How to use Logical in a sentence
Jennie was the logical choice.
I couldn't think of a logical way to advise Detective Jackson.
It must be distressing, trying to make logical plans about your future.
There was no other logical scenario.
You can rest up here at Bird Song—give yourself time enough to make logical decisions.Advertisement
I was the logical choice and frankly they were lazy.
Seems logical enough, Kelli answered.
That was when the logical part of her brain jerked her back to reality.
He admits in the sacred writings as in the classics only one acceptation, and that the grammatical, convertible into and the same with the logical and historical.
Her mind isn't more logical than the minds of ordinary children.Advertisement
The logical side of her understood that Darkyn's offer of fixing her was a better option than dying on the operating table.
Glancing down at herself, she decided there was only one logical place for her to start.
Nevertheless, there is a charm of originality about his earlier logical work which no competent reader can fail to appreciate.
Seeking mental help was a logical decision and I think it's working out well.
I was the logical candidate as both women had children needing attention.Advertisement
She felt herself relaxing at his even tone and the words that seemed logical enough.
She clutched his wrists, the logical side of her brain preparing to remove his hands from her face, the emotional side wishing he would repeat the kiss.
The logical suspect was the person who possessed the most reason to see Jerome Shipton dead.
Every time something starts to make sense, up pops ten other perfectly logical answers that make a lot more sense.
But as yet he had only glimpses of a logical method which should invigorate the syllogism by the co-operation of ancient geometry and modern algebra.Advertisement
One of his ideas was to define logical systems modeled on interconnected neurons.
The meeting was a logical outgrowth of the project.
It didn't appear Shipton had a relationship of any kind with Janet nor did she seem to have any logical reason to try and kill him.
In this he criticizes the bishops' Report in a sympathetic spirit, but points out how intimately the symbolism of the vestments had become associated with the doctrine of the Sacrifice of the Mass, and how logical was the action of the Reformers in rejecting certain of these vestments.
But she also warns not to completely dispel the left and more logical side of your brain.Advertisement
Larry Kirchner recalled by logical treats auto insurance.
He often brings a refreshing lightness to the mind with its tendency to become mired in irresolvable logical analysis.
It seemed to be impossible to detect any sociological trace within the purely logical trace within the purely logical appearance of this field.
Whatever the true motives, the Soviet armory is entirely logical in their terms.
It is full of different episodes that do not always seem to follow on from one another in a strictly logical way.
The syntax sometimes gives people trouble, but it is actually quite logical.
To work out a price per piece seems logical.
In his anxiety to appear logical Haldane clearly hoped that the underlying theological aspect of his argument would go unnoticed.
If all this sounds perfectly logical, it's worth remembering that until lately such a facility simply wasn't available anywhere.
It is a logical " next step up " from a lighter lowland malt.
His judgements are immune from logical criticism because his subject mater includes the non-logical ground of logic itself.
Although he rejects traditional metaphysics, he does not share either the program of logical positivism or that of ordinary language philosophy.
That tone is not methodical or even logical, it does not arrange things in neat orders like a catalog or text.
It seems, in general terms, to be a matter of logical necessity.
You can use - word to express the logical negation of word.
But this is little more than a logical non sequitur.
There can be recourse, that is, to logical or conceptual relations of an essentially normative kind.
Currie recognizes that an artist's oeuvre never does follow a coldly logical path - and is all the better for it.
This is the assumption of logical omniscience (discussed below ).
If the left-hand operand is unsigned, the right shift is a logical shift so the upper bits will be filled with zeros.
In theology truth is propositional tied up in neat parcels, systematized, and arranged in logical order.
That would seem to be the logical time for an amicable parting of the ways.
An extended partition may have an arbitrary number of " logical " drives.
In formal reasoning, such open sentences may be transformed into logical predicates in the usual way.
He simply sets the discussion aside as too difficult for a preliminary discourse, and not strictly relevant to a purely logical inquiry.
His treatise De rationali et ratione uti is more interesting as a display of the logical acquirements of the age than as possessing any direct philosophical bearing.
Against the system of non-difference Abelard has a number of logical and traditional arguments to bring, but it is sufficiently condemned by his fundamental doctrine that only the individual exists in its own right.
By the middle of the century, logical studies had lost to a great extent their real interest and application, and had degenerated into trivial displays of ingenuity.
The most valuable of his logical and philosophical memoirs were published collectively in 2 vols.
Logical in its derivatives and in its grammatical structure, the Magyar language is, moreover, copious in idiomatic expressions, rich in its store of words, and almost musical in its harmonious intonation.
Notable service was also rendered by Augustus de Morgan, who applied logical analysis to the laws of mathematics.
We have mentioned Lamarck before his great contemporary Cuvier because, in spite of his valuable philosophical doctrine of development, he was, as compared with Cuvier and estimated as a systematic zoologist, a mere enlargement and logical outcome of Linnaeus.
Various accidental circumstances, however, have brought it about that the actual distribution of scientific work does not correspond with the logical subdivisions of biology.
Whatever power they did secure, whether as potent subsidiary organs of the municipal polity for the regulation of trade, or as the chief or sole medium for the acquisition of citizenship, or as integral parts of the common council, was, generally speaking, the logical sequence of a gradual economic development, and not the outgrowth of a revolutionary movement by which oppressed craftsmen endeavoured to throw off the yoke of an arrogant patrician gild merchant.
The Reformed strengthened itself against the Roman Catholic theology by working itself, on the one hand, into vigorous logical consistency, and supporting itself, on the other, on the supreme authority of the Scriptures.
Arminius died, worn out by uncongenial controversy and ecclesiastical persecution, before his system had been elaborated into the logical consistency it attained in the hands of his celebrated successor, Simon Episcopius; but though inchoate in detail, it was in its principles clear and coherent enough.
What follows is rather a perfection of details in the direction of logical completeness.
Great diversity prevailed everywhere, and we should not be surprised to find some different fact or custom in every lordship. Anglo-Norman feudalism attained a logical completeness and a uniformity of practice which, in the feudal age proper, can hardly be found elsewhere through so large a territory; but in Anglo-Norman feudalism the exception holds perhaps as large a place as the regular, and the uniformity itself was due to the most serious of exceptions from the feudal point of view - centralization under a powerful monarchy.
And when in 1890 he began to gather together the miscellaneous essays and papers written during a period of sixty years, he expressed the hope that, though " they could lay no claim to logical consistency," they might yet show " beneath the varying complexion of their thought some intelligible moral continuity," " leading in the end to a view of life more coherent and less defective than was presented at the beginning."
To the technical philosophers, who strictly confine themselves to the logical collation and criticism of scientific methods, he has, contrariwise, not seemed philosophic enough.
Ramus's works appear among the logical textbooks of the Scottish universities, and he was not without his followers in England in the 17th century.
The household is thus at once the logical starting-point of religious cult, and throughout Roman history the centre of its most real and vital activity.
The next stage in the logical development of the state religion should naturally be found in the worship of the gens, the aggregate of households belonging to one clan, Agri- but our information about the gentile worship is so scanty and uncertain 2 that we cannot make practical use of it.
It is the first example in Italian literature of a national biography, the first attempt in any literature to trace the vicissitudes of a people's life in their logical sequence, deducing each successive phase from passions or necessities inherent in preceding circumstances, reasoning upon them from general principles, and inferring corollaries for the conduct of the future.
These seem to have been altogether devoted to expositions of a certain logical system which Bruno had taken up with great eagerness, the Ars Magna of Raimon Lull.
Several works, chiefly logical, appeared during his stay at Wittenberg (De Lampade combinatoria Lulliana, 1587, and De Progressu et Lampade venatoria logicorum, 1587).
The pivot of this part is the logical principle of contradiction.
No attempt will be made to follow the historic order of development, but the present theory will be set out in its most logical form and order.
His logical mind and determined support of the autocratic principle gained the tsar's entire confidence.
He was examiner in logical and moral philosophy (1857-1862 and 1864-1869) to the university of London, and in moral science in the Indian Civil Service examinations.
But Marsiglio's logical and elaborate justification for a revolt against the medieval Church produced no perceptible effects.
His account of the process of knowledge in his logical treatises exhibits the idealistic bent in its clearest form.
Yet besides the particular contribution that Aristotle made to idealistic philosophy in his logical and ethical interpretations, he advanced the case in two directions.
More particularly by the confusion in which he left the relation between the two logical principles of identity and of sufficient reason underlying respectively analytic and synthetic, deductive and inductive thought, he may be said to have undermined in another way the idealism he strove to establish.
As little is idealism responsible for any attempt to pass off logical abstractions for concrete reality.
Similarly it only carried the doctrine of relativity to its logical conclusion in denying that there could be any absolute relativity.
Similarly from the side of logic. It is not the teaching of idealism alone but of the facts which logical analysis has brought home to us that all difference in the last resort finds its ground in the quality or content of the things differentiated, and that this difference of content shows in turn a double strand, the strand of sameness and the strand of otherness - that in which and that by which they differ from one another.
He perceived that to coil many turns of thin wire round an inner barrel was a logical extension of the large hooped method already mentioned, and in conjunction with I.
The swellings on the palmar faces of the phalanges of the several fingers are also indicative, the 1st and and of the thumb respectively, of the logical faculty and of the will; the 1st, and and 3rd of the index finger, of materialism, law and order, idealism; those of the middle finger, humanity, system, intelligence; of the ring finger, truth, economy, energy; and of the little finger, goodness, prudence, reflectiveness.
In 1881 he prepared A Primer of Logical Analysis for students of English composition.
The polyphony of Beethoven was unquestionably influenced by it and, even in his latest sonatas and quartets, may be regarded as its logical outcome.
He is keen, positive, logical, combining with curious dashes of scepticism many genuine moral convictions and a good knowledge of the various national religions and mythologies whose relative value he is able to appreciate.
Among the clearest and most logical exponents of this theory was Hobbes, who in his Leviathan expounded his notion of an agreement by which absolute power was irrevocably transferred to the ruler.
The first and fundamental characteristic of Ultramontanism is its championship of a logical carrying out of the so-called " papalistic system," the concentration, that is, of all ecclesiastical power in the person of the Roman bishop. This.
In logical sequence to these tenets it seeks to divorce the school from the state - a proceeding which it terms educational freedom, though the underlying motive is to subordinate the school to the Church.
Metaphysics, again, is concerned with the ultimate problems of matter and spirit; it endeavours to go behind the phenomena of sense and focus its attention on the fundamental truths which are the only logical bases of natural science.
The logical consequence of this was that the territorial nobles claimed the right of appointing clergy, and the enjoyment of the revenues of these churches derived from the land (tithes).
These represent a theory of the Church practically unknown to the Reformers, and only reached through the necessity for discovering a logical basis for the communities of conscientious dissidents from the established churches.
It must be borne in mind that primitive humanity is not governed by logical distinctions.
Holbach exposed the logical consequences of the theories of the Encyclopaedists.
He is a link between the ancient world and the middle ages, having been the last of the learned Romans who understood the language and studied the literature of Greece, and the first to interpret to the middle ages the logical treatises of Aristotle.
It had its logical end in the system adopted in 1881 and known as the rattachement.
First, it stands in the line of post-Aristotelian systems; it is, in fact, as a subjective philosophy, their logical completion.
For every philosophy is scholastic whose subject-matter is imaginative and mystical, and which handles this subject-matter according to established rules in logical categories and distinctions.
The Heidelberg and Westminster Catechisms are of a more logical and independent character.
As early as 1862 Gaudry set forth this very polyphyletic principle in his tabular phylogenies, but failed to carry it to its logical application.
Gallicanism had two distinct sides, a constitutional and a dogmatic, though both were generally held together, the second serving as the logical basis of the first.
Paschasius shrank from the logical outcome of his view, namely, that Christ's body or part of it is turned into human excrement, but Ratramnus, another monk of Corbey, in a book afterwards ascribed to Duns Scotus, drew this inference in order to discredit his antagonists, and not because he believed it himself.
He was elected to the Quebec legislature in 1871, and his first speech in the provincial assembly excited great interest, on account of its literary qualities and the attractive manner and logical method of the speaker.
The logical conclusion is that Aristotle began writing it as early as 357, and continued writing it in 346, in 336, and so on till he died.
He left others imperfectly arranged, and some of the most important, the Metaphysics, the Politics and the logical writings.
Of the imperfect arrangement of the Metaphysics we have already spoken; and we shall speak of that of his logical writings when we come to the order of his whole system.
The incomplete state in which Aristotle left the Metaphysics, the Politics and his logical works, brings us to the hard question how much he did, and how much his Peripatetic followers did to his writings after his death.
Although, however, we may concede that such great works as the Metaphysics, the Politics and the logical writings did not receive their present form from Aristotle himself, that concession does not deprive Aristotle of the authorship, but only of the arrangement of those works.
On the contrary, Theophrastus and Eudemus, his immediate followers, both wrote works presupposing Aristotle's Metaphysics and his logical works, and Dicaearchus, their contemporary, used his Politics for his own Tripoliticus.
Both works arrive at it from the classification of categories, which is the same in both; except that in the former the categories are treated rather as a logical classification of names signifying things, in the latter rather as a metaphysical classification of things.
The only logical conclusion is that the Categories, being nearer to Plato on the nature of attributes, and still nearer on the relation of universals to substances, is earlier than the Metaphysics.
But in spite of this great logical achievement, he continued throughout the discourse to accept Plato's grammatical analysis of all sentences into noun and verb, which indeed applies to the proposition as a sentence but does not give its particular elements.
Nor does the work get further than the analysis of some propositions into noun and verb with " is " added to the predicated verb; an analysis, however, which was a great logical discovery and led Aristotle further to the remark that " is " does not mean " exists "; e.g.
How then did Aristotle get further in the logical analysis of the proposition?
As then we find this identification of pleasure with activity in the Metaphysics and in the De Anima, as well as in the Nicomachean Ethics, the Eudemian Ethics and the Magna Moralia, the only logical conclusion, from which there is no escape, is that, so far as the treatment of pleasure goes, any Aristotelian treatise which defines it as activity is genuine.
He means that the logical analysis of demonstration in the Analytics would teach them beforehand that there cannot be demonstration, though there must be induction, of an axiom, or any other principle; whereas, if they are not logically prepared for metaphysics, they will expect a demonstration of the axiom, as Heraclitus, the Heraclitean Cratylus and the Sophist Protagoras actually did, - and in vain.
The traditional order of the Aristotelian writings, still continued in the Berlin edition, beginning with the logical writings on page 1, proceeding to the physical writings on page 184, and postponing the Metaphysics to page 980, is not the real order of Aristotle's philosophy.
Such is Aristotle's psychological and logical realism, contained in the De Anima and logical treatises.
Rhetoric is a faculty on any subject of investigating what may be persuasive (acOavov), which is the work of no other art; its means are artificial and inartificial evidences (7riorecs), and, among artificial evidences, especially the logical arguments of example and enthymeme.
Intelligence is not active intellect propagating universal essence in passive intellect, but only logical inference starting from sense, and both requiring nervous body and conscious soul.
Zabarella to the Arabians, and himself gifted with great logical powers, always deserves study in his editions of the Organon and the Physics, and in his Doctrinae Peripateticae.
Grote indeed intended to write a general account of Aristotle like that of Plato; but his Aristotle went little further than the logical writings.
Paradoxical as it may seem, it is the logical conclusion of such comparisons that militarism only exists in countries where there are no citizen armies, and that, where there are citizen armies, they are one of the elements which make for permanent peace.
But at first this logical conclusion was not drawn.
Kant first deduced that from the experience of mental phenomena all logical use of reason is limited to mental phenomena, and then maintained that to explain moral responsibility practical reason postulates the existence of real noumena.
But what is a postulate of practical reason to explain moral responsibility except a logical use of reason ?
He forgot that he had also limited all logical use of reason, and therefore of practical reason, to phenomena, and thereby undermined the rationality not only of knowledge, but also of faith.
He rightly objected that the system was wanting in logical proof.
He rightly contended that, if we are to know anything beyond sense, we must know it by a process of logical reason.
But, unfortunately, he did not mean the logical inferences described in the Organon and the Novum organum.
It is most important also to notice that Kantism denies, but science asserts, the logical power of reason to infer actual things beyond experience.
But his ardent love of consistency led him far away from Kant in the end; for he proceeded consistently from the assumption, that whatever we think beyond mental phenomena is ideal, to the logical conclusion that in practical matters our moral responsibility cannot prove the reality of a noumenal freedom, because, as on Kant's assumption we know ourselves from inner sense only as phenomena, we can prove only our phenomenal freedom.
Its essence, as stated by Kant, was to reduce the logical use of reason to mental phenomena of experience in speculation, in order to extend the practical use of reason to the real noumena, or things in themselves, required for morality.
Its consistency, as deduced by Lange, was to reduce all use of reason, speculative and practical, to its logical use of proceeding from the assumed mental data of outer and inner sense, arranged a priori, to mental phenomena of experience, beyond which we can conceive ideas but postulate nothing.
For what does it matter to metaphysics whether by association sensations suggest ideas, and so give rise to ideas of substance and causation a posteriori, or synthetic unity of consciousness combines sensations by a priori notions of substance and causation into objects which are merely mental phenomena of experience, when it is at once allowed by the followers of Hume and Kant alike that reason in any logical use has no power of inferring things beyond the experience of the reasoner?
Between Hume's a posteriori and Kant's a priori hypothesis he proposes a logical theory of the origin of notions beyond experience.
He explains that the arrangement of facts requires " general supplementary notions' (Hiilfsbegrife), which are not contained in experience itself, but are gained by a process of logical treatment of this experience."
Not, says Wundt, by association, as Hume said, but by thinking; not, however, by a priori thinking, as Kant said, but by logical thinking, by applying the logical principle of ground and consequent (which Leibnitz had called the principle of sufficient reason) as a causal law to empirical appearances.
Nevertheless he believes that, when we can apply measures to the combination of empirical appearances, then we can apply the logical principle as causal law to this combination, and say that one appearance is the cause of another, thus adding a notion of causality not contained in the actual observations, but specializing the general notion of causality.
But Newton had already discovered beforehand in the mechanics of terrestrial bodies that gravitation constantly causes similar facts on the earth, and did not derive that cause from any logical ground beyond experience, any more than he did the third law of motion.
Otherwise, logical ground remains logical ground, as in any noncausal syllogism, such as the familiar one from " All men are mortal," which causes me to know that I shall die, without telling me the cause of death.
Wundt, however, having satisfied himself of the power of mere logical thought beyond experience, goes on to further apply his hypothesis, and supposes that, in dealing with the physical world, logical thinking having added to experience the " supplementary notion " of causality as the connexion of appearances which vary together, adds also the " supplementary notion " of substance as substratum of the connected appearances.
Thirdly, on the grounds that logical thinking adds the notion of substance, as substrate, to experience of the physical, but not of the psychical, and that the most proper being of mind is will, he concludes that wills are not active substances, but substance-generating activities (" nicht thatige Substanzen sondern substanzerzeugende Thdtigkeiten," System, 429) What kind of metaphysics, then, follows from this compound of psychology and epistemology?
Hence, according to Wundt, the world we know is still unitary experience, distinguished, not separated, into subject and object, aggregates of ideas analysed by judgment and combined by inference, an object of idea elaborated into causes and substances by logical thinking, at most a world of our ideas composed out of our sensations, and arranged under our categories of our understanding by our inner wills, or a world of our ideating wills; but nothing else.
Reason, according to Wundt, is like pure reason according to Kant; except that Wundt, receiving Kantism through NeoKantism, thinks that reason arrives at " ideals " not a priori, but by the logical process of ground and consequent, and, having abolished the thing in itself, will not follow Kant in his inconsequent passage from pure to practical reason in order to postulate a reality corresponding to " ideals " beyond experience.
Two psychological errors, among many others, constantly meet us in the history of idealism - the arbitrary hypothesis of a sense of sensations, or of ideas, and the intolerable neglect of logical inference.
Logical inference from sense is a process from sensible to insensible existence.
His deduction is logical; but he has forgotten to prove the assumption, and now confuses sensory operation with sensible object.
It must not, however, be forgotten that, in the negotiations at Sutri, Paschal had pride and independence enough to propose to the emperor the only solution of the conflict that was entirely logical and essentially Christian, namely, the renunciation by the Church of its temporal power and the renunciation by the lay lords of all intervention in elections and investitures - in other words, the absolute separation of the priesthood and the state.
Failing in his attempt to maintain the religious character of the crusade, he wished to prevent it from ending secularly in its extreme consequence and logical outcome.
Such general statements of the theory of motion as that of Lagrange, while releasing us from the rather narrow and strained view of the subject presented by detailed analysis of motion in terms of force, have also suggested a search for other forms which a statement of elementary principles might equally take as the foundation of a logical scheme.
The fundamental principle of thought is, according to him, the law of identity; logical thinking is real thinking.
The last period of Lessing's life was devoted chiefly to theo logical controversy.
It is apparent, even from the brief summary just given, that the importance of Hume in the history of philosophy consists in the vigour and logical exactness with which he develops a particular metaphysical view.
In Hume's theory of knowledge we have the final expression of what may be called psychological individualism or atomism, while his ethics and doctrine of religion are but the logical consequences of this theory.
Early writers on natural history used the term in its vague logical sense without limiting it to a special category in the hierarchy of classification.
He was singularly fitted for intellectual debate, but his devotional tendency was equally strong with his logical aptitude.
He tells how, when he had slowly taken in the doctrine of logical figures and moods, he put it aside and would prove things only in his own way; how he then heard about bodies as consisting of matter and form, as throwing off species of themselves for perception, and as moved by sympathies and antipathies, with much else of a like sort, all beyond his comprehension; and how he therefore turned to his old books again, fed his mind on maps and charts of earth and sky, traced the sun in his path, followed Drake and Cavendish girdling the main, and gazed with delight upon pictured haunts of men and wonders of unknown lands.
His scheme was first to work out, in a separate treatise De corpore, a systematic doctrine of Body, showing how physical phenomena were universally explicable in terms of motion, as motion or mechanical action was then (through Galileo and others) understood - the theory of motion being applied in the light of mathematical science, after quantity, the subject-matter of mathematics, had been duly considered in its place among the fundamental conceptions of philosophy, and a clear indication had been given, at first starting, of the logical ground and method of all philosophical inquiry.
It is, however, only as a basis of facts and principles for his theory of life that logical and physical inquiries find a place at all.
His chief aim in writing was plainness and intelligibility, but his want of order and logical precision thwarted his purpose.
His mental qualities were - a quick analytic perception, strong logical powers, a tenacious memory, a liberal estimate and tolerance of the opinions of others, ready intuition of human nature; and perhaps his most valuable faculty was rare ability to divest himself of all feeling or passion in weighing motives of persons or problems of state.
The acquisition of German colonies was really the logical and almost necessary sequel of a protective policy.
Like Schleiermacher he combined with the keenest logical faculty an intensely religious spirit, while his philosophical tendencies were in sympathy rather with Hegel than with Schleiermacher, and theosophic mysticism was more congenial to him than the abstractions of Spinoza, to whom Schleiermacher owed so much.
His system, though it may seem to contain doubtful or even fantastic elements, is in its general outlines a noble massive whole, constructed by a profound, comprehensive, fearless and logical mind.
His intellect was logical in the highest degree; he was clear and precise, an enemy of loose reasoning, and quick to refute prevailing fallacies.
So logical and uncompromising a thinker as Godwin could not go far in the discussion of abstract questions without exciting the most lively opposition in matters of detailed opinion.
Mahomet's mission was Rot to Europeans, but to a people who, though quick-witted and receptive, were not accustomed to logical thinking, while they had outgrown their ancient religion.
There seems to be no logical aim in this arrangement of the alphabetic characters and the series is incomplete.
The order of the Perpetual Edict, which appears to have been taken as a sort of model for the general scheme of books and titles, was doubtless convenient to the Roman lawyers from their familiarity with it, but was in itself rather accidental and historical than logical.
These, however, may be conveniently classified under four main heads - psychological, logical, ethical and religious - and the history of the subject shows that all these have contributed to the development of pragmatism.
In its logical aspect pragmatism originates in a criticism of fundamental conceptions like "truth," "error," "fact" 2 The New English Dictionary quotes for nine distinct senses of the word, of which the philosophic is the eighth.
Logical analysis, after assuming that truth is independent and not of our making, has to confess that all logical operations involve an apparently arbitrary interference with their data (Bradley).
If however the logical method of pragmatism is critically applied to all the sciences, many doctrines will be cut out which have little or no "pragmatic value."
All these logical and philosophic developments were popularly expounded by James in his Pragmatism (1907), followed by A Pluralistic Universe (1908) and The Meaning of Truth (1909).
Yet to Alexander himself it seemed the only means of placing the "confederation of Europe " on a firm basis of principle and, so far from its being directed against liberty he declared roundly to all the signatory powers that " free constitutions were the logical outcome of its doctrines."
The logical consequence of this view is that the plebs as an order in the state is of considerably later growth than the beginning of the city, the patricians being originally the only freemen and the only citizens.
If pushed to its logical conclusion the view of Paulsen must, it is submitted, lead to the complete abandonment at examinations of tests of " knowledge " as distinguished from direct tests of capacity.
The school system was reorganized by new regulations, in accordance with which Hegel wrote a series of lessons in the outlines of philosophy - ethical, logical and psychological.
For this reason the book is at once the most brilliant and the most difficult of Hegel's works - the most brilliant because it is to some degree an autobiography of Hegel's mind - not the abstract record of a logical evolution, but the real history of an intellectual growth; the most difficult because, instead of treating the rise of intelligence (from its first appearance in contrast with the real world to its final recognition of its presence in, and rule over, all things) as a purely subjective process, it exhibits this rise as wrought out in historical epochs, national characteristics, forms of culture and faith, and philosophical systems. The theme is identical with the introduction to the Encyklopddie; but it is treated in a very different style.
God reveals Himself in the logical idea, in nature and in mind; but mind is not alike conscious of its absoluteness in every stage of development.
They denied the theological value of the logical forms - the development of these forms being in their opinion due to the human thinker, not to a selfrevealing absolute.
But with this modification on the system another necessarily followed; a mere logical series could not create nature.
The logical idea is treated under the three heads of being (Seyn), essence (Wesen) and notion (Begriff).
The Philosophy of Nature starts with the result of the logical development, with the full scientific " idea."
To metamorphosis he only allowed a logical value, as explaining the natural classification; the only real, existent metamorphosis he saw in the development of the individual from its embryonic stage.
A graver mistake, according to some critics, is that Hegel, far from giving a law of progress, seems to suggest that the history of the world is nearing an end, and has merely reduced the past to a logical formula.
They made no attempt at theological definition, no pretence at logical arrangement; they were anything but a brief programme of reformation.
A great part of his writings, particularly on jurisprudence and astronomy, as well as essays on special logical subjects, prolegomena to philosophy, criticisms on Avicenna and Alfarabius (Farabi),remain in manuscript in the Escorial and other libraries.
When the Abbasids had occupied the throne, they pursued this policy to its logical conclusion.
As a speaker, he was clear, logical and impressive, and on select committees his common sense was most valuable.
The freedom of his speculation, and the boldness with which he works out his logical or dialectical system of the universe, altogether prevent us from classing him along with the scholastics properly so called.
Life, again, is a species of essence, wisdom a species of life, and so on, always descending from genus to species in a rigorous logical fashion.
This analysis, regarded as a whole and as it is applied in the Analytics and in the other logical treatises, was evidently intended as a linguistic analysis.
Rhetoricians had enumerated various means of persuasion, some of which are logical forms, e.g.
In the Analytics he took the final step of originating the logical analysis of the proposition as premise into subject and predicate as terms mediated by the copula, and analysed the syllogism into these elements.
The history of logic shows that the linguistic distinction between terms and propositions was the sole analysis of reasoning in the logical treatises of Aristotle; that the mental distinction between conceptions (g vvocac) and judgments (a uiwara in a wide sense) was imported into logic by the Stoics; and that this mental distinction became the logical analysis of reasoning under the authority of St Thomas Aquinas.
Thirdly, there is a determination to reveal the psychological basis of logical processes, and not merely to describe them as they are in adult reasoning, but to explain also how they arise from simpler mental operations and primarily from sense.
Not that men should or can carry this logical postulate out in ordinary life; but it is necessary in the logical analysis of judgments, and yet logicians neglect it.
Finally, the great difficulty of the logic of judgment is to find the mental act behind the linguistic expression, to ascribe to it exactly what is thought, neither more nor less, and to apply the judgment thought to the logical proposition, without expecting to find it in ordinary propositions.
It must not be thought that this trifling with logical rules has no effect.
But to say from these premises, " God and metal are similar in what is signified by the middle term," is a mere repetition of the premises; to say, further, that " Gold may be a metal " is a non-sequitur, because, the middle being undistributed, the logical conclusion is the contingent "Gold may or may not be a metal," which leaves the question quite open, and therefore there is no syllogism.
There is indeed a sense in which all inference is from ground to consequence, because it is from logical ground (principium cognoscendi) to logical consequence.
But whether Kant be right or wrong, Wundt and his school are decidedly wrong in supposing " supplementary notions which are not contained in experience itself, but are gained by a process of logical treatment of this experience "; as if our behalf in causality could be neither a posteriori nor a priori, but beyond experience wake up in a hypothetical major premise of induction.
Logical inference never goes through the impossible process of premising nothing but ideas, and concluding that ideas are copies of things.
These are the limits within which logical inference works, because its nature essentially consists in proceeding from two judgments to another about similar things, existing or not.
But we have found, on the wlple, that logical tradition rises superior to logical innovation.
An important group of writers developed the conception of an adaptation between the two sides of Kant's antithesis, and made the endeavour to establish some kind of correlation between logical forms and the process of " the given."
For the logical inquiry, however, it is permissible to ignore or reduce these differences.
The determination too of the sense in which Kant's theory of knowledge involves an unresolved antithesis is for the logical purpose necessary so far only as it throws light upon his logic and his influence upon logical developments.
Another logical movement springs from those whom a correlation of fact within the unity of a system altogether failed to satisfy.
It is no accident that it was the psychology of apperception and the voluntaryist theory or practice of Herbart, whose logical theory was so closely allied to that of the formal logicians proper, that contributed most spring from a common stock, though to us unknown - namely sense and understanding."
To allow, however, that abstraction admits of degrees, and that it never obliterates all reference to that from which it is abstracted, is to take a step forward in the direction of the correlation of logical forms with the concrete processes of actual thinking.
Logical forms have for him neither psychological nor metaphysical reference.
In the second, there is no claim that thought at one and the same time imposes form on " the given " and is susceptible of treatment in isolation by logic. With Herbart the forms of common experience, and indeed all that we can regard as his categories, are products of the psychological mechanism and destitute of logical import.
In terms of the agreement of thought and being, the logical forms of the part of dialectic correspondent to knowledge statically considered have parallels and analogies in being, the concept being correlated to substance, the judgment to causal nexus.
Accordingly, though he regards logic as formal, its forms come into relation to objectivity in some sort even within the logical field itself, while when taken in the setting of his system as a whole, its formal character is not of a kind that ultimately excludes psychological and metaphysical reference, at least speculatively.
Its unit, the logical concept, is a manipulated product and the process of manipulation may be called abstraction.
The concept is accounted for in Kantian terms. There is no discontinuity between the pre-logical or sub-logical ' See Ueberweg, System of Logic and History of Logical Doctrines, § 34.
Yet it is in the detail of his logical investigations, something too volatile to fix in summary, that Lotze's greatness as a logician more especially lies.
It is logic or a rationale of thought by thought, with a full development among other matters of all that the most separatist of logicians regards as thought forms. It offers a solution of what has throughout appeared as the logical problem.
But if we grant this it is no longer obviously the simple logical operation indicated.
Ueberweg (System § Ioi) is, on the whole, justified in exclaiming that Hegel's rehabilitation of syllogism " did but slight service to the Aristotelian theory of syllogism," yet his treatment of syllogism must be regarded as an acute contribution to logical criticism in the technical sense.
Its effect upon logic is rather to be seen in the rethinking of the traditional body of logical doctrine in the light of an absolute presupposed as ideal, with the postulate that a regulative ideal must ultimately exhibit itself as constitutive, the justification of the postulate being held to lie in the coherence and all-inclusiveness of the result.
Finally, there is what may be termed psychological-voluntaryist logic. It is in the rapidity of development of logical investigations of the third and fourth types and the growing number of their exponents that the present shows most clearly the history of logic in the making.
His metaphysical method, however, is like Herbart's, not identifiable with his logic, and the latter has for its central characteristic its thorough restatement of the logical forms traditional in language and the text-books, in such a way as to harmonize with the doctrine of a reality whose organic unity is all-inclusive.
The act of judgment " which refers an ideal content (recognized as such) to a reality beyond the act " is the unit for logic. Grammatical subject and predicate necessarily both fall under the rubric of the adjectival, that is, within the logical idea or ideal content asserted.
With this coheres his dictum, with its far-reaching consequences for the philosophy of induction, that " the logical justification of the inductive process rests upon the fact that it is an inevitable postulate of our effort after knowledge.that the given is necessary, and can be known as proceeding from its grounds according to universal laws."
Of the formal-symbolic logic all that falls to be said here is, that from the point of view of logic as a whole, it is to be regarded as a legitimate praxis as long as it shows itself aware of the sense in which alone form is susceptible of abstraction, and is aware that in itself it offers no solution of the logical problem.
Finally we have a logic of a type fundamentally psychological, if it be not more properly characterized as a psychology which claims to cover the whole field of philosophy, including the logical field.
The System der Logik (1828) of Bachmann (a Kantian logician of distinction) contains a historical survey (pp. 569-644), as does the Denklehre (1822) of van Calker (allied in thought to Fries), pp. 12 sqq.; Eberstein's Geschichte der Logik and Metaphysik bei den Deutschen von Leibniz bis auf gegenwartige Zeit (latest edition, 1 799) is still of importance in regard to logicians of the school of Wolff and the origines of Kant's logical thought.
The more logical method of procedure is to determine the specific heat independently of the total heat, and then to deduce the variations of total heat by equation (52).
Thus in Buddhism the presuppositions which Buddha uncritically took over work out their logical results in the Mahayana, so that great sects calling themselves " Buddhist " affirm what the Master denied and deny what he taught.
A large literature is produced, reconciling science and theology by softening and compromising and adapting; a procedure in accordance with general historical development, for men do not love sharp antagonisms, nor are they prepared to carry principles to their logical conclusions.
These innovators found, however, small support, and were defeated by opponents who used the same logical weapons with authority to back them.
It remained for him, however, to submit them to a rigid analysis and reduce them to a logical form.
Calhoun possessed neither Webster's brilliant rhetoric nor his easy versatility, but he surpassed him in the ordered method and logical sequence of his mind.
These he arranged and stated clearly in the form of aphorisms, with logical deductions, establishing them by proofs drawn from the archives of the council of state.
The Scottish church, hitherto without a definite constitution, soon espoused under his able leadership a logical and thorough Presbyterianism, which was expressed in the Second Book of Discipline, adopted by the assembly in 1577, and was never afterwards set aside by the church when acting freely.
The first were the speculative or logical philosophers, who construe the universe ex analogia hominis, and not ex analogia mundi, who fashion nature according to preconceived ideas, and who employ in their investigations syllogism and abstract reasoning.
This first philosophy had also to investigate what are called the adventitious or transcendental conditions of essences, such as Much, Little, Like, Unlike, Possible, Impossible, Being, Nothing, the logical discussion of which certainly belonged rather to the laws of reasoning than to the existence of things, but the physical or real treatment of which might be expected to yield answers to such questions as, why certain substances are numerous, others scarce; or why, if like attracts like, iron does not attract iron.
The mechanical character both of the natural history and of the logical method applied to it, resulted necessarily from Bacon's radically false conception of the nature of cause and of the causal relation.
The whole logical or scientific problem is treated as if it were one of co-existence, to which in truth the method of exclusion is scarcely applicable, and the assumption is constantly made that each phenomenon has one and only one cause.'
To formulate and show grounds for these laws is to construct a philosophy of induction, and it must not be forgotten that the first step towards the accomplishment of the task was made by Bacon when he introduced and gave prominence to the powerful logical instrument of exclusion or elimination.
If the foregoing examples are held sufficient to establish the influence of Bacon on the intellectual development of his immediate successors, it follows that the whole trend of typically English thought, not only in natural science, but also in mental, moral and political philosophy, is the logical fulfilment of Baconian principles.
It may be freely admitted that in the domain of logic there is nothing in the Organum that has not been more instructively analysed either by Aristotle himself or in modern works; at the same time, there is probably no work which is a better and more stimulating introduction to logical study.
The histories of philosophy may quite correctly describe his theory as the logical development of Descartes's doctrines of the one Infinite and the two finite substances, but Spinoza himself was never a Cartesian.
All his training too, university, priestly and in foreign parts, tended to make him logical overmuch.
A logical system of comparative exegesis, Ze led by constant reference to Sanskrit, its nearest ally, and to the her Iranian dialects, is the best means of recovering the lost of rise of the Zend texts.
Jevons arrived quite early in his career at the doctrines that constituted his most characteristic and original contributions to economics and logic. The theory of utility, which became the keynote of his general theory of political economy, was practically formulated in a letter written in 1860; and the germ of his logical principles of the substitution of similars may be found in the view which he propounded in another letter written in 1861, that "philosophy would be found to consist solely in pointing out the likeness of things."
In the years immediately following he devoted considerable attention to the construction of a logical machine, exhibited before the Royal Society in 1870, by means of which the conclusion derivable from any given set of premisses could be mechanically obtained.
In the meantime he was engaged upon a much more important logical treatise, which appeared in 1874 under the title of The Principles of Science.
The work as a whole was one of the most notable contributions to logical doctrine that appeared in Great Britain in the 19th century.
These articles and one other were republished after Jevons's death, together with his earlier logical treatises, in a volume, entitled Pure Logic, and other Minor Works.
He was more learned, more sincere, and more logical than Chateaubriand; less of a political partisan and less of a literary sentimentalist than Montalembert.
Inasmuch as he finally followed in philosophy the mainly poetical or theosophic movement of Schelling, which satisfied neither the logical needs appealed to by Hegel nor the new demand for naturalistic induction, Coleridge, after arousing a great amount of philosophic interest in his own country in the second quarter of the century, has ceased to "make a school."
Attaching no value to logical proof and argument, he enlarged on the wonders and mysteries of nature, and maintained his position by the working of miracles.
Castelar soon became famous by his rhetorical speeches in the Constituent Cortes of 1869, where he led the republican minority in advocating a federal republic as the logical outcome of the recent revolution.
The zeal with which the school prosecuted logical inquiries had one practical result - they could use to perfection the unrivalled weapon of analysis.
Indifferent to the scientific basis or logical development of doctrines, he selected from various writers and from different schools what he found most serviceable.
Originally there was only one Parlement, that of Paris, as was indeed logical, considering that the Parlement was simply a continuation of the curia regis, which, like the king, could only be one.
The arrangement of the subject-matter, while pretending to much precision, is often far from logical.
The researches of his pupil, Claude Bernard, on curare, were equally exact and logical, and have served as the model for many subsequent investigations.
The same fundamental axioms, the logical principles of identity and sufficient reason, are applicable in explanation of all given propositions.
Kant seems never to have been satisfied with the Wolffian identification of logical axioms and of the principle of sufficient reason.
The tract on the False Subtlety of the Four Syllogistic Figures, in which the view of thought or reason as analytic is clearly expressed, closes with the significant division of judgments into those which rest upon the logical axioms of identity and contradiction and those for which no logical ground can be shown.
For the one adequate explanation is found in the logical axiom of analytical thinking; for the other no such explanation is to be had.
Logical ground and real ground are totally distinct.
Sensations formed by space and time compose the world of appearance, and this when treated by the understanding, according to logical rules, is experience.
But the logical use of the understanding is not its only use.
In the Dissertation sense-perception had been taken as receptivity of representations of objects, and experience as the product of the treatment of such representations by the logical or analytical processes of understanding.
Now synthesis was explicable neither by reference to pure thought, the logical or elaborative faculty, which in Kant's view remained analytic in function, nor by reference to the effects of external real things upon our faculties of cognition.
For, on the one hand, analysis or logical treatment applied only to objects of knowledge as already given in synthetic forms, and, on the other hand, real things could yield only isolated effects and not the combination of these effects in the forms of cognitive experience.
The notion of the ego as a purely logical unity, containing in itself no element of difference, and having only analytical identity, is fundamental in the critical system, and lies at the root of all its difficulties and perplexities.
To the end, the ego remains, partly the pure logical ego, partly the concrete individual spirit, and no explanation is afforded of the relation between them.
No attempt is made to show how or why the difference supplied for the pure logical ego should present itself necessarily under these forms. They are regarded rather as portions of the subjective mechanism of the individual consciousness.
But it is readily seen, and in the Logik Kant shows himself fully aware of the fact, that these pure connective links of experience, general aspects of objects of intelligible experience, do not resemble concepts formed by the so-called logical or elaborative processes from representations of completed objects.
The forms of intellectual function Kant proceeds to enumerate with the aid of the commonly received logical doctrines.
For this reference to logic he has been severely blamed, but the precise nature of the debt due to the commonly accepted logical classification is very generally misconceived.
His view of the ordinary logic was wide and comprehensive, though in his restriction of the science to pure form one can trace the influence of his earlier training, and it is no small part of the value of the critical philosophy that it has revived the study of logic and prepared the way for a more thorough consideration of logical doctrines.
The position assigned to logic by Kant is not, in all probability, one which can be defended; indeed, it is hard to see how Kant himself, in consistency with the critical doctrine of knowledge, could have retained many of the older logical theorems, but the precision with which the position was stated, and the sharpness with which logic was marked off from cognate philosophic disciplines, prepared the way for the more thoughtful treatment of the whole question.
Kant, indeed, was mainly influenced by his strong opposition to the Leibnitzian rationalism, and therefore assigns the categories to understanding, the logical faculty, without consideration of the question, - which might have been suggested by the previous statements of the Dissertation, - what relation these categories held to the empirical notions formed by comparison, abstraction and generalization when directed upon representations of objects.
But he has not shown, nor did he attempt to show, how it was that the conditions of self-consciousness are the very categories arrived at by consideration of the system of logical judgments.
It is readily seen, in regard to the first of them, that all attempts to determine the nature of the ego as a simple, perdurable, immaterial substance rest upon a confusion between the ego as pure logical unity and the ego as object of intuition, and involve a transcendent use of the categories of experience.
In the first place, the adaptation may be merely subjective, when the empirical condition for the exercise of judgment is furnished by the feeling of pleasure or pain; such adaptation is aesthetic. In the second place, the adaptation may be objective or logical, when empirical facts are given of such a kind that their possibility can be conceived only through the notion of the end realized in them; such adaptation is teleological, and the empirical facts in question are organisms.
It was a logical question, but to come out of the mouth of a 10-year-old?
You can rest up here at Bird Songâ€”give yourself time enough to make logical decisions.
The logical answer is a childâ€”Donnie or Martha, picking it up out of curiosity.
While the loose ends of both Jerome Shipton's fall and Edith's suicide itched at Dean's sense of logical completion, the matter in its entirety was so repugnant to him that he didn't want to think about it.
In general, there is no good reason for thinking that reports of mystical experience must imply logical absurdity.
Logical reason to drivers should also bar's giant aquarium for around what.
Transferable Skills Students will further improve skills in logical argument, mathematical reasoning.
The domain model and scenario induce a set of logical axioms.
A talked about partner at the NSC is South Bk University Sports Science Dept which would seem a logical bedfellow.
At least the one on the right is logical, so they can't be ignorant bigots.
The mushroom cloud represented the logical culmination of industrial warfare.
Relations for expr expr supports the usual logical connectives and relations.
However ways need to be found that enable logical consistency reporting to be extended to include differences in data meaning.
At first sight, the defendant's contentions pose an intractable logical puzzle.
The book is a logical continuation of the previous book " The Oil Factor " by the same author.
It seems to us that the logical corollary of that approach was to take no action on existing stocks of such products.
The original script is the logical culmination of the series themes, dealing.. .
I think that a belief in a creator God is perfectly logical.
The layout of content shows his strong logical reasoning.
Are all the relevant error messages documented in a logical sequence?
I asked the ss to work in pairs putting the sentences in a logical sequence.
It was a logical step for Vodafone to seek ties with Manchester United.
That this process has a valid logical structure can be seen when we notice that it takes the form of an inverted syllogism.
Aristotelian syllogisms constituted the deductive schemas for logical inference and were relatively uncontroversial.
The relationship between cause and effect is treated as logical, not temporal.
They can be solved using Venn diagrams and thinking in a logical way.
The logical conclusion which should be drawn from my rather verbose statement I leave to my readers to draw.
Hence the conception that law is of necessity a spontaneous birth, not the creation of any individual legislator; and hence the idea that it necessarily proceeds by a natural and logical process of evolution constituting its history.
But the Canon of Avicenna is distinguished from the Al-Hawi (Continens) or Summary of Rhazes by its greater method, due perhaps to the logical studies of the former, and entitling him to his surname of Prince of the Physicians.
A long list of Boole's memoirs and detached papers, both on logical and mathematical topics, will be found in the Catalogue of Scientific Memoirs published by the Royal Society, and in the supplementary volume on Differential Equations, edited by Isaac Todhunter.
With the exception of Augustus de Morgan, Boole was probably the first English mathematician since the time of John Wallis who had also written upon logic. His novel views of logical method were due to the same profound confidence in symbolic reasoning to which he had successfully trusted in mathematical investigation.
Speculations concerning a calculus of reasoning had at different times occupied Boole's thoughts, but it was not till the spring of 1847 that he put his ideas into the pamphlet called Mathematical Analysis of Logic. Boole afterwards regarded this as a hasty and imperfect exposition of his logical system, and he desired that his much larger work, An Investigation of the Laws of Thought, on which are founded the Mathematical Theories of Logic and Probabilities (1854), should alone be considered as containing a mature statement of his views.
He did not regard logic as a branch of mathematics, as the title of his earlier pamphlet might be taken to imply, but he pointed out such a deep analogy between the symbols of algebra and those which can be made, in his opinion, to represent logical forms and syllogisms, that we can hardly help saying that logic is mathematics restricted to the two quantities, o and 1.
Though Boole published little except his mathematical and logical works, his acquaintance with general literature was wide and deep. Dante was his favourite poet, and he preferred the Paradiso to the Inferno.
That there are defects in the logical process as here outlined to account for the curious rite constitutes no valid objection to the theory advanced, for, in the first place, primitive logic in matters of belief is inherently defective and even contradictory, and, secondly, the strong desire to pierce the mysterious future, forming an impelling factor in all religions - even in the most advanced of our own day - would tend to obscure the weakness of any theory developed to explain a rite which represents merely one endeavour among many to divine the intention and plans of the gods, upon the knowledge of which so much of man's happiness and welfare depended.
Hubert and Mauss point out that Robertson Smith is far from having established either the historical or the logical connexion between the common meal and the other types of sacrifice; the simplest Semitic forms known to us are the most recently recorded; further their simplicity may mean no more than documentary insufficiency, and in any case does not imply any priority; the piaculum is found side by side with the communion at all times.
Green represents primarily the reaction against doctrines which, when carried out to their logical conclusion, not only "rendered all philosophy futile," but were fatal to practical life.
His chief logical work, the treatise De sex principiis, was regarded with a reverence almost equal to that paid to Aristotle, and furnished matter for numerous commentators, amongst them Albertus Magnus.
As a logical consequence of this view of disease the mode of treatment among peoples in the lower stages of culture is mainly magical; they endeavour to propitiate the evil spirits by sacrifice, to expel them by spells, &c. (see Exorcism), to drive them away by blowing, &c.; conversely we find the Khonds attempt to keep away smallpox by placing thorns and brushwood in the paths leading to places decimated by that disease, in the hope of making the disease demon retrace his steps.
If in this sentence he scarcely does justice to the powers of logical inference and inductive reasoning displayed in much of his work, it remains true that blind experiment - heating a substance, or treating it with some reagent, to see what would happen - was his characteristic method of inquiry.
On the contrary, the premisses of arithmetic can be put in other forms, and, furthermore, an indefinite number of propositions of arithmetic can be proved directly from logical principles without mentioning them.
Great Britain, when Canning was no longer at the helm of state, had reverted to the traditional policy of preserving Ottoman integrity at all costs; the invitation of the tsar to accept the logical consequences of Navarino was refused; and Russia was left to settle her account with Turkey.
In speaking of the origin of Scholasticism - name and thing - it has been already noted that medieval speculation takes its rise in certain logical problems. To be more precise, central theme of Scholastic debate (see Nominalism, Realism).
In the monastery of St Gall there was considerable logical activity, but nothing of philosophical interest is recorded.
When Cobden returned from the continent he addressed himself to what seemed to him the logical complement of free trade, namely, the promotion of peace and the reduction of naval and military armaments.
It was at last realized that the laws of algebra do not depend for their validity upon any particular interpretation, whether arithmetical, geometrical or other; the only question is whether these laws do or do not involve any logical contradiction.