were divided by a longitudinal wall.

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  • Since a beam of common light can be resolved into plane polarized streams and these on recomposition give a stream with properties indistinguishable from those of common light, whatever their relative retardation may be, it is natural to assume that an analytical representation of common light can be obtained in which no longitudinal vector occurs.

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  • The arrangement of the Pyrenees in chains gently inclined near the centre but longitudinal everywhere else, is illustrated by the courses of the streams which flow down towards Spain.

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  • On the French side most of the longitudinal valleys have disappeared; and this is why the range has so long been described as sending out transverse spurs, the more important slope remaining unknown.

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  • On the south the principal streams, after cutting their way through the highest zone at right angles to the general direction of the range, become involved half-way to the plains in great longitudinal folds, from which they make their escape only after traversing long distances without finding an outlet.

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  • Beneath the epidermis is a thin cutis, which is followed by the muscular layers (external circular and internal longitudinal).

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  • When the anther lobes are rendered horizontal by the enlargement of the connective, then what is really longitudinal dehiscence may appear to be transverse.

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  • The body is bounded by a firm pellicle, often supplemented by an armour (" lorica ") of cuticular cellulose plates, with usually a marked longitudinal groove from which the anterior flagellum springs, and an oblique or spiral transverse groove for the second flagellum.

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  • Besides the other spaces are definite rounded or oval vacuoles with a permanent pellicular wall termed by Schutt " pusules "; these open by a duct or ducts into the longitudinal groove.

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  • Prorocentraceae (Schutt) (=the Adinida of Bergh); body surrounded by a firm shell of two valves without a girdle band; transverse groove absent; transverse flagellum coiled round base of longitudinal.

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  • As Admiralty Sound and Lake Fagnano bound the Cordillera to the north in Tierra del Fuego, so at the eastern side of the Cordillera in the southernmost part of the continent there is a longitudinal depression which separates the Andes from some independent ridges pertaining to a secondary parallel broken chain called the pre-Cordillera.

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  • Abrupt walls overlook the Pacific, and great longitudinal and transversal channels and fjords run right through the heart of the range, cutting it generally in a direction more or less oblique to its axis, the result of movements of the earth's crust.

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  • While in the west of the Andes, from the latitude of Aconcagua, the central valley of Chile runs without any notable interruption to the south end of the continent, a valley which almost disappears to the north, leaving only some rare inflexions which are considered by Chilean geographers and geologists to be a continuation of the same valley; to the east in Argentina a longitudinal valley, perfectly characterized, runs along the eastern foot of the Cordillera, separating this from the preCordillera, which is parallel to the Cordillera de la Costa of Chile.

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  • In Bolivia this eastern ridge, separated from the western Cordillera by the longitudinal valley in which Lake Titicaca lies, is formed chiefly of Archaean and Palaeozoic rocks.

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  • The longitudinal valley which separates them is occupied mainly by volcanic deposits.

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  • The longitudinal course of the vascular bundles and their relation to the leaves in Calamarieae generally followed the Equisetum type, though more variable and sometimes more complex.

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  • Diagrammatic longitudinal section of cone, showing the axis (ax) bearing the bracts (br) with peltate sporangiophores (sp) springing from their axils; sm, sporangia.

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  • Diagrammatic longitudinal section of the cone, showing the axis (ax) bearing alternate whorls of bracts (br) and peltate sporangiophores (sp) with their sporangia (sm).

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  • In the longitudinal section the corresponding parts are shown.

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  • Each sporangium had, on one side only, a longitudinal or slightly oblique annulus, several cells in width; the numerous spores were all of the same size; certain differences among them, which have been interpreted as indicating heterospory, have now proved to depend merely on the state of preservation.

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  • Restoration of Stem, shown partly in transverse and longitudinal section, partly in surface view.

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  • A longitudinal section of a male Cordaianthus (the name applied to isolated fructifications) is shown in fig.

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  • Upper part of seed, in longitudinal section; i, integument; mi, micropyle; n, remains of nucellus; p.c, pollen-chamber (containing pollen-grains), with its canal extending up to the micropyle; pr, part of prothallus; ar, archegonia.

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  • In the catkin shown in longitudinal section in fig.

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  • I I, Bennettites seed in longitudinal section, showing the dicotyledonous embryo; p, cotyledons; r, radicle; s, testa.

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  • In most male batrachians the testes are drained by transverse canals which open into a longitudinal duct, which also receives the canals of the kidneys, so that this common duct conveys both sperma and urine.

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  • Females have a yellow abdomen with two prominent longitudinal black bands on the upper surface.

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  • Carpetted central aisle with longitudinal choir stalls on raised planked floors.

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  • It is attached to the transverse (via the deep transverse metatarsal ligament) and longitudinal tie-bar systems of the plantar aponeurosis.

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  • It is clear that sample attrition has reduced the number of cases available for longitudinal analysis. [Link to Doc Pan on Attrition] .

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  • Sometimes the manufacturers will also adjust the camber in relation to the stiffness of the snowboard's longitudinal flex.

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  • In the longitudinal cohorts, the rate of change was determined by linear regression.

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  • Residual measurements carried out on glass/polyester rods showed that the longitudinal tensile modulus remains constant over the entire lifetime of the unidirectional composite.

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  • The superior and inferior longitudinal muscles each had an average of 40 distinct muscle fascicles, each supplied by a nerve branch.

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  • Reproduction by longitudinal fission is habitual and frequent in this species.

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  • It may still be enough to cause long term damage or weakness in the cortical areas above in the central longitudinal fissure.

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  • Designed to mimic the normal anatomic ligament fibers, the intra-articular longitudinal fibers resist fatigue and allow fibroblastic ingrowth.

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  • The central portion has open longitudinal fibers which overlay the ruptured tendon, allowing for fibroblastic ingrowth.

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  • We have examined the morphology and longitudinal axon projections of a population of spinal commissural interneurons, in young Xenopus tadpoles.

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  • Adjustable knock-off stops were fitted to both longitudinal and cross feeds - the selection of which was by a push-pull knob.

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  • If the lie of twin 2 is not longitudinal and a version is not easily accomplished.

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  • In a cross sectional analysis, riots would be rare and even longitudinal analysis would potentially take may years to complete.

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  • With this first follow-up of the cohort, the study became truly longitudinal.

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  • Changing electoral boundaries over the twenty year period have made a longitudinal analysis of ward data virtually meaningless.

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  • However, in the Himalaya upwards of 80% of flow in the major longitudinal rivers is glacial meltwater.

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  • Analysis involved the use of a longitudinal linear model ANCOVA.

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  • A part of the time-dependent variations observed in archaeomagnetic field models consists of episodic longitudinal drifts with a similar periodicity.

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  • These children were assessed at ages 4 and 6 years and are hereafter referred to as the longitudinal sample.

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  • A longitudinal ventilation system with jet fans mounted along the roof soffit was adopted to propel air in the direction of traffic flow.

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  • Don't get longitudinal striations mixed up with transverse striations.

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  • The floor system is built on the customary method of heavy cross girders and longitudinal stringers.

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  • Forty-four eleven-year-old Gypsy Traveler pupils across England agreed to take part in this unique, longitudinal study that was funded by the Nuffield Foundation.

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  • Dwarfism from impaired longitudinal growth of bones is a recessive trait that affects males more strongly than females.

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  • Hence approximations of the eigenfrequencies for the longitudinal and torsional vibrations can be found immediately.

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  • Some shoots are sterile while others are fertile, bearing at the apex the so-called fructification - a dense oval, oblong conical or cylindrical spike, consisting of a number of shortly-stalked peltate scales, each of which has attached to its under surface a circle of spore-cases (sporangia) which open by a longitudinal slit on their inner side.

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  • Some observers consider that it represents a longitudinal half of the original segment of the spireme, others that it is a half of the segment produced by transverse division by means of which a true qualitative separation of the chromatin is brought about.

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  • There is great probability that the central stems, together with the brain, must be looked upon as local longitudinal accumulations of ner vous tissue in what was in more primitive ancestors a less highly differentiated nervous plexus, situated in the body-wall in a similar way to that which still is found in the less highly o rga n ized C oelenterates.

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  • In these cases the larva, called Tornaria, is pelagic and transparent, and possesses a complicated ciliated seam, the longitudinal ciliated band, often drawn out into convoluted bays and lappets.

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  • The curve showing the circumferential (or longitudinal) changes was also plotted, and from the two curves thus obtained it was easy, on the assumption that the metal was isotropic in directions at right angles to the magnetization, to calculate changes of volume; for if circumferential elongation be denoted by 1 1, and transverse elongation by 1 2, then the cubical dilatation (40r -) = l l 2/ 2 approximately.

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  • It was also shown that annealing, which has such a large effect upon circumferential (or longitudinal) changes, has almost none upon transverse ones.

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  • If we inquire what is the greatest admissible longitudinal aberration (Sf) in an object-glass according to the above rule, we find Sf =Xa 2 (2), a being the angular semi-aperture.

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  • In addition, some show duplication of the gonads and of their ducts, so that we find both transverse and longitudinal repetition of these organs, without corresponding multiplication of the nervous ganglia mesenchyma, or excretory opening.

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  • The railway connexions are with Ovalle to the S., and Vicuña (or Elqui) to the E., but the proposed extension northward of Chile's longitudinal system would bring Coquimbo into direct communication with Santiago.

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  • Only the middle spikelet of each triplet is fertile; the ear has therefore only two longitudinal rows of grain, and the spikes are strongly compressed laterally.

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  • The three characteristics of a longitudinal periodic disturbance are its amplitude, the length after which it repeats itself, and its form, which may be represented by the shape of the displacement curve.

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  • The liver first appears as an ento dermal hollow longitudinal outgrowth from the duo denum into the ventral mesentery.

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  • The Fallopian tubes, like many other tubes in the body, are made chiefly of unstriped muscle, the outer layer of which is longitudinal and the inner circular; deep to this are the submucous and mucous coats, the latter being lined with ciliated epithelium '(see' Epithelial Tissues), and thrown into longitudinal pleats.

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  • They are bright, iridescent, golden-green or bluish-coloured beetles (see Coleoptera), with the breast finely punctured and pubescent, head and thorax with a longitudinal channel, and elytra with two slightly elevated lines.

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  • If the angle u l be very small, O', is the Gaussian image; and 0', 0' 2 is termed the " longitudinal aberration," and 0'1R the " lateral aberration " of the pencils with aperture u 2.

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  • Together with the drill (q.v.), the mandrill, Papio maimon, constitutes the subgenus Maimon, which is exclusively West African in distribution, and characterized, among other peculiarities, by the extreme shortness of the tail, and the great development of the longitudinal bony swellings, covered during life with naked skin, on the sides of the muzzle.

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  • In mammals both caecum and colon are often sacculated, a disposition caused by the arrangement of the longitudinal bands of muscular tissue in their walls; but the small intestine is always smooth and simple-walled externally, though its lining membrane often exhibits contrivances for increasing the absorbing surface without adding to the general bulk of the organ, such as the numerous small tags, or " villi," by which it is everywhere beset, and the more obvious transverse, longitudinal, or reticulating folds projecting into the interior, met with in many animals, of which the " valvulae conniventes " of man form well-known examples.

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  • The armour-plates are often exquisitely sculptured, and may be produced into spines or perpendicular plates to give greater surface extension, as we find in other plankton organisms. The cortical plasma may protrude pseudopodia in the longitudinal groove; it contains trichocysts in several species, true nematocysts in Polykrikos.

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  • Removal of the ovaries from heifers also causes an increase in the longitudinal growth of distal bones.

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  • The number of transverse septa varied from 3-10, and 1 to several longitudinal septa were present.

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  • Use the springy thing to show how longitudinal waves travel.

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  • Do n't get longitudinal striations mixed up with transverse striations.

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  • The longitudinal smooth muscle in the muscularis externa is arranged in three longitudinal bands called taenia coli.

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  • Longitudinal studies demonstrate that maternal smoking is associated with an increased incidence of wheezing illness, particularly at younger ages.

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  • A longitudinal study of 450 mainly small east African zebu cattle was conducted in 9 villages in 4 districts in South Eastern Uganda.

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  • When a specific part of a limb is missing, for example, when the fibula bone in the lower leg is missing, but the rest of the leg is intact, it is called a longitudinal deficiency.

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  • A 30-year longitudinal research project studied over 4,000 people born within a single week in 1946 in order to document any unusual developmental patterns observed in those children who later became schizophrenic.

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  • Longitudinal studies have found that as many as 71 percent of chronic juvenile offenders had progressed from childhood antisocial behaviors through a history of early arrests to a pattern of chronic law breaking.

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  • Types include linear, oblique, transverse, longitudinal, and spiral fractures.

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  • A longitudinal fracture is similar to a linear fracture.

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  • Beginning in 1956 and ultimately publishing their research in Temperament and Development in 1977, Thomas and Chess collected longitudinal data from over 100 children, following them from infancy through early adulthood.

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  • Most research against homeschooling, rather than focusing on longitudinal studies, focuses instead on case studies.

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  • Any study showing the negative consequences of homeschooling has to be a longitudinal study tracking homeschoolers for a period of several years.

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  • Traditionally, swimwear companies have attacked this problem from a longitudinal aspect.

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  • Longitudinal studies--A longitudinal study provides information about human development over an extended period of time.

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  • The forewings have at least a single longitudinal nervure - often two - reaching from base to tip of the wing.

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  • A dock-side crane unloading cargo with high lifts following one another in rapid succession will require a higher load factor than a workshop traveller with a very short lift and only a very occasional maximum load; and a traveller with a very long longitudinal travel will require a higher load factor for the travelling motor than for the lifting motor.

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  • The speed of these two motions depends much on the length of the span and of the longitudinal run, and on the nature of the work to be done; in certain cases, e.g.

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  • In contrast with the polyp, the longitudinal muscle-system is entirely ectodermal, there being no endodermal muscles in craspedote medusae.

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  • The gonads are on the radial canals or on the stomach (Ptychogastridae), and each gonad may be divided into two by a longitudinal sub-umbral muscle-tract.

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  • Below this is a circular, and below that again a longitudinal, layer of muscle fibres.

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  • Wings with predominantly longitudinal neuration, covered with flattened scales.

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  • Beneath the epidermis is a longitudinal layer of muscle-fibres which are separated into four distinct groups by the dorsal, ventral and lateral areas; these are occupied by a continuation of the epidermic layer; in the lateral areas run two thin-walled tubes with clear contents, which unite in the anterior part of the body and open by a pore situated on the ventral surface usually about a quarter or a third of the body length from the anterior end.

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  • When the cross traverse motion of a traveller crab is suppressed, and the longitudinal travelling motion is increased in importance we come to a type of crane, the use of which is rapidly increasing; it goes by the name of " transporter."

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  • This takes the form of long usually richly branched tubes which penetrate the other tissues of the plant mainly in a longitudinal direction.

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  • The hypocotyl usually elongates, by its cells increasing very greatly in the longitudinal direction both in number and size, so that the cotyledons are raised into the air as the first foliage-leaves.

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  • The Chu rises in the Tian-shan Mountains and flows north-westwards through Akmolinsk; and the Naryn flows south-westwards along a longitudinal valley of the Tian-shan, and enters Ferghana to join the Syr-darya.

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  • The upper surface of the elytron is sharply folded inwards at intervals, so as to give rise to a regular series of external longitudinal furrows (striae) and to form a set of supports between the two chitinous layers forming the elytron.

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  • Taking their rise on the plateau formation, or in its outskirts, they flow first along lofty longitudinal valleys formerly filled with great lakes, next they cleave their way through the rocky barriers, and finally they enter the lowlands, where they become navigable, and, describing wide curves to avoid here and there the minor plateaus and hilly tracts, they bring into watercommunication with one another places thousands of miles apart.

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  • In the Orthorrhapha, in the pupae of which the appendages of the perfect insect are usually visible, the pupa-case generally splits in a straight line down the back near the cephalic end; in front of this longitudinal cleft there may be a small transverse one, the two together forming a T-shaped fissure.

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  • In Lanice conchilega the posterior series of nephridia are connected by a thick longitudinal duct, which seems to be seen in its most reduced form in Owenia, where a duct on each side runs in the epidermis, being in parts a groove, and receives one short tubular nephridium only and occupies only one segment.

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  • Usually the epidermis is immediately followed by the circular layer of muscles, and this by the longitudinal coat.

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  • The longitudinal system is discontinuous, and is subdivided into proximal, medial and distal portions.

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  • Fin, 22.Median Longitudinal Section of the Growing, Point of the Stem of HiPPurii vulgaris, showing a many-layered meristem.

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  • They are nearly always placed transversely, across the direction of the lines, the longitudinal position such as was adopted in connexion with the broad gauge on the Great Western in England having been abandoned except in special cases.

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  • The wings, which are not capable of being folded, are usually transparent, but occasionally pigmented and adorned with coloured spots, blotches or bands; the wing-membrane, though sometimes clothed with minute hairs, seldom bears scales; the wing-veins, which are of great importance in the classification of Diptera, are usually few in number and chiefly longitudinal, there being a marked paucity of cross-veins.

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  • In Hirudo and the Gnathobdellidae there is only one system of cavities which consist of four principal longitudinal trunks, of which the two lateral are contractile, which communicate with a network ramifying everywhere, even among the cells of the epidermis.

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  • The dorsal vessel also communicates with the ventral vessel indirectly by the intestinal sinus, which gives off branches to both the longitudinal trunks, and by tegementary vessels and capillaries which supply the skin and the nephridia.

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  • The males are very small, free-flying insects with the prothorax, mesothorax and elytra greatly reduced, the latter appearing as little, twisted strips, while the metathorax is relatively large, with its wings broad and capable of longitudinal folding.

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