Localities sentence example
Amethyst occurs at many localities in the United States, but rarely fine enough for use in jewellery.
Sugarmaking, the distillation of rice-spirit, silk-weaving, fishing and the preparation of a fish-sauce (nuoc-mam) made from decayed fish, and the manufacture of salt from sea-water and of lime are carried on in many localities.
Silver, gold, lead and copper ores occur in many localities.
The mountains both in Victoria and New South Wales were snow-capped, and glaciers flowed down their flanks and laid down Carboniferous glacial deposits, which are still preserved in basins that flank the mountain ranges, such as the famous conglomerates of Bacchus Marsh, Heathcote and the Loddon valley in Victoria, and cf Branxton and other localities in New South Wales.
Textile, building and mining industries show the highest percentage of strikes, since they give employment to large numbers of men concentrated in single localities.Advertisement
Carriage-roads have been greatly extended in modern times, although their ratio to area varies in different localities.
On the whole, it consists of local species of some widely distributed northern genera, such as Carex, Poa, Ranunculus, &c., with alpine types of strictly south temperate genera, characteristic of the separate localities.
Amethyst is a very widely distributed mineral, but fine clear specimens fit for cutting as ornamental stones are confined to comparatively few localities.
If this factor could be discovered it might be applied to the suppression of the disease in malarious localities.
They like the gossiping and bartering at the rural markets and in the larger fairs, which are sometimes held in strikingly picturesque localities.Advertisement
In these adjoining protectorates wild cottons occur, and suitable conditions exist in certain localities.
These nouns vary according to the different localities.
In the next place comes the evidence derived from the whole range of ancient literature and specially from descriptions of the city or its different localities.
In some localities, especially in the " Florida parishes," small quantities of rosin and turpentine are taken from the long-leaf pine, but this industry was unimportant in Louisiana before 1908.
Wagon roads are still of small extent and primitive character save in a very few localities.Advertisement
In most localities the prevailing winds are northwest in winter and southerly in summer, but at Duluth, on the shore of Lake Superior, they are south-west during November, December and January and north-east during all other months.
The quality of ore in the two ranges differs somewhat, that mined from the Vermilion Range being a hard specular or red haematite, while that taken from the Mesabi Range, largely red haematite, is much softer and in many localities quite finely comminuted.
From the earliest times attention has been drawn to the enormous abundance of species of the family in certain localities.
Further discoveries have resulted in the division of the Palaeolithic Age into various epochs or sequences according to the faunas associated with the implements or the localities where found.
In Europe the best-known localities for them are the Lipari Islands, Pantellaria, Iceland and Hungary.Advertisement
The chemical composition of typical obsidians is shown by the following analyses Obsidian, when broken, shows a conchoidal fracture, like that of glass, and yields sharp-edged fragments, which have been used in many localities as arrow-points, spear-heads, knives and razors.
It has been found that although the tree grows well in many different countries and different localities, it only furnishes a satisfactory yield of rubber in mountainous districts, such as those of Assam and certain parts of Ceylon and Java.
In East Siberia gold is obtained almost exclusively from gravel-washings, quartz mining being confined to three localities, one near Vladivostok and two in Transbaikalia.
The districts of Mariinsk and Achinsk are the most successful quartz-mining localities.
The climate of Siberia, however, cannot be called unhealthy, except in certain localities where goitre is common, as it is on the Lena, in several valleys of Nerchinsk and in the Altai Mountains.Advertisement
In another account (as T ptTo-y vECa) she is the daughter of the river Triton, to which various localities were assigned, and wherever there was a river (or lake) of that name, the inhabitants claimed that she was born there.
His travels had convinced him that a full and comprehensive knowledge of classical antiquity could only be acquired by a thorough acquaintance with Greek and Roman monuments and works of art, and a detailed examination of the topographical and climatic conditions of the chief localities of the ancient world.
C. Jerdon states that the Indian ratel is found throughout the whole of India, from the extreme south to the foot of the Himalaya, chiefly in hilly districts, where it has greater facilities for constructing the holes and dens in which it lives; but also in the north of India in alluvial plains, where the banks of large rivers afford equally suitable localities wherein to make its lair.
Fossils have been found in many localities.
There is less uniformity in temperature, and the elevated chapadas are generally hotter during the day and cooler at night than are localities of the same latitude on the coast.
The immediate result of European colonization was the enslavement and extermination of the Indians along the coast and in all those favoured inland localities where the whites came into contact with them.
The white potato, known as " batata inglez " (English potato), is grown in elevated localities, but it deteriorates so greatly after the first planting that fresh imported seed is necessary every second or third year.
Ant-eaters (Orycteropus capensis), porcupines, weasels, squirrels, rock rabbits, hares and cane rats are common in different localities.
This wattle thrives well in most localities, but especially in the highlands of central Natal.
The climate is tropical and generally unfavourable to white settlement, the exceptions being the elevated localities on the Amazon exposed to the strong winds blowing up that river.
Stock-raising was for a time the principal industry, but agriculture has been largely developed in several localities, among the chief products of which are cotton - Coahuila is the principal cotton-producing state in Mexico - Indian corn, wheat, beans, sugar and grapes.
Poor and squalid streets are found, in close proximity to the wealthiest localities, between Marylebone Road and St John's Wood Road, and about High Street in the south, the .site of the original village.
Grains of metallic tin occur intermingled with the gold ores of Siberia, Guiana and Bolivia, and in a few other localities.
The best known tobacco-producing localities are Capadare, Yaritagua, Merida, Cumanacoa, Guanape, Guaribe and Barinas.
These are peculiar bodies which are found in the prostate, in the central nervous system, in the lung, and in other localities, and which get their name from being very like starch-corpuscles, and from giving certain colour reactions closely resembling those of vegetable cellulose or even starch itself.
Wasteful competition ensued until in 1857 an agreement was made between the companies to restrict their services to separate localities, and the Gas Light & Coke Company, by amalgamating other companies, then gradually acquired all the gas-lighting north of the Thames, while a considerable area in the south was provided for by another great gas company, the South Metropolitan.
Certain industries (not confined to factories) have long been associated with particular localities.
To meet the needs of particular localities, commissioners or trustees having such powers had been from time to time created by local acts.
The puma has an exceedingly wide range of geographical distribution, extending over a hundred degrees of latitude, from Canada in the north to Patagonia in the south, and formerly was generally diffused in suitable localities from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean, but the advances of civilization have curtailed the extent of the districts which it inhabits.
In well-drained localities the border may be partially below the ground level, but in damp situations it should be made on the surface; in either case the firm solid bottom should slope outwards towards an efficient drain.
Noumea alone has (since 1879) a municipality, other localities being administered by commissions.
Greenhow in 1858 stated that diphtheria was especially prevalent on cold, wet soils, and Airy in 1881 described the localities affected as " for the most part cold, wet, clay lands."
Tobacco is cultivated in localities scattered over almost the whole world, ranging as far north as Quebec, Stockholm and the southern shores of Lake Baikal in one hemisphere, and as far south as Chile, the Cape of Good Hope and Victoria in the other.
Recently, shade-grown tobacco in some localities has suffered considerably from the attacks of small sucking insects known as thrips, which produce " white veins " in the leaf.
Wheat is largely produced, and there are vineyards in some localities.
Even within the Arctic Circle they are in many localities abundant and excessively bloodthirsty during the short summer.
The best bark comes from the Carabaya district in southeastern Peru, but it is found in many localities on the eastern slopes of the Andes.
Like the gods, the cult heroes were supposed to exercise an influence on human affairs, though not to the same extent, their sphere of action being confined to their own localities.
Cereals are grown in some localities, and there are large vineyards where irrigation is possible, from which excellent wine is made.
Tsetse-flies are restricted to Africa, where they occur in suitable localities throughout the greater portion of the tropical region, although not found either in the Sahara or in the veld country of the extreme south.
From this form the transition is simple to the rounded C, which is generally found in the same localities as the pointed form, but is more widely spread, occurring in Arcadia and on Chalcidian vases of the 6th century B.e., in Rhodes and Megara with their colonies in Sicily.
In certain localities the sugar-cane is grown.
The rich pastoral scenery of this part of Lincolnshire influenced the imagination of the boy, and is plainly reflected in all his early poetry, although it has now been stated with authority that the localities of his subject-poems, which had been ingeniously identified with real brooks and granges, were wholly imaginary.
Roads connecting noted localities with the chief town of such neighborhoods, or leading to seaports convenient of access.
Roads passing through several localities in succession, or merely leading from one locality to another.
Bloodstone is not very widely distributed, but is found in the basaltic rocks of the Isle of Rum in the west of Scotland, and in a few other localities.
Some are more or less aquatic, others are absolutely arboreal, others again prefer dry, sandy or rocky localities according to their food.
Its occurrence at widely distant and isolated localities was formerly supposed to be due to its introduction by the Romans.
The moccasin-snake ranges fromMassachusetts and Kansas to Florida and Texas and into Mexico, preferring swampy localities or meadows with high grass, where it hunts for small mammals and birds.
Enormous numbers of animals are caught, chiefly in traps, to supply the demand of the fur trade, Siberia and North America being the principal localities from which they are obtained.
These are confined to a few localities, the oldest and best known being those of Nagyag and Offenbanya in Transylvania; they have also been found at Red Cloud, Colorado, in Calaveras county, California, and at Perth and Boulder, West Australia.
At Schemnitz, Kerpenyes, Kreuzberg and other localities in Hungary, quartz vein stuff containing a little gold, partly free and partly associated with pyrites and galena, is, after stamping in mills, similar to those described above, but without rotating stamps, passed through the so-called " Hungarian gold mill " or " quick-mill."
On the whole, the smooth varieties are more numerous in southern than in northern localities.
At suitable localities of the coast which are sheltered from the waves and overgrown with seaweed, especially in rock-pools, one or two males establish themselves with their harems, and may be observed without difficulty, being quite as fearless as their freshwater cousins.
In Scotland and Ireland its remains are less abundant, and in Scandinavia and Finland they appear to be unknown; but they have been found in vast numbers at various localities throughout the greater part of central Europe (as far south as Santander and Rome), northern Asia, and the northern part of the American continent.
Well-known localities are Schneeberg in Saxony and Joachimsthal in Bohemia; at the former it has been found as arborescent groups penetrating brown jasper, which material has occasionally been cut and polished for small ornaments.
The former is found, generally mixed with iron, copper and arsenic oxides, in Bohemia, Siberia, Cornwall, France (Meymac) and other localities; it also occurs admixed with bismuth carbonate and hydrate.
In those localities, however, it is not the same water which varies in temperature with the season, but the water of different warm and cold currents which periodically occupy the same locality as they advance and retreat.
Except in the Sologne, the soil is generally fertile, but varies considerably in different localities.
It appears to be less numerous on the western side of the Alleghanies, though found in suitable localities across the continent to the Pacific coast, but seldom farther north than Virginia and southern Illinois, and it is said to be common in Kansas.
The direct result of this investigation is not known, but it is impossible to disconnect from it the promulgation by Pope Alexander V., on the 20th of December 1409, of a bull which ordered the abjuration of all Wycliffite heresies and the surrender of all his books, while at the same time - a measure specially levelled at the pulpit of Bethlehem chapel - all preaching was prohibited except in localities which had been by long usage set apart for that use.
The gustatores cervisiae - called in different localities by the different names "ale-tasters," "ale-founders," and "aleconners" - were sworn to examine beer and ale, to take care that they were good and wholesome and were sold at proper prices.
Of game birds the most characteristic is the partridge (ruffed grouse), exclusively a woodland bird; the Wilson's snipe and the woodcock are not uncommon in favourable localities, and several species of ducks are found especially in the bays and marshes near the coast during the seasons of migration.
The dam differs in shape according to the nature of particular localities.
Those localities where chipping was done reveal hundreds of tons of splinters and failures, and these are often counted as ruder implements of an earlier time.
In some of the states the licensing of preachers, which was formerly left to the voluntary associations of ministers in the different localities, has been made a function of the state conferences.
In New York the direct property tax is levied by and for the benefit of localities.
Fortunately mosquitoes are not a serious plague outside a few marshy localities.
European fruit trees and vines flourish in certain localities, while in the drier regions the Australian wattle, gum trees and pepper trees have been introduced with success.
The size which they finally attain and their general condition depend chiefly on the abundance of food (which consists of crustaceans and other small marine animals), on the temperature of the water, on the season at which they have been hatched, &c. Their usual size is about 12 in., but in some particularly suitable localities they grow to a length of 15 in., and instances of specimens measuring 17 in.
Also the so-called "white-bait" is not a distinct species, but consists chiefly of the fry or the young of herrings and sprats, and is obtained "in perfection" at localities where these small fishes find an abundance of food, as in the estuary of the Thames.
Plaice, like other flat-fishes, prefer a sandy flat bottom to a rocky ground, and occur in suitable localities in great abundance; they spawn early in spring, and are in finest condition in the month of May.
His benefactions in the shape of buildings and endowments for education and research are too numerous for detailed enumeration, and are noted in this work under the headings of the various localities.
Salamanders, far from being able to withstand the action of fire, as was believed by the ancients, are only found in damp places, and emerge in misty weather only or after thunderstorms, when they may appear in enormous numbers in localities where at other times their presence would not be suspected.
Localities at such altitudes not being, as a rule, suitable for larval life in the water, the young are retained in the uterus, until the completion of the metamorphosis.
There can be no doubt that the Indian conquests of Alexander were the means of making the parrot better known in Europe, and it is in reference to this fact that another Eastern species of Palaeornis now bears the name of P. alexandri, though from the localities it inhabits it could hardly have had anything to do with the Macedonian hero.
In the majority of cases the conditions of success are that the wild creatures should be obtained as young as possible, kept in their native localities until they have become accustomed to man and to such food as they can be given at their ultimate destinations.
Hydrated sulphates occur at several localities in the province of Madrid and in other provinces of Spain, and at Miihlingen in Aargau, and copious deposits of glauberite, the double sulphate of sodium and calcium, are met with in the salt-mines of Villarrubia in Spain, at Stassfurt, and in the province of Tarapaca, Chile, &c. A native nitrate of soda is obtained in great abundance in the district of Atacama and the province of Tarapaca, and is imported into Europe in enormous quantities as cubic nitre for the preparation of saltpetre.
Other localities which have yielded the mineral in large amount are the Alibert mine in Irkutsk, Siberia and the Borrowdale mine in Cumberland.
Logging is the principal industry of several localities, especially in the east, and the lumber product of the state increased in value from $1,502,434 in 1850 to $4,064,361 in 1880, and to $13,774,911 in 1900.
They are well concealed by the colour of their upper parts, which in most cases agrees with the prevailing tone of their surroundings, mostly arid, stony or sandy localities; the large spikes FIG.
These pink, worm-like creatures live in sandy, moist localities, burrowing little tunnels and never appearing on the surface.
Much scarcer is the second species, the sand-lizard (Lacerta agilis), which is confined to some localities in the south of England, the New Forest and its vicinity; it does not appear to attain on English soil the same size as on the continent of Europe where it abounds, growing sometimes to a length of 9 in.
Singularly, a snake (Coronella laevis), also common on the continent, and feeding principally on this lizard, has followed it across the British Channel, apparently existing in those localities only in which the sand-lizard has settled.
Silurian and Devonian fossils have been reported at one or two localities, but for the present the observations are open to doubt.
Explorations by botanists of the United States Department of Agriculture have been made in many localities, in Jalisco, Zacatecas, Michoacan and Tamaulipas, but many years must elapse before the whole ground can be covered.
In some localities the characteristic types of the two climatic extremes, the palm and the pine, are to be found growing side by side.
They are commonly of the Spanish merino breed, and suffer in many localities on account of insufficient pasturage.
Mention may also be made here of clausthalite (lead selenide, PbSe) and altaite (lead telluride, PbTe), which, with their lead-grey colour and perfect cubic cleavage, closely resemble galena in appearance; these species are named after the localities at which they were originally found, namely, Klausthal in the Harz and the Altai mountains in Asiatic Russia.
But neither the severe climate nor the neighbourhood of wild and warlike hillmen shook their faith, and in the course of half a century, in one of the most unhealthy and unfertile localities in the Caucasus, they transformed this wilderness into flourishing colonies, and continued to live a Christian and laborious life, making friends with, instead of fighting, the hillmen.
It flourishes best in small tanks and ponds, in which the water is constantly changing and does not freeze; in such localities, and with a full supply of food, which consists of weeds, crumbs of bread, bran, worms, small crustaceans and insects, it attains to a length of from 6 to 12 in., breeding readily, sometimes at different times of the same year.
In many localities the two groups have not been separated.
The Proterozoic formations have yielded a few fossils in several places, especially Montana and northern Arizona; but they are so imperfect, their numbers, whether of individuals or of species, are so small, and the localities where they occur so few, that they are of little service in correlation throughout the United States.
If maximum thicknesses of its several parts in different localities, as usually measured, are added together, the total would approach or reach 25,000 ft.; but the strata of any one region have scarcely more than half this thickness, and the average is much less.
Fresh items of appropriations are often added, and changes are made in revenue bills in the interest of particular purposes or localities.
There are other special customs recognized in various localities, e.g.
In the ravines the eastern flora continues for some distance, and then disappearing gives place to that of the prairie, which is found everywhere between the Red river and the Rocky Mountains except in wooded and damp localities.
Mountain and plain and Arctic hares and rabbits are plentiful or scarce in localities, according to seasons or other circumstances.
Occasionally in certain localities in the north-west the grain is liable to injury from frost in late summer; but as the proportion of land under cultivation increases the climate becomes modified and the danger from frost is appreciably less.
Useful carriage horses and saddle horses are bred in many localities.
The climate is favourable to the growth of plums, cherries, strawberries, raspberries, currants, gooseberries, etc. There are many localities in which cranberries are successfully grown, and in which blueberries also grow wild in great profusion.
Wine is made in considerable quantities in the principal vine-growing districts, and in several localities large vineyards have been planted for this purpose.
Honey is one of the minor food-products of Canada, and in many localities bees have abundance of pasturage.
The principal localities are Ratnapura, Rakwana in the province of Sabara-Gamawa and Matara.
The principal localities are at Missouri Bar, Ruby Bar and other places near Helena, where they were first worked, and also at Yogo Gulch, near Utica.
There are many more localities with this name (Turkish, meaning "cold stream," or "cold spring") in Persia, the most notable, after the above-mentioned Kurdish city, being a district of the province of Teheran, with many villages.
In very dry and bleak localities, the Scotch fir will probably be more successful up to 900 ft.
The European larch has long been introduced into the United States, where, in suitable localities, it flourishes as luxuriantly as in Britain.
Pasteur brought out the fact that the malady had existed from remote periods and in many unsuspected localities.
The apparatus used for these purposes in some localities is of a very primitive kind, and the reeling being uneven and lumpy the silk is of inferior quality and low value.
The island is incidentally described with no small variety of detail, picturesque and topographical; the Homeric localities for which counterparts have been sought are Mount Neritos, Mount Neion, the harbour of Phorcys, the town and palace of Odysseus, the fountain of Arethusa, the cave of the Naiads, the stalls of the swineherd Eumaeus, the orchard of Laertes, the Korax or Raven Cliff and the island Asteris, where the suitors lay in ambush for Telemachus.
The greater part of the coast is surrounded by a coral reef, often half a mile wide; in several localities an old reef upheaved, sometimes 100 ft.
South of the Arctic circle they are, under ordinary circumstances, confined to the plateaus covered with dwarf birch and juniper above the conifer-region, though in Tromso amt and in Finmarken they occur in all suitable localities down to the level of the sea.
In this condition they are thought to be good eating, and enormous numbers are caught for this purpose in some localities, especially of a species, the P. brevicaudus of Gould, which frequents the islands off the coast of Australia, where it is commonly known as the "Mutton-bird."
A few localities in the extreme southern portions of the country, and around Lhasa possibly, are said to produce a non-glutinous variety of rice.
The weights and measures in use are practically those of China; the dry measures, the most commonly employed, are the bre or bo of about four pints and the bchal of twenty bo; the capacity of the bo varies according to localities.
It is certain, however, that in some localities the sexes live apart during the winter.
More drastic were other modifications which it underwent in course of time in several localities, which led to the appearance of various subsidiary forms alongside of the original type.
Moreover, it must be remembered that the conditions most favourable to plants are not always those to which they are subjected in nature, for, owing to the competition of other forms in the struggle for existence, liability to injury from insects, and other adverse circumstances, plants may actually be excluded from the localities best suited for their development.
For its successful prosecution prolonged experiments in different localities and in gardens devoted to the purpose are requisite.
In the warmer parts of the country the wall on the north side of the garden should be so placed as to face the sun at about an hour before noon, or a little to the east of south; in less favoured localities it should be made to face direct south, and in still more unfavourable districts it should face the sun an hour after noon, or a little west of south.
The east and west walls should run parallel to each other, and at right angles to that on the north side, in all the most favoured localities; but in colder or later ones, though parallel, they should be so far removed from a right angle as to get the sun by eleven o'clock.
P. capensis from South Africa is hardy south of the Thames and in favoured localities.
In localities where the frost is out of the ground, if it is not wet, seeds of the hardier vegetables can be sown.
Finely crystallized specimens of pyrite are obtained from many other localities, especially from Cornwall, Elba and Traversella, near Ivrea, in Piedmont.
Within the Carboniferous rocks, but due to the action of various agencies long after their deposition, are important ore formations; such are the Rio Tinto ores of Spain, the lead and zinc ores and some haematite of the Pennine and Mendip hills and other British localities, and many ore regions in the United States.
Lignite of good quality is found in several localities.
There are ruins of Hindu temples at Butar in Deli, near Pertibi, on the Panbi river at Jambi, in the interior of Palembang above Lahat, and in numerous other localities.
The heavy atmosphere likewise, and the necessity of living within doors or in confined localities, cannot but exercise an influence on the character and temperament of the inhabitants.
According to the localities which they inhabit, the Poles take different names.
Very few of the localities connected with the story of these princes have been identified with certainty, but such identifications as there are point to the southern part of Hampshire.
In a few localities the surface depressions hold water for the greater part of the year but there is only one permanent lakeKeilat, which is some four miles by two.
At some of the Indian localities spasmodic mining has been carried on at different periods for centuries, at some the work which had been long abandoned was revived in recent times, at others it has long been abandoned altogether.
Other Indian localities besides those mentioned above are Simla, in the N.W.
In addition to the South American localities mentioned above, small diamonds have also been mined since their discovery in 1890 on the river Mazaruni in British Guiana, and finds have been reported in the gold washings of Dutch Guiana.
Other Australian localities are Echunga in South Australia; Beechworth, Arena and Melbourne in Victoria; Freemantle and Nullagine in Western Australia; the Palmer and Gilbert rivers in Queensland.
It appears from the foregoing account that at most localities the diamond is found in alluvial deposits probably far from the place where it originated.
Nearly one hundred and fifty years ago Pallas had his attention arrested by the existence of the salt lakes and dry saline deposits on the steppes to the east of the Caspian, and at great distances from its shores, and by the presence in the same localities of shells of the same marine fauna as that which now inhabits that sea, and he suggested the obvious explanation that those regions must formerly have been covered by the waters of the sea.
Localities for fine crystallized specimens are numerous.
This is only obtainable in warm and moist localities where rains are frequent and copious.
It may be said that, up to the year 1900, irrigation progressed to such an extent that there remained few ordinary localities where water could not be easily or cheaply diverted from creeks and rivers for the cultivation of farms. The claims for the available supply from small streams, however, exceeded the water to be had in the latter part of the irrigating season..
In a few localities, notably in South Dakota, the Yakima valley of Washington, San Joaquin, and San Bernardino valleys of California, San Luis valley of Colorado, and Utah valley of Utah, water from artesian wells was also used for the irrigation of from 1 to 160 acres.
The Cambrian, for example, is exposed at Leimitz near Hof in the Frankenwald, and the important coal-field of the Saar lies on the southern side of the Hunsruck, while Ordovician and Silurian beds have been found in several localities.
The number of localities where the two confessions exist side by side is small.
With the nickel copper is always found, and copper ores are worked on their own account in a few localities, such as Bruce mines.
Of palaeolithic man hardly any traces are to be found; but, though western Sicily has been comparatively little explored, and the results hardly published at all, in several localities neolithic remains, attributable to the Sicani, have been discovered.
Coal, iron and gold are also found in considerable quantities in various localities.
Without being very plentiful anywhere, it is generally distributed in suitable localities throughout its range - those localities being such as afford it a sufficient supply of food, consisting during the greater part of the year of insects, which it diligently seeks on the boles and larger limbs of old trees; but in autumn and winter it feeds on nuts, beech-mast, the stones of yew-berries and hard seeds.
It was inevitable, however, that discrepancies should emerge between the texts of professed scholars, and as these men in their several localities were authorities on the reading of the Koran, quarrels began to break out between the levies from different districts about the true form that these initials did not belong to Mahomet's text, but might be the monograms of possessors of codices, which, through negligence on the part of the editors, were incorporated in the final form of the Koran; he now deems it more probable that they are to be traced to the Prophet himself, as Sprenger, Loth and others suppose.
The population, estimated at 323,097 in 1899, is composed largely of mixed races; in some localities the inhabitants of mixed race are estimated to constitute four-fifths of the population.
Unlike most cosmic deities, she was worshipped in many localities, chief among which was Dendera, where her magnificent temple, of Ptolemaic date, still stands.
Oysters are found in some places, but have disappeared from many localities, where their abundance in ancient times is proved by their shell moulds on the coast.
The Irish barrows occur in groups in certain localities, some of which seem to have been the royal cemeteries of the tribal confederacies, whereof eight are enumerated in an ancient Irish manuscript, the Leabhar na h-UidhPi, compiled c. A.D.
Salt occurs in the Muschelkalk at Friedrichshall and some other localities in Wurttemberg and Thuringia; and in the Bunter at Schoningen near Brunswick.
The earliest Cretan settlements in Greece belong to the end of the third Middle Minoan period, about 1800 s.c. Pre-Mycenaean civilization in Greece varied in different localities.
It is in such localities that we can best observe the last relics of the glaciers that once overspread the country.
Among the best localities for fossils are Moffat Water, in Dumfriesshire, for graptolites, and the Pentlands, in Midlothian.
Segregated inheritance may have produced the appropriate combinations which were latent in the capacities of the race, and the exigencies of the environment protected them in the suitable localities.
On the other hand, the work of modern systematists shows an extraordinarily exact relation between their species and geographical locality, and the fact of divergent evolution can be almost demonstrated in museum collections when localities have been recorded exactly.
The decision as to whether it is the course of variation or the course of selection that has been different in different localities can be made only by the field naturalist and the experimental breeder.
They are also characterized by the increasing aridity of the plateau from north to south, the Quito plain being fertile and well covered with vegetation, and the Ambato and Cuenca plains being barren and desolate except in some favoured localities.
Coal of good quality has been found in Azuay and at other points, and petroleum is known to exist in several localities.
Hand-made laces of admirable workmanship are made in some localities, especially on the plateau about Quito.
In many localities, especially in Imbabura, pottery and various objects are found belonging to the pre-Colombian period, among which five and six rayed stars (casse-tetes) are very numerous.
In the Resurrection scenes he also gives incidents in which he has, played a part; and the appearances of the risen Lord are not confined either to Jerusalem or to Galilee, but occur in both localities.
Bearing in mind the details already given as to the dates of Fra Giovanni's sojournings in various localities, the reader will be able to trace approximately the sequence of the works which we now proceed to name as among his most important productions.
It stands to reason that the electrolytic processes have been principally developed in localities where the electric current can be produced in the cheapest possible manner by means of water power, but this is not the only condition to be considered, as the question of freight to a centre of consumption and other circumstances may also play an important part.
It is cultivated only to a limited extent in the United States, but seems to have been commonly grown by the Indians in many localities in North and South America.
Frisian and Saxon merchants from Soest, Bardowiek and other localities in Lower Germany, who already navigated the Baltic and had their factory in Gotland, settled in the new town, where Wendish speech and customs never entered.
The betel-nut or areca palm is chiefly grown in certain favoured localities, such as the deltaic districts of Bengal and the highlands of southern India.
In many localities the braziers have a special repute either for a peculiar alloy or for a particular process of ornamentation.
Several salt and hot springs occur in many localities; petroleum is also found, and extensive lime quarries exist a few miles south of Thayetmyo.
The regional commissioners and the political residents act either by means of the village headmen (Shum or Chicca), by the chiefs of districts in the few localities where villages are still organized in districts, or by the headmen of tribes, and by the councils of the elders wherever these remain.
The processes and treatment varied with the localities.
The rains come in July and August on the west and north-east coasts, and from April to July on the south coast, the approximate mean annual rainfall of these localities being 30, 35 and 42 in.
Of the current expenses of the common schools about three-fourths is borne by the localities; the state distributes its contribution annually among the counties.
The north-west counties are extremely wet; many localities here have normal rainfalls of 60-70 in.
At Ogilby, Volcano, Indio and other stations on the Southern Pacific line the normal annual precipitation is from 1.5 to 2.5 in.; and there are localities near Owen's lake, even on its very edge, that are almost dry.
Associated with franklinite at Franklin Furnace, and found also at some other localities, is another member of the spinel group, namely, gahnite or zinc-spinel, which is a zinc aluminate, ZnAl 2 O 4, with a little of the zinc replaced by iron and manganese.
Well-crystallized specimens are met with at many localities; for example, formerly at Wheal Towan (hence the name towanite, which has been applied to the species) in the St Agnes district of Cornwall, at Freiberg in Saxony, and Joplin, Missouri.
Notice of a like visitation in 1593 is recorded, but of late it has become evident that not a year passes without crossbills being observed in some part or other of England, while in certain localities in Scotland they seem to breed annually.
More than half-a-dozen separate races of orangutan are recognized in Borneo, where, however, they do not appear to be restricted to separate localities.
Among the Arunta of Central Australia, the ghosts of the dead haunt certain localities, and, entering the bodies of passing women, are constantly reincarnated; the Black-snake clan of the Warramunga tribe embodies the spirits which the original ancestor had deposited by a certain creek.'
At Bellingham it receives the Rede, whose wild valley, Redesdale, was one of the chief localities of border warfare, and contains the site of the battle of Otterburn (1388).
The low-lying country between the mountain ranges is covered for the most part by Tertiary and Quaternary deposits, but Cretaceous beds occur at several localities.
To this day, among the natives of the Malayan Archipelago, men speak of going to Pontianak, to Sambas or to Brunei, as the case may be, but make use of no term which recognizes that these localities are part of a single whole.
These localities are interesting, as being near those where plague appeared in 1877-1878.
In applying the term " endemic centres " to these localities, no very precise meaning can be attached to the word.
More recently several localities in Mongolia and Manchuria have been affected.
Now the poison is contained, as we have already seen, in the discharges from patients, and in such infected localities the standing conditions and the habits of the people combine to retain the discharges on the premises.
It may be concluded, with some confidence, from experience and theory alike, that localities where they do not prevail may fail to keep plague out, but have very little to fear from it, except the disturbance of trade caused by the traditional terrors that still cling to the name.
Yet there are localities where, as on the Fame Islands, both meet and breed, without occupying stations apart.
In such localities many thousands of individuals may sometimes be found associated together.
This is a species of comparatively limited range, breeding only in some two or three localities in the Shetlands, about half a dozen in the Faeroes, 3 and hardly more in Iceland.
There is no official classification of the Burgundy wines, but the following is a list comprising some of the finest growths in geographical order, from north to south, together with the localities in or near which they are situated.
It is in this condition of subordination that the finance of localities has been framed and effectively organized.
Unlike the state in this, localities are limited in respect to the amount and form of their taxation.
As cotton came to the front, just at the time when machine-spinning and power-loom weaving were being introduced, the result was that in many localities where flax crops had been grown for ages, the culture gradually drooped and ultimately ceased.
The linen manufacture by degrees ceased to be a domestic industry, and began to centre in and become the characteristic factory employment of special localities, which depended, however, for their supply of raw material primarily on the operations of small growers, working, for the most part, on the poorer districts of remote thinly populated countries.
The cultivation of the plant and the preparation of the fibre have therefore, even at the present day, not come under the influence (except in certain favoured localities) of scientific knowledge and experience.
In the marshy localities malarial fever occurs but is rarely (in modern times) of a severe type.
Malachite is a valuable ore containing about 56% of the metal; it is obtained in very large quantities from South Australia, Siberia and other localities.
According to Herbert Lang, its most prominent chance of success is in localities where fuel is dear, and the ores contain precious metals and sufficient sulphides and arsenides to render profitable dressing unnecessary.
There is a thin close-woven cloth made and used as garments among the females of the aboriginal tribes near the foot of the Himalayas, and in various localities a cloth of pure jute or of jute mixed with cotton is used as a sheet to sleep on, as well as for wearing purposes.
The tiger is exclusively Asiatic, but has a very wide range in that continent, having been found in almost all suitable localities south of a line drawn from the river Euphrates, passing along the southern shores of the Caspian and Sea of Aral by Lake Baikal to the Sea of Okhotsk.
Here, however, there are localities where settlements could be maintained by ordinary means and the population could be greatly increased.
In favourable localities and with judicious management these establishments yield very considerable profit (see Feather).
The oyster fishery is everywhere, except in localities where the natural beds are nearly exhausted, carried on in the most reckless manner, and in all directions oyster grounds are becoming deteriorated, and in some cases have been entirely destroyed.
In 1851 Lord Palmerstor proposed that the general line of frontier should be traced by thf agents of Turkey and Persia at Constantinople, assisted by th commissioners, in conformity with the treaty of Erzerum, leaving doubtful localities to be settled in future.
In the autumn of 1907 Turkish troops occupied not only doubtful localities but also adjoining lands which were indisputably Persian territory.
From the two first-mentioned localities, where a British firm has been established for many years, great quantities, valued in some years at 100,000, find their way to European and American markets, while rugs to the value of 30,000 per annum are exported from the Persian Gulf ports.
The richest deposits of nickel, cobalt and antimony ores are also situated in localities where there is little water and the nearest useful fuel some hundred miles away.
Auriferous alluvial strata have been discovered in various localities, but everywhere the scarcity of water has been a bar to their being exploited with profit.
There is also a kind of irregular revenue derived from public requisitions presents, fines, confiscations, &c., nowadays not producing much, The land tax, which varies according to localities, is paid in money and kind, and should amount on an average to about 25% of the yield of the soil.
The revenue from Crown lands consists of a certain proportion of the produce, and also varies much according to localities.
This made Abbas Mirza at once seize upon the fortified places of Toprak Kalah and Ak Sarai within the limits of the Ottoman Empire, and, overcoming the insufficient force sent against him, he was further enabled to extend his inroads to Mush, Bitlis, and other known localities.
In this, as in all forms of neuralgia, there are certain localities where the pain is more intense, these "painful points," as they are called, being for the most part in those places where the branches of the nerves emerge from bony canals or pierce the fascia to ramify in the skin.
Seats were to be allotted on a voters' (not population) basis, and there was to be an automatic redistribution of seats as voters increased or decreased " in given localities.
It withstands the sea and mountain breezes better than most other timber trees, and is often planted near farm-houses and cottages in exposed localities for the sake of its dense foliage.
They do not appear, however, to maintain the same degree of immunity over a long period of years, but to become more and more open to the attack as the variety becomes older; nor do they always exhibit the same degree of immunity in different localities.
Sala in Sweden, Allemont in Dauphine, and Sarawak in Borneo may be mentioned as some of the localities for this mineral.
Tusks are found along the whole shore-line between the mouth of the Obi and Bering Strait, and the farther north the more numerous they become, the islands of New Siberia -being one of the favourite collecting localities.
The remains are found not only round the mouths of the great rivers, but embedded in the frozen soil in such circumstances as to indicate that the animals lived not far from the localities in which they are found; and they are exposed either by the melting of the ice in warm summers or the washing away of the sea-cliffs or river-banks.
In the less exposed localities, on northern slopes and sheltered valleys, the European forms become more numerous, and we find species of alder, birch, ash, elm, maple, holly, hornbeam, Pyrus, &c. At greater elevations in the interior, besides the above are met Corylus, the common walnut, found wild throughout the range, horse chestnut, yew, also Picea Webbiana, Pinus, excelsa, Abies Smithiana, Cedrus Deodara (which tree does not grow spontaneously east of Kumaon), and several junipers.
There are large and gorgeous species of Papilio, Nymphalidae, Morphidae and Danaidae, and the more favoured localities are described as being only second to South America in the display of this form of beauty and variety in insect life.
The Ordovician beds have yielded fossils in several places, Vallongo and Bussaco being amongst the best-known localities.
Eruptive masses of various age are found in many localities.
Under these circumstances the probable utility of the operations could be admitted only if the fry were sedentary and could be planted in suitable localities where young fish were naturally scarce.
When that has been done (it has been achieved by the present writer in the case of the sea fish Cottus with demersal eggs,) it would be possible to deposit the young fish in suitable localities on a large scale, with a reasonable prospect of influencing the local abundance of the s p ecies of fish in question.
Many buildings or localities, not in themselves remarkable, have interesting associations with the history and life of the city.
There are localities in the open country and on exposed elevations where healthy conditions prevail, but the greater part of this region is considered unhealthy.
In localities the slope is a true escarpment falling 150 and even 250 ft.
The Gila-monster, tarantula, the scorpion and thelyphonus, scolopender and julus occur in some localities in the rainy season.
Enduring hardily great extremes of heat and moisture, it is throughout the arid South-west the most important, and in many localities the only important, native tree.
Many localities in the United States yield fluor-spar, and it is worked commercially in a few places, notably at Rosiclare in southern Illinois.
There was doubtless a good deal of variety at different times and in different localities.
The development of mining and other industries since that time, together with vigorous efforts to found colonies in the more favoured localities, have greatly improved the situation in the territory.
In localities where there is hoar frost in autumn and spring the seed is sown in September or at latest in the beginning of October, and the yield of opium and seed is then greater than if sown later.
Milling is practised mainly in isolated localities near the mine producing the ore.
The chief localities of natural scalps on the British coast are Morecambe Bay in Lancashire and the flat eastern shores, especially that of the Wash of Lincoln, and similar shallow bays.
The red, or Virginia, deer and the grey fox are still found in circumscribed localities; and of the smaller mammals, the squirrel, chipmunk, rabbit, raccoon and opossum are still numerous.
Their boundaries are not as a rule determined by the physical features of the land; but localities are habitually defined by the use of their names.
The localities of the more extensive lowlands of England may now be indicated in their relation to the principal hill-systems, and in this connexion the names of some of the more important rivers will occur.
The formation of the coast varies from low, shifting banks of shingle or sand to majestic cliffs, and its character in different localities has been foreshadowed in the previous consideration of the hill-systems and lowlands.
There is also plenty of hillpasture in the south-western counties (from Hampshire and Berkshire westward), especially in Devonshire, Cornwall and Somersetshire, and also in Monmouthshire and along the Welsh marches, on the Cotteswold Hills, &c. In all these localities sheep are extensively reared, especially in Northumberland, but on the other hand in Lincolnshire the numbers of sheep are roughly equal to those in the northern county.
For limestone the principal localities are in Durham, Derbyshire and Yorkshire, while for chalk-quarrying Kent is pre-eminent among a group of southeastern counties, including Hampshire, Sussex and Surrey, with Essex.
Among other textile industries attaching to definite localities may be mentioned the silk manufacture of eastern Staffordshire and Cheshire, as at Congleton and Macclesfield; and the hosiery and lace manufactures of Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire and Leicestershire.
There is, further, a large engineering industry in the London district; and important manufactures of agricultural implements are found at many towns of East Anglia and in other agricultural localities.
Mineral water occurs in many localities, particularly in Androscoggin, York, Cumberland and Oxford counties; the most famous springs are the Poland Springs in Androscoggin county.
Human bones and objects of human manufacture have been found in such geological relation to the remains of fossil species of elephant, rhinoceros, hyena, bear, &c., as to lead to the distinct inference that man already existed at a remote period in localities where these mammalia are now and have long been extinct.
The existence of man in remote geological time cannot now be questioned, but, despite much effort made in likely localities, no bones, with the exception of those of the much-discussed Pithecanthropus, have been found which can be regarded as definitely bridging the gulf between man and the lower creation.
Of more recent date (probably Tertiary) are some igneous rocks, rich in alkalis, occurring in certain localities in southern Abyssinia.
It must not only be strong enough to sustain all possible vertical loads, but it must be sufficiently rigid to resist without deformation or weakening all lateral disturbing forces, the principal of which are the pressure of wind, the possible sway of moving crowds or moving machinery, and the vibration of the earth from the passage of loaded vans and trolleys, and slight earthquakes which at times visit almost all localities.
Among Palaeozoic genera there are some which bear a close resemblance to the recent type in Geological the form of the leaves; and petrified Palaeozoic seeds, almost identical with those of the maidenhair tree, have been described from French and English localities.
The genus is confined to certain localities in Damaraland and adjoining territory on the west coast of tropical South Africa.
Thus Drosophyllum occurs only in Portugal and Morocco, Byblis in tropical Australia, and, although Aldrovanda is found in Queensland, in Bengal and in Europe, a wide distribution explained by its aquatic habit, Dionaea is restricted to a few localities in North and South Carolina.
So, when the friars came and established themselves in the poorest localities of the towns, and brought religion to the destitute and the outcasts of society, assimilating themselves to the conditions of life of those among whom they worked, they supplied a need with which the parochial clergy were unable to cope.
Few localities have an elevation exceeding 1400 ft.
Copper occurs in various localities, but is of economic importance only in the Ozark uplift; it was first mined in small quantities in 1837.
Another widely distributed species in central Colombia is known as the "palmita del Azufral" in some localities, and as the "palma real" and "palma dolce" in others.
Tobacco was cultivated in New Granada and Venezuela in colonial times, when its sale was a royal monopoly and its cultivation was restricted to specified localities.
Goats are largely produced for their skins, and in some localities, as in Cauca, sheep are raised for their wool.
Hat-making from the "jipijapa" fibre taken from the Carludovica palm is a domestic industry in many localities, and furnishes an article of export.
It is not found in nature in the free state to any extent, and although enormous quantities of its salts, especially calcium and barium sulphate, are found in many localities, the free acid is never prepared from these salts, as it is more easily obtainable in another way, viz.
As regards terrestrial mammals (with which alone we are at present concerned), one of the most striking features in their distribution is their practical absence from oceanic islands; the only species found in such localities being either small forms which might have been carried on floating timber, or such as have been introduced by human agency.
Guanaco also have favourite localities in which to die, as appears from the great heaps of their bones found in particular spots.
Silver, lead and iron ores occur in several localities; but the want of fuel is an obstacle to their exploitation.
Aurel Stein in the same part of East Turkestan, though at other localities, namely, at Yotkan, the ancient capital of the kingdom of Khotan, and at Dandan-uiliq, Endere, Karadong, Rawak and other places, all lying east and north-east of the town of Khotan.
These widely separated localities show the great area over which the culture is possible, and illustrate the powers of adaptation of the plant.
Iceland was not agricultural but pastoral, depending upon flocks and herds for subsistence, for, though rye and other grain would grow in favoured localities, the hay, self-sown, was the only regular crop. In some districts the fisheries and fowling Mode of were of importance, but nine-tenths of the population M i lved by their sheep and cattle.
Except in one or two localities (on the north-east and west), the women are invariably decently clothed.
The examinations were held at 259 centres in 99 different localities.
This classification is based on the form, varying in different localities, of the pronoun ca, sto, or kaj, meaning "what."
Silver has been detected in certain galenas, and also platinum; copper has been found in various localities, as well as zinc, lead, nickel, antimony and manganese, but none of these metals has yet been discovered in sufficient quantities for profitable working.
Of the 3178 species of plants whose localities have been determined, 35% are peculiar to the eastern region, 27.5% to the central, and 22% to the western.
The 1 The census taken in 1905 gives 2,664,000 as the total population, but it is probably a little over that amount, as some localities are still imperfectly known.
Arsenic is found in the uncombined condition in various localities, but more generally in combination with other metals and sulphur, in the form of more or less complex sulphides.
Native arsenic occurs usually in metalliferous veins in association with ores of antimony, silver, &c.; the silver mines of Freiberg in Saxony, St Andreasberg in the Harz, and Chanarcillo in Chile being well-known localities.
Especially interesting are the traditions associating the same figure or incident with widely separated localities.
It is true that stone implements of palaeolithic and neolithic types are found sporadically in the Nile valley, Somaliland, on the Zambezi, in Cape Colony and the northern portions of the Congo Free State, as well as in Algeria and Tunisia; but the localities are far too few and too widely separated to warrant the inference that they are to be in any way connected.
But evidence bearing on the Stone age in Africa, if the latter existed apart from the localities mentioned, is so slight that little can be said save that from the available evidence the palaeoliths of the Nile valley alone can with any degree of certainty be assigned to a remote period of antiquity, and that the chips scattered over Mashonaland and the regions occupied within historic times by Bushmen are the most recent; since it has been shown that the stone flakes were used by the medieval Makalanga to engrave their hard pottery and the Bushmen were still using stone implements in the 10th century.
Even where the names of the tribes are known their ethnic relations are still a matter of uncertainty in many localities.
Upon the ruins of the central administration temporary authorities were founded in various isolated localities, limited in area but none the less defiant of the government.
Atmospheric pressure is probably the principal cause of their action; they are therefore termed " weather wells " in some localities.
The species found in these various localities are closely similar in their anatomical characters, the principal differences relating to the structure of the female generative organs and to the number of the legs.
For other fragments and their localities see Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum (iii., 1873, pp. 801 and 1055; and supplement i., 1893, p. 1909); special mention may be made of those of Elatea, Plataea and Megalopolis.
A chartered company is a trading corporation enjoying certain rights and privileges, and bound by certain obligations under a special charter granted to it by the sovereign authority of the state, such charter defining and limiting those rights, privileges and obligations, and the localities in which they are to be exercised.
Its mineral wealth was not suspected, although as far back as 1850 coal of fair quality had been found between the Dee and the Mersey rivers, and gold had been discovered in two or three localities during 1852.
It is probable that the Jurassic Goniolina, described from French localities, and other genera which need not be mentioned, may also be reckoned among the Mesozoic Siphoneae.
One of the few forms so far recorded is that known as Marattia Muensteri from Rhaetic localities in Europe and Asia.
Sphenozamites, chiefly from French localities, which are referred to 1 fronds, which therg is good reason to refer to the Cycadales in the Cycads because of their similarity to the pinnate fronds of Upper Triassic, Rhaetic, Jurassic and Wealden rocks in India, modern Cycadaceae.
The considerable variation in the size of the pinnae of Podozamites, as represented by species from the Jurassic rocks in the Arctic regions and various European localities, recalls the variation in length and breadth of the leaves of Agathis.
Both Tertiary and Mesozoic localities are indicated in the map.
Its flora is still but imperfectly known, for we are dependent on two or three localities for the plants.
This circumstance makes it difficult to compare the flora with that of other formations, for not only is it uncertain which leaves and fruits belong to the same plant, but there is the additional source of doubt, that different elements of the same flora may be represented at different localities.
Gardner, however, is unable to reconcile this estimated richness with our knowledge of the flora, and surmises that fossil plants from other localities must have been inadvertently included.
Though we do not propose to deal with the other European localities for Eocene and Oligocene plants, there is one district to which attention should be drawn, on account of the exceptional state of preservation of the specimens.
Somewhat later Pliocene deposits in the Val d'Arno, as well as the tuffs associated with the Pliocene volcanoes in central France, yield plants of a more familiar type, a considerable proportion of them still living in the Mediterranean region, though some are only now found at distant localities, and others are extinct.
To the glacial action is also due the extensive removal of the original soil from the uplands, and the accumulation of morainic hills in many localities.
As the otter lives almost exclusively on fish, it is rarely met with far from water, and usually frequents the shores of brooks, rivers, lakes and, in some localities, the sea itself.
The otter is found in localities suitable to its habits throughout Great Britain and Ireland, though less abundantly than formerly, for, being destructive to fish, it is rarely allowed to live in peace when its haunts are discovered.
Among the rocks of the continents nothing exactly the same as this remarkable deposit is known to occur, though fine dark clays, with manganese nodules, are found in many localities, accompanied by other rocks which indicate deep-water conditions of deposit.
Among the chief localities are the neighbourhood of Stourbridge in Worcestershire and Stannington near Sheffield, which supply most of the materials for crucibles used in steel and brass melting, and the pots for glass houses; Newcastle-on-Tyne and Glenboig near Glasgow, where heavy blast furnace and other firebricks, gas retorts, &c., are made in large quantities.
In Germany, Ips and Passau on the Danube, and Gross Almerode in Hesse, are the best known localities producing fireclay goods, the crucibles from the last-mentioned place, known as Hessian crucibles, going all over the world.
At the same time this strategy does not efface local cultural originality, the specific imagery bound to certain localities.
Actually rock crystals, they occur in the tension gashes that can be seen in the Devonian sandstone cliffs at various localities.
They vary in appearance between different localities, but common features include stems covered with short stiff hairs and curved prickles.
Rhabdopleura is no doubt of world-wide distribution, since it has been recorded in various localities from Greenland to South Australia, usually in water of not less than forty fathoms. Cephalodiscus, which for many years was known solely as the result of a single dredging by the " Challenger " from 2 4 5 fathoms in the Straits of Magellan, has recently been found in entirely different parts of the world, as for instance between Japan and Korea at ioo fathoms, at about half that depth off the south-east coast of Celebes, and between tide-marks on the coast of Borneo.
No less than twelve species, referred to three sub-genera (Demiothecia, Idiothecia, Orthoecus), have now been described; but it is at present uncertain whether more than a single species of Rhabdopleura is valid, although several specific names have been suggested for specimens from different localities.
The first' killing frosts generally occur about the middle of October in the Ohio Valley region, and about the first of October in the higher plateau and mountain region; the average dates for the last killing frosts in the same localities are the middle and last of April respectively.
Other precious stones, including the sapphire, emerald, oriental emerald, ruby, opal, amethyst, garnet, chrysolite, topaz, cairngorm, onyx, zircon, &c., have been found in the gold and tin bearing drifts and river gravels in numerous localities throughout the states.
The minute attention paid by modern systematists to the exact localities of subspecies and races is bringing together a vast store of facts which will throw further light on the problem of segregation, but the difficulty of utilizing these facts is increased by an unfortunate tendency to make locality itself one of the diagnostic characters.
A few of the mouths of the smaller canals are kept open so as to receive a limited supply of water at the rise of the river in May, which then distributes itself over the lower lying lands in the interior, almost without labour on the part of the cultivators, giving birth in such localities to the most abundant crops, but by far the larger portion of the region between the rivers is at present an arid howling wilderness es dotted with tels or ruin-heaps, strewn in the most part with broken pottery, the evidence of former habitation, and bearing nothing but the camel-thorn, the wild caper, the colocynth-apple, wormwood and other weeds of the desert.
Although, on the whole, the course and time of the annual migration of mackerel are marked with great regularity, their appearance and abundance at certain localities are subject to great variations.
The latter is no separate dialect at all, but a mere brogue or jargon, the medium of intercourse between illiterate natives and Europeans too indolent to apply themselves to the acquisition of the language of the people; its vocabulary is made up of Malay words, with a conventional admixture of words from other languages; and it varies, not only in different localities, but also in proportion to the individual speaker's acquaintance with Malay proper.
They opposed all arrangement for the orderly distribution of travelling ministers to different localities, and even for the payment of their expenses (see above); they also strongly objected to any disciplinary power being entrusted to the women's separate meetings for business, which had become of considerable importance after the Plague (1665) and the Fire of London (1666) in consequence of the need for poor relief.
Feints were also to be carried out at other localities so as to bewilder the defenders.