of London, on the South Eastern & Chatham railway.
The first printed edition appeared in London in 1553.
Lydekker in the Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London for 1904.
In 1522 Douglas was stricken by the plague which raged in London, and died at the house of his friend Lord Dacre.
Mossman thinks that the apparent increase at Edinburgh and London in the later decades is to some extent at least real.
The archbishop was one of the "undertakers" who controlled the Irish House of Commons, and although he did not regain the almost dictatorial power he had exercised at an earlier period, which had suggested a comparison between him and Cardinal Wolsey, he continued to enjoy a prominent share in the administration of Ireland until his death, which occurred in London on the 19th of December 1764.
Soon afterwards he went to London, where he lived until his death in 1807, never accepting the Concordat, which had suppressed his archiepiscopal see.
This generation inclines a little to congratulate itself on being the last of an illustrious line; and in Boston and London and Paris and Rome, thinking of its long descent, it speaks of its progress in art and science and literature with satisfaction.
After a short stay first at Alen90n and then in Bourges, he passed over to England, where he found refuge in London with Ugo Foscolo, and made a few English friends.
of London, on the main road to Oxford, and on the Great Central & Great Western joint railway.
And yet the future I envision is no more like what we have today than a state-of-the-art Volvo factory is like a nineteenth-century London sweatshop.
Addresses were presented to him at Southampton, Birmingham and other towns; he was officially entertained by the lord mayor of London; at each place he pleaded the cause of his unhappy country.
The southern outfall works of the London main drainage system are at Crossness in the neighbouring lowland called Plumstead Marshes.
This year his brother Robert was senior sheriff of London.
Six reside in London.
It has stations on the London & North-Western and the Lancashire & Yorkshire railways, with running powers for the Midland railway.
Corresponding to the first two Edinburgh editions, copies were issued bearing the London imprint and dates 1594 and 1611.
The army with Cromwell then advanced towards London.
The Edison Telephone Company of London was formed.
He was now forced to leave France, but continued his work of agitation from London.
On the London & North-Western railway there are 24 sleepers to each 60 ft.
But before Pierre--who at that moment imagined himself to be Napoleon in person and to have just effected the dangerous crossing of the Straits of Dover and captured London--could pronounce Pitt's sentence, he saw a well-built and handsome young officer entering his room.
The plague of 1665, carried hither from London, almost depopulated this village, and the name of the rector, William Mompesson, attracted wide notice on account of his brave attempts to combat the outbreak.
He further endowed it in 1434 with lands in Bedfordshire and Huntingdonshire, and his brothers, William and Robert, gave some houses in London in 1427 and 1438.
from London on the Windermere branch of the London & North-Western railway.
from London by the London and North Western railway.
The earliest record of an apothecary's shop in London was in 1345.
It lies in the densely populated district in the north-east of the county, between Stalybridge and Ashton-under-Lyne, and is served by the London & North Western and Great Central railways.
and a weight of 2262 lb; but a still longer, although lighter, tusk was brought to London in 1905.
In 1502 Warham was consecrated bishop of London and became keeper of the great seal, but his tenure of both these offices was short, as in 1504 he became lord chancellor and archbishop of Canterbury.
of water-pipes, and supply the London market throughout the winter.
The opening of railway communication with London in 1906 resulted in a considerable accretion of residential population.
Recall my comparison of a nineteenth-century London factory to a factory that makes Volvos today.
A specimen in the Zoological Gardens of London had the back and tail dark grey, the tail tipped with black, and a rufous wash on the cheeks, shoulders, flanks and outer surface of the limbs, with the under surface white.
different periods of his career both in his speeches in the Irish House of Lords and in his correspondence with ministers in London.
Nicholson, A Literary History of the Arabs (London, 1907), pp. 394-39 8.
Bain, The First Romanovs (London, 1905).
and was absent for ten weeks from about the 6th of December to the 6th of March, presumahly for the purpose of his ordination as a sub-deacon, which was performed by the bishop of Derry, acting as suffragan to the bishop of London.
This is well brought out by the low figure for London.
In the years1471-1472to 1474 Waynflete was largely engaged in completing the church, now called chapel, at Eton, his glazier supplying the windows, and he contracted on the 15th of August 1475 for the rood-loft to be made on one side "like to the rode lofte in Bishop Wykeham's college at Winchester," and on the other like that "of the college of St Thomas of Acres in London."
"JACK LONDON (1876-1916), American novelist, was born at San Francisco Jan.
His novels, for the most part published first in London, reflect his wild adventurous life, the best known being The Son of the Wolf (1900); The Call of the Wild (1903); Moon Face (1906); Martin Eden (1909); South Sea Tales (1912), and his last, The Little Lady of the Big House (1916).
See The Book of Jack London (1921), by his wife Charmian London.
See Lord Stanhope, History of the War of Succession in Spain (London, 1832).
He then abandoned himself to pleasure; he often visited London, and became an intimate friend of the prince of Wales (afterwards George IV.); he brought to Paris the "anglo-mania," as it was called, and made jockeys as fashionable as they were in England.
SIR FRANCIS PALGRAVE (1788-1861), English historian, was the son of Meyer Cohen, a Jewish stockbroker, and was born in London in July 1788.
Palgrave's most important work is his History of Normandy and England, which appeared in four volumes (London 1851-1864), and deals with the history of the two countries down to 1101.
He also assisted to edit the tenth edition of Erskine May's Law, Privileges, Proceedings and Usage of Parliament (London, 1896).
A sketch of his life appears in Cotton Mather's Magnalia (London, 1702); see also J.
of London by the London & South-Western railway.
When the storm had blown over he returned to London, and employed his leisure in works which were less political in their tone.
In 1717, however, Cardinal Alberoni retook Cagliari for Spain; but this state of things was short-lived, for in 1720, by the treaty of London, Sardinia passed in exchange for Sicily to the dukes of Savoy, to whom it brought the royal title.
Tennant, Sardinia and its Resources (London, 1885); G.
210; Charles Pritchard, D.D., Memoirs of his Life, by Ada Pritchard (London, 1897).
of London by the SouthEastern & Chatham railway.
Sheerness has some trade in corn and seed,, and there is steamboat connexion with Port Victoria, on the opposite side of the Medway; with Southend, on the opposite side of the Thames; and with Chatham and London, and the town is in some favour as a seaside resort.
"The Influence of the Apostle Paul on the Development of Christianity" was the title of a course of Hibbert Lectures given in London in 1885.
SPENCER PERCEVAL (1762-1812), prime minister of England from 1809 to 1812, second son of John, 2nd earl of Egmont, was born in Audley Square, London, on the 1st of November 1762.
On the 19th of May he was dismissed the privy council and ordered to leave London.
A new parliament was called to meet at Oxford, to avoid the influences of the city of London, where Shaftesbury had taken the greatest pains to make himself popular.
He appears to have entered into consultation of a treasonable kind with Monmouth and others; he himself had, he declared, ten thousand brisk boys in London ready to rise at his bidding.
ABRAHAM TUCKER (1705-1774), English moralist, was born in London, of a Somerset family, on the 2nd of September 1705, son of a wealthy city merchant.
of St Paul's Cathedral, London, served by the Midland railway.
In the summer of 1516 Margaret went to her brother's court in London, while Angus, much to his wife's displeasure, returned to Scotland, where he made his peace with Albany and was restored to his estates.
(London, 1900); Mary A.
Green, Lives of the Princesses of England (6 vols., London, 1849-1855); The Hamilton Papers, ed.
Ellis, Original Letters Illustrative of English History (London, 1825-1846).
Fowke, The Bayeux Tapestry (London, 1898).
The Holbein society issued a facsimile of Sir Teuerdank (London, 1884) and Triumphwagen (London, 1883).
GREENWICH, a south-eastern metropolitan borough of London, England, bounded N.
To the south of the hospital is Greenwich Park (185 acres), lying high, and commanding extensive views over London, the Thames and the plain of Essex.
THOMAS HOOD (1799-1845), British humorist and poet, the son of Thomas Hood, bookseller, was born in London on the 23rd of May 1799.
In 1821 Mr John Scott, the editor of the London Magazine, was killed in a duel, and that periodical passed into the hands of some friends of Hood, who proposed to make him sub-editor.
from Liverpool, served by the London & North-Western and Lancashire & Yorkshire railways and the Cheshire lines.
Soc. London, 1907).
S., 1907, by permission of the Zoological Society of London.) Photo, W.
' LITERATURE.-St George Mivart, The Cat (London, 1881); R.
Hamilton, The Wild Cat of Europe (London, 1896); Frances Simpson, The Book of the Cat (London, 1903).
When the custom of commendation developed, the king charged the mayor of the palace to protect those who had commended themselves to him and to 1 The mayors of certain cities in the United Kingdom (London, York, Dublin) have acquired by prescription the prefix of "lord."
In the case of London it seems to date from 1540.
Sent to join the French embassy in London, he made himself so active that he was recalled by the request of the ambassador, who feared his intrigues.
Barbier, Rene Descartes, sa famille, son lieu de naissance, &c. (1901); Richard Lowndes, Rene Descartes, his Life and Meditations (London, 1878); J.
Cajori, History of Mathematics (London, 1894); M.
The free grammar-school was founded in 1548 by William Ermysted, a canon of St Paul's, London.
24-31 (London, 1835); G.
After the death of Harold in 1066, Archbishop Aldred and the citizens of London desired to make him king, but on the advance of William, Edgar and his supporters made their submission.
In 1263 we find him at the chapter of the Dominican order held in London.
Rickaby (London, 1872), J.
Ashley (London, 1888).
Vaughan, St Thomas of Aquin, his Life and Labours (London, 1872): other lives by P. Cavanagh (London, 1890); E.
Gilchrist, London, 1899); Ueberweg's History of Philosophy, vol.
THE CRYSTAL PALACE, a well-known English resort, standing high up in grounds just outside the southern boundary of the county of London, in the neighbourhood of Sydenham.
(London, 1892), and M.
trans., London, 1892), G.
(Halle, 1899; London, 1902), apportion praise and blame more equally; J.
ii., London, 1895), W.
Lloyd, The Age of Pericles (London, 1875), and especially G.
Gardner, Ancient Athens (London, 1902), for his strategy, H.
Antrobus (London, 1898); M.
4 (London, 1901); F.
Hamilton (London, 1900-1902); T.
from London, and 23 m.
P. Pullan, Byzantine Architecture (London, 1864); G.
Tozer, Turkish Armenia and Eastern Asia Minor (London, 1881).
about 1190), in his biography of Thomas Becket, gives a graphic sketch of the London of his day and, writing of the summer amusements of the young men, says that on holidays they were "exercised in Leaping, Shooting, Wrestling, Casting of Stones [in jactu lapidum], and Throwing of Javelins fitted with Loops for the Purpose, which they strive to fling before the Mark; they also use Bucklers, like fighting Men."
When John Knox visited Calvin at Geneva one Sunday, it is said that he discovered him engaged in a game; and John Aylmer (1521-1594), though bishop of London, enjoyed a game of a Sunday afternoon, but used such language "as justly exposed his character to reproach."
Then in rapid succession came several independent bodies - the Midland Counties (1895), the London and Southern Counties (1896), the Imperial (1899), the English (1903) and the Irish and Welsh (1904).
In Edinburgh, Glasgow, and elsewhere in Scotland, and in London (through the county council), Newcastle and other English towns, the corporations have laid down greens in public parks and open spaces.
In Scotland the public greens are selfsupporting, from a charge, which includes the use of bowls, of one penny an hour for each player; in London the upkeep of the greens falls on the rates, but players must provide their own bowls.
Dingley, Touchers and Rubs (Glasgow, 1893); Sam Aylwin, The Gentle Art of Bowling, with 26 diagrams (London, 1904); James A.
Manson, The Bowler's Handbook (London, 1906).
Ritschl's and die evangelische Kirche der Gegenwart (1897); James Orr, The Ritschlian Theology and the Evangelical Faith (London, 1898); and A.
In 1682 he returned to London, where he wrote the Chemischer Gliickshafen oder grosse Concordanz and Collection von 1500 Processen and died in October of the same year.
ADOLPHUS WILLIAM WARD (1837-), English historian and man of letters, was born at Hampstead, London, on the 2nd of December 1837, and was educated in Germany and at the university of Cambridge.
north-west from London by the London & North-Western and the Midland railways, and is also served by the Great Northern and North Staffordshire railways.
Dr Ellis had pipes (now preserved in the Royal Institution, London) made to reproduce both these pitches at 31 in.
Ellis offered the suggestion of a much higher pitch for this Cammerton in his lecture "On the History of Musical Pitch," read before the Society of Arts, London (Journ.
Stein tuned Mozart's piano to a fork a' 421.6, and the Broadwood pianos used at the London Philharmonic Society in its first concerts (1813) were tuned to a fork c 2 506.8, which gives a mean tone a' 423.7.
The proprietors of Queen's Hall, London, did much for it when they undertook the alteration, at great expense, of their large concert organ, which had only just been erected.
Pym Yeatman, Records of the Borough of Chesterfield (Chesterfield and Sheffield, 1884); Thomas Ford, History of Chesterfield (London, 1839).
Peter, a merchant adventurer, who had migrated from Danzig to London about 1670, was also a director of the East India company.
His conduct was attacked before the board of directors in London, but events seemed to prove that he was in the right, and in 1769 he became a director of the company, having in the previous year obtained a seat in parliament.
About 1639 he entered upon the career of an itinerant preacher, and for preaching in various parts of Wales he was twice arrested in 1640; however, he was not punished and during the Civil War he preached in and around London.
In 1653 he returned to London, and having denounced Cromwell for accepting the office of Lord Protector he was imprisoned.
Leake, Travels in Northern Greece (London, 18 35); J.
Tozer, Researches in the Highlands of Turkey (London, 1869); F.
from London on a branch from Nuneaton of the London & North Western and Midland railways, near the Ashby-dela-Zouch canal.
from London by the London, Brighton and South Coast railway.
The buildings of Christ's Hospital at West Horsham were opened in 1902, the school being removed hither from London.
He was raised to the peerage in 1895, and died in London Jan.
LAMBETH CONFERENCES, the name given to the periodical assemblies of bishops of the Anglican Communion (Pan-Anglican synods), which since 1867 have met at Lambeth Palace, the London residence of the archbishop of Canterbury.
Davidson, The Lambeth Conferences of 1867, 187.8 and 1888 (London, 1896); Conference of Bishops of the Anglican Communion, Encyclical Letter, &c. (London, 1897 and 1908).
With " very hard " water this deposit may require removal every three months; in London it is usual to clean out the boiler every six months and the cylinders and tanks at longer intervals.
Three Oecumenical Conferences have been held - two at City Road, London, in and 1901, and one at Washington in 1891.
Workman, George Eayrs (2 vols., London, 1909).
The Canonis Descriptio on its publication in 1614, at once attracted the attention of Edward Wright, whose name is known in connexion with improvements in navigation, and Henry Briggs, then professor of geometry at Gresham College, London.
He spoke at an important meeting upon this question in London on the 10th of June 1864, which laid the ground for the University Tests Act of 1871.
The university pulpit, indeed, was closed to him, but several congregations in London delighted in his sermons, and from 1866 until the year of his death he preached annually in Westminster Abbey, where Stanley had become dean in 1863.
At a representative conference in London in 1875 the constitution of the council was agreed upon.
Since then it has met in Philadelphia, Belfast, London, Toronto, Glasgow, Washington and Liverpool.
Similar associations or presbyteries were formed in London and in the midland and eastern counties; but the privy council was hostile.
In 1640 Henderson, Baillie, Blair and Gillespie came to London as commissioners from the General Assembly in Scotland, in response to a request from ministers in London who desired to see the Church of England more closely modelled after the Reformed type.
The Synod of London met half-yearly from 1647 till 1655.
But during the Common- London.
Presbyterianism is comparatively strong in three districts of England, namely Northumberland, Lancashire and London.
Following the lead of the Independents, who set up Mansfield College at Oxford, the Presbyterian Church has founded Westminster College at Cambridge as a substitute for its Theological Hall in London.
There are in England fourteen congregations in connexion with the Church of Scotland, six of them in London and the remainder in Berwick, Northumberland, Carlisle and Lancashire.
The Old Side adopted the academy at New London, Chester (disambiguation)|Chester county, Pennsylvania, which had been organized by Francis Alison in 1741, as their own; but the New London school broke up when Alison became a professor in the Philadelphia Academy (afterwards the university of Pennsylvania).
from London by the Great Eastern railway.
After further travels on the continent he returned to London, where he posed as the founder of a new system of freemasonry, and was well received in the best society, being adored by the ladies.
In the following year he started practice as a physician in London, and in 1756 he published a work on medicinal waters, the properties of which he had studied on the continent and at Bath.
of Irish Periodical Literature from the End of the 17th to the Middle of the Igth Century (2 vols., London, 1867); Francis Hardy, Memoirs of the Earl of Charlemont (2 vols., London, 1812); W.
(5 vols., London, 1892).
(London, 1907); A.
The delay of the arbitration tribunal in London in giving its decision in the matter of the disputed boundary in Patagonia led to a crop of wild rumours being disseminated, and to a revival of animosity between the two peoples.
Akers, Argentine, Patagonian and Chilian Sketches (London, 1893), and A History of South America 1854-1904 (New York, 1905); Theodore Child, The Spanish-American Republics (London, 1891); Sir T.
Holdich, The Countries of the King's Award (London, 1904); W.
Hudson, The Naturalist in La Plata (London, 1892), and Idle Days in Patagonia (London, 1893); A.
Markham, Central and South America, in Stanford's " Compendium of Geography and Travel " (London, 1901); G.
Turner, Argentina and the Argentines (New York and London, 1892); Estanislao S.
Nisbet Bain, The First Romanovs (London, 1905); M.
Arnold (London, 1888); articles on Local Government in France in the Stock Exchange Official Intelligence Annuals (London, I908 and 1909); M.
C. Bodley, France (London, 1899); A.
The Duchess of Connaught died in London March 14 1917.
Greenidge, History of Rome (London, 1904).
Antiquities of Ionia (London, 1797), ii.
Cockerell, The Temples of Jupiter Panhellenius at Aegina, &'c. (London, 1860); Ch.
On his death, which occurred in London on the 11th of December 1909, he bequeathed a large part of his collection of pictures to the nation.
from London by the London, Brighton & South Coast railway.
Melville, Brighton, its History, its Follies and its Fashions (London, 1909).
Soc. London (1895); J.
Soc. London (1900); J.
Soc. London (1891); "Fossil Remains of Lake Cadibona," Part I.
Amongst the more important buildings for ecclesiastical and philanthropic purposes erected to the north of the city since 1860 are the Russian cathedral, hospice and hospital; the French hospital of St Louis, and hospice and church of St Augustine; the German schools, orphanages and hospitals; the new hospital and industrial school of the London mission to the Jews; the Abyssinian church; the church and schools of the Church missionary society; the Anglican church, college and bishop's house; the Dominican monastery, seminary and church of St Stephen; the Rothschild hospital and girls' school; and the industrial school and workshops of the Alliance Israelite.
During a long and active life, he played many parts: professor of mathematics at the Elphinstone college (1854) founder of the Rast Goftar newspaper; partner in a Parsi business firm in London (1855); prime minister of Baroda (1874); member of the Bombay legislative council (1885); M.P. for Central Finsbury (1892-1895), being the first Indian to be elected to the House of Commons; three times president of the Indian National Congress.
Educated at the neighbouring Benedictine abbey of Cerne and at Balliol College, Oxford, he graduated in law, and followed that profession in the ecclesiastical courts in London, where he attracted the notice of Archbishop Bourchier.
In London he was attacked and beaten by Messrs Barclay & Perkins' draymen when visiting the brewery, and he was saved from mob violence in Brussels with some difficulty.
Haldane (q.v.), was born in London on the 28th of February 1764.
of London by the South-Eastern & Chatham railway.
Some samples of ore, coal and limestone, obtained in the Mittagong district, with pig-iron and castings manufactured therefrom, were exhibited at the Mining Exhibition in London and obtained a first award.
Lines of steamers connect Australia with London and other British ports, with Germany, Belgium, France, Italy, Japan, China, India, San Francisco, Vancouver, New York and Montevideo, several important lines being subsidized by the countries to which they belong, notably Germany, France and Japan.
Gillen, Native Tribes of Central Australia (1899) The Northern Tribes of Central Australia (London, 1904); E.
Roth, Ethnological Studies among the North-west-central Queensland Aborigines (London, 1897); Mrs K.
The line crossing Australia which was thus explored has since been occupied by the electric telegraph connecting Adelaide, Melbourne, Sydney, and other Australian cities with London.
It is possible that the London dockers' strike was not without its influence on the minds of the Australian Labour leaders.
- For Physical Geography: Barton, Australian Physiography (Brisbane, 1895); Wall, Physical Geography of Australia (Melbourne, 1883); Taylor, Geography of New South Wales (Sydney, 1898); Saville Kent, The Great Barrier Reef of Australia (London, 1893); A.
For Flora: Maiden, Useful Native Plants of Australia (Sydney, 1889); Bentham and Mueller, Flora Australiensis (London, 1863-1878); Fitzgerald, Australian Orchids (Sydney, 1870-1890); Mueller, Census of Australian Plants (Melbourne, 1889).
Science (1893); Tenison-Woods, The Fish and Fisheries of New South Wales (Sydney, 1883); Ogilvy, Catalogue of Australian Mammals (Sydney, 1892); Aflalo, Natural History of Australia (London, 1896); Flower and Lydekker, Mammals, Living and Extinct (London, 1891); J.
Epps, The Land Systems of Australia, 8vo (London, 1894); Ernest Favenc, The History of Australasian Exploration, royal 8vo (Sydney, 1885); R.
8vo (London, 1883); K.
(London, 1899); G.
Scott, The Romance of Australian Exploring (London, 1899); H.
of London, and 22 m.
From its pleasant situation in a hilly, wooded district near the headwaters of the Cray stream, Orpington has become in modern times a favourite residential locality for those whose business lies in London.
He was president of the mathematical and physical section of the British Association at Bradford in 1873 and of the London Mathematical Society in 18 741876.
He was again sent to Berlin in 1871, acted as second plenipotentiary at the Berlin congress of 1878, and was sent in the same year to London, where he represented Austria for ten years.
He spent the latter part of his life in London, where he died in 1693.
Patchett Martin (London, 1893).
de Lesseps was a member of the French Academy, of the Academy of Sciences, of numerous scientific societies, Grand Cross of the Legion of Honour and of the Star of India, and had received the freedom of the City of London.
Barnett Smith, The Life and Enterprises of Ferdinand de Lesseps (London, 1893); and Souvenirs de quarante ans, by Ferdinand de Lesseps (trans.
metropolitan borough of London, England, bounded W.
and S., to the boundary of the county of London.
It was only by the London Government Act 1899 that Woolwich was brought into line with other London districts, for in 1855, as it had previously become a local government district under a local board, it was left untouched by the Metropolis Management Act.
Educated at University College, London, he was called to the bar in 1849.
distant where the London & North-Western and the Cambrian cross one another.
Clifford, Further India (1904); Journal of the Malay Archipelago, Logan (Singapore); Journal of the Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society (Singapore); Weld, Maxwell, Swettenham and Clifford in the Journal of the Royal Colonial Institute (London); Clifford in the Journal of the Royal Geographical Society (London).
He commenced his work as a writer for the London newspaper press in connexion with the Morning Chronicle, and he afterwards became a leading contributor to the Examiner and the Daily News.
He died in London on the 25th of February 1868.
Lives by Gurlitt (Hamburg, 1805); Young (2 vols., London, 1860); Bonnet (Paris, 1862).
to N.E., connecting Burlington, Montpelier and St Albans and affording connexion to the north with Montreal and to the south over trackage shared with the Boston & Maine, with the New London Northern which is leased by this road, and the Rutland railway (New York Central system) extending along the western edge of the state and connecting Rutland with Burlington to the north and with Bellows Falls and Bennington to the south.
The standard authorities for the period before 1791 are: Ira Allen, Natural and Political History of the State of Vermont (London, 1898); B.
EDMUND BONNER (1500?-1569), bishop of London, was perhaps the natural son of George Savage, rector of Davenham, Cheshire, by Elizabeth Frodsham, who was afterwards married to Edmund Bonner, a sawyer of Hanley in Worcestershire.
He was already king's chaplain; his appointment at Paris had been accompanied by promotion to the see of Hereford, and before he returned to take possession he was translated to the bishopric of London (October 1539) Hitherto Bonner had been known as a somewhat coarse and unscrupulous tool of Cromwell,a sort of ecclesiastical Wriothesley.
HOVE, a municipal borough of Sussex, England, adjoining the watering-place of Brighton on the west, on the London, Brighton, & South Coast railway.
Oliver was born on the 25th of April 1599, was educated under Dr Thomas Beard, a fervent puritan, at the free school at Huntingdon, and on the 23rd of April 1616 matriculated as a fellow-commoner at Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, then a hotbed of puritanism, subsequently studying law in London.
He belonged to the Root and Branch party, and spoke in favour of the petition of the London citizens for the abolition of episcopacy on the 9th of February 1641, and pressed upon the House the Root and Branch Bill in May.
It seemed likely that the whole of the north would be laid open and the royalists be able to march upon London and join Charles and Hopton there.
He then went to London to give an account of proceedings to the parliament, was thanked for his services and rewarded with the estate of the marquess of Worcester.
Cromwell used his influence in restraining the more eager who wished to march on London immediately, and in avoiding the use of force by which nothing permanent could be effected, urging that" whatsoever we get by treaty will be firm and durable.
These votes, however, were cancelled later, on the 26th of July, under the pressure of the royalist city mob which invaded the two Houses; but the two speakers, with eight peers and fifty-seven members of the Commons, themselves joined the army, which now advanced to London, overawing all resistance, escorting the fugitive members in triumph to Westminster on the 6th of August, and obliging the parliament on the 10th to cancel the last votes, with the threat of a regiment of cavalry drawn up by Cromwell in Hyde Park.
Cromwell left London in May to suppress the royalists in Wales, and took Pembroke Castle on the 11th of July.
On his return to London he found the parliament again negotiating Cromwell with Charles, and on the eve of making a treaty which Charles himself had no intention of keeping and the regarded merely as a means of regaining his power, and which would have thrown away in one moment all the advantages gained during years of bloodshed and struggle.
On the 12th of September 1651 Cromwell made his triumphal entry into London at the conclusion of his victorious campaigns; and parliament granted him Hampton Court as a residence with £4000 a year.
Great writers like Milton and Harrington supported Cromwell's view of the duty of a statesman; the poet Waller acclaimed Cromwell as "the world's protector"; but the London tradesmen complained of the loss of their Spanish trade and regarded Holland and not Spain as the national enemy.
943 foil.; C. Fortescue, The Armenian Church (London, 1872); H.
Though entered as a student at Trinity College, Dublin, Tone gave little attention to study, his inclination being for a military career; but after eloping with Matilda Witherington, a girl of sixteen, he took his degree in 1786, and read law in London at the Middle Temple and afterwards in Dublin, being called to the Irish bar in 1789.
Barry O'Brien (2 vols., London, 1893); R.
Madden, Lives of the United Irishmen (7 vols., London, 1842); Alfred Webb, Compendium of Irish Biography (Dublin, 1878); W.
(cabinet ed., 5 vols., London, 1892).
27-30 (London, 1902); and Boll.
The narrative of this journey, which contained the first accurate knowledge (from scientific observation) regarding the topography and geography of the region, was published by his widow under the title, Narrative of a Residence in Koordistan and on the site of Ancient Nineveh, F&'c. (London, 1836).
Bury, The Later Roman Empire (London, 1889), ii.
At a scientific meeting of the Zoological Society of London, on the 17th of December 1901, Mr Oldfield Thomas read a letter from Mr G.
He was educated at St John's College, Cambridge, and successively held the livings of Islington (1662), of All-Hallows the Great, Thames Street, London (1679),(1679), and of Isleworth in Middlesex (1690).
He died in London Jan.
Tolhausen (London, 1908).
Cook, The Laws of Moses and the Code of Hammurabi (London, 1903).
Colt Hoare, A Tour through the Island of Elba (London, 1814).
Between London and Birmingham a paper cable 116 m long and consisting of 72 copper conductors, each weighing 150 lb per statute mile, was laid in 1900.
The underground system of paper cables has been very largely extended, Cables between London, Glasgow, Edinburgh, Liverpool.
Thus between London and Manchester only four sets of apparatus could be worked, but between London and Birmingham, a shorter distance, six sets (the maximum for which the system is adapted) were used.
The perforation of the paper when done by hand is usually performed by means of small mallets, but at the central telegraph office in London, and at other large offices, the keys are only used for opening air-valves, the actual punching being done by pneumatic pressure.
The earliest practical trial of electrical telegraphy was made in 1837 on the London and North Western Railway, and the first public line under the patent of Wheatstone and Cooke was laid from Paddington to Slough on the Great Western Railway in 1843.
Even the London District Telegraph Company, which was formed in 1859 for the purpose of transmitting telegraph messages between points in metropolitan London, found that a low uniform rate was not financially practicable.
The offices of the Submarine Company in London, Dover, Ramsgate, East Dean and Jersey were purchased by the Post Office, as well as the cable ship; and the staff, 370 in number, was taken over by the government.
In 1890 Liverpool was placed in direct telegraphic communication with Hamburg and Havre, and London with Rome.
Direct telegraphic com munication was thus afforded between London and Vienna.
In 1900 direct telegraph working was established between London and Genoa, and a third cable was laid to South Africa via St Helena and Ascension.
The committee was of opinion that the cable should be owned and worked by the governments interested, and that the general direction should be in the hands of a manager in London under the control of a small board at which the associated governments should be represented.
Since the early days of international telegraphy, conferences of representatives of government telegraph departments and companies have been held from time to time (Paris 1865, Vienna 1868, Rome 1871 and 1878, St Petersburg 1875, London 1879, Berlin 1885,1885, Paris 1891, Buda Pesth 1896, London 1903).
Meyer, The British State Telegraphs (London, 1907); The " Electrician " Electrical Trades Directory; E.
his Life of his father (1898), his Address to London Chamber of Commerce on " Imperial Telegraphic Communication " (1902), Lecture to Royal United Service Institution on " Submarine Telegraphy " (1907), Lectures to Royal Naval War College (1910) and R.E.
Fleming, The Principles of Electric Wave Telegraphy (London, 1906), chap. vii.; also Cantor Lectures on Hertzian wave telegraphy, Lecture iv., Journ.
15599 of 1903; also a lecture given in London, November 27, 1906, " On a Method of producing undamped Electrical Oscillations and their employment in Wireless Telegraphy," Electrician, 1906, 58, p. 166.
Ferguson, Electricity (London, 1866), p. 257; S.
P. Thompson, Philipp Reis, the Inventor of the Telephone (London, 1883).
in London and about 2 m.
The United Telephone Company confined its operations to London; subsidiary companies were formed to operate in the provinces.
The National Telephone Company applied to the London County Council for permission to lay wires underground and continued efforts till 1899 to obtain this power, but without success.
Local authorities (particularly London and Glasgow) refused to permit the company to lay wires underground.
In short, all-round competition was authorized, and the Post Office decided to establish a telephone system in London in competition with the company.
The Post Office co-operated with the London County Council to put difficulties in the way of the company which had placed wires underground in London with the consent of the local road authorities.
In February the Postmaster-General applied for an injunction to restrain the company from opening any street or public road within the county of London without the consent of the Postmaster - General and the London County Council, which injunction was granted in July.
The government policy of 1899 was abandoned in London, the Post Office making an agreement with the company in regard to the London business.
The Postmaster-General on the other hand agreed to provide underground wires for the company on a rental, and agreed to buy in 1911 the company's plant in London at the cost of construction less allowance for repairs and depreciation.
In 1885 there were only 3800 telephone subscribers in London and less than io,000 in the rest of the United Kingdom, and telephonic services were available in only about 75 towns, while in the same year the American Bell Telephone Company had over 134,000 subscribers.
Apart from France, Germany and Switzerland, there was no European country that had as many telephones working as London.
For instance, in the county of London, the telephone tariff is £5 per annum plus id.
Subscribers outside the county of London pay only £4 in annual subscription and id.
In London a two - line party service costs £3 per annum, the message fees being id.
A call between London and Liverpool, which ordinarily costs 2s., can be made for is.
The Association of Municipal Corporations and the London County Council, on the other hand, considered the terms of purchase to be too favourable to the company.
The London County Council, according to the statement of its comptroller, was disturbed by the hope expressed by the manager of the company, that the holders of the company's ordinary shares would obtain the par value of their shares in 1911.
There were 425 post office call-offices in the London area.
The Anglo-French telephone service, which was opened between London and Paris in April 1891, was extended to the principal towns in England and France on the 11th of April 1904.
There are now four circuits between London and Paris, one between London and Lille, and two between Londofi and Brussels, the last carrying an increasing amount of traffic. Experiments have been made in telephonic communication between London and Rome by way of Paris.
Meyer, Public Ownership and the Telephone in Great Britain (London, 1907); E.
The Venetian version of the quarrel with the pope was written by Sarpi (subsequently translated into English, London, 1626); see also Cornet, Paolo V.
veneta (Vienna, 1859); and Trollope, Paul the Pope and Paul the Friar (London, 1860).
Nesbitt, London, 1904); B.
Okey, Italy to-day (London, 1901); E.
Martinengo Cesarescos Liberation of Italy (London, 1895) is to be strongly recommended, and is indeed, for accuracy, fairness and synthesis, as well as for charm of style, one of the very best books on the subject in any language; Bolton Kings History of Italian Unity (2 vols., London, 1899) is bulkier and less satisfactory, but contains a useful bibliography.
A succinct account of the chief events of the period will be found in Sir Spencer Walpoles History of Twenty-Five Years (London, 1904).
The rivalry between these two officials in Tunisia contributed not a little to strain FrancoItalian relations, but it is doubtful whether France would have precipitated her action had not General Menabrea, Italian ambassador in London, urged his government to purchase the Tunis-Goletta railway from the English company by which it had been constructed.
Italy in consequence drew nearer to Great Britain, and at the London conference on the Egyptian financial question sided with Great Britain against Austria and Germany.
the glories of an AngloItalian alliance, an indiscretion which drew upon him a scarcelyveiled dmenti from London.
In view of the French refusal, Lord Granville on the 27th of July invited Italy to join in restoring order in Egypt; but Mancini and Depretis, in spite of the efforts of Crispi, then in London, declined the offer.
Anglo-Italian relations, however, regained their norma I cordiality two years later, and found expression in the support lent by Italy to the British proposal at the London conference on the Egyptian question (July 1884).
Johnston, The Napoleonic Empire in Southern Italy (2 vols., with full bibliography, London, i904); E.
Creightons History of the Papacy (London, 1897) and L.
A Symondss Renaissance in Italy (5 vols., London, 1875, &c.) should be consulted.
Danby was a statesman of very different calibre from the 1 Chronicles of London Bridge, by R.
In November he occupied York in the prince's interest, returning to London to meet William on the 26th of December.
Subsequently he took some slight part in politics, and he died in London on the 31st of January 1799.
1838) and other agitators; and in December 1816 helped to arrange a meeting in Spa Fields, London, which was to be followed by the seizure of the Tower of London and the Bank of England, and by a general revolution.
and Ungarn's Befreiung von de Turkenherrschaft (Freiburg, 1902); Memoirs of Emeric Count Teckely (London, 1693); Correspondence of Michael Teleki (Hung.), ed.
But before this event John had instituted a great inquiry, the inquest of service of June 1212, for the purpose of finding out how much he could exact from each of his vassals, a measure which naturally excited some alarm; and then, fearing a baronial rising, he had abandoned his proposed expedition into Wales, had taken hostages from the most prominent of his foes, and had sought safety in London.
Before this interview a national council had met at St Albans at the beginning of August 1213, and this was followed by another council, held in St Paul's church, London, later in the same month; it was doubtless summoned by the archbishop, and was attended by many of the higher clergy and a certain number of the barons.
They marched towards London, while John made another attempt to delay the crisis, or to divide his foes, by granting a charter to the citizens of London (May 9, 1215), and then by offering to submit the quarrel to a court of arbitrators under the presidency of the pope.
Arbitration under such conditions was contemptuously rejected, and after the king had ordered the sheriffs to seize the lands and goods of the revolting nobles, London opened its gates and peacefully welcomed the baronial army.
As a guarantee of his good faith the king surrendered the city of London to his foes, while the Tower was entrusted to the neutral keeping of the archbishop of Canterbury.
In spite of the veto of the pope Louis accepted the invitation, landed in England in May 1216, and occupied London and Winchester, the fortune of war having in the meantime turned against John.
In dealing with this matter the Articles of the Barons had declared that aids and tallages must not be taken from the citizens of London and of other places without the consent of the council.
This provision was omitted from Magna Carta, except so far as it related to aids from the citizens of London.
gives to the citizens of London all their ancient liberties and free customs.
Certain privileges granted to them in the Articles are not found in Magna Carta, although, it must be noted, this document bestows exceptionally favoured treatment on the citizens of London.
Ardently devoted to the service of humanity, he projected a scheme for a general concourse of all the savants in Europe, and started in London a paper, Journal du Lycee de Londres, which was to be the organ of their views.
He obtained his release after four months, and again devoted himself to pamphleteering, but had speedily to retire for a time to London.
He studied medicine in London, Paris and Leiden, receiving his M.D.
His advocacy of an American episcopate, in connexion with which he wrote the Answer to Dr Mayhew's Observations on the Charter and Conduct of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts (London 1764), raised considerable opposition in England and America.
His principal work was Lectures on the Catechism of the Church of England (London, 1769).
of London, served by the main line and branches of the Great Northern railway.
Portman, Record of the Andamanese (Ii volumes MS. in India Office, London, and Home Department, Calcutta), 18 931898, Andamanese Manual (1887), Notes on the Languages of the South Andaman Group of Tribes (1898), and History of our Relations with the Andamanese (1899); S.
Soc. of London.
Soc. of London, 18g6.
Limnocodium sowerbyi was first discovered in the Victoria regia tank in the Botanic Gardens, Regent's Park, London.
2 (London, 1882); 22.
Hincks, A History of British Hydroid Zoophytes (2 vols., London, 1868); 27.
He entered King's College, London, in 1858, and in 1861 was appointed professor of Arabic and Mahommedan law.
(London, 1897); F.
(Stuttgart, 1881); and P. Villari's Machiavelli (London 1892); also C. Yriarte, Cesar Borgia (Paris, 1889), an admirable piece of writing; Schubert-Soldern, Die Borgia and ihre Zeit (Dresden, 1902), which contains the latest discoveries on the subject; and E.
In 1231, in such a suit, the bishop of London accepts wager of battle (Pollock and Maitland, op. cit.
The bishop of London was treated as the diocesan bishop of the colonists in North America; and in order to provide for testamentary and matrimonial jurisdiction it was usual in the letters patent appointing the governor of a colony to name him ordinary.
Taunton, Law of the Church, London, 1906, s.v.
Godolphin, Abridgement of the Laws Ecclesiastical (London, 1687); E.
Stephen, History of the Criminal Law of England (London, 1883); Pollock and Maitland, History of English Law before Edward I.
Taunton, Law of the Church (London, 1906); Report of Royal Commission on Ecclesiastical Discipline (1906).
Since then many others have been obtained, and one lived for several years in the gardens of the Zoological Society of London.
Oldenberg, The Vinaya Pi(akam (5 vols., London, 1879-1883); V.
Fausboll, The Jataka (7 vols., London, 1877-1897); G.
Oldenberg, The Dipavamsa (London, 1879); V.
Trenckner, Milinda (London,.
C. Warren, Buddhism in Translations (Cambridge, Mass., 1896); Mrs Rhys Davids, Buddhist Psychology (London, 1900); K.
C. Childers, Dictionary of the Pali Language (London, 1872-1875); Ernst Kuhn, Beitrage zur Pali Grammatik (Berlin; 18 75); E.
Miller, Pali Grammar (London, 1884); R O.
Ramsay, however, doubts this (The Church in the Roman Empire, London, 1893), and argues that it was due to a long series of instructions to provincial governors (mandata, not decreta) who interpreted their duty largely in conformity with the attitude of the reigning emperor.
Aurelius (London, 1904).
Pater, Marius the Epicurean (London, 1888); Matthew Arnold's Essays; C. H.
P. Dickson, London, 1886); for the Aurelius column, E.
Translations exist in almost every language; that of George Long (London, 1862, re-edited 1900) has been superseded by those of G.
Rendall (London, 1898, with valuable introduction) and J.
Schraufite is a reddish resin from the Carpathian sandstone, and it occurs with jet in the cretaceous rocks of the Lebanon; ambrite is a resin found in many of the coals of New Zealand; retinite occurs in the lignite of Bovey Tracey in Devonshire and elsewhere; whilst copaline has been found in the London clay of Highgate in North London.
Arnold Buffum, The Tears of the Heliades, or Amber as a Gem (London, 1896).
This arrangement was not, however, approved of by the physicians, who obtained in 1617 a separate charter for the apothecaries, to the number of 114, which was the number of physicians then practising in London.
of London under a penalty of ioo in case of a refusal to permit it.
The frauds and adulterations were probably due in part to the apothecaries, for Dr Merrit, a collegiate physician of London, stated that " such chymists which sell preparations honestly made complain that few apothecaries will go to the price of them."
STRATFORD-ON-AVON, a market town and municipal borough in the Stratford-on-Avon parliamentary division of Warwickshire, England; on a branch line of the Great Western railway and on the East & West Junction railway, in connexion with which it is served from London by the Great Central (922 m.) and the London & North-Western railways.
For further information the reader should consult the Parentalia, published by Wren's grandson in 1750, an account of the Wren family and especially of Sir Christopher and his works; also the two biographies of Wren by Elmes and Miss Phillimore; Milman, Annals of St Paul's (1868); and Longman, Three Cathedrals dedicated to St Paul in London (1873), pp. 77 seq.
See also Clayton, Churches of Sir C. Wren (1848-1849); Taylor, Towers and Steeples of Wren (London, 1881); Niven, City Churches (London, 1887), illustrated with fine etchings; A.
394; and Timber and some of its Diseases (London, 1889).
Wounds, &c.Marshall Ward, Timber and some of its Diseases, p. 210; Hartig, Diseases of Trees (London, 1894).
by Minchin, London, 1894);1894); also Untersuchungen hber Struktur (Leipzig, 1898); Courchet, Recherches sur los Chromolei~cites, Ann.
Botanik (1898), 32; Lee, The Microtomists Vade Mecum (London, 1900); Macallum, On the Detection and Localization of Phosphorus in Animal and Vegetable Cells, Proc. Roy.
Rivers bring down the plants of the upper levels of their basins to the lower: thus species characteristic of the chalk are found on the banks of the Thames near London.
geography, but, following the model of Strabo, described the world according to its different political divisions, and entered with great zest into the question of the productions ' Bunbury's History of Ancient Geography (2 vols., London, 1879), Muller's Geographi Graeci minores (2 vols., Paris, 1855, 1861) and Berger's Geschichte der wissenschaftlichen Erdkunde der Griechen (4 vols., Leipzig, 1887-1893) are standard authorities on the Greek geographers.
2 The period of the early middle ages is dealt with in Beazley's Dawn of Modern Geography (London; part i., 1897; part ii., 1901; part iii., 1906); see also Winstedt, Cosmos Indicopleustes (1910).
James Lancaster made a voyage to the Indian Ocean from 1591 to 1594; and in 1599 the merchants and adventurers of London resolved to form a company, with the object of establishing a trade with the East Indies.
The Royal Geographical Society, which was founded in London in 1830, comes third on the list; but it may be viewed as a direct result of the earlier African Association founded in 1788.
2 This phrase is old, appearing in one of the earliest English works on geography, William Cuningham's Cosmographical Glasse conteinyng the pleasant Principles of Cosmographie, Geographie, Hydrographie or Navigation (London, 1559).
7 Vestiges of the Molten Globe (London, 1875).
Congress (London, 18 95), p. 735 (English Abstract, p. 748).
Geikie, Earth Sculpture (London, 3898); J.
Marr, The Scientific Study of Scenery (London, 3900); Sir A.
Geikie, The Scenery and Geology of Scotland (London, 2nd ed., 1887); Lord Avebury (Sir J.
Lubbock), The Scenery of Switzerland (London, 1896) and The Scenery of England (London, 1902).
Congress (London, 18 95), p. 751.
Phillipson, Studien uber Wasserscheiden (Leipzig, 1886); also I.C. Russell, River Development (London, 1898) (published as The Rivers of North America, New York, 1898).
Congress (London, 1895), p. 593 also Le Leman (2 vols., Lausanne, 1892, 1894); H.
Engler, Entwickelungsgeschichte der Pflanzenwelt; also Beddard, Zoogeography (Cambridge, 1895); and Sclater, The Geography of Mammals (London, 1899).
In this respect a country is either centralized, like the United Kingdom or France, 1 For the history of territorial changes in Europe, see Freeman, Historical Geography of Europe, edited by Bury (Oxford), 190; and for the official definition of existing boundaries, see Hertslet, The Map of Europe by Treaty (4 vols., London, 1875, 1891); The Map of Africa by Treaty (3 vols., London, 1896).
P. Marsh in Man and Nature, or Physical Geography as modified by Human Action (London, 1864).
thick, containing rolled fossil bones, cetacean and fish teeth, and shells of the Crag period, with nodules or pebbles of phosphatic matter derived from the London Clay, and often investing fossils from that formation.
"The nodules, having been imbued with phosphatic matter from their matrix in the London Clay, were dislodged," says Buckland, "by the waters of the seas of the first period, and accumulated by myriads at the bottom of those shallow seas where is now the coast of Suffolk.
EDWARD GIBBON WAKEFIELD (1796-1862), British colonial statesman, was born in London on the 10th of March 1796, of an originally Quaker family.
Newton's Dictionary of Birds, London, 1896.
C. Eyton, Osteologia avium (London, 1858-1881), with many plates; C. Gegenbaur, Untersuch.
Soc., 1875; " Monograph on the Structure and Development of the Shoulder-girdle and Sternum," Ray Soc. London, 1868; W.
(London, 1835); " On the Anatomy of the Southern Apteryx," Trans.
Shufeldt, The Myology of the Raven (London, 1891); M.
Owen's Dasornis, of the London Clay, known from an imperfect cranium, and E.
The London Clay of South.
Newton's Dictionary of Birds (London, 1893); Cat.
of the Azores or Western Islands, London, 1870).
Here also Pelagornis, Miocene of France; Argillornis and probably Odontopteryx from the London Clay.
Offices and lands came to John Howard by reason of that fellowship. Henry VI., when restored, summoned him to parliament in 1470 as Lord Howard, a summons which may have been meant to lure him to London into Warwick's power, but he proclaimed the Yorkist sovereign on his return and fought at Barnet and Tewkesbury.
Thomas Howard, a politic mind, loyal to the powers that be, was released from the Tower of London in 1489, his earldom of Surrey and his Garter restored.
201 -1189 (Rolls Series, 2 vols., London, 1858).
See The Three Brothers, or Travels of Sir Anthony, Sir Robert Sherley, &c. (London, 1825); Sir C. R.
Markham, General Sketch of the History of Persia (London, 1874).
JOHN POND (c. 1767-1836), English astronomer-royal, was born about 1767 in London, where his father made a fortune in trade.
He was elected a fellow of the Royal Society on the 26th of February 1807; he married and went to live in London in the same year, and in 1811 succeeded Maskelyne as astronomer-royal.
He died in London on the 28th of April 1865.
The shrine of Imam Reza is the most venerated spot in Persia, and yearly visited by more than 100,000 pilgrims. Eastwick thus describes it (Journal of a Diplomat's Three Years' Residence in Persia, London, 1864) "The quadrangle of the shrine seemed to be about 150 paces square.
high, and as thick as the Duke of York's column in London.
Full materials for his life are found in his Memoirs, written by himself (translated into English by Leyden and Erskine (London, 1826); abridged in Caldecott, Life of Baber (London, 1844).
Gollancz, The Ethical Treatises of Berachya (London, 1902).
Introductory: Abrahams, Short History of Jewish Literature (London, 1906); Steinschneider, Jewish Literature (London, 18 57); Winter and Wi nsche, Die jitdische Literatur (Leip;ig, 1893-1895) (containing selections translated into German).
Lowy (London, 1891-1892) (without the notes); Zunz, Gottesdienstliche Vortrage der Juden (new ed., Frankfort-on-Main, 1892); Zur Geschichte and Literatur (Berlin, 1845).
Books in the British Museum (London, 1867; continued by van Straalen, London, 1894).
in the British Museum (London, 1899, &c.).