Local-government Sentence Examples
The colonies are divisible into two classes, (I) those possessing considerable powers of local self-government, (2) those in which the local government is autocratic. To this second class may be added the protectorates (and some colonies) where the native form of government is maintained under the supervision of French officials.
Miquel, as minister of finance, succeeded indeed in carrying a reform by which the proceeds of the tax on land and buildings were transferred to the local government authorities, and the loss to the state exchequer made up by increased taxation of larger incomes and industry.
Municipal corporations or other local government bodies have no express power to expel a member, except in such cases where the law declares the member to have vacated his seat, or where power is given by statute to declare the member's seat vacant.
Here they had their own lands, and some form of local government by elders, and appear to have been prosperous and contented; probably the only demand made on them by the Babylonian government was the payment of taxes.
The general council controls the departmental administration of the prefect, and its decisions on points of local government are usually final.Advertisement
It was only by the London Government Act 1899 that Woolwich was brought into line with other London districts, for in 1855, as it had previously become a local government district under a local board, it was left untouched by the Metropolis Management Act.
In the first Gladstone administration he held a variety of public offices, finally becoming, in 1871, the first president of the local government board.
In the same year Stansfeld again became president of the local government board.
Besides possessing competence in regard to local government elections, which previously came within the jurisdiction of the provincial deputations, the provincial administrative juntas discharge magisterial functions in administrative affairs, and deal with appeals presented by private persons against acts of the communal and provincial administrations.
The former qualifications for electorship in local government elections have been modified, and it is now sufficient to pay five lire annually in, direct taxes, five lire of certain communal taxes, or a certain rental (which varies according to the population of a commune), instead of being obliged to pay, as previously, at least five lire annually of direct taxes to the state.Advertisement
Accordingly, it was henceforward governed by a proconsul (appointed by the senate) and freed from the burden of troops, while its local government was assimilated to that of Italy.
As befitted an unromanized region, the local government was unlike that of Italy or Narbonensis.
Stolypin indeed defended the coup d'etat in the Duma on the ground that the autocrat had merely altered what the autocrat had originally granted; but, while laying stress on the necessity for restoring order in the body politic, he announced a long programme of reforms, including agrarian measures, reform of local government and its extension in the frontier provinces, and state insurance of workmen.
An independent local government was formed a week later, and this lasted for several months, until the Utah authorities intervened.
His organization of local government and his efforts to maintain law and order brought him into collision with the Zealots and especially with John of Giscala, one of their leaders.Advertisement
In the middle ages this differentiation of the industrial, municipal and political life had not taken place, and in order to understand the working of at first sight purely economic regulations it is necessary to make a close study of the functions of local government.
These questions of commercial policy and local government are closely bound up with the scientific study of the transport system.
More pressing even than that question was the regulation of local government.
The institution of the special tribunals (already referred to), which enabled Bonaparte to supersede local government in thirty-two of the departments, was another outcome of the bomb conspiracy.
The principal local government is that of the municipalities or municipal districts, but for the Spanish municipal government the insular legislature has substituted one resembling that of small towns in the United States, and it has reduced the number of districts from 66 to 47.Advertisement
With James Madison and Thomas Jefferson, Mason carried through the Virginia legislature measures disestablishing the Episcopal Church and protecting all forms of worship. In politics he was a radical republican, who believed that local government should be kept strong and central government weak; his democratic theories had much influence in Virginia and other southern and western states.
Administration, &c. - The local government of Alberta is carried on by a provincial organization resembling that of the other Canadian provinces.
By the spring of 1866 the ex-Confederates had succeeded in gaining possession of most of the local government and most of the state offices, although not of the governorship. The Republican party naturally became extremely radical.
The six provinces were created, and had governors and assemblies (" diputaciones "); and a municipal law was provided that in many ways was a sound basis for local government.
Under French rule, which has modified the old usages in many respects, local government of the Annamese type tends to supplant this feudal system.Advertisement
In 1905 he entered Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman's Government as parliamentary secretary to the Local Government Board.
For local government purposes the province is divided into counties or magisterial divisions; Zululand being under special jurisdiction.
Its revenues and powers are those pertaining to local government.
These urban municipalities are towns which for their local government are independent of the counties in which they are situated, and have, therefore, a larger amount of municipal autonomy than the communes or the other towns.
A department of public health was formed within the precincts of the Local Government Board; government laboratories were established, and machinery was devised for the notification of infectious diseases.
The buildings connected with local government in London are with one exception modern, and handsome town-halls have been erected for some of the boroughs.
The Council may also act in cases of default by the local authorities, or may make representations to the Local Government Board respecting such default, whereupon the Board may direct the Council to withhold payment due to the local authority under the Equalization of Rates Act 1894.
Outside the City itself a system of local government can hardly be said to have existed.
Further the area of the metropolis for local government purposes was for the first time defined, being the same as that adopted in the Commissioners of Sewers Act, which had been taken from the area of the weekly bills of mortality.
But in 1888 the Local Government Act, dealing with the area of the metropolis as a separate county, created the London County Council as the central administrative body, possessing not only the powers of an ordinary county council, but also extensive powers of town management, transferred to it from the abolished Board of Works.
The wealthier metropolitan parishes became discontented with the form of local government to which they remained subject, and in 1897 Kensington and Westminster petitioned to be created boroughs by the grant of charters under the Municipal Corporation Acts.
The Local Government Act of 1888 dealt with the metropolis for non-administrative purposes as it did for administrative, that is to say, as a separate county.
In some parishes overseers were appointed in the ordinary manner; in others the vestry, by local acts and by orders under the Local Government Act 1894, was appointed to act as, or empowered to appoint, overseers, whilst in Chelsea the guardians acted as overseers.
Io,680 Local Government Board-Common Poor Fund 756 £24,703,087 The total expenditure was equal to a rate in the pound of s.
Under the Local Government Act 1888, the London County Council makes grants to boards of guardians, sanitary authorities and overseers in London in respect of certain services.
Metropolitan borough councils have to obtain the sanction of the Local Government Board to loans for baths, washhouses, public libraries, sanitary conveniences and certain other purposes under the Public Health Acts; for cemeteries the sanction of the Treasury is required, and for all other purposes that of the London County Council; poor law authorities, the metropolitan asylums board, the metropolitan water board and the central (unemployed) body require the sanction of the Local Government Board the receiver for the metropolitan police district that of the Home Office, and the London County Council that of parliament and the Treasury.
By the Local Government Act of 1888 the citizens of London were deprived of all right of jurisdiction over the county of Middlesex, which had been expressly granted by various charters.
He was formerly appointed by the city, but since the Local Government Act of 1888 he is nominated by the city and approved by Officials the lord chancellor.
When the Metropolitan Board of Works was formed by the Metropolis Management Act of 1855 the city was affected to a certain extent, but by the Local Government Act of 1888 which founded the London County Council the right of appointing a sheriff for Middlesex was taken away from the city of London.
By the Local Government Act 1888 the entire maintenance of main roads was thrown upon county councils.
Workhouse chaplains are appointed by overseers and guardians on the direction of the Local Government Board, to which alone such chaplains are responsible.
Florence is the capital of a province of the same name, and the central government is represented by a prefect (prefetto), while local government is carried on by a mayor (sindaco) Under the Carolingian emperors Tuscany was a March or margraviate, and the marquises became so powerful as to be even a danger to the Empire.
Each of the ridings of Yorkshire has its own lord lieutenant and commission of the peace, and under the Local Government Act of 1888 forms a separate administrative county.
Such liberties are exempt from the jurisdiction of the sheriff and have separate commissions of the peace, but for purposes of local government form part of the county in which they are situated.
The local government is carried on by an elected municipal council, the franchise being restricted to white British subjects (men and women) who rent or own property of a certain value.
He entertained hopes of arranging some form of local government which should sufficiently meet Nationalist hopes; and with this in view appointed an eminent AngloIndian, Sir Antony (afterwards Lord) Macdonnell, who was known to be a decided Home Ruler, to the permanent secretaryship in 1902, giving him at the same time greater authority and wider scope than is usually conferred on a civil servant.
By virtue of the Local Government (Ireland) Act 1898, Belfast became a county borough on the 1st of April 1899.
By the Local Government (Ireland) Act 1898, Belfast became for assize purposes "the county of the city of Belfast," with a high sheriff.
The unit of local government is the " hundred," which corresponds to the township of Pennsylvania.
The commissioners' court of five members, including the presiding judge, attends to county business matters, the county being the unit of local government.
For purposes of administration and local government the state is divided into ninety-nine counties, each of which is itself divided into townships that are usually 6 m.
The complexity of administrative areas, though far less than in England, was simplified, and the census compilation proportionately facilitated, by the passing of the Local Government Act for Scotland, in 1889.
To a large extent the native forms of government are maintained under European administrators responsible for the preservation of order, the colony for this purpose being divided into a number of "circles" each with its local government.
For purposes of local government the state is divided into counties; each county into townships, school districts and road districts; and there are incorporated cities and towns.
For the administration of local government the state is divided into counties (64 in 1910) and these in turn are subdivided into townships and municipal corporations.
In local government a wide use is made of natives, in the appointment of whom a primary consideration is that if possible the people should be under their own chieftains.
Pitcairn, in accordance with its peculiar conditions of settlement, has a peculiar system of local government.
At the close of the War of Independence the Kentuckians complained because the mother state did not protect them against their enemies and did not give them an adequate system of local government.
Until 1846 three constables were chosen annually at the court-leet to govern the place, but in that year the inhabitants obtained authority from parliament to appoint twenty-seven commissioners to undertake the local government.
This building provides offices for the Local Government Board, Boards of Trade and of Public Works and other bodies.
Popular control of the local government of the towns was ceasing to be a reality as early as the end of the 1st century of the Empire.
Two centuries later local government was a mere form.
As the latter were largely of Loyalist sympathies during the war, the control of the local government then fell into the hands of the German inhabitants.
Each has its own documentary constitution; its legislature of two elective houses; its executive, consisting of a governor and other officials; its judiciary, whose decisions are final, except in cases involving Federal law; its system of local government and local taxation; its revenue, system of taxation, and debts; its body of private civil and criminal law and procedure; its rules of citizenship, which may admit persons to be voters in state and national elections under conditions differing from those prevailing in other states.
The county is to be found in every state of the Union, but its importance varies inversely with the position held in the system of local government by that smaller and older organism, the town.
Although local affairs do nut now enlist, even in New England, so large a measure of interest and public spirit as the town system used to evoke in Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Connecticut in the thirties, still, broadly speaking, the rural local government of America may be deemed satisfactory.
The new viceroy was also called upon to decide grave questions between the native population and the resident British, and he resolved upon a liberal policy towards the former, among his measures being the repeal of the Vernacular Press Act, the extension of local government and the appointment of an Education Commission.
The state endorsed railway bonds at the rate of $12,000 and $16,000 a mile until the state debt had increased from eight millions to seventeen millions of dollars, and similar corruption characterized local government.
The province is divided into the six Regierungsbezirke (or departments) of Hanover, Hildesheim, Luneburg, Stade, Osnabruck and Aurich, and these again into Kreise (circles, or local government districts)-76 in all.
As regards municipal elections, the Corrupt Practices (Municipal Elections) Act 1872 has been repealed by the Municipal Corporations Act 1882 for England, and by the Local Government (Ireland) Act 1898 for Ireland.
The provisions of these enactments have been applied with necessary modifications to municipal and other local government elections in Ireland by orders of the Irish Local Government Board made under powers conferred by the Local Government (Ireland) Act 1898.
In Scotland the law regulating municipal and other local government elections is now to be found in the Elections (Scotland) (Corrupt and Illegal Practices) Act 1890.
The Municipal Elections (Corrupt and Illegal Practices) Act 1884 applied to school board elections subject to certain variations, and has been extended by the Local Government Act 1888 to county council elections, and by the Local Government Act 1894 to elections by parochial electors.
The law in Scotland is on the same lines, and extends to all nonparliamentary elections, and, as has been stated, the English statutes have been applied with adaptations to all municipal and local government elections in Ireland.
The Territory was without the forms of local government common to the United States until 1905, when the Territorial legislature divided it into five counties 1 without, however, giving to them the usual powers of taxation.
It is an old native element recast in Roman form, and well illustrates the Roman principle of local government ST by devolution.
That these views were not shared by Lord Salisbury was sufficiently shown by the fact that in his first administration (June 1885-January 1886) he made Mr Balfour president of the Local Government Board, and in forming his second administration (July 1886) secretary for Scotland with a seat in the cabinet.
Smith in 1891 he became first lord of the treasury and leader of the House of Commons, and in that capacity introduced in 1892 a Local Government Bill for Ireland.
The local government is a combination of the county system of the South and the township system of New England.
It is governed by a mayor and corporation, which, though retained under the Local Government (Ireland) Act of 1898, has practically the status of an urban district council.
France voluntarily declared that she sought in Mexico only to satisfy injuries done her and not to overthrow or establish local government or to appropriate territory.
The unit of the terman system of local government is the commune (Geineinde, or more strictly Ortsgemeinde).
For purposes of local government the chief towns constitute governorships (moafzas), the rest of the country being divided into mudirias or provinces.
The system of local government by citizens had now entirely disappeared.
The Roads and Bridges (Scotland) Act of 1878 entrusted the control of the roads to royal and police burghs and in the counties to road trustees, from whom it was transferred by the Local Government Act of 1889 to county councils, the management, however, being in the hands of district committees.
The act of 1894, as we have seen, not only established the Local Government Board, consisting of the secretary for Scotland, the solicitor-general, the under-secretary and three appointed members - a vice-president, a lawyer and a medical officer of public health - but also replaced the parochial boards by parish councils, empowered to deal among other things with poor relief, lunacy, vaccination, libraries, baths, recreation grounds, disused churchyards, rights of way, parochial endowments, and the formation of special lighting and scavenging districts.
The local government of Illinois includes both county and township systems. The earliest American settlers came from the Southern States and naturally introduced the county system; but the increase of population from the New England and Middle States led to a recognition of township organization in the constitution of 1848, and this form of government, at first prevalent only in the northern counties, is now found in most of the middle and southern counties.
About the time of the birth of his son, Simeon Denis, he occupied a small administrative post at Pithiviers, and seems to have been at the head of the local government of the place during the revolutionary period.
Its massive Roman walls still survive, and recent excavations have revealed a town hall and market square, a temple, baths, amphitheatre, and many comfortable houses with mosaics, &c. An inscription shows that under the Roman Empire it was the chef-lieu of the Silures, whose ordo or county council provided for the local government of the district.
In local government there are no deviations from the usual types that demand notice.
Alvarado, was recognized by the Mexican government, which had again inclined to federalism and, besides, did not take the matter very seriously, the local government rested simply on local sentiment.
Radcliffe, Reports of Local Government Board (1875, 1876, 1877 and for 1879-1880); Parliamentary Papers (1879); Frederick Forbes, On Plague in North-West Provinces of India (Edinburgh, 1840) (Dissertation); Hirsch, Handbuch der historischen-geogr.
The urban district, under the Local Government (Ireland) Act 1900, is wholly in county Westmeath, but the same area is divided by the Shannon between the parliamentary divisions of South Westmeath and South Roscommon.
The governing body consisted of a high steward, deputy steward, two water-bailiffs and 28 burgesses, but the cdrporation was abolished by the Municipal Corporation Act of 1883, and a Local Board was formed, which, under the Local Government Act, gave place in 1894 to an urban district council.
A few squares north-west of it are the General Land Office, the headquarters of the Department of the Interior (commonly called the Patent Office), with Doric portico; the Pension Office, in which the Inauguration Ball is held on the evening of each president's taking office; the Government Printing Office (twelve storeys - one of the few tall office-buildings in the city); the City Hall, or District Court House; and the District Building (1908), another building of the local government.
Exemptions at first granted to the citizens were removed, while the cost of local government which continually increased was placed on the middle-class of the towns as represented by the decuriones, or members of the municipalities.
For the purposes of local government New Mexico is divided into 25 counties, each being governed by a board of county commissioners, chosen by the people.
For the purposes of local government Sweden is divided into 25 administrative districts called lan, a list of which is given in the paragraph dealing with population.
Its local government is vested in a president and legislative assembly of one chamber elected for a period of four years.
A mockery of popular institutions, under the name of a burgher council, indeed existed; but this was a mere delusion, and must not be confounded with the system of local government by means of district burgher councils which that most able man, Commissioner de Mist, sought to establish during the brief government of the Batavian Republic from 1803 to 1806, when the Dutch nation, convinced and ashamed of the false policy by which they had permitted a mere money-making association to disgrace the Batavian name, and to entail degradation on what might have been a free and prosperous colony, sought to redeem their error by making this country a national colonial possession, instead of a slavish property, to be neglected, oppressed or ruined, as the caprice or avarice of its merchant owners might dictate.
For the purposes of local government the state is divided into counties, cities, townships, towns and boroughs.
The various local bodies are municipalities or shires, the former is the term applied to closely peopled areas of small extent endowed with complete local government, and the latter is the designation of the more extensive districts, thinly peopled, to which a less complete system of local government has been granted.
By the Local Government Act of 1888 the duty of maintaining main roads was imposed on the county councils, but these bodies were enabled to make arrangements with the respective highway authorities for their repair.
Under the Local Government Act of 1894 the duties of all the highway authorities were transferred to the rural district councils on or before the 31st of March 1899.
Therefore, although the methods of local government are detailed below (Section X.), and other administrative arrangements are described under the various headings dealing with each subject, it is desirable to give here, for ease of reference and distinction, a schedule of the various areas into which England and Wales are divided.
The ancient counties were superseded for most practical purposes by the administrative counties created by the Local Government Act of 1888.
In rural districts the functions of these boards are, under the Local Government Act of 1894, performed by the district councils, and in other places their constitution is similar to that of the urban and district councils (see PooR LAW).
The Reform Act of 1832 was the real starting-point for the overhauling of English local government.
And as a result of the failure of the Public Health Board established in 1848, the royal commission of 1869-1871 led to the establishment in 1871 of the Local Government Board as a central supervising body.
Meanwhile, the school boards resulting from the Education Act of 1870 brought local government also into the educational system; and the Public Health Act of 1875 put further duties on the local authorities.
By 1888 a new state of chaos had grown up as the result of the multiplication of bodies, and the new Redistribution Act of 1885 paved the way for a further reorganization of local matters by the Local Government Act of 1888, followed by that of 1894.
The system of local government now existing in England (see also the article Local Government) may be said to have been founded in 1888, when the Local Government Act of that year was passed.
The largest area of local government is the county; next to that the sanitary district, urban or rural, including under this head municipal boroughs, all of which are urban districts.
But before doing so, it should be pointed out that all local bodies in England are to some extent subject to the control of central authorities, such as the privy council, the home office, the Board of Agriculture, the Board of Trade, the Board of Education or the Local Government Board.
Subject to a few special provisions in the Local Government Act of 1888, the business of the county council is regulated by the provisions laid down in the Municipal Corporations Act Business.
In such boroughs the borough council have, in addition to their powers under the Municipal Corporations Act 1882, all the powers of a county council under the Local Government Act.
The boroughs thus constituted county boroughs enumerated in the schedule to the Local Government Act 1888 numbered sixty-one, but additional ones are created from time to time.
The county council may, with the consent of the Local Government Board, borrow money on the security of the county fund or any of its revenues, for consolidating the debts of the county; purchasing land or buildings; any permanent work or other thing, the cost of which ought to be spread over a term 'of years; making advances in aid of the emigration or colonization of inhabitants of the county; and any purpose for which quarter sessions or the county council are authorized by any act to borrow.
If, however, the total debt of the council will, with the amount proposed to be borrowed, exceed onetenth of the annual rateable value of the property in the county, the money cannot be borrowed unless under a provisional order made by the Local Government Board and confirmed by parliament.
The form in which the accounts must be made up is prescribed by the Local Government Board.
The auditor is a district auditor appointed by the Local Government Board under the District Auditors Act 1879, and in respect of the audit the council is charged with a stamp duty, the amount of which depends on the total of the expenditure-comprised in the financial statement.
Against any allowance or surcharge appeal lies to the High Court if the question involved is one of law, or to the Local Government Board, who have jurisdiction to remit a surcharge if, in the circumstances, it appears to them to be fair and equitable to do so.
The commissioners of Inland Revenue pay into the Bank of England, to an account called " the local taxation account," the sums ascertained to be the proceeds of the duties collected by them in each county on what are called local taxation licences, which include licences for the sale of intoxicating liquor, licences on dogs, guns, establishment licences, &c. The amount so ascertained to have been collected in each county is paid under direction of the Local Government Board to the council of that county.
The sums so paid in respect of the duties last above mentioned, and in respect of the estate duty and spirits and beer additional duties, are distributed among the several counties in proportion to the share which the Local Government Board certify to have been received by each county during the financial year ending the 31st March 1888, out of the grants theretofore made out of the exchequer in aid of local rates.
Power was given by the act to the Local Government Board to provide, by means of a provisional order, for transferring to county councils any of the powers and duties of the various central authorities which have been already referred to; but although such an order was at one time prepared, it has never been confirmed, and nothing has been done in that direction.
Among the powers and duties given to county councils by the Local Government Act 1888, the first to be mentioned, following the order in the act itself, is that of the appointment ty of county coroners.
Once a road became a main road it could only cease to be such by order of the Local Government Board.
As already stated, the powers of the quarter sessions under the act of 1878 were transferred to the county council under the Local Government Act of 1888, and that body alone has now power to declare a road to be a main road.
But the act of 1888 made some important Of the powers and duties of county councils, may be convenient to treat of these first, in so far as they are transferred to or conferred on them by the Local Government Act 1888, under which they were created, and after ferred wards in so far as they have been conferred by sub sequent legislation.
The county council must in any case make a payment towards the costs incurred by the district council, and if any difference arises as to the amount of it, it has to be settled by the Local Government Board.
They have the same powers with respect to manufacturing and mining pollutions, subject to certain restrictions, one of which is that proceedings are not to be taken without the consent of the Local Government Board.
The Local Government Board is further empowered by provisional order to constitute a joint-committee representing all the administrative counties through or by which a river passes, and confer on such committee all or any of the powers of a sanitary authority under the acts.
It must not be supposed, however, that the county council have no power to institute or defend legal proceedings or oppose bills save such as is expressly conferred upon them by the Local Government Act.
It may be mentioned that, while by-laws relating to the good government of the county have to be confirmed by the secretary of state, those which relate to the suppression of nuisances have to be confirmed by the Local Government Board.
Besides this, in the case of a county, or of any district or combination of districts of which the population exceeds 50,000, the medical officer must also have a diploma in public health, unless he has during the three consecutive years before 1892 been medical officer of a district or combination having a population of more than 20,000, or has before the passing of the act been for three years a medical officer or inspector of the Local Government Board.
The only other powers and duties of a county council arising under the Local Government Act itself which it is necessary to notice are those relating to alterations of local areas.
Alters= It may be convenient here to state that certain alterations of areas can only be effected through the med i um lo of the Local Government Board after local inquiry.
In these cases the order of the Local Government Board is provisional only, and must be confirmed by parliament.
The order has to be submitted to the Local Government Board, and that board must hold a local inquiry in order to determine whether the order should be confirmed or not, if the council of any district affected by it, or one-sixth of the total number of electors in the district or parish to which it relates, petition against it.
The Local Government Board have power to modify.
A considerable extension of the same powers was made by the Local Government Act 1894, which practically required every council to take into consideration the areas of sanitary districts and parishes within the entire administrative county, and to see that a parish did not extend into more than one sanitary district; to provide for the division of a district which did extend into more than one district into separate parishes, so that for the future the parish should not be in more than one county district; and to provide for every parish and rural sanitary district being within one county.
The powers of the Local Government Board under the Allotments Acts were transferred by the act of 1907 to the Board of Agriculture and Fisheries, and by the same act the powers and duties of rural district councils were transferred to parish councils.
The powers and duties of a county council under the Local Government Act 1894 are numerous and varied, and the chief of them are mentioned hereafter in connexion with parish councils.
In short it may be said that as the provisions relating to the election of borough councillors were merely extended to county councillors by the Local Government Act of 1888 with a few modifications, these provisions, as already stated when dealing with county councils, apply generally to the election of borough councillors.
It should be added that the grant of a court of quarter sessions to any borough other than a county borough after the passing of the Local Government Act 1888, does not affect the powers, duties or liabilities of the county council as regards that borough, nor exempt the parishes in the borough from being assessed to county rate for any purposes to which such parishes were previously liable to be assessed.
The council may borrow money for the erection of such buildings; they may acquire and hold land in mortmain by virtue of their charter, or with the consent of the Local Government Board.
The council may convert corporate land, with the approval of the Local Government Board, into sites for workmen's dwellings.
The latter require to be confirmed by the Local Government Board.
It provided for the formation of local boards in boroughs and populous places, such places outside boroughs being termed local government districts.
By the Public Health Act of that year the whole country was mapped out into urban and rural sanitary districts, and that system has been maintained until the present time, with some important changes introduced by the Public Health Acts 1875 to 1907, and the Local Government Act 1894.
There is a concurrent power in the Local Government Board under the Public Health Act 1875, but that power is now rarely exercised, and new urban districts are in practice created only by orders of county councils made under the Local Government Act 1888, section 57.
By the Local Government Act of that year the guardians ceased to be the rural sanitary authority.
The qualification and disqualification of district councillors, whether urban or rural, now depend upon the Local Government Act 1894.
These are practically the persons whose names appear in the parliamentary register or in the local government register as being entitled to vote at elections for members of parliament or county or parish councillors as the case may be.
The election takes place subject to rules made by the Local Government Board, these rules being largely founded upon adaptations of the Municipal Corporations Act 1882.
It may be convenient here to state that the Local Government Board has power to unite any number of districts or parts of districts into what is called a united districts.
It is also constituted by order of the Local Government Board, and it may include one authority.
The salaries of the medical officer of health and inspectors of nuisances are, as to one moiety thereof, paid out of " the exchequer contribution account " by the county council, if they are appointed in accordance with the requirements of the Local Government Board as to qualification, appointment, duties, salary and tenure of office.
The orders of the Local Government Board as to these matters are set out in the Statutory Rules and Orders.
When reference is made to any power or duty of an urban council it is to be understood that the rural council have no such power or duty unless conferred or imposed upon them by order of the Local Government Board.
This duty may be enforced by the Local Government Board on complaint made to them that the council have failed in performing it, and in the case of a rural district by the county council on complaint of the parish council.
They may, however, undertake these duties, and, if the Local Government Board require, they must do so.
An urban council and a rural council, if invested with the requisite power by the Local Government Board, may, and when required by order of that board must, provide for the proper cleansing of streets, and may also provide for the proper watering of streets.
The power of the district council to supply water is strictly limited to their own district, but they may, with the sanction of the Local Government Board, supply water to the council of an adjoining district on such terms as may be agreed upon, or as, in case of dispute, may be settled by arbitration.
Private persons may complain to justices in respect of nuisances by which they are personally aggrieved, and if the district council make default in doing their duty, the Local Government Board may authorize any officer of police to institute any necessary proceedings at the cost of the defaulting council.
Where any part of the country appears to be threatened with or is affected by any formidable epidemic, endemic or infectious disease, the Local Government Board may make regula tions for the speedy interment of the dead, house-tohouse visitation, the provision of medical aid and accommodation, the promotion of cleansing, ventilation and disinfection, and the guarding against the spread of disease.
District councils may, and if required by the Local Government Board, must provide mortuaries, and they may make by-laws with Mortu r respect to the management and charges for the use of the same.
It may be mentioned, however, that under the Local Government Act 1894, where a burial board district is wholly in an urban district, the urban council may resolve that the powers, duties and liabilities of the burial board shall be transferred to the council, and thereupon the burial board may cease to exist.
By the Local Government Act 1894, there were transferred to the district council of every rural district all the powers, duties and liabilities of every highway authority, surveyor or highway board within their district, and theLformer highway authorities ceased to exist.
But while rural as well as urban district councils have the powers and duties of surveyors of highways, the provisions of the Public Health Acts relating to streets apply only in urban districts, except in so far as the Local Government Board may by order have conferred urban powers upon a rural district council.
The tolls which may be taken by an urban council must be approved by the Local Government Board; and any by-laws which they make for the regulation of the market must be confirmed by the same body.
Such lands as are not required for the purpose for which they were purchased must, unless the Local Government Board otherwise direct, be sold.
The Local Government Board must make inquiry into the propriety of allowing the lands to be taken, and the power to acquire the lands compulsorily can only be conferred by means of a provisional order confirmed by parliament.
For the guidance of local authorities, the Local Government Board have from time to time issued model series of by-laws dealing with the various subjects for which by-laws may be made, and these are for the most part followed throughout England and Wales.
Special expenses include the expenses of the construction and maintenance and cleansing of sewers, providing water-supply, and all other expenses incurred or payable in respect of a parish or contributory place within the district determined by order of the Local Government Board to be special expenses.
District councils are empowered to borrow with the sanction of the Local Government Board, subject to certain restrictions and Borrowing regulations.
The sums borrowed must not exceed, with the outstanding loans, the amount of the assessable value for two years of the district for which the money is borrowed; and if the sum borrowed would, with the outstanding loans, exceed the assessable value for one year, the sanction of the Local Government Board may not be given except after local inquiry.
The scheme has to be confirmed by the Local Government Board, and carried out by means of a provisional order.
The resolution must have been published in newspapers circulated in the district, and must have received the consent of the Local Government Board or of a secretary of state, if the matter is one within his jurisdiction; and further, the expenses must not be incurred unless the promotion or opposition has been assented to by the owners and ratepayers of the district assembled at a meeting convened for the purpose of considering the matter, and if necessary, signified by a poll.
Moreover, the expenses must, before they can be charged to the rates, be examined and allowed by some person authorized by a secretary of state or the Local Government Board, as the case may be.
Before the passing of the Local Government Act 1894 there was really nothing in the form of local government for a parish.
As already stated, these are the persons whose names are on the parliamentary and local government registers.
The council are elected in manner provided by the rules of the Local Government Board.
It may be convenient here to add that where, under the Local Government Act 1894, the powers of a parish council are not already possessed by an urban district council, the Local Government Board may by order confer such powers on the urban council.
The foregoing is a sketch of the scheme of local government carried out in England and Wales.
The local administration of justice devolving upon the justices in quarter or petty sessions is hardly a matter of local government, although in one important respect, that, namely, of the licensing of premises for the sale of intoxicating liquors, it may be thought that the duties of justices fall within the scope of local government.
It will be seen that the scheme, as at present existing, has for its object the simplification of local government by the abolition of unnecessary independent authorities, and that this has been carried out almost completely, the principal exception being that in some cases burial boards still exist which have not been superseded either by urban district councils or by parish councils or parish meetings.
The principal forms of local government are the town (or township), the plantation, the county and the city.
The county is the unit of local government.
Out of the organization of these commandoes, with their fieldcommandants and field-cornets, has grown the common system of local government in the Dutch-settled districts of South Africa.
We are indebted to the Local Government Board for having traced to such causes certain epidemics of typhoid, and there can be no manner of doubt that the evil has been very general.
For the purposes of local government the state is divided into thirty-four counties.
The system of local government has undergone radical changes in recent years.
In 1905 a new municipal code, probably the most elaborate and complete local government act in the United States, providing for a uniform system of government in all cities and towns, went into effect.
A few other officers were sent at Sheikh Mahmud's request to assist in organizing the local Government under British protection.
Moreover, the whole machinery of local government in the realm fell out of gear, when the experienced ministers who were wont to control it were removed from power.
Wisconsin has the mixed or township-county system of local government.
When Nunez in 1885 disregarded the constitution of 1863, which made the component states severally sovereign, he was strongly opposed by the people of Panama, who had no actual representation in the convention which made the constitution of 1886, an instrument allowing Panama (which it made a department and not a state) no local government.
To promote national health had always been his main object in politics, and when Mr. Lloyd George reconstructed his Ministry in the beginning of 1919, he entrusted the Local Government Board to Dr. Addison, that he might complete Lord Rhondda's work and transform it into a Ministry of Health.
Local Government.-Irish local government was entirely remodelled by the Local Government (Ireland) Act 1898, which conferred on Ireland the same system and measure of self-government enjoyed by Great Britain.
Local Taxation.-The Local Government (Ireland) Act 1898 effected considerable changes in local finance.
Under the Local Government Act they ceased, and in lieu thereof it was provided that there should be annually paid out of the consolidated fund to the local taxation account a sum equal to the duties collected in Ireland on certain Revenue.
The Unionist party had adopted a policy of local government for Ireland while opposing legislative independence, and a bill was introduced into the House of Commons by Mr Balfour in February 1892.
The unit of local government in South Carolina is the county, which, the state constitution provides, " shall be a body politic and corporate."
Unlike Lord Hartington (afterwards duke of Devonshire) and other Liberals, who declined to join Mr Gladstone in view of the altered attitude he was adopting towards Ireland, Mr Chamberlain entered the cabinet as president of the Local Government Board (with Mr Jesse Collings as parliamentary secretary), but on the 15th of March 1886 he resigned, explaining in the House of Commons (8th April) that, while he had always been in favour of the largest possible extension of local government to Ireland consistently with the integrity of the empire and the supremacy of parliament, and had therefore joined Mr Gladstone when he believed that this was what was intended, he was unable to consider that the scheme communicated by Mr Gladstone to his colleagues maintained those limitations.
For local government purposes Tasmania is divided into municipalities, town boards, and road trusts.
The bulk of the revenue of the local government bodies is obtained from rates.
After the abolition of compulsory church rates in 1868 the old ecclesiastical parish ceased to be of importance as an instrument of local government.
By the Local Government Act 1894 they are now deposited with the chairman or clerk of a parish council.
The Local Government Act 1894 restored the parish to its position as the unit of local government by establishing parish councils.
The Local Government (Scotland) Act 1894 reformed parish government, although not to the same extent as the corresponding English act.
It established a local government board for Scotland, with a parish council in every parish, and abolished all parochial boards.
For fuller information regard - ing the Scottish parish see Connell on Teinds; Duncan's Parochial Ecclesiastical Law; the Cobden Club essays on Local Government and Taxation in the United Kingdom (1882); Goudy and Smith's Local Government in Scotland; Atkinson, Local Government in Scotland.
In order to pay for these wars, and to meet the expenses of a splendid court, the later margraves had sold various rights to the towns and provinces of Brandenburg, and so aided the development of local government.
Marion is a retired accountant, having worked in local government and industry, and a fellow of the Chartered Society of Management Accountants.
Meet The Staff Guy Watson Technical Officer Guy's career in arboriculture includes contracting, consulting and local government arboriculture.
Maybe the district auditor might like to pay closer attention to what our alleged local government are spending OUR money on.
They claim to support local government but direct policy from their inner cabal.
However, central and local government should have more courage in their convictions to support plans which are environmentally acceptable and socially constructive.
On retirement Mr Sumner became a town councilor for Stamford and is very active in local government.
Consequential changes are made to parishes, local government electoral areas, petty sessional divisions and coroners ' districts.
Every parish must have an annual parish meeting, which all local government electors for the parish are entitled to attend.
The majority of local government funders are failing to pay full costs.
A national land and property gazetteer is required for Central and Local Government Purposes.
We called for more, not less, openness in local government.
Moreover, how can we ensure that this kind of opportunity isn't just hijacked by local government to further their own agenda?
The basis for this in primary legislation is sections 3 to 6 of the Local Government Act 1999.
Quite simply, local government needs a formalized role in our national legislature.
The best way to increase turnout is to have good government, not to undermine local government.
If they live up to this forecast that will put local government well ahead of expectations a year ago.
In this context a minimum rate for local government workers of £ 5 an hour appears moderate.
For a whole host of reasons, the public remains largely oblivious to local government.
You can complain to the local government ombudsman at any time.
Why is it important to support functional pluralism for local government?
Southern California and local government politicos are just like your there, approving development projects on every bit of open space that is remaining.
The campaign has paid for billboard posters throughout Scotland calling on the government to retain Section 28 of the Local Government Act.
A person's pensionable remuneration is used to calculate their local government pension.
For Scotland and Wales the names of the new Local Authority Areas following the most recent local government reorganization should be given.
Before local government reorganization in 1996, he worked with Falkirk District Council in forward planning.
Our initial belief in the project latterly led to both Lottery and local government support for the structural repairs to the pier.
Sarah Teather, local government spokeswoman, is also in the frame for promotion, possibly to health.
We also believe provision of historic environment services by local government should become statutory, supported by adequate resourcing.
The re-organisation of local government will cost substantial sums.
The possibility of standard regions as an intermediate tier between central and local government might usefully be considered.
Forward Plan This is a new tool arising from the Local Government Act 2000, to make decision making more transparent.
In regions where people vote to have an elected assembly we intend to streamline government by moving to a wholly unitary local government structure.
In the words of Labor's own manifesto, regional assemblies will require ' a predominantly unitary system of local government ' .
The friends of individual liberty and local government naturally found in the assumption by the central government of even the minimum of its granted powers constant stimulus to their fears (see Democratic Party); while the financial measures of Hamilton - whose wish for extreme centralization was nowise satisfied by the government actually created in 1787 - were calculated to force an immediate and firm assumption by that government, to the limit, of every power it could be held to possess.
A constitutional amendment in regard to local government adopted in 1898 provides that any city or village, by a foursevenths vote of its electors, may adopt a charter drawn by a commission (appointed by the local district judges) and proposed by such commission within six months of its appointment.
Locomotives and motor cars, being dealt with by special acts, are excluded from the operation of the act, as are bicycles and tricycles (dealt with by the Local Government Act 1888), and vehicles drawn or propelled by hand, but every machine or implement drawn by animals comes within the act.
But Caesar was not content with framing a uniform system of local government 3 Since the discovery of a fragmentary municipal charter at Tarentum (see RoME), dating from a period shortly after the Social War, doubts have been cast on the identification of the tables of Heraclea with Caesar's municipal statute.
Officials of the local government union Unison reacted angrily.
So while the Treasury has reaped a windfall as a result of Britain 's recent economic success, local government has not benefitted directly.
A person 's pensionable remuneration is used to calculate their local government pension.
He retired from the council in 1964 after the reorganization of local government.
Yet it 's also part of local government 's own self-induced problem too.
This forms part of a wider initiative between central and local government to rationalize and streamline existing planning processes.
If environmental concerns prompt a state or local government to take serious action, it must pay top dollar for the privilege.
The Local Government Group is the professional association for all solicitors and trainees employed by Local Government in England and Wales.
The establishment of Best Value practices in local government should be underpinned by a commitment to quality services.
Unison 's head of local government Heather Wakefield said she believed he was taking an open-minded approach.
In the words of Labor 's own manifesto, regional assemblies will require ' a predominantly unitary system of local government '.
These assets had (due to a series of local government reorganizations in the area) become vested in the unitary authority.
The following report is not available to the public by virtue of the above section of the Local Government Act 1972.
Fortunately, tax incentives are available at the state and federal level and in many cases local government levels as well.
Even if you live in a less populated town, it's worth checking with your local government and utility companies to see what is offered in your area.
Check with your local government office to see if any permits are required to upgrade the lighting system in your home.
Display posters, start petitions to boycott local supermarkets and liquor stores who sell to minors, and voice your concerns to your local government.
Programs for public law officers and state or local government employees vary by state, so check with your employer for specific guidelines.
Some utility companies and local government provide bulbs to the public in an effort to encourage their use, so check around your local area for more details.
You may access these records, depending upon the regulations in effect by federal, state and local government agencies.
Many Federal, state and local government websites contain indexes and images of public records.
A database of Florida marriage records from county clerks of the court is available from MyFloridaCounty.com, a project of the Florida Local Government Internet Consortium.
If you are interested in finding local government job listings, contact the human resources department for the municipality or county where you would like to work and inquire about openings and the hiring process.
Speak with a local government official you admire.
State and Local Government on the Net is a directory of government websites at the state, county and city levels.
The website mentioned above, State and Local Government on the Net, also includes links to each region, county, city, town and village of each state.
The Georgia Local Government Access Marketplace lists available government jobs throughout the state of Georgia.
Federal, state and local government agencies are required to post their job openings and hiring procedures where interested parties can find them.
Most general job search websites contain sections with both national and local government jobs.
Check with your lender to see if you qualify, and I also suggest that you check with your local government to make sure that you can get the permits necessary to construct a new well.
To minimize fees, consider a federally-insured Home Equity Conversion Mortgage or look for a reverse mortgage offered by a state or local government.
Public officers such as law enforcement, teachers, firefighters, EMTs, non-profit and local government bodies may qualify for special discounts in buying HUD properties.
Your state and local government may have more provisions than the federal government.
Any grant that the federal government does award to a small business, generally comes through the state or local government.
A block grant is a large sum of money granted by the federal government to a state or local government.
Local churches, community centers and your local government can help you to find these organizations within your city and region.
State and local government determine where the grant will be used and for what purposes.
To make charitable donations of building materials for houses in Maryland to organizations outside of these, consider contacting local government or churches to learn about the needs of your community.
Obtaining grants for nonprofit organizations from the federal, state or local government is possible if your organization meets the IRS guidelines of a nonprofit entity.
The states or local government then determines which organizations qualify for the grants.
Try to network with local government so as to find ways to bring more attention to your event.
If the roads in your area are too dangerous for bikers or walkers, lobby your local government and ask for work to be done on the bike paths and running trails.
Work with key individuals and your local government to help rally the support you need to create a successful non-profit organization.
Get a business license from the local government offices.
Inform federal, state and local government agencies that you will no longer be in business.
Contact your local government representatives with your concerns.
Set up a local government system for the city (dubbed "The Council" on the show) - Even when some may claim that adults don't seem to have the running of the government down pat, CBS expected these children to create a successful one.
Under the Local Government Act of 1898 Limerick became one of the six county boroughs having a separate county council.