The decision produced a local uproar.
The local police think it's tied into the kidnapping he 'solved'.
Sure. He was like those guys in the musicals—loveable rogues who roll into town and catch the eye of the local star-struck gal and sweep them off their feet.
My grandfather had a local Carnegie Library.
The local vehicles that passed him invariable gave him a wave and a wide berth.
The local folks call this spot the writing on the rock.
I should be thankful to do nothing, but here on the one hand the local nobility have done me the honor to choose me to be their marshal; it was all I could do to get out of it.
Since leaving college, she'd stayed in shape through the local gym, where she lifted weights and forced herself onto a cardio machine twice a week.
Was there anything hinky in your local papers after the full moon.
He's a rescue from a local rancher.
They'd gone shopping at the local Goodwill for their polyester outfits.
Maybe she gave lessons to local kids or was a tutor.
Romas hadn't even accompanied her to the row house but sent her on a small shuttle to the local park and left her there.
We all were excellent customers of Plotkins, the local furniture store.
It had been in all the local papers, but she wasn't sure she could talk about it without getting emotional.
"Fitzgerald is a local, too," Fred answered.
"It's a local energy grid controller," Lana said.
He'd hit some local bars later until he found just what he wanted.
With luck, he'll tell us if it's our man or some local hoods trashing Julie's place.
The newlyweds spent the night at a local luxury hotel-- also an arrangement made by Kiera-- and she was left alone in the row house full of boxes.
Recommended local hospices attached to report.
The town of Ouray was so oblivious to these frequent winter gifts from Mother Nature that snow caused not a hitch in the local activities.
The town of Ouray was so oblivious to these frequent winter gifts from Mother Nature that snow caused not a hitch in the local activities.
He took in the various scenes, to include the local news, which blasted photos of the black skies and mounting waves of the tropical-storm-turned-hurricane.
We decided to leave the house and reconnoiter at a local restaurant, one that served wine.
Sunday began with a lost boy who we located in a local forest but was found by the time we called in the tip.
It was some local peeping Tom by the sound of it.
He was willing to personally alert the local police and have them check out the vehicle even without clear cut identification.
Someone check the local papers for sales offerings the last week.
At some point, the loan is repaid to the local agency and your money comes back to you.
The problem is her abductor is the revered local police chief!
Fred explained that the New York sister was staying in her motor home at a local campground.
Together we let a dog choose us at the local humane society.
Where in hell was a local mall?
At sixteen, while vacationing at a New Hampshire camp for girls, she had become involved with a local boy, Donald Ryland.
At sixteen, while vacationing at a New Hampshire camp for girls, she had become involved with a local boy, Donald Ryland.
A Colorado farm boy was found cowering from his father's wrath in the loft of a barn while a retarded Illinois ten year old was lured to the house of a local registered sex offender after being told his parents had sold him to the man.
New local acquaintances never questioned us about work and we displayed no interest in anything pertaining to crime or mayhem.
I can see where the local law enforcement people wouldn't be thrilled with these folks looking over their shoulder and pushing them.
The Fourth of July, with its old-fashioned local celebrations and guaranteed full house was but a week away.
The box, advertised as containing Ouray, Colorado correspondence from the last century and "other items of local interest," was offered via the Internet at three hundred dollars.
Dean just smiled and picked up the local newspaper.
The box, advertised as containing Ouray, Colorado correspondence from the last century and "other items of local interest," was offered via the Internet at three hundred dollars.
Knowing the local police included Detective Jackson, I suggested he contact the Simi Valley attorney first to find out if the vehicle I saw was in fact his.
The thought was that the overseer, being local, would be able to separate the lazy from the truly needy.
With the help of local agencies around the world that have experience in micro-loans, a would-be borrower—say, a fish seller in the Philippines—uploads a picture and an explanation of what she wants the loan for.
Actually, I'm a lawyer, working with local counsel on a pending case.
A delicate balance of local easements, public involvement and volunteer labor was slowly assembled.
He called the local sheriff in Ouray and said he plans to come out and haul his 'mentally stressed wife' back East with him.
"Probably from the men's room wall at a local bar," Dean grumbled.
He called the local sheriff in Ouray and said he plans to come out and haul his 'mentally stressed wife' back East with him.
Keep your fingers crossed it was a local and not one of the tourists passing through.
Dean returned to Bird Song mid-morning, showered, and walked the three blocks to Diversions, a combination used book store, coffee shop, and local gathering place, on Sixth Street, a half block from Main.
When I go to far-flung places, I often know little of local customs and, through ignorance, I have committed more than one faux pas.
Every week, I buy my milk from a small local dairy on the day it comes forth from the cow.
What about extradition, if a citizen of one country visits another and breaks the local law?
A local realtor manages it and rents out the spaces for them.
By the time Dean strolled by a few moments later, red-faced Fitzgerald was getting an ear full from a half dozen tourists and an elderly local, known for his unwavering opinions and surly disposition.
The headlines of the local newspaper proudly announced, "Under Sheriff Solves Fifty-Year-Old Murder," which Lydia neither confirmed nor denied, nor did the Deans offer public comment.
I don't think local customs and national characteristics will go away.
He was an excellent speaker and unabashedly told the gathering how he'd found the local sheriff's office in disarray and how it lacked up-to-date tools to deal with modern problems.
He was an excellent speaker and unabashedly told the gathering how he'd found the local sheriff's office in disarray and how it lacked up-to-date tools to deal with modern problems.
I'm sure shooting ghosts in town must be against some local ordinance.
I'm sure shooting ghosts in town must be against some local ordinance.
Fred was referring to a coffee klatch of elderly town patriarchs whose words and advice on just about anything was often quoted in the local paper.
The menu features a range of fresh, well prepared dishes using local ingredients.
We think it was some local.
There was a biography on him from some local storage shed association that made him some kind of muck a muck a few years back.
"Good to see you, Charlie," he said, shaking hands with the local commander.
Each passing year brought the mayhem further northward, causing the old timers and the local newspaper to fret for the good old days when violence was no worse than a dog fight.
Most of their friends were local to Maid Marian Lane where they had lived for nine years.
His route to Philly looked like a drunkard's path, zigzagging a series of country roads that were at times crowded with local traffic.
The vehicle was in police custody in Norfolk but the authorities there said it would be released to the World Wide local office shortly.
I'm going down to Norfolk Friday to talk to the local police, but so far, there isn't a thing to point to the guy skipping.
He either sends in out-of-towners like this guy or gets big-dollar local counsel.
Hear-tell he's one of the local lawyers defending some of the Philadelphia family's bad boys.
We use local doctors and dentists and Jeff tries to schedule evening appointments because it's difficult with his working in Philadelphia.
That's pretty much the picture the local office gave me.
What about the local guy they gave a send off—Fletcher something.
The insurance boys at the local office are picking it up tonight.
We checked a couple of bars local to the World Wide office but they were crazy-busy after-work places and no one remembers diddly.
A defrocked priest conspiring to blow up the local abbey.
There was a Smith and a Jones, each with local addresses that sounded fake, and Zeke Ambrowski of Raleigh, North Carolina.
"Mr. Jones," was Jack Webster, a local realtor, who was apparently having an affair with the wife of a city council member.
You go out with the local World Wide guy and have pizza and beer—lots of beer, considering what he spent.
It's probably some traveling salesman who has a local married dame....
The local FBI had stepped into the picture and hustled action on the body, tentatively identified as Billie Wassermann—perhaps on an alphabetical basis only.
The Ice Lady, Linda Segal, was going full bore at the Sentinel, trying to convince her reading public that the poor lad might have been saved had the local police properly conducted the search for the missing boy in a timely fashion.
So you called all the local dealers to find out if anyone named Cleary or Byrne or Corbin bought a new motor home?
Tom DeLeo continued doing legwork on the Wassermann case, a curious jurisdictional mess with the Federal boys in charge but legions of local flat feet in scattered municipalities doing their grunt work.
Dean looked over his shoulder, expecting to see a local postmark but read, written in block letters, Rollins, Kansas.
"I stopped by World Wide Insurance's local office too," Fred continued.
No ads were listed in the local papers.
Fred switched the dial to a local talk show.
His reasoning was that they could afford the new furniture and it supported local businesses.
The local barbarians told us of its power, how it can heal a man from death and stop a storm from destroying a village.
Fortunately Morino saw the ad for Apple Hors Devours in the local paper and recognized Alfonso's cell phone number before they made their first sale.
Sure, and I was nothing but a temporary diversion - a local hick to provide you with entertainment.
Their greatest social obligation had been the local church fund raiser.
The local Guardians will be here any minute.
Xander picked up on one of the Guardians from the local station moving towards the alley.
Her date is one of your local Guardians, Xander replied with bitterness.
In a variety of ways it does a great deal of social service similar to that of gilds of help. Its administration has always been in the hands of laymen, and it works through local "conferences" or branches, the general council having been suspended because it declined to accept a cardinal as its official head.
Autumn is warmer than spring, especially in the coastal regions, and this is exaggerated in the eastern region by local land winds, which replace the cool sea-breezes of summer: overcoats are ordinarily worn in Spain and Italy till July, and are then put aside till October.
Local winds form an important feature in nearly all the coast climates of the Mediterranean, especially in winter, where they are primarily caused by the rapid change of temperature from the sea to the snow-clad hinterlands.
The dust is chiefly of local origin, but partly comes from the Sahara.
Elsewhere local surface currents are developed, either drifts due to the direct action of the winds, or streams produced by wind action heaping water up against the land; but these nowhere rise to the dignity of a distinct current system, although they are often sufficient to obliterate the feeble tidal action characteristic of the Mediterranean.
All the land was lost in the next few years, partly by the revolt of the local farmers.
The first ascent was made in 1786 by two Chamonix men, Jacques Balmat and Dr Michel Paccard, and the second in 1787 by Balmat with two local men.
It is thus difficult to form a judgment as to what has most claim to acceptance as the general law, and what may be regarded as local or exceptional.
The large difference between the means obtained at Potsdam and Kremsmtinster, as compared to the comparative similarity between the results for Kew and Karasjok, suggests that the mean value of the potential gradient may be much more dependent on local conditions than on difference of latitude.
Local and regional peculiarities, however, disappear almost wholly in the 5th and 4th centuries, under the overpowering influence of Athens.
The beautiful frescoes with scenes from the life of the saint (a local saint who died at the age of fifteen) are the earliest work of Domenico Ghirlandaio, completed before 1475.
They include the local board of health and the board of jury commissioners.
Its waters are in local repute.
Agriculture exists only for the supply of local needs.
There is little export of the news with the only means of communication being local travelers.
The large transit trade and the local trade of the island centre upon Valletta.
The many important objects found in these excavations are preserved in the local museum.
The youngest servant of the Company claimed the right of trading on his own account, free from taxation and from local jurisdiction, not only for himself but also for every native subordinate whom he might permit to use his name.
All are built in the Doric style, of the local porous stone, which is of a warm red brown colour, full of fossil shells and easily corroded when exposed to the air.
For widows or deep mourning the peculiar cut of the local costume is preserved, but carried out entirely in black.
But the festivals, especially those of mountain villages or of pilgrimage churches, attract in the summer a great concourse of people, all in their local costumes.
The sardine fishery, which might also be important, at present serves mainly for local consumption.
It is estimated that Sardinia pays, in local and general, direct and indirect taxation of all kinds, 23,000,000 lire (920,000), a sum corresponding to 35.44 lire per head.
In the local and municipal politics of Berlin again he took a leading part, and as a member of the municipal council was largely responsible for the transformation which came over the city in the last thirty years of the 19th century.
Here they had their own lands, and some form of local government by elders, and appear to have been prosperous and contented; probably the only demand made on them by the Babylonian government was the payment of taxes.
But he was a profoundly interested observer of affairs at home and among 1 The Assyrian term abubu is used of the great primeval deluge (in the Gilgamesh epic), and also of the local floods common in the country.
His strongest denunciation is directed against the religious practices of the time in Judea - the worship of the Canaanite local deities (the Baals), the Phoenician Tammuz, and the sun and other Babylonian and Assyrian gods (vi., viii., xvi., xxiii.); he maintained vigorously the prophetic struggle for the sole worship of Yahweh.
The large number of Slavonic local names in Albania, even in districts where no trace of a Slavonic population exists, bears witness to the extensive Servian and Bulgarian immigrations in the early middle ages, but the original inhabitants gradually ousted or assimilated the invaders.
The clan is generally subdivided into smaller communities (mahale), each administered by a local notable or jobar.
Since the time of Ali Pasha, who broke the power of the local chieftains, southern Albania has been subject to the central Turkish power; before that period the mountaineers of Suli and Khimara enjoyed an independence similar to that of the Gheg tribes.
Unity of aim and effort, however, seems foreign to the Albanians, except in defence of local or tribal privileges.
In the 14th century the district was first overrun by the Mahommedans, after which it was annexed to the newly established Hindu kingdom of Vijayanagar, an official of which named Dhar Rao, according to local tradition, built the fort at Dharwar town in 1403.
The extent to which the employment of the local preacher is characteristic of Methodism may be seen from the fact that in the United Kingdom while there are only about 5000 Methodist ministers, there are more than 18,000 congregations; some 13,000 congregations, chiefly in the villages, are dependent on local preachers.
V.) local and travelling preachers, and the organization of local societies with class leaders, stewards and trustees.
Denver had already been incorporated by a provisional local (extra legal) " legislature," and the Kansas legislature gave a charter to a rival company which the Denver people bought out.
He connects the Christian ministry, not with the worship of the Temple, in which were priests and sacrificial ritual, but with that of the synagogue, which was a local institution providing spiritual edification by the reading and exposition of Scripture.'
In 1819 he removed with his parents to Chillicothe, Ohio, where he attended the local academy for two years, studied law in the office of his uncle, William Allen,' and in 1835 was admitted to the bar, becoming his uncle's law partner.
His early education was cared for by his father and by the local rabbi, David Frankel.
The members accidentally discovered that the fear of it had a great influence over the lawless but superstitious blacks, and soon the club expanded into a great federation of regulators, absorbing numerous local bodies that had been formed in the absence of civil law and partaking of the nature of the old English neighbourhood police and the ante-bellum slave patrol.
For purposes of local administration the provinces are divided into departments.
The service is governed by the international telegraph regulations, but is subject to local inspection and interruption in times of political disorder.
In the national capital and territories it is supervised by a national council of education with the assistance of local school boards; in the 14 provinces it is under provincial control.
Narrow gauge and normal gauge railways of local interest covered 3905 m.
The chief local bodies concerned with commerce and industry are the chambres de commerce and the chambres consultatives darts et manufactures, the members of which are elected from their own number by the traders and industrialists of a certain standing.
Local Government.France is divided into 86 administrative departments (including Corsica) or 87 if the Territory of Belfort, a remnant of the Haut Rhin department, be included.
Although the management of local affairs is in the hands of the prefect his power with regard to these is checked by a deliberative body known as the general council (conseil general).
The general council controls the departmental administration of the prefect, and its decisions on points of local government are usually final.
It assigns its quota of taxes (contingent) to each arrondissement, authorizes the sale, purchase or exchange of departmental property, superintends the management thereof, authorizes the construction of new roads, railways or canals, and advises on matters of local interest.
The local affairs of the commune are decided by the municipal council, and its decisions become operative after the expiration of a month, save in matters which involve interests transcending those of the commune.
But in communes the revenues of which exceed 120,000, the budget is always submitted to the president of the republic. The ordinary revenues include the produce of additional centimes allocated to communal purposes, the rents and profits of communal property, sums produced by municipal taxes and dues, concessions to gas, water and other companies, and by the octroi or duty on a variety of articles imported into the commune for local consumption.
The Territorial Army and its reserve (members of which undergo two short periods of training) are, however, allocated to local service.
As provided by the law of 1900 all local charges are borne by the colonies-supplemented at need by grants in aidbut the military expenses are borne by the state.
The colonies are divisible into two classes, (I) those possessing considerable powers of local self-government, (2) those in which the local government is autocratic. To this second class may be added the protectorates (and some colonies) where the native form of government is maintained under the supervision of French officials.
The governor is aided by a privy council, an advisory body to which the governor nominates a minority of unofficial members, and a council general, to which is confided the control of local affairs, including the voting of the budget.
In each of the governments general there is a financial controller with extensive powers who corresponds directly with the metropolitan authorities (decree of March 22, 1907)., Details and local differences hi form of government will be found under the headings of the various colonies and protectorates.
Arnold (London, 1888); articles on Local Government in France in the Stock Exchange Official Intelligence Annuals (London, I908 and 1909); M.
Local laws, subject to approval by the legislative council of Fiji, are promulgated by a regulation board, composed of the commissioner, native chiefs of the seven districts into which the island is divided, and two native magistrates.
The last years of his life were spent principally at Gratz, where he held a local command in the Austrian army.
committed by Nun() de Guzman), was removed to Valladolid (Morelia) a few years later to be combined with a local college, and was rebuilt in 1882.
There is a fine monument commemorating the war of 1870-71, one (1859) to the local patriot Ferdinand von Schill, and another (1900) to the poet and patriot E.
Soap, candles and tobacco are also manufactured, and the town is a centre for local agricultural trade.
Inscriptions found by the recent excavations seem to prove that it must be identified as the shrine of the local goddess Aphaea, identified by Pausanias with Britomartis and Dictynna.
This animal can scarcely be regarded as more than a local race, and should be styled Oreamnus montanus kennedyi.
The city is generously provided with all the modern public services, including two street car lines, local and long distance telephone lines, electric power and light, and waterworks.
200 we find there the city Istakhr (properly Stakhr) as the seat of the local governors.
The next stage (b) is connected with the suppression of the local high-places or minor shrines in favour of a central sanctuary.
6-8)2 The Deuteronomic history of the monarchy actually ascribes to the Judaean king Josiah (621 B.C.) the suppression of the high-places, and states that the local priests were brought to Jerusalem and received support, but did not minister at the altar (2 Kings xxiii.
This conception of the Sabbath, however, necessarily underwent an important modification when the local sanctuaries were abolished under the "Deuteronomic" reform, and those sacrificial rites and feasts which in Hosea's time formed the essence of every act of religion were limited to the central altar, which most men could visit only at rare intervals.
The Sabbath did not share the same fate, but with the abolition of local sacrifices it became for most Israelites an institution of humanity divorced from ritual.
Whiting, mullet, gar-fish, rock cod and many others known by local names, are in the lists of edible fishes belonging to New South Wales and Victoria.
But the Transvaal War of 1899-1902, to which Australia sent 6310 volunteers (principally mounted rifles), and the gradual increase of military sentiment, brought the question more to the front, and more and more attention was given to making Australian defence a matter of local concern.
The mines, however, are situated too far from the coast to permit of serious competition with Newcastle in an export trade, and the output is practically restricted to supplying local requirements.
It is said to yield well, and a quantity of the manufactured alum is sent to Sydney for local consumption.
The total gold production of the country is from £14,500,000 to £16,000,000, and as not more than three-quarters of a million are required to strengthen existing local stocks, the balance is usually available for export, and the average export of the precious metal during the ten years, 1896-1905, was £12,500,000 per annum.
Each family, or family group, had a dual organization which has been termed (i) the Social, (2) the Local.
The Social or matriarchal took precedence of the Local or patriarchal organization.
These local researches, and the more comprehensive attempts of Leichhardt and Mitchell to solve the chief problems of.
It was only by the London Government Act 1899 that Woolwich was brought into line with other London districts, for in 1855, as it had previously become a local government district under a local board, it was left untouched by the Metropolis Management Act.
In the first Gladstone administration he held a variety of public offices, finally becoming, in 1871, the first president of the local government board.
In the same year Stansfeld again became president of the local government board.
No place was reckoned to be a town unless it had received a Rise of charter from its sovereign or its local lord.
It was with the expectation that he might, with local aid, seize the castle, that Llewellyn invaded this district in December 1282, when he was surprised and killed by Stephen de Frankton in a ravine called Cwm Llewellyn on the left bank of the Irfon, 22 m.
According to local tradition he was buried at Cefn-y-bedd ("the ridge of the grave") close by, but it is more likely that his headless trunk was taken to Abbey Cwmhir.
For the administration of local affairs the state is divided into 14 counties and 245 townships.
Women have the right to vote in all elections relating to schools and school officers in cities, towns and graded school districts, and also the right to be elected to any local school position or to the office of township clerk.
The public-school system is under the supervision of a state superintendent of education, elected biennially by the General Assembly, and local schools are under union superintendents and in a few cases under town superintendents.
The revenues for educational purposes are derived mainly from a state tax of 8 on the general list, from local taxes, and from the interest on the permanent school fund, which (including the money paid to Vermont by the United States government when a portion of the treasury surplus was distributed among the states in 1837) amounted in 1908 to $1,120,218.
A few of the inhabitants were wounded and one was killed and about $200,000 was taken from the vaults of the local banks.
Local industries include the manufacture of coarse cloth, esparto fabrics, oil and flour.
When he was in Europe he went to the bank to handle the conversion of his money into the local currency.
Cotton, cloth, gold and silver ornaments, copper wares, fancy articles in bone and ivory, excellent saddles and shoes are among the products of the local industry.
Fokia has acquired local importance however as a port of call for coasting steamers, and it is used to some degree as a summer residence by Smyrniotes.
A college, founded by government in 1853, was made over in 1888 to a local committee, being mainly supported by the munificence of the rani Svarnamayi.
There are local variations in the use of "hake" as a name; in America the "silver hake" (Merluccius bilinearis), sometimes called "whiting," and "Pacific hake" (Merluccius productus) are also food -fishes of inferior quality.
Guideand travel-books generally spell the name Sebastiyeh, which is not a correct rendering of the local pronunciation.
the big drum, cymbals and triangle, was used by Haydn in his Military Symphony, and Mozart in his Entfilhrung, for reasons of "local colour"; it appears as an extreme means of climax in the finale of Beethoven's 9th symphony.
per minute, but these speeds vary with local circumstances.
A metropolis demanded tribute and military support from its subject cities but left their local cults and customs unaffected.
The judges at Babylon seem to have formed a superior court to those of provincial towns, but a defendant might elect to answer the charge before the local court and refuse to plead at Babylon.
In such cases it is usual to employ a local battery to produce the signals, and to close the local battery circuit by means of a relay working.
When a current passes through R the armature A is attracted and the local circuit is closed through the armature at b.
The local 1_ E I battery B 1 then sends a current through the in FIG.
the side on which no current passes through the local circuit.
when the local battery is coils.
In order to avoid this sparking, every local instrument in the British Postal Telegraph Department has a " spark " coil connected across the terminals of the electromagnet.
The result is that the armature of the relay is attracted, and currents are sent through the sounder from the local battery, producing the signals from the distant station.
The current thus sent to the line may be made either to act directly on the printing instrument or to close a local circuit by means of a relay.
Since each letter is represented by a specific combination of positive and negative currents, it is possible, by means of the combinations, to close a local circuit at any given interval, and so cause the paper to be pressed against the periphery of the type-wheel at the time when the letter required is opposite.
In the receiver there is a strong electromagnet, excited by a local current, which has in its circuit two annular air gaps, across which the magnetic field is practically uniform and constant.
The relay was employed to actuate through a local battery B2 an ordinary Morse printing telegraphic instrument M.
In series with the tube is placed a single voltaic cell and a telegraphic relay, and Marconi added certain coils placed across the spark contacts of the relay to prevent the local sparks affecting the coherer.
The relay itself served to actuate a Morse printing telegraph by means of a local battery.
In later improvements the secondary circuit of this jigger was interrupted by a small condenser, and the terminals of the relay and local cell were connected to the plates of this condenser, whilst the sensitive tube was attached to the outer ends of the secondary circuit.
This formed a local circuit at the transmitting station.
The territory in which a telephone administration operates is usually divided into a number of local areas, in each of which one or more exchanges are placed.
When the subscribers in a local area exceed a certain number, or when for some other reason it is not convenient or economical to connect all the subscribers in the area to one exchange, it is usual to divide the area into a number of districts in each of which an exchange is placed, and to connect these district exchanges together by means of " junction circuits."
A system of wires, similar to that which connects the district exchanges in an area, links together the various local areas in the territory, and sometimes the territory of one administration with that of another.
These inter-area or long-distance lines, called trunk circuits in England, terminate at one exchange in each local area, and between that exchange and the various district exchanges junction circuits are provided for the purpose of connecting subscribers to the trunk lines.
- Telephone Set with Transmitter in a Local Circuit.
7, the microphone, a battery and the primary of an induction coil in a local circuit, and putting the line in circuit with the secondary of the induction coil, which acted as the transmitter.
This apparatus has two coils, one of which, connected across the line, is provided for the purpose of projecting the shutter, while the other is intended for its restoration and is joined in a local circuit arranged to be closed when a plug is inserted in any one of the associated jacks.
The system of the British Post Office is worked as follows: A subscriber desiring a long-distance connexion calls up his local exchange in the ordinary way, and the operator there, being informed that a trunk connexion is desired, extends the subscriber's line to the Post Office by means of a record circuit.
The record operator then removes her speaking apparatus from the circuit, and the local operator, receiving a disconnect signal, severs the connexion at the local exchange.
If there be a line free, or when the turn of the call is reached, particulars of the connexion wanted are passed to the distant end, and the trunk operators request the local exchanges to connect the subscribers by means of junction I F..?
The call is controlled by the trunk operators, the junction circuits being equipped in such a manner that the subscribers' signals appear at the trunk exchanges, from which point disconnecting signals are sent automatically to the local exchanges, when the connexions between the trunk and the junction circuits are removed.
(b) The obstructive use made by the local authorities of their power to veto underground wayleaves.
It compelled the companies to sell their trunk wires to the Post Office, leaving the local exchanges in the hands of the companies.
Local authorities (particularly London and Glasgow) refused to permit the company to lay wires underground.
The trunk wires were transferred to the Post Office in pursuance of the policy of 1892, but for all practical purposes the local authorities had vetoed the permission of the government to the company to lay wires underground.
The corporation of Glasgow having persisted in its efforts to obtain a licence, the Treasury appointed Sheriff Andrew Jameson (afterwards Lord Ardwall) a special commissioner to hold a local inquiry in Glasgow to report whether the telephone service in that city was adequate and efficient and whether it was expedient to grant the corporation a licence.
Hanbury, Financial Secretary to the Treasury and representative in the House of Commons of the PostmasterGeneral, advocated the granting of licences to local authorities.
While considering that a really efficient Post Office service would afford the best means for securing such competition, it recommended that general, immediate and effective competition should at once be undertaken either by the Post Office or by local authorities.
The Telegraph Act 1899, while providing for intercommunication between the telephone systems of the local authorities and the company, did not give the Post Office the right to demand intercommunication between its exchanges and those of the company.
The Post Office co-operated with the London County Council to put difficulties in the way of the company which had placed wires underground in London with the consent of the local road authorities.
The effect of the unsettled policy of the Post Office until 1905 and of the difficulties created by the local authorities was that the National Telephone Company was never able to do its best to develop the enterprise on the most efficient lines.
The Postmaster-General also agreed to lay underground wires for the company at an annual rental of L1 per mile of double wire in any local area in which the company was operating, but not in areas in which the municipalities had established exchanges.
The principal elective local administrative bodies are the provincial and the communal councils.
In the upper valleys of the Alps there are many local varieties, one of which at Ossola is like the Scottish blacklace.
The principal reasons for the general decrease are the fall in prices through foreign competition and the closing of certain markets, the diseases of plants and the increased outlay required to combat them, and the growth of State and local taxation.
One of the great evils of Italian agricultural taxation is its lack of elasticity and of adaptation to local conditions.
The universities are maintained by the state and by their own ancient resources; while the higher special schools are maintained conjointly by the state, the province, the commune and (sometimes) the local chamber of commerce.
Most large towns contain important state or communal archives, iii which a considerable amount of research is being done by local investigators; the various societies for local history (Societd di Storia Patria) do very good work and issue valuable publications; the treasures which the archives contain are by no means exhausted.
There is a council of state with advisory functions, which can also decide certain questions of administration, especially applications from local authorities and conflicts between ministries, and a court of accounts, which has the right of examining all details of state expenditure.
The revenue in the Italian financial year 1905-1906 (July I, 1905 to June 30, 1906) was 102,486,108, and the expenditure 99,945,253, or, subtracting the partite di giro, 99,684,121 and 97,143,266, leaving a surplus of 2,54o,855.f The surplus was made up by contributions from every branch of the effective revenue, except the contributions and repayments from local authorities.
On an average Italian landowners pay nearly 25% of their revenues from land in government and local land tax.
Local government was modified by the law of the 10th of February 1889 and by posterior enactments.
Besides possessing competence in regard to local government elections, which previously came within the jurisdiction of the provincial deputations, the provincial administrative juntas discharge magisterial functions in administrative affairs, and deal with appeals presented by private persons against acts of the communal and provincial administrations.
The former qualifications for electorship in local government elections have been modified, and it is now sufficient to pay five lire annually in, direct taxes, five lire of certain communal taxes, or a certain rental (which varies according to the population of a commune), instead of being obliged to pay, as previously, at least five lire annually of direct taxes to the state.
In consequence of this change the number of local electors increased by more than onethird between 1887-1889; it decreased, however, as a result of an extraordinary revision of the registers in 1894.
The ratio of local electors to population is in Piedmont 79%, but in Sicily less than.
The sanction of the Local provincial administrative junta is necessary for sales or ~
Communal revenues are drawn from the proceeds of communal property, interest upon capital, taxes and local dues.
The most important of the local dues is the gate tax, or dazio di consumo, which may be either a surtax upon commodities (such as alcoholic drinks or meat), having already paid customs duty at the frontier, in which case the local surtax may not exceed 50% of the frontier duty, or an exclusively communal duty limited to 10% on flour, bread and farinaceous products,2 and to 20% upon other commodities.
The Italian local authorities, communes and provinces alike, have considerably increased their indebtedness since 1882, The ratio of communal and provincial debt per inhabitant has grown from 30.79 lire (~1, 4s.
Split up into numerous and mutually hostile communities, they never, through the fourteen centuries which have elapsed since the end of the old Western empire, shook off the yoke of foreigners completely; they never until lately learned to merge their local and conflicting interests in the common good of undivided Italy.
A considerable amount of local autonomy was allowed, and dependence cn Vienna was very slight and not irksome.
Depretis and his colleague Genala, minister of public works, experienced great difficulty in securing parliamentary sanction for the conventions, not so much on account of their defective character, as from the opposition of local interests anxious tc extort new lines from the government.
Minghetti, in a trenchant exposure of the parliamentary condition of Italy during this period, cites a case in which a credit for certain public works was, during a debate in the Chamber, increased by the government from 6,600,000 to 9,000,000 in order to conciliate local political interests.
Here and there it was based upon a bastard Socialism, ~ in other places it was made a means of municipal ~ party warfare under the guidance of the local mafia, and in some districts it was simply popular effervescence against the local octrois on.
The strikes and other economic agitations at this time may be divided roughly into three groups: strikes in industrial centres for higher wages, shorter hours and better labor conditions generally; strikes of agricultural laborers in northern Italy for better contracts with the landlords; disturbances among the south Italian peasantry due to low wages, unemployment (particularly in Apulia), and the claims of the laborers to public land occupied illegally by the landlords, combined with local feuds and the struggle for power of the various influential families.
Whereas in the past the strikes had been purely local and due to local conditions, they now appeared of more general and political character, and the sympathy strike came to be a frequent and undesirable addition to the ordinary economic agitation.
At the elections for the local bodies the Catholics had already been permitted to vote, and, availing themselves of the privilege, they gained seats in many municipal councils and obtained the majority in some.
The Archivii storici and Deputazloni di storia patria of the various Italian towns and provinces contain a great deal of valuable material for local history.
The garrison consists of 140 British and 300 Indian troops, with a few local European volunteers.
The harbour of Port Blair is well supplied with buoys and harbour lights, and is crossed by ferries at fixed intervals, while there are several launches for hauling local traffic. On Ross Island there is a lighthouse visible for 19 m.
Local posts are frequent, but there is no telegraph and the mails are irregular.
The circular system is developed continuously over the entire subumbral surface, and the velum represents a special local development of this system, at a region where it is able to act at the greatest mechanical advantage in producing the contractions of the umbrella by which the animal progresses.
Alexander now contemplated sending Cesare to Romagna to subdue the turbulent local despots, and with the help of the French king carve a principality for himself out of those territories owing nominal allegiance to the pope.
The local church sought recovery of it before the tribunals of the Empire.
The extent of jurisdiction of archdeacons depended much upon local customs. In England the custom was generally in their favour.
In Belgium causes appealed to Rome had to be committed to local delegates (Van Espen, pars iii.
Abroad unsuccessful attempts were made by local councils to enact that officials and vicars-general should be in holy orders (Hefele on Councils of Tortosa in 1429 and Sixth of Milan in 1582).
But local varieties of speech continued to eixst.
Franke also shows that there were local peculiarities in small matters of spelling and inflexion, and that the particular form of the language used in and about the Avanti district, of which the capital was Ujjeni (a celebrated pre-Buddhistic city), was the basis of the language used in the sacred texts as we now have them.
The amber of Sicily seems not to have been recognized in ancient times, for it is not mentioned by local authorities like Diodorus Siculus.
that the local authority, before granting a licence, " shall take into consideration whether, in the neighbourhood, the reasonable requirements of the public are satisfied with regard to the purchase of poisonous substances, and also any objections they may receive from the chief officer of police, or from any existing vendors of the substances to which the application relates."
The fact that a voluntary society with limited funds must contest the illegal decisions of local councils, without government support, seems likely to render this portion of the act of 1908 a dead letter.
With the erection of Maesyfed into the shire of Radnor in 1536 Rhayader was named as assize-town for the newly formed county in conjunction with New Radnor; but in 1542, on account of a local riot, the town was deprived of this privilege in favour of Presteign.
The full details of the siege and massacre will be found under Indian Mutiny, and here it will suffice to refer to the local memorials of that evil time.
A specialized conducting tissue of this kind, used mainly for transmitting organic substances, is always developed in plants where the region of assimilative activity is local in the plant-body, as it is in practically all the higher plants.
Many aphides, &c., puncture the leaves, suck out the sap, and induce va:ious local deformations, arrest of growth, pustular swellings, &c., and if numerous all the evils of defoliation may follow.
Various local hypertrophies, including galls, result from the increased growth of young tissues irritated by the punctures of insects, or by the presence of eggs or larvae left behind.
They may occur on all parts, buds, leaves, stems or roots, as shown by the numerous species of Cynips on oak, Phylloxera on vines, &c. The local damage is small, - but the general injury to assimilation, absorption and other functions, may be important if the numbers increase.
In other cases the Fungus is virulent and rampant, and, instead of a local effect, exerts a general destructive action throughout the plant-e.g.
In a large number of cases, however, the disease is purely local, and does not itself extend far into the organ or tissue affected.
Phytophthora in potatoes., If, on the other hand, the irritating agent is local in its action, causing only a few cells to react, we have the various pimples, excrescences, outgrowths, &c., exhibited in such cases as Ustilago Maydis on the maize, various galls, witchesbrooms, &c.
NecrosisA number of diseases the obvious symptoms of which are the local drying up and death of tissues, in many cases with secondary results on organs or parts of organs, may be brought together under this heading.
This may be due to frost, especially in thin-barked trees, and often occurs in beeches, pears, &c.; or it may result from bruising by wind, hailstones, gun-shot wounds in coverts, &c., the latter of course very local.
The effects of frost and of sunburn are frequently quite local.
Such frost-cracks, sun-cracks, &c., may then be slowly healed over by callus, but if the conditions for necrosis recur the crack may be again opened, or if Fungi, &c., interfere with occlusion, the healing is prevented; in such cases the local necrosis may give rise to cankers.
A local aggrettion of a species other than the dominant one in an associion brings about a plant society; for example, societies of Ericd etralix, of Scirpus caespitosus, of Molinia coerulea, of Carex irta, of Narthecium ossifra gum, and others may occur within i association of Calluna vulgaris.
But its operation was in great measure local.
Assuming that in its circumpolar origin the North Temperate flora was fairly homogeneous, it would meet in its centrifugal extension with a wide range of local conditions; these would favor the preservation of numerous species in some genera, their greater or less elimination in others.
A detailed examination of mountain floras shows that a large local element is present in each besides the arctic. The one is in tact the result of similar physical conditions to that which has produced the other.
The Mediterranean basin has been a centre of preservation of Mibcene vegetation: the oleander is said to have been found in local deposits of even earlier age, and the hoim oak (Quercus hex) is the living representative of a Miocene ancestor.
Instead of large continuous areas, in which local characteristics sometimes blend, it occupies widely dissevered territories in which specialization, intensified by long se1/2aration, hai mostly effaced the possibility of comparing species hnd even genera and compels us to seek for points of contact in groups of a higher order.
The South African sub-region has a flora richer perhaps in number of species than any other; and these are often extremely local ant restricted in area.
On the whole, it consists of local species of some widely distributed northern genera, such as Carex, Poa, Ranunculus, &c., with alpine types of strictly south temperate genera, characteristic of the separate localities.
But within these there is the greatest local diversity of moisture, elevation and isolation.
And it cannot be doubted that the profusion of Melastomaceae in South America was not derived from elsewhere, but the result of local evolution.
Like Arabia and similar countries, it could exercise a great momentary influence in history and produce a sudden change throughout the world; but afterwards it would sink into local insignificance.
When a solution of the strength of about i in zo is applied to the skin it produces a local anaesthesia which lasts for many hours.
There are few or no local taxes, the municipal chest being filled by the revenues derived from the fertile delta-land, the Kampeneiland, which is always being built up at the mouth of the Ysel.
Colchicum or colchicine, when applied to the skin, acts as a powerful irritant, causing local pain and congestion.
In the later years of his life in New Hampshire he was the most prominent of the local Republican leaders and built up his party by partisan appointments.
Coco-nuts, cacao, bananas, mangoes and other tropical fruits are produced in profusion, but the production of foodstuffs (beans, Indian corn, mandioca, &c.) is not sufficient for local consumption.
Accordingly, it was henceforward governed by a proconsul (appointed by the senate) and freed from the burden of troops, while its local government was assimilated to that of Italy.
As befitted an unromanized region, the local government was unlike that of Italy or Narbonensis.
Roman municipalities were not indeed unknown, but very few: the local authorities were the magistrates of the old tribal districts.
Local autonomy was here carried to an extreme.
It agrees with the vigorous development of this worship that the Three Provinces, though romanized, retained their own local feeling.
Local annals specially mention the plague of 1648, the flood of 1651 and the earthquake of 1829.
It is plain that the Norman settlers in Apulia were not so deeply impressed with the local style as they were in Sicily, while they thought much more of it than they thought of the local style of England.
In each of the three cases there is adaptation, but the amount of adaptation differs in each case according to local circumstances.
St Michael's, the parish church, has a striking Perpendicular tower, an arch of carved oak dividing its nave and chancel, a magnificent rood-loft, and a 13th-century monument doubtfully described as the tomb of Bracton, the famous lawyer, whose birthplace, according to local tradition, was Bratton Court in the vicinity.
In this capacity he exercised a wide influence on local opinion, and the revolt of the Newcastle electorate in later years against doctrinaire Radicalism was largely due to his constant preaching of a broader outlook on national affairs.
In 1885 Uruguay imported most of her breadstuffs; now not only is wheat grown in sufficient quantities to meet the local demand, but a surplus (about 20,000 metric tons in 1908-9) is annually available for export.
In addition to this there is compulsory service in the National Guard (a) in the first class, consisting of men between seventeen and thirty years of age, liable for service with the standing army, and numbering some 15,000; (b) in the second class, for departmental service only, except in so far as it may be drawn upon to make up losses in the more active units in time of war, consisting of men from thirty to forty-five years of age, and (c) in the third class, for local garrison duty, consisting of men between forty-five and sixty years old.
Besides a number of local banks, branches of German, Spanish, French and several British banks are established in Montevideo.
Powdered, it has little effect upon the skin, but in ointment or used by fumigation it has local therapeutic properties.
The cultivation of the soil is limited to local needs, except in the production of tobacco, which is exported to neighbouring states.
Yet nobility, in some shape or another, has existed in most places and times of the world's history, while the British peerage is an institution purely local, and one which has actually hindered the existence of a nobility in the sense which the word bears in most other countries.
The only difference is that, probably owing to the fact that the distinction was due to conquest, the local character of the distinction lived on much longer than it did at Rome.
The so-called cities (7rbXas) of the TEpioucot answered pretty well to the local plebeian tribes; the difference is that the 7repioLKOC never became a united corporate body like the Roman plebs.
But the connexion between nobility and the holding of land comes out in the practice by which the lord so constantly took the name of his lordship. It is in this way that the prefixes de and von, descriptions in themselves essentially local, have become in other lands badges of nobility.
Vasco da Gama tried to establish a factory, but he met with persistent hostility from the local chief (zamorin), and a similar attempt made by Cabral two years later ended in the destruction of the factory by the Moplahs.
It is probable that the Liberian chimpanzee may offer one or more distinct varieties; there is an interesting local development of the Diana monkey, sometimes called the bay-thighed monkey (Cercopithecus diana ignita) on account of its brilliant orange-red thighs.
As regards invertebrates, very few species or genera are peculiar to Liberia so far as is yet known, though there are probably one or two butterflies of local range.
Until the accession to power of President Barclay in 1904 (he was re-elected in 1907), the AmericoLiberian government on the coast had very uncertain relations with the indigenous population, which is well armed and tenacious of local independence.
The judicial functions are discharged by four grades of officials - the local magistrates, the courts of common pleas, the quarterly courts (five in number) and the supreme court.
In 1906 there were some local troubles owing to the refusal of the people to pay taxes.
Like Cleisthenes of Sicyon and Periander of Corinth, he realized that one great source of strength to the nobles had been their presidency over the local cults.
This he diminished by increasing the splendour of the Panathenaic festival every fourth year and the Dionysiac 2 rites, and so created a national rather than a local religion.
The former presents an intimate mixture of boulders brought from Finland and Olonets (with an addition of local boulders) with small gravel, coarse sand and the finest glacial mud, - the whole bearing no trace of ever having been washed up and sorted by water in motion, except in subordinate layers of glacial sand and gravel; the size of the boulders decreases on the whole from N.
Local Elected Administrative Bodies.
- Alongside the local organs of the central government in Russia there are three classes of local elected bodies charged with administrative functions: (I) the peasant assemblies in the mir and the volost, ' From Catherine II.'s time to that of Alexander II.
The system of local self-government is continued, so far as the 34 governments of old Russia are concerned, 6 in the elective district and provincial assemblies (zemstvos).
In these courts the ordinary written law had little to say; the decisions of the volost courts were based on the local customary law, which alone the peasants, and the peasants alone, understand.
This was made part of the general reform of Russian local government, which in the autumn of 1910 was still under the consideration of the Duma.
Those under the latter body are of recent growth, the policy of the last twenty years of the 19th century having been to hand over the budget allowances for primary instruction to the Holy Synod, which opened parish schools under the local priests.
have been chiefly directed towards increasing the fighting capacity and readiness for immediate service of the troops in Asia, and towards the better reorganization of the local irregular militia forces.
In central Russia the species become still more numerous, and, though the local floras are not yet complete, they number 850 to 1050 species in the separate governments, and about 1600 in the best explored parts of the S.W.
He speaks Finnish with Finns, Mongolian with Buriats, Ostiak with Ostiaks; he shows remarkable facility in adapting his agricultural practices to new conditions, without, however, abandoning the village community; he becomes hunter, cattle-breeder or fisherman, and carries on these occupations according to local usage; he modifies his dress and adapts his religious beliefs to the locality he inhabits.
The aggregate value of the redemption and land taxes often reaches 185 to 275% of the normal rental value of the allotments, not to speak of taxes for recruiting purposes, the church, roads, local administration and so on, chiefly levied from the peasants.
For some time Tsar Alexius hesitated, because he knew that intervention could entail a war with Poland, but after consulting a National Assembly on the subject, he decided to take Little Russia under his protection, and in January 1654 a great Cossack assembly ratified the arrangement, on the understanding that a large part of the old local autonomy should be preserved.
At the same time the military and financial requirements dislocated the local and central administration, and consequently a series of radical administrative reforms had to be undertaken.
A certain amount of local self-government was entrusted to the nobles and the burghers, and the judicial administration was thoroughly reorganized in an enlightened and humane spirit.
The local self-government institutions after a short period of feverish and not always well-directed activity, showed symptoms of organic exhaustion.
Local self-government in the village 111.
The reformers of the previous reign had sought to make the new local administration (zemstvo) a system of genuine rural self-government and a basis for future parliamentary institutions; these later conservatives transformed it into a mere branch of the ordinary state administration, and took precautions against its ever assuming a political character.
Until recent times these various nationalities were allowed to retain unmolested the language, religion and peculiar local administration of their ancestors; but when the new nationality doctrine came into fashion, attempts were made to spread among them the language, religion and administrative institutions of the dominant race.
The local institutions were assimilated to those of the purely Russian provinces; the use of the Russian language was made obligatory in the administration, in the tribunals and to some extent in the schools; the spread of Eastern Orthodoxy was encouraged by the authorities, whilst the other confessions were placed under severe restrictions; foreigners were prohibited from possessing landed property; and in some provinces administrative measures were taken for making the land pass into the hands of Orthodox Russians.
In this process some of the local officials displayed probably an amount of zeal beyond the intentions of the government, but any attempt to oppose the movement was rigorously punished.
4 In November, with the tacit consent of the police, a private assembly of eminent members zemst- of local zemstvos and municipal dumas was held vos.
The majority of this decided to approach the crown with a suggestion for a reform of the Russian system on the basis of a national representative assembly, an extension of local self-government, and wider guarantees for individual liberty.
The name was first suggested by Speranski, under Alexander I., for the suggested parliament of delegates from the zemstvos and local dumas.
Stolypin indeed defended the coup d'etat in the Duma on the ground that the autocrat had merely altered what the autocrat had originally granted; but, while laying stress on the necessity for restoring order in the body politic, he announced a long programme of reforms, including agrarian measures, reform of local government and its extension in the frontier provinces, and state insurance of workmen.
After a year he returned to Norwich and identified himself with the movement to organize local printers in a branch of the Typographical Association, of which he became president and ultimately secretary.
He was elected to the Norwich School Board in 1899, being the first candidate run by the local Labour party to win a seat on a public body.
In consequence of droughts, ravages of locusts and misgovernment by local governors the province has been much impoverished and hundreds of villages are in ruins and deserted.
Before that time the St Paul had been a great local railway, operating primarily in the Dakotas, Minnesota, Iowa, Wisconsin and Illinois; but by the construction of a long arm from the Missouri river to Spokane, Seattle and Tacoma, it became a transcontinental line of the first importance, avoiding the mistakes of earlier railway builders by securing a line with easy gradients through the most favourable regions.
The common law has been somewhat unfavourable to the enforcement of such agreements, and statutes in the United States, both local and national, have attempted to prohibit them; but the public advantage from their existence has been so great as to render their legal disabilities inoperative.
The company therefore promotes a bill, which is considered first by select committees of the two houses of parliament, and afterwards by the two houses themselves, during which period it faces the opposition, if any, of rival concerns, of local authorities and of hostile landowners.
In both states, the Commissions have power over electric railways and local public utilities furnishing heat, light and power, as well as over steam railway transportation, and the Wisconsin Commission also has control over telephone companies.
The French secretary of Public Works, who has furnished these statistics, keeps also similar records of the local or light railways, on which the number of fatal accidents appears to be exceedingly small.
The government, national or local, furnishes the borrowing power, and makes the best bargain it can with the men it designates to operate the line.
In North America, except for small industrial railways and some short lines for local traffic, chiefly in mountainous country, it has become almost universal; the long lines of 3 ft.
In France and other European countries there is also an important mileage of metre gauge, and even narrower, on lines of local or secondary importance.
naturally constructed as side stations, and whether offices are provided on both sides or whether they are mainly concentrated on one will depend on local circumstances, the amount of the traffic, and the direction in which it preponderates.
At a small roadside station, where the traffic is of a purely local character, there will be some sidings to which horses and carts have access for handling bulk goods like coal, gravel,.
The principal condition operating in the design of locomotives intended for local services with frequent stops is the degree of acceleration required, the aim of the designer being to produce an engine which shall be able to bring the train to its journey speed in the shortest time possible.
For local services where stoppages are frequent the demand is for engines capable of quickly ' At the beginning of 1908 the Great Western's loading gauge on its main lines was widened to 9 ft.
On the continent of Europe there are occasionally four classes, but though the local fares are often appreciably lower than in Great Britain, only first and second class, sometimes only first class, passengers are admitted to the fastest trains, for which in addition a considerable extra fare is often required.
The application of vestibules is practically limited to trains making long journeys, as it is an obstruction to the free ingress and egress of passengers on local trains that make frequent stops.
The weight and speed of goods trains vary enormously according to local conditions, but the following figures, which refer to traffic on the London & North-Western railway between London and Rugby, may be taken as representative of good English practice.
Such l i nes are primarily intended to supply quick means of passenger communication within the limits of cities, and are to be distinguished on the one hand from surface tramways, and on the other from those portions of trunk or other lines which lie within city boundaries, although the latter may incidentally do a local or intra-urban business.
One pair of tracks is used for a local service with stations about one-quarter of a mile apart, following the general plan of operation in vogue on all other intra-urban railways.
The distance between stations on intra-urban railways is governed by the density of local traffic and the speed desired to be maintained.
The cost of intra-urban railways depends not only on the type of construction, but more especially upon local conditions, such as the nature of the soil, the presence of subsurface structures, like sewers, water and gas mains, electric conduits, &c.; the necessity of permanent underpinning or temporary supporting of house foundations, the cost of acquiring land passed under or over when street lines are not followed, and, in the case of elevated railways, the cost of acquiring easements of light, air and access, which the courts have held are vested in the abutting property.
The saving of cost is effected in two ways: (I) Instead of having to incur the expenses of a protracted inquiry before parliament, the promoters of a light railway under the act of 1896 make an application to the light railway commissioners, who then hold a local inquiry, to obtain evidence of the usefulness of the proposed railway, and to hear objections to it, and, if they are satisfied, settle the draft order and hand it over to the Board of Trade for confirmation.
Towards the end of 1901 a departmental committee of the Board of Trade was formed to consider the Light Railways Act, and in 1902 the president of the Board of Trade (Mr Gerald Balfour) stated that as a result of the deliberations of this committee, a new bill had been drafted which he thought would go very far to meet all the reasonable objections that had been urged against the present powers of the local authorities.
They pointed out that while during the first five years the act was in force there were 315 applications for orders, during the second five years there were only 142 applications, and that proposals for new lines had become less numerous owing to the various difficulties in carrying them to a successful completion and to the difficulty of raising the necessary capital even when part of it was provided with the aid of the state and of the local authorities.
They expressed the opinion that an improvement could be effected enabling the construction of many much-needed lines by an amendment of some of the provisions of the Light Railways Act, and by a reconsideration of the conditions under which financial or other assistance should be granted to such lines by the state and by local authorities.
In France the lines which best correspond to British light railways are called Chemins de fer d'interit local.
Precipitation is largely confined to local showers, often of such violence as to warrant the name "cloud bursts," commonly applied to the heavy down-pours of this desert region.
The 42nd canon of the council of Carthage under Aurelius likewise forbade them, but these were only local councils.
Although there are no active cones, Upolu has in comparatively recent times been subject to volcanic disturbances, and according to a local tradition, outbreaks must have occurred in the 17th or 18th century.
How this came to be overlaid by narrow local limitations of His power and province will be shown later.
Now the local Baal was the divine owner of the fertile spot where his sanctuary (0 - desk) was marked by the upright stone pillar, the symbol of his presence, on which the blood of the slaughtered victim was smeared.
For when Yahweh gradually became Israel's local Baal he became worshipped like the old Canaanite deity, and all the sensuous accompaniments of Kedeshoth,' as well as the presence of the asherah or sacred pole, became attached to his cult.
Now local worship means the differentiation of the personality worshipped in the varied local shrines, in other words Ba`alim or Baals.
Just as we have in Assyria an Ishtar of Arbela and an Ishtar of Nineveh (treated in Assur-bani-pal's (Rassam) cylinder 2 like two distinct deities), as we have local Madonnas in Roman Catholic countries, so must it have been with the cults of Yahweh in the regal period carried on in the numerous high places, Bethel, Shechem, Shiloh (till its destruction in the days of Eli) and Jerusalem.
Times of peace meant national disintegration and the lapse of Israel into the Canaanite local cults, which is interpreted by the redactor as the prophets of the 8th century would have interpreted it, viz.
indicates the strong claims on personal attendance exercised on each individual member by the local clan festival at Bethlehem-Judah.
It became now detached from the limitations of nationalism and local association with which it had been hitherto circumscribed.
The centre of gravity in Hebrew religion was shifted from ceremonial observance and local sacra to righteous conduct.
(d) Lastly, the old genial life of the high places, in which the " new moon " or Sabbath or the annual festival was a sacrificial feast of communion, in which the members of the local community or clan enjoyed fellowship with one another - all this picturesque life ceased to be.
But it is doubtful whether these should be regarded as more than local varieties.
The fools are given a local colour, and Barclay appears as the unsparing satirist of the social evils of his time.
The state is divided into fifteen counties, each of which is governed in local matters by a board of county commissioners, and is divided for administrative purposes into townships.
The public schools are supported by the income from a Federal grant of 2,000,000 acres of public land (given in lieu of the usual sixteenth and thirty-sixth sections) supplemented by state and local taxation.
An independent local government was formed a week later, and this lasted for several months, until the Utah authorities intervened.
The Accademia, close by, has a few pictures by local masters, e.g.
Silks, wood-carvings, silver and jade ornaments, tin and copper wares, fruits and tobacco are the chief articles of the local trade.
It seems to point to the supersession of a primitive local Cretan divinity by Demeter, and the adoption of agriculture by the inhabitants, bringing wealth in its train in the form of the fruits of the earth, both vegetable and mineral.
They are rare or local, but more common in the south or south-east of England than in other parts of Britain.
The earliest local inscriptions date from about 300 to 150 B.C. and include the interesting and difficult bronze of Lake Fucinus, which seems to record a votive offering to Angitia, if A(n)ctia, as is probable, was the local form of her name.
It has a wide geographical distribution, being found in Europe (including England), Asia Minor, Burma, Straits Settlements, Java, China, Formosa, Egypt; west, south and Central Africa; Australia, South America, West Indies, United States and Canada, but is generally confined to local centres in those countries.
The local diet, of which the bishop of Laibach is a member ex officio, is composed of thirty-seven members, and Carniola sends eleven deputies to the Reichsrat at Vienna.
Subdivided into a number of little local principalities, Palestine was suffering both from internal intrigues and from the designs of this northern power.
Seers and prophets of all kinds ranged from those who were consulted for daily mundane affairs to those who revealed the oracles in times of stress, from those who haunted local holy sites to those high in royal favour, from the quiet domestic communities to the austere mountain recluse.
This centralization involved the removal of the local priests and a modification of ritual and legal observance.
From the standpoint of the popular religion, the removal of the local altars, like Hezekiah's destruction of the brazen serpent, would be an act of desecration, an iconoclasm which can be partly appreciated from the sentiments of 2 Kings xviii.
The country is under Persian officials, the nobles and priests form the local government, and the ground is being prepared for the erection of a hierocracy.
5 sqq.); or in the late insertion of local tradition encircling Jerusalem; or in the perplexing attitude of the histories towards the district of Benjamin and its famous sanctuary of Bethel (only about 10 m.
His organization of local government and his efforts to maintain law and order brought him into collision with the Zealots and especially with John of Giscala, one of their leaders.
Apart from these local outbreaks, the Jews throughout the empire remained loyal citizens and were not molested.
Mahommedan Babylonia (Persia) was the home of the gaonate, the central authority of religious Judaism, whose power transcended that of the secular exilarchate, for it influenced the synagogue far and wide, while the exilarchate was local.
Each country has its own local organiza tion for dealing with Jewish questions.
Conway, The Italic Dialects (1897), for Bruttian inscriptions and local and personal names; P. Orsi in Atti del congresso storico (Rome, 1904), v.
The councils assess within certain limits the communal taxes, maintain roads, bridges, &c., and generally superintend local affairs.
The funeral rites are similar, and the religious representations show an identical form of worship. At the same time the local traditions and conditions differentiate the continental from the insular branch.
Some of these objects, such as certain forms of swords and vases, seem to be of local fabric, but derived from originals going back to the beginning of the Late Minoan age.
Here and there, as in Cyprus, we watch the development of some local schools.
This change of masters brought some relief to the unfortunate Cretans, who at least exchanged the licence of local misrule for the oppression of an organized despotism; and the government of Mustafa Pasha, an Albanian like Mehemet Ali, the ruler of the island for a considerable period (1832-1852), was more enlightened and intelligent than that of most Turkish governors.
On the 27th of April 1899 a new autonomous constitution was voted by a constituent assembly, and in the following June the local administration was handed over to Cretan officials by the international authorities.
Farming, horsebreeding, linen-weaving and the manufacture of olive-oil are the chief local industries.
After a while he took a leading part in local affairs, and was for some years a member of the Newcastle city council, and Darlington borough council.
The constitution goes into minute detail in prohibiting local, private and special legislation.
The local judicial authorities are the county board of supervisors of five members and the justices of the peace.
312), a rule which would possibly apply to other local offices.
The schools are supported by a poll-tax, by general appropriations, by local levies, and by the Chickasaw school fund.
McCardle, History of Mississippi (New York, 1893), is useful for local history.
border of North Carolina's Appalachian Mountain Region, which includes the high Unaka Mountain Range, segments of which are known by such local names as Iron Mountains, Bald Mountains and Great Smoky Mountains.
State prohibition had been defeated in 1881 by a vote of 100,000; in 1902 the Anti-Saloon League organized in the state; in 1903 the Watts Law enacted rural prohibition, giving towns local option, under which many of the towns voted " no licence "; and in 1905 severe police regulations were provided for towns in which saloons were licensed.
In the counties there is a board of education and there is also a local school committee of three in each township. The compulsory attendance at school of children between the ages of eight and fourteen for sixteen weeks each year by a state law is optional with each county.
Violence speedily followed; the local militia was called out, but since only a few would serve the only means found to quiet the people was an alleged promise from the governor that if they would petition him for redress and go to their homes he would see that justice was done.
It seems probable that his parents were among the early converts of Wesley; at any rate, Francis became converted to Methodism in his thirteenth year, and at sixteen became a local preacher.
The latter is characteristic of the mitre in the modern Roman Catholic Church, the tradition of the local Roman Church having always excluded the representation of figures on ecclesiastical vestments.
There are many rich deposits of iron ores in the state, but they only produce a small quantity of charcoal iron for local consumption.
River transport has some local value on the upper Sao Francisco and its larger tributaries, and this will be greatly increased when the Central do Brazil railway reaches the head of navigation on that river.
There is ground also for supposing that they may at first have been used with a specific or restricted local application, a more extended signification having eventually been given to them.
South of the divide the level at once drops to the central depression of Gobi, which forms a vast interior, almost waterless space, where the local drainage is lost in deserts or swamps.
Although the succession of the periodical winds follows the progress of the seasons as just described, the changes in the wind's direction everywhere take place under the operation of special local influences which often disguise the more general law, and make it difficult to trace.
The aspect of the vegetation is very peculiar, and is commonly determined by the predominance of some four or five species, the rest being either local or sparingly scattered over the area.
The analysis of the Hong Kong flora indicates that about threefifths of the species are common to the Indian region, and nearly all the remainder are either Chinese or local forms. The number of species common to southern China, Japan and northern Asia is small.
But he does not appear to have made any change in the old local administration of justice, or to have appointed a central tribunal (xv.
The manufacture of cloth had disappeared, the harbour is silted up, and there is no special local industry.
In these features, and in the fact that the gonads are local proliferations of the coelomic epithelium, which have undergone no further changes in the simpler forms, the coelom of this group shows in a particularly clear fashion the general characters of the coelom in the higher Metazoa.
In a proclamation issued after his victory Cyrus guarantees life and property to all the inhabitants and designates himself as the favourite of Marduk, the great local god (Bel, Bel-Merodak) of Babel.
Other thriving local industries include the manufacture of oil, soap, flour, leather, alcohol and esparto grass rugs.
But the annals of Kano distinctly record the introduction and describe the development of Mahommedanism at an early period of local history.
The doctrine once established remained an inherent part of the Babylonian-Assyrian religion and led to the more or less complete disassociation of the three gods constituting the triad from their original local limitations.
An intermediate step between Anu viewed as the local deity of Erech (or some other centre), Bel as the god of Nippur, and Ea as the god of Eridu is represented by the prominence which each one of the centres associated with the three deities in question must have acquired, and which led to each one absorbing the qualities of other gods so as to give them a controlling position in an organized pantheon.
In these two situations he made a close study of local economic conditions, personally supervising the cultivation of his lands, and entering into relations with the principal merchants of Rouen.
Even before this, however, he had shown a strong inclination for natural science, and this had been fostered by his intimacy with a "self-taught philosopher, astronomer and mathematician," as Sir Walter Scott called him, of great local fame - James Veitch of Inchbonny, who was particularly skilful in making telescopes.
At the same time he did much to encourage agriculture and local industries, among others establishing the manufacture of porcelain.
There are no longer any traces of communism, and the colony's property is actually held by an organization of the local Roman Catholic church.
Local boulders as well as northern erratics are found in the valley of the Derwent.
Derbyshire probably originated as a shire in the time of ZEthelstan, but for long it maintained a very close connexion with Nottinghamshire, and the Domesday Survey gives a list of local customs affecting the two counties alike.
These associations were soon aided in their important labours by numerous local societies which sprang up in all parts of the kingdom.
In the majority report it was stated " that, in order to place agricultural lands in their right position as compared with other ratable properties, it is essential that they should be assessed to all local rates in a reduced proportion of their ratable value."
Its objects were to relieve agricultural land from half the local rates, and to provide the means of making good out of imperial funds the deficiency in local taxation caused thereby.
In the subsequent years the principle, which had already made great progress in Ireland, began to obtain a hold in England and Wales, where, in 1906, there were 145 local co-operative societies with a turn-over of £350,000.
The practice is for the Board of Agriculture to appoint local estimators, who report in the autumn as to the total production of the crops in the localities respectively assigned to them.
Although many different rotations of crops are practised, they may for the most part be considered as little more than local adaptations of the system of alternating root-crops and leguminous crops with cereal crops, as exemplified in the old four-course rotation - roots, barley, clover, wheat.
The rotations extending to five, six, seven or more years are, in most cases, only adaptations of the principle to variations of soil, altitude, aspect, climate, markets and other local conditions.
It is equally true that, when under the influence of special local or other demand - proximity to towns, easy railway or other communication, for example - the products which would otherwise be retained on the farm are exported from it, the import of town or other manures is generally an essential condition of such practice.
c. 14, known as the Pleuro-pneumonia Act 1890, which transferred the powers of local authorities to slaughter and pay compensation in cases of pleuro-pneumonia to the Board of Agriculture, and provided further for the payment of such compensation out of money specifically voted by parliament.
Pleuro-pneumonia in Great Britain was dealt with by the local authorities up to the year 1890.
Between 1879 and 1892 inclusive, administration with regard to swine fever was entrusted to local authorities.
Galway); while lectures are given at farmers' meetings by 1 This sum was furnished out of a total of £693,851, forming the residue grant allocated for the purposes of education to the various county councils of England and Wales under the Local Taxation (customs and Excise) Act 1890.
He would not canvass, nor pay agents to canvass for him, nor would he engage to attend to the local business of the constituency.
In the middle ages this differentiation of the industrial, municipal and political life had not taken place, and in order to understand the working of at first sight purely economic regulations it is necessary to make a close study of the functions of local government.
At the same time, the revolution in the means of transport and communication has destroyed, or is tending to destroy, local markets, and closely interwoven all the business of the world.
We can show, for example: (1) that the Statute of Apprenticeship did not stand alone; it was one of a long series of similar measures, beginning more than two centuries before, which in their turn join on to the municipal and gild regulations of the middle ages; one of an important group of statutes, more or less closely interwoven throughout their history, administered by local authorities whose functions had grown largely in connexion with this legislation and the gradual differentiation of the trades and callings to which it related.
(6) That the local variations of wages and prices were what we should call excessive, so that the standard of comfort in one district was very different from that of others.
But these conclusions, after all, suggest more difficulties than they remove, for they show that our inquiry, instead of presenting certain well-marked features which can be readily dealt with, has to be split up into a number of highly specialized studies: the investigation of rates of wages, prices and the standard of comfort in different localities, bye-industries, regularity of employment, the organization of particular trades, the economic functions of local authorities, apprenticeship and a host of other subjects.
The development of the powers of the central government has been less than that of the functions of local governing authorities.
Local governing authorities now discharge economic functions of enormous importance and complexity, involving sums of money larger than sufficed to run important states a generation ago.
The scientific study of the economics of local administration is, however, in its infancy, and requires to be taken up in earnest by economists.
These questions of commercial policy and local government are closely bound up with the scientific study of the transport system.
Close to the keep stands the ruined chamber wherein, according to local tradition, Henry VII.
The executive powers were placed almost entirely in his hands, as will be seen by the terms of article 41 which defined his functions: "The First Consul promulgates the laws; he appoints and dismisses at will the members of the Council of State, the ministers, the ambassadors and other leading agents serving abroad, the officers of the army and navy, the members of local administrative bodies and the commissioners of government attached to the tribunals.
More pressing even than that question was the regulation of local government.
Undoubtedly the question was one of great importance; for local affairs had fallen into chaos.
The aim of the constituent assembly in its departmental system (1789-1790) had been to vest local affairs ultimately in councils elected by universal suffrage, alike in the department and in the three smaller areas within it.
The relations between national and local authorities fluctuated considerably during the Directory; and it is noteworthy that the constitution of December 1799 placed local administration merely under the control of ministers at Paris.
This was left to the local authorities, and led to little result.
The former of these were designed for the completion of the training of the most promising pupils in the communal elementary schools, and were left to local control or even to management by private individuals.
The institution of the special tribunals (already referred to), which enabled Bonaparte to supersede local government in thirty-two of the departments, was another outcome of the bomb conspiracy.
The Genoese republic a little earlier underwent at his hand changes which made its doge all-powerful in local affairs, but a mere puppet in the hands of Bonaparte.
Biliotti many fine painted vases of styles which were called later the third and fourth "Mycenaean"; but these, bought by John Ruskin, and presented to the British Museum, excited less attention than they deserved, being supposed to be of some local Asiatic fabric of uncertain date.
Independent local developments of art before the middle of the 2nd millennium B.C. suggest the early existence of independent units in various parts, of which the strongest was the Cnossian.
The Aegean remains have become astonishingly uniform over the whole area; the local ceramic developments have almost ceased and been replaced by ware of one general type both of fabric and decoration.
This great disaster, which cleared the ground for a new growth of local art, was probably due to yet another incursion of northern tribes, more barbarous than their predecessors, but possessed of superior iron weapons - those tribes which later Greek tradition and Homer knew as the Dorians.
The superintendent of the local Sunday school sent him to an academy at Washington, Wilkes county, for one year and in the following year (1828) he was sent by the Georgia Educational Society to Franklin College (university of Georgia), where he graduated in 1832.
The local works on English birds are too numerous to be mentioned; almost every county has had its ornithology recorded.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.