- Diagram of Natural Locomotion of a Snake.
Locomotion is effected by means of the legs, with the body fully extended.
to Anthozoa - this group abandoned its power of adult locomotion by swimming.
Apparently correlated with this peculiar locomotion is the anatomical fact of the alteration of the myotomes on the two sides.
The third body region or trunk may attain a great length, one or two feet, or even more, and is also muscular, but the truncal muscles are of subordinate importance in locomotion, serving principally to promote the peristaltic contractions of the body by which the food is carried through the gut.
an organ.ism the conditions of whose life render locomotion impossible great elaboration would seem superfluous.
Moreover, the stationary habit of plants, and the almost total absence of locomotion, makes it impossible for them to seek their food.
are absent or vestigial in all other insects; and, in most genera, by the presence in the adult of abdominalappendagesused for locomotion, these latter varying in number from one to nine pairs.
Swimming is effected chiefly by the action of the broad forepaws, the hind feet and tail taking little share in locomotion in the water.
Motion, in short, is strictly locomotion, and nothing else.
The great problems involved in the study of geographical distribution must therefore be based mainly upon the other classes, both vertebrate and invertebrate, which, moreover, enjoy less great facilities of locomotion than the birds.
It is now understood that they are Euthyneurous Gastropods adapted to natatory locomotion and pelagic life.
Steam locomotion received much attention at his hands, and he sat on the railway commissions of 1836, 1839, 1842, 1845.
Their organs of locomotion are the ribs, the number of which is very great, nearly corresponding to that of the vertebrae of the trunk.
configuration of the palate, precoracoid, pelvis, intestinal convolutions, copulatory organ, &c. Loss of the keel is co-ordinated with the power of using the forelimbs for locomotion; although a " Ratite " character, it is not sufficient to turn a Notornis, Cnemiornis or Stringops, not even a Phororhacos into a member of the Ratitae.
Crime, with the many facilities offered for rapid locomotion to those who committed it, had ceased to be merely local, and the whole state rather than individual communities ought to be taxed; prison charges should be borne by the public exchequer and not by local rates.
Birds being of all animals most particularly adapted for extended and rapid locomotion, it became necessary for him to eliminate from his consideration those groups, be they small or large, which are of more or less universal occurrence, and to ground his results on what was at that time commonly known as the order Insessores or Passeres, comprehending the orders now differentiated as Passeriformes, Coraciiformes and Cuculiformes, in other words the mass of arboreal birds.
Electricity had even a greater effect on communication than steam oii locomotion; and electricity, as a practical invention, had its origin in the reign.
Its engine represented a third of a horse power, and the weight of the whole (engine, boiler, water, fuel, superimposed aeroplanes and ' " On Aerial Locomotion," Aeronautical Society's Report for 186.7.
Prior to the introduction of carriages horseback was the means of locomotion, and Queen Elizabeth rode in state to St Paul's on a pillion; but even after carriages were used, horseback was held to be more dignified, for James I.
Beginning with a chapter on the means of locomotion in the 10th century, it went on to discuss war, the conflict of languages, faith, morals, the elimination of the unfit, and other general topics, with remarkable acuteness and constructive ability.
and III., capable of either locomotion or fixation at will, were either differentiated into alternating generations of fixed sterile nutritive hydroids (scyphistomoids) and locomotor sexual medusoids, or abandoned the power of fixation in hypogenetic cases.
In natural flight the body of the flying creature falls slightly forward in a curve when the 1 On the Flight of Birds, of Bats and of Insects, in reference to the subject of Aerial Locomotion, by L.
Swimming is perhaps the commonest mode of locomotion, but numerous forms have taken to creeping or walking, and the robber-crab (Birgus latro) of the Indo-Pacific islands even climbs palm-trees.
The setae are organs of locomotion, though their large size and occasionally jagged edges in some of the Polychaeta suggest an aggressive function.
One of the most serious administrative problems met with in London is that of locomotion, especially as regards the regulation of traffic in the principal thoroughfares and at the busiest crossings.
Most remarkable is its resemblance to the adult form of the Wheel animalcules, or Rotifera, which retain the prae-oral ciliated band as their chief organ of locomotion and prehension throughout life.
Balfour put forward the view that the polyp was the more primitive type, and that the medusa is a special modification of the polyp for reproductive purposes, the result of division of labour in a polypcolony, whereby special reproductive persons become detached and acquire organs of locomotion for spreading the species.
- 1860), while with the improvement of the means of locomotion came the renewal of the old faith and the establishment of new methods in the use of mineral springs.
The mere control of existing traffic, local street improvements and provision of new means of communication between casual points, were felt to miss the root of the problem, and in 1903 a Royal Commission was appointed to consider the whole question of locomotion and transport in London, expert evidence being taken from engineers, representatives of the various railway and other companies, of the County Council, borough councils and police, and others.
In a few Ostracoda, by a rare exception, the masticatory process is reduced or suppressed, and the palp alone remains, forming a pediform appendage used in locomotion as well as in the prehension of food.
The instincts of nest-building, incubation and the rearing of young, though they occur later in life than those concerned in locomotion and the obtaining of food, are none the less founded on a hereditary basis, and in some respects are less rather than more liable to modification by the experience gained by the carrying out of hereditarily definite modes of procedure.
In common with all other Coelomata, the Mollusca are at one period of life possessed of a prostomium or region in front of the mouth, which is the essential portion of the " head," and is connected with the property of forward locomotion in a definite direction and the steady carriage of the body (as opposed to rotation of the body on its long axis).
The proboscis is not the only organ of locomotion, being assisted by the succeeding segment of the body, the buccal segment or collar.
The trochus forms the powerful currents for locomotion, and for the supply of food material, while the cingulum produces a local current round the upper rim of the corona to bring the food particles direct to the mouth, which is displaced through a postero-ventral gap in the trochus to lie behind the disk, just as occurs in the more specialized Ciliata.
Sharp; in the stag-beetle larva a series of short tubercles on the hind-leg is drawn across the serrate edge of a plate on the haunch of the intermediate legs, while in the Passalid grub the modified tip of the hind-leg acts as a scraper, being so shortened that it is useless for locomotion, but highly specialized for producing sound.
In this way the medusa sinks from an independent per sonality to an organ of the polyp-colony, becoming a so-called medusoid gonophore, or bearer of the reproductive organs, and losing gradually all organs necessary for an independent existence, namely those of sense, locomotion and nutrition.
Such an animal, if it ever existed, probably lived near the surface of the sea, and even here it may have changed its medusoid mode of locomotion for one in the direction of its mouth.
In the so-called Selenariidae, probably an unnatural association of genera which have assumed a free discoidal form of zoarium, they may reach a very high degree of development, but Busk's suggestion that in this group they "may be subservient to locomotion" needs verification.
They can adapt their motions to every variation of the ground over which they move, yet all varieties of snake locomotion are founded on the following simple process.
One end of the body, through contact, during locomotion, with fresh tracts of medium and other forms of stimuli, has become more specialized than the rest, and here the nervous system and sense-organs are more densely aggregated than elsewhere, forming a means of controlling locomotion and of correlating the activities of the inner organs with the varying stimuli that impinge upon the body.
The foot arises as a prominence on the ventral surface and grows forward, and at the end of five or six days the velum atrophies and the foot becomes the organ of locomotion; the animal then ceases to swim and sinks to the bottom.
It tended to make life easier and cheaper for large and numerous classes; it promised wholesale remissions of taxation; it lessened the charges on common processes of business, on locomotion, on postal communication, and on several articles of general consumption.
During this peculiar locomotion the numerous broad shields of the belly are of great advantage, as by means of their free edges the snake is enabled to catch and use as points of support the slightest projections of the ground.
The foot is usually the pnly organ of locomotion.
crown of cilia is used both for locomotion and to catch food.
Crawling is a more advanced locomotion than creeping.
- Echinoderma in which the theca, which may be but slightly or not at all calcified, is not attached by any portion of its surface, but is usually placed with the oral surface downwards or in the direction of forward locomotion.
ciliumbody is covered with small hair-like processes called cilia used for locomotion.
devised to assist new wheelchair users learn how best to cope with their new means of locomotion.
energetics of locomotion An ongoing interest in my lab is trying to understand the basis for the energy cost of locomotion.
flagellumot just protists that use flagella for locomotion.
The muscular sling that holds the forelimb onto the body serves as a shock absorber during locomotion.
Locomotion Capital leases locomotives in six European countries and is the continentÃ¢s largest and most diversified lessor of railroad locomotives.
A similar organization has been found in studying the neuronal networks controlling locomotion in locusts.
Monday's session focused on describing the roles of signaling molecules at the synapse in regulating worm locomotion.
The phrase " charging " is not used or defined in any of the texts exploring animal locomotion.
There will be opportunities for you to work with physiotherapists from the NHS Trust for practical sessions on gait and human locomotion.
She has enjoyed some success worldwide and is known for her pop cover of the song Locomotion in 1988.
One of the major tasks in gross motor development is locomotion, the ability to move from one place to another.
Creeping-A form of locomotion in infants, in which the baby pulls the body forward with the arms while the belly and legs drag behind.
It is based on his theory of the four pillars of human movement, which include locomotion, level changes, pushing and pulling as well as rotary movements.
For example, locomotion can be represented by balancing on a balance board while tossing a medicine ball.
locomotion in small mammals.
locomotion of eukaryotic cells.
Scolex with four outgrowths forming organs of adhesion and probably also of locomotion.
Horses do not live, and all wheeled traffic is done by manual labour - hammocks and sedan-chairs are the customary means of locomotion.
- Diagram of Conventional Idea of a Snake's Locomotion.
Along the dorsal side runs the characteristic fin-like expansion of the body, the undulating-membrane, which is the organella principally concerned in locomotion.
The foot is a muscular mass without cuticle or skeleton, excepting certain cuticular structures such as the byssus of Lamellibranchs and the operculum of Gastropods, which do not aid in locomotion.
As in the Rotifera, it serves the veliger larva as an organ of locomotion.
Enormous engineering difficulties had to be overcome, originating not so much from the nature of the ground as from intense public prejudice against the new mode of locomotion.
In many Entomostraca (Phyllopoda, Cladocera, Ostracoda, Copepoda) they are important, and sometimes the only, organs of locomotion.
This form is retained, with little alteration in some adult Copepoda, where the biramous " palp " still aids in locomotion.
How would you improve this experiment to include the properties of stereotyped locomotion that were not measured in this study?
Forgie, M.L. & Stewart, J. (1994) Effect of prepubertal ovariectomy on amphetamine-induced locomotion in adult female rats.
Vigilance as a benefit of intermittent locomotion in small mammals.
locomotion system and its neural control.
locomotion capital is part of the Angel Trains Group, which has invested Ã¢¬4 billion in new trains since 1998.
These images can then be analyzed to ascertain what normal elephant locomotion is like.
He was also a great enthusiast and expert on steam locomotion and the national railroad system.
The effects of hunger on spider locomotion Issue 17.
Summary: We can do better than just animating dinosaur locomotion using only artistic or scientific intuition.
Despite the identification of hundreds of genes involved in C. elegans locomotion, we do not yet have an understanding of its control.
locomotion in locusts.
The ultimate cause of evolving locomotion with a low transport costs is to evade pursuit - at which the red deer is extremely good.
stereotyped locomotion that were not measured in this study?
i) - The general characters of this organism are described above and in the articles Hydrozoa and Polyp. It is rarely free, but usually fixed and incapable of locomotion.
Agassiz, from Lankester's Treatise on for passive locomotion, Zoology.
Several decades ago all marine organisms became grouped together in three great categories: (1) the Benthos, or bottom-living, rooted or sedentary forms; (2) the Nekton, or actively swimming animals; and (3) the Plankton, or drifting (usually) microscopic organisms, which have little power of locomotion (see 21.720).
The function of alimentation is closely associated with that of locomotion, somewhat as in the burrowing earthworm; in the excavation of its burrows the sand is passed through the body, and any nutrient matter that may adhere to it is extracted during its passage through the intestine, the exhausted sand being finally ejected through the vent at the orifice of the burrow and appearing at low tide as a worm casting.
RIDING, the art or practice of locomotion on the back of an animal or in a vehicle (the verb to ride originally meant "to travel," or "go," as the derived noun road means "a way").
While infants are learning these temporary means of locomotion, they are gradually becoming able to support increasing amounts of weight while in a standing position.
Crawling is a slow creeping mode of locomotion, consisting of forward motion with weight supported by the infant's hands (or forearms) and knees.
Some babies opt for another method of locomotion around this time, like bottom shuffling (scooting around on their bottom, using a hand behind and a foot in front to propel them), slithering on their stomach, or rolling across the room.
Different children use different means of locomotion and may even skip a stage.
Use of hands and feet of three-toed sloths (Bradypus variegatus) during climbing and terrestrial locomotion.
The subject of cell locomotion has been a very long one.
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