Load sentence examples

load
  • It was like having a heavy load lifted from her shoulders.

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  • Wait until Fred gets a load of this!

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  • Sofia pulled over to the side of the road to await the text and load the address into the car's GPS.

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  • One day in midsummer, when I was hoeing, a man who was carrying a load of pottery to market stopped his horse against my field and inquired concerning Wyman the younger.

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  • motor, with a given load factor.

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  • Here's how you load it.

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  • Hand cranes are extremely useful where the load is not excessive, and the quantities to be dealt with are not motive powers.

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  • Sorting the clothes, she put a load in the washer and started it.

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  • The cedar tree was bent over with the weight of a heavy load of wet snow.

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  • In the first the load can be lifted vertically, and then moved round a central pivot, so as to be deposited at any convenient point within the range.

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  • The wheels of the Conestoga wagons had been modified with wide rims to even the load on the sand.

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  • We'll totally load up.

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  • In electric cranes a useful method is to arrange the connexions so that the lifting motor acts as a dynamo, and, driven by the energy of the falling load, generates a current which is converted into heat by being passed through resistances.

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  • Transporters can only move the load to any point on a vertical surface (generally a plane surface); they have a lifting Trans- motion and a movement of translation.

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  • It was raining and I had to help load the boxes of that shit.

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  • I'm glad you find my character flaws amusing, 'cuz I have a boat load of them.

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  • More than likely, it was a load off his mind as well.

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  • "You are a brave fellow, Mr. Ant," he said; "but you have a heavy load to carry."

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  • It is almost no effort for me to row around the lake, no matter how heavy the load may be.

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  • The actual load factor to be chosen depends on the nature of the work and the kind of crane.

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  • "It shouldn't be much of a load," he said as he ate his dry toast—butter was fattening.

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  • In order that only one motor may be used, and also that the load may be lifted by a single part of rope, various devices have been invented.

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  • The gunman rested back on his heels to load a new laser charge pack.

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  • In the latter case the overturning tendency begins as soon as the load leaves the ground, but ceases as soon as the load again touches the ground and thus relieves the crane of the extra weight, whereas overturning backwards is caused either by the reaction of a chain breaking or by excessive counterweight.

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  • It was as if she lifted a load from his shoulders.

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  • It worked, but it stopped a foot short of her floor, which made her load even more precarious.

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  • In the time that I've been here, it looks to me like you carry your share of the load – sometimes more.

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  • A dock-side crane unloading cargo with high lifts following one another in rapid succession will require a higher load factor than a workshop traveller with a very short lift and only a very occasional maximum load; and a traveller with a very long longitudinal travel will require a higher load factor for the travelling motor than for the lifting motor.

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  • Vessels go to Porman to land coke and coal, and to load iron ore and lead.

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  • 2 gives a lift of load four times the stroke of the cylinder.

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  • This is effected by slinging the load to an eye or Lifting hook, and elevating the hook vertically.

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  • That the quantity of heat to be got rid of may become very considerable is seen when it is considered that the energy of a load of 60 tons descending through 50 ft.

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  • feet per minute, and T the load in tons.

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  • The Titan was the first type of large portable crane in which full use was made of a truly horizontal movement of the load; for the purpose for which the type is designed, viz.

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  • On arriving at a certain height the lift ceases and the jenny is released, and by the continued pull of the rope, it runs up the jib; on arriving at an adjustable stop, the jenny is again locked, and the load can be lowered out; the hook can then be raised, when the jenny is automatically unlocked, and on paying out the rope the jenny gravitates to its first position, when the load is lowered and the cycle repeated.

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  • Such an arrangement would be ideally perfect from the point of view of the permanent-way engineer, because it would then be possible to distribute the whole of the load uniformly between the wheels.

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  • Thus an engine working at maximum power may be used to haul a relatively light load at a high speed or a heavy load at a slow speed.

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  • A second time it tried to carry its load up the rough trunk of the tree, and a second time it failed.

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  • I think that the man is at a dead set who has got through a knot-hole or gateway where his sledge load of furniture cannot follow him.

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  • As soon as Rostov heard them, an enormous load of doubt fell from him.

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  • Tests of the comparative efficiencies of hydraulic and electric cranes tend to show that, although they do not vary to any very considerable extent with full load, yet the efficiency of the hydraulic crane falls away very much more rapidly than that of the electric crane when working on smaller loads.

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  • Strictly speaking, the name alludes to the arm or jib from which the load to be moved is suspended, but it is now used in a wider sense to include the whole mechanism by which a load is raised vertically and moved horizontally.

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  • 2 t), the load to be lifted being suspended from a small travelling carriage which runs on the lower flange.

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  • In practice the gradient should not exceed i in 221, and even that is too steep, since theoretical conditions cannot always be realized; a wet rail will reduce the adhesion, and the gradients must be such that some paying load can be hauled in all weathers.

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  • Each load looks as if it contained the contents of a dozen shanties; and if one shanty is poor, this is a dozen times as poor.

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  • This drawback can be corrected to a slight extent by furnishing the hydraulic crane with more than one cylinder, and thus compounding it, but the arrangement does not give the same economical range of load "as in an electric crane.

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  • 7, so that a load can be taken out of a vessel and deposited on a quay wall.

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  • At its opening, on the 27th of September 1825, a train of thirtyfour vehicles, making a gross load of about go tons, was drawn by one engine driven by Stephenson, with a signalman on horseback in advance..

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  • Blenkinsop placed the teeth on the outer side of one of the running rails, and his reason for adopting a rack was the belief that an engine with smooth wheels running on smooth rails would not have sufficient adhesion to draw the load required.

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  • A load contains 36 trusses.

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  • Personally he possessed the charming manners of a polished grand seigneur: debauched and cynical, but never rude or cruel, full of gentle consideration for all about him but selfish in his pursuit of pleasure, he has had to bear a heavy load of blame, but it is.

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  • The derrick crane introduces a problem for which many solutions have been sought, that of preventing the load from being lifted or lowered when the jib is pivoted up or down to alter the radius.

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  • Of these there are two main systems: (1) a continuous cable is carried over two main drums at each end of the line, and the motion is derived either (a) from the weight of the descending load or (b) from a motor acting on one of the main drums; (2) each end of the cable is attached to wagons, one set of which accordingly ascends as the other descends.

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  • In practice, the load factor for electric crane motors varies from 3 to s.

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  • In the other class of transporter the load is not usually moved; FIG.

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  • Relieved from its load it does not, like other animals, seek the shade, even when that is to be found, but prefers to kneel beside its burden in the broad glare of the sun, seeming to luxuriate in the burning sand.

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  • The ruling gradient of a section of railway is the steepest incline in that section, and is so called because it governs or rules the maximum load that can be placed behind an engine working over that portion of line.

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  • Its load of land waste (see I.

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  • Even under so " moderate " a load as 33 kilogrammes per square mm., the induced magnetization of a hard-drawn nickel wire in a field of 60 fell from 386 to 72 units, while the residual was reduced from about 280 to io.

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  • Ewing's independent experiments showed that the magnetization curve for a cobalt rod under a load of 16.2 kilogrammes per square mm.

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  • In addition, the effect of treatment in reducing viral load was also linked to better health.

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  • To keep the load level, there are various devices for automatically coupling the jibraising and the load-lowering motions.

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  • load is suspended from the crane jib; this jib is attached at the lower end to the side frames, and the upper end is supported by tierods, connected to the framework, the whole revolving together.

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  • The varying load against which a locomotive works, and the fact that a locomotive is non-condensing, are factors which reduce the margin of possible economy within narrow limits.

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  • Locomotives have to start with the full load on the engine, consequently an outstanding feature of every compound locomotive is the apparatus or mechanism added to enable the engine to start readily.

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  • The safe load per wheel varies between 12 cwt.

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  • Not only are the load and speed increasing, but the distances run without a stop are increasing also, and to avoid increasing the size of the tenders, water-troughs, first instituted by J.

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  • The gondola or flat car corresponds to the European open wagons and is used to carry goods not liable to be injured by the weather; but in the United States the practice of covering the load with tarpaulins is unknown, and therefore the proportion of box cars is much greater than in Europe.

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  • The long hauls in the United States make it specially important that the cars should carry a load in both directions, and so bcx cars which have carried grain or merchandise one way are filled with wool, coal, coke, ore, timber and other coarse articles for the return journey.

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  • An ordinary British 10-ton wagon often weighs about 6 tons empty, and rarely much less than 5 tons; that is, the ratio of its possible paying load to its tare weight is at the best about 2 to 1.

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  • Hence less dead weight has to behauled for each ton of paying load.

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  • of track and yard room required to perform a unit of work;, it has diminished journal and rolling friction relatively to thetons hauled, since these elements of train resistance grow relatively less as the load per wheel rises; and finally, it has tended to reduce the labour costs as the train loads have become greater, because no more men are required to handle a heavy train than; a light one.

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  • With electricity, power can be applied to as many axles in the train as desired, and so the whole weight of the train, with its load, may be utilized if necessary.

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  • gauge, and laid with rails weighing from 50 to 70 lb per yard; a flat-footed 60 lb rail, with the axle load limited to 14 tons, has the advantage for such lines that it permits the employment of a proportion of the locomotives used on main lines.

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  • 0.5 in.); weight of rails, 12 (26.45 lb) to 20 (44 lb) kilos; mean load per axle, 6 tons; minimum curve, 70 m.

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  • If Naaman was to be healed, it could only be in a Palestinian river, and :two mules' load of earth would be the only permanent guarantee of Yahweh's effective blessing on the Syrian general in his Syrian home.

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  • Mahmud ordered Hasan Maimandi to take the poet as much gold as an elephant could carry, but the jealous treasurer persuaded the monarch that it was too generous a reward, and that an elephant's load of silver would be sufficient.

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  • Vessels load and discharge by means of lighters, the outer harbour having a depth at entrance of 24 ft.

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  • In weak fields the magnetic contraction is always diminished by pulling stress; in strong fields the contraction increases under a small load and diminishes under a heavy one.

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  • Villari in 1868 that the magnetic susceptibility of an iron wire was increased by stretching when the magnetization was below a certain value, but diminished when that value was exceeded; this phenomenon has been termed by Lord Kelvin, who discovered it independently, the " Villari reversal," the value of the magnetization for which stretching by a given load produces no effect being known as the " Villari critical point " for that load.

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  • The Villari critical point for aegiven sample of iron is reached with a smaller magnetizing force when the stretching load is great than when it is small; the reversal also occurs with smaller loads and with weaker fields when the iron is soft than when it is hard.

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  • The following table shows the values of I and H corresponding to the Villari critical point in some of Ewing's experiments: The effects of pulling stress may be observed either when the wire is stretched by a constant load while the magnetizing force is varied, or when the magnetizing force is kept constant while the load is varied.

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  • In the latter case the first application of stress is always attended by an increase-often a very great one-of the magnetization, whether the field is weak or strong, but after a load has been put on and taken off several times the changes of magnetization become cyclic. From experiments of both classes it appears that for a given field there is a certain value of the load for which the magnetization is a maximum, the maximum occuring at a smaller load the stronger the field.

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  • ] being to diminish the magnetization; on the other hand, with very weak fields the maximum may not have been reached with the greatest load that the wire can support without permanent deformation.

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  • When the load on a hardened wire is gradually increased, the maximum value of I is found to correspond with a greater stress than when the load is gradually diminished, this being an effect of hysteresis.

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  • There is a close relation between the pollination of many yuccas and the life of a moth (Pronuba yuccasella); the flowers are open and scented at night when the female moth becomes active, first collecting a load of pollen and then depositing her eggs, generally in a different flower from that which has supplied the pollen.

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  • The advantage of the breech-loader now began to assert itself, for the Austrian skirmishers who covered the front of the guns could only load when standing up, while the Prussians lay down or fired from cover.

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  • In mines of copper, lead and the precious metals, in which the cars are moved by hand, the usual load is from 1200 to 3000 lb.

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  • These small cars are constructed so that the load may be dumped by pivoting the car bodies on the trucks.

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  • Grades are made, whenever possible, in favour of the load, and of such degree that the power required to haul out the loaded cars shall be approximately equal to that for hauling back the empties, viz.

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  • Their power is proportioned to requirements of load and maximum gradient; the speed is rarely more than 6 or 8 m.

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  • The diameter of the cylinders is such that each alone is capable of starting the load.

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  • As the cranks are set go apart, there is no dead centre, and the engine is able to start under full load from any point of the stroke.

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  • The hoisting speed is therefore slower, and as less engine power is required for a given load the cylinders.

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  • 12) tend to equalize the varying load on the engine due to the winding and unwinding of the rope.

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  • If, for a twocompartment shaft, a pair of drums (or a single wide drum) be keyed to the engine shaft, with the ropes wound in opposite directions, the hoisting is " in balance," that is, the cages and cars counterbalance each other, so that the engine has to raise only the useful load of mineral, plus the rope.

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  • The maximum load on the engine is thus greater and more power is required than for fixed drums. Steam consumption is economized, whenever possible, by throwing in the clutches of both drums and hoisting in balance.

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  • ordinary steel rope has a breaking strength of about 32 tons, which, with a' factor of safety of six gives a safe working load of 54 tons.

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  • contents, produces excessive variations in the load on the engine difficult to deal with.

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  • Moreover, the limit of vertical depth at which rope of even the best quality will support its own weight only, with a proper margin of safety, is, say, io,000 to 12,000 ft.; and with the load the safe working limit of depth would be reached at 7000 to 8000 ft.

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  • Instead of raising the load in one lift from the bottom of the shaft, one or more intermediate 1 A full discussion of this subject is given in Trans.

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  • The variations in engine load are thus reduced, and incidentally hoisting time is saved.

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  • Provided the ship is designed to float upright at the smallest draft with no load on board, the stability at any other draft of water can be arranged by the stowage of the weight, high or low.

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  • The ordinary load for a pack camel is about 400 lb, and in hot weather good camels will march 20 to 25 m.

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  • The river Main has been dredged so as to afford heavy barge traffic with the towns of the upper Main and with the Rhine, and cargo boats load and unload alongside its busy quays.

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  • have access to Branthll, where they generally load.

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  • In another system introduced by the Mannesmann Tube Company the prop is made up of weldless steel tubes sliding telescopically one within the other, which are fixed at the right height by a screw clamp capable of carrying a load of 15 to 16 tons.

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  • A road maybe used as a self-acting or gravitating incline when the gradient is r in 30 or steeper, in which case the train is lowered by a rope passing over a pulley or brake drum at the upper end, the return empty train being attached to the opposite end of the rope and hauled up by the descending load.

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  • Where the load has to be hauled up a rising gradient, underground engines, driven by steam or compressed air or electric motors, are used.

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  • These can, however, only be used advantageously where there are fixed pumps, the fall of water generating the power resulting in a load to be removed by the expenditure of an equivalent amount of power in the pumping engine above that necessary for keeping down the mine water.

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  • When the load is being drawn out, the engine pulls directly on the main rope, coiling it on to its own drum, while the tail drum runs loose paying out its rope, a slight brake pressure being used to prevent its running out too fast.

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  • It is also customary to use a stretching pulley to keep the rope strained when the pull of the load diminishes.

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  • in thickness, weighed 14.3 tons, and another at Anzin, intended to lift a gross load of 15 tons from 750 metres, is 221 in.

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  • This engine draws a net load of 52 tons of coal from a depth of 625 yds.

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  • For flat ropes the drum or bobbin consists of a solid disk, of the width of the rope fixed upon the shaft, with numerous parallel pairs of arms or horns, arranged radially on both sides, the space between being just sufficient to allow the rope to enter and coil regularly upon the preceding lap. This method has the advantage of equalizing the work of the engine throughout the journey, for when the load is greatest, with the full cage at the bottom and the whole length of rope out, the duty required in the first revolution of the engine is measured by the length of the smallest circumference; while the assistance derived from gravitating action of the descending cage in the same period is equal to the weight of the falling mass through a height corresponding to the length of the largest lap, and so on, the speed being increased as the weight diminishes, and vice versa.

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  • At starting, when the full load is to be lifted, the balance chain uncoils, and continues to do so until the desired equilibrium between the working loads is attained, when it is coiled up again in the reverse direction, to be again given out on the return trip.

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  • When closed by the load the width is sufficient to allow it to enter a funnel-shaped guide on a cross-bar of the frame some distance above the bank level, but on reaching the narrower portion of the guide at the top the plates are forced apart which releases the ropes and brings the lugs into contact with the top of the cross-bar which secures the cage from falling.

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  • To guard against this it is now customary to use some speed-checking appliance, independent of the engine-man, which reduces or entirely cuts off the steam supply when the cage arrives at a particular point near the surface, and applies the brake if the load is travelling too quickly.

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  • An arrangement of this kind for shifting the load from a large cage at one operation was introduced by Fowler at Hucknall, in Leicestershire, where the trains are received into a framework with a number of platforms corresponding to those of the cage, carried on the head of a plunger movable by hydraulic pressure in a vertical cylinder.

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  • By this means the time of stoppage is reduced to a minimum, 8 seconds for a three-decked cage as against 28 seconds, as the operations of lowering the tubs to the level of the pit-top, discharging, and replacing them are performed during the time that the following load is being drawn up the pit.

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  • The tub when brought to the surface, after passing over a weigh-bridge where it is weighed and tallied by a weigher specially appointed for the purpose by the men and the owner jointly, is run into a " tippler," a cage turning about a horizontal axis which discharges the load in the first half of the rotation and brings the tub back to the original position in the second.

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  • This has a slotted end, engaged by a pin P fixed to the framing, and it will be seen that its action is to slacken the band if the load tends to rise and to tighten it in the contrary case.

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  • This was about the first indication of a tendency, which grew in strength for half a century, to load the Federal census with inquiries having no essential or necessary connexion with its main purpose, which was to secure an accurate enumeration of the population as a basis for a reapportionment of seats in the House of Representatives.

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  • This sand has not been brought by the Hudson itself, for that river drops most of its sediment load far up stream, in its long tidal channel.

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  • On the other hand, a girder imposes only a vertical load on its piers and abutments, and not a horizontal thrust, as in the case of an arch or suspension chain.

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  • In a three-span bridge the theoretical advantage of continuity is about 49% for a dead load and 16% for a live load.

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  • The larger the bridge, the more important is economy of material, not only because the total expenditure is more serious, but because as the span increases the dead weight of the structure becomes a greater fraction of the whole load to be supported.

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  • The merit of the simple suspension bridge is its cheapness, and its defect is its flexibility: This last becomes less serious as the dead weight of the structure becomes large in proportion to the live or temporary load.

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  • Rankine proved (Applied Mechanics, p. 370) that the necessary strength of a stiffening girder would be only one-seventh part of that of an independent girder of the same span as the bridge, suited to carry the same moving load (not including the dead weight of the girder which is supported by the chain).

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  • The four cables support a dead load of 7140 tons and a live load of 4017 tons.

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  • A rocker bearing under these pins transmits the load at the joint to the steel columns of the towers.

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  • It will be seen that the girder directly rests on a cylindrical pin or rocker so placed as to distribute the load uniformly to all the rollers.

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  • The outer ends of the shore cantilevers are loaded to balance half the weight of the central girder, the rolling load, and 200 tons in addition.

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  • This is due to the half weight of centre girder, the weight of the cantilever itself, the rolling load on half the bridge, and the wind pressure.

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  • Rolling load taken at I.

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  • This gives a load of 50 tons per eccentric. One motor is placed at each end of the span to operate the eccentrics and also to release the latches and raise the rails of the steam track.

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  • When girders form the superstructure, the resultant pressure on the piers or abutments is vertical, and the dimensions of these are simply regulated by the sufficiency to bear this vertical load.

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  • The intermediate piers should also have considerable stability, so as to counterbalance the thrust arising when one arch is loaded while the other is free from load.

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  • In the case of the St Louis bridge, half arches were built out on either side of each pier, so that the load balanced.

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  • - The external forces acting on a bridge may be classified as follows: (t) The live or temporary load, for road bridges the weight of a dense crowd uniformly distributed, or the weight of a heavy wagon or traction engine; for railway bridges the weight of the heaviest train likely to come on the bridge.

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  • (3) The dead load comprises the weight of the main girders, flooring and wind bracing, or the total weight of the superstructure exclusive of any part directly carried by the piers.

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  • (7) In some cases, especially in arch and suspension bridges, changes of temperature set up stresses equivalent to those produced by an external load.

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  • Live Load on Road Bridges.

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  • - A dense crowd of people may be taken as a uniform load of 80 to 120 lb per sq.

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  • But in recent times the weight of traction engines and wagons which pass over bridges has increased, and this kind of load generally produces greater straining action than a crowd of people.

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  • Live Load on Railway Bridges.-The live load is the weight of the heaviest train which can come on the bridge.

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  • In the earlier girder bridges the live load was taken to be equivalent to a uniform load of 1 ton per foot run for each line of way.

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  • gauge weighed at most 35 to 45 tons, and their length between buffers was such that the average load did not exceed 1 ton per foot run.

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  • The weights of engines and wagons are now greater, and in addition it is recognized that the concentration of the loading at the axles gives rise to greater straining action, especially in short bridges, than the same load uniformly distributed along the span.

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  • I In Austria the official regulations require that railway bridges shall be designed for at least the following live loads per foot run and per track: It would be simpler and more convenient in designing short bridges if, instead of assuming an equivalent uniform rolling load, agreement could be come to as to a typical heavy locomotive which would produce stresses as great as any existing locomotive on each class of railway.

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  • Bridges would then be designed for these selected loads, and the process would be safer in dealing with flooring girders and shearing forces than the assumption of a uniform load.

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  • Thus a consolidation engine may weigh 126 tons with a length over buffers of 57 ft., corresponding to an average load of 2.55 tons per ft.

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  • between buffers (average load 1.8 tons per ft.

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  • between buffers (average load 2.77 tons per ft.

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  • He takes as the live load for a bridge two such engines, followed by a train of wagons covering the span.

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  • No load of exactly this kind is ever applied to a bridge.

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  • But if a load is so applied that the deflection increases with speed, the stress is greater than that due to a very gradually applied load, and vibrations about a mean position are set up. The rails not being absolutely straight and smooth, centrifugal and lurching actions occur which alter the distribution of the loading.

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  • For all these reasons the stresses due to the live load are greater than those due to the same load resting quietly on the bridge.

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  • By plotting and averaging he obtained the following results: Ex,cess of Deflection and straining Action of a moving Load over that due to a resting Load.

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  • These percentages are added to the live load stresses.

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  • Dead Load.-The dead load consists of the weight of main girders, flooring and wind-bracing.

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  • The weight of main girders increases with the span, and there is for any type of bridge a limiting span beyond which the dead load stresses exceed the assigned limit of working stress.

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  • Let W 1 be the total live load, Wf the total flooring load on a bridge of span 1, both being considered for the present purpose to be uniform per ft.

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  • run for a live load p per ft.

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  • Then w2'/w2 = (1 +4p7p) w2'/7.vl = 1 1 0 [l2/ll + (12/11) 2] (1 +4P1p) A partially rational approximate formula for the weight of main girders is the following (Unwin, Wrought Iron Bridges and Roofs, 1869, p. 4 0) :- Let w=total live load per ft.

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  • on twice the vertical projected area of one girder, treating the pressure on the train as a travelling load.

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  • - For a long time engineers held the convenient opinion that, if the total dead and live load stress on any section of a structure (of iron) did not exceed 5 tons per sq.

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  • for steel, was safe or more than safe for long bridges with large ratio of dead to live load, it was not safe for short ones in which the stresses are mainly due to live load, the weight of the bridge being small.

    0
    0
  • For a statical load, range of stress nil, A=0, kmax.

    0
    0
  • For a bar so placed that it is alternately loaded and the load removed, 0 =k max .

    0
    0
  • It was pointed out as early as 1869 (Unwin, Wrought Iron Bridges and Roofs) that a rational method of fixing the working stress, so far as knowledge went at that time, would be to make it depend on the ratio of live to dead load, and in such a way that the factor of safety for the live load stresses was double that for the dead load stresses.

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    0
  • Let A be the dead load and B the live load, producing stress in a bar; p =B / A the ratio of live to dead load; f i the safe working limit of stress for a bar subjected to a dead load only and f the safe working stress in any other case.

    0
    0
  • Working Stress for combined Dead and Live Load.

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    0
  • Factor of Safety twice as great for Live Load as for Dead Load.

    0
    0
  • Let t be the statical breaking strength of a bar, loaded once gradually up to fracture (t = breaking load divided by original area of section); u the breaking strength of a bar loaded and unloaded an indefinitely great number of times, the stress varying from u to o alternately (this is termed the primitive strength); and, lastly, let s be the breaking strength of a bar subjected to an indefinitely great number of repetitions of stresses equal and opposite in sign (tension and thrust), so that the stress ranges alternately from s to -s.

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  • for any bridge member is found for the maximum possible live load, a live load which though it may sometimes come on the bridge and must therefore be provided for, is not the usual live load to which the bridge is subjected.

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  • 39, supported at the ends, carry a fixed load W at m from the right abutment.

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  • to the left and right of the load are R 1 and -R 2, and the distribution of shearing force is given by two rectangles.

    0
    0
  • Next let the girder carry a uniform load w per ft.

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    0
  • The total load.

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  • 41) the total load is w(c+x); the reaction at B is C R2 =w(c+x) Xc±x= (c+x)2, I.

    0
    0
  • 2 c t- - -4 4c 4c which is also the shearing force at C for that position of the load.

    0
    0
  • As the load travels, the shear at the head of the train will be given by the ordinates of a parabola having its vertex at A, and a maximum F max.

    0
    0
  • If the load FIG.

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    0
  • The greatest shear at C for any position of the load occurs when the head of the train is at C. For any load p between C and B will increase the reaction at B and therefore the shear at C by part of p, but at the same time will diminish the shear at C by the whole FIG.

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    0
  • Generally a girder supports both a dead with a travelling load like a railway train, this is greater for partial and a live load.

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    0
  • The distribution of total shear, due to a dead load w 1 per ft.

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  • run and a travelling load w 1 per ft.

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  • 42, arranged so that the dead load shear is added to the maximum travelling load shear of the same sign.

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  • - In the case of girders with braced webs, the tension bars of which are not adapted to resist a thrust, another circumstance due to the position of the live load must be considered.

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    0
  • For a train advancing from the left, the travelling load shear in the left half of the span is of a different sign from that due to the dead load.

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    0
  • x near the middle of the girder the shear changes sign, according as the load advances from the left or the right.

    0
    0
  • Further, the range of stress to which they are subjected is the sum of the stresses due to the load advancing from the left or the right.

    0
    0
  • Next let the loads advance a distance a so that W2 comes to C. Then the shear at C is R(n+a)/l - WI, plus any reaction d at B, due to any additional load which has come on the girder during the movement.

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    0
  • This result is modified if the action of the load near the section is distributed to the bracing intersections by rail and cross girders.

    0
    0
  • Hence the criterion for the position of the loads which makes the moment at C greatest is this: one load must be at C, and the other loads must be distributed, so that the average loads per ft.

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    0
  • on either side of C (the load at C being neglected) are nearly equal.

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    0
  • If these are first drawn it is easy, for any position of the loads, to draw the lines B'C, B'D, B'E, and to find the sum of the intercepts which is the total bending moment under a load.

    0
    0
  • The lower portion of the figure is the curve of bending moments under the leading load.

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    0
  • Till W 1 has advanced a distance a only one load is on the girder, and the curve A"F gives bending moments due to W 1 only; as W1 advances to a distance a+b, two loads are on the girder, and the curve FG gives moments due to W 1 and W2.

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  • As might be expected, the moments are greatest in this case at the sections under the 15-ton load.

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    0
  • This parabola is the curve of maximum moments for a travelling load uniform per ft.

    0
    0
  • Let w e be the load per ft.

    0
    0
  • Then w e may be termed the uniform load per ft.

    0
    0
  • At a section distant x from the centre of a girder of span 2c, the bending moment due to a uniform load W e per ft.

    0
    0
  • Then the bridge is designed, so far as the direct stresses are concerned, for bending moments due to a uniform dead load and the uniform equivalent load we.

    0
    0
  • Such a line has for abscissa the distance of a load from one end of a girder, and for ordinate the bending moment or shear at any given section, or on any member, due to that load.

    0
    0
  • Generally the influence line is drawn for unit load.

    0
    0
  • 52 let A'B' be a girder supported at the ends and let it be required to investigate the bending moment at C' due to unit load in any position on the girder.

    0
    0
  • When the load is at F', the reaction at B' is m/l and the moment at C' is m(l-x)ll, which will be reckoned positive, when it resists a tendency of the right-hand part of the girder to turn counter-clockwise.

    0
    0
  • Projecting A'F'C'B' on to the horizontal AB, take Ff =m(l-x)il, the moment at C of unit load at F.

    0
    0
  • For a uniform travelling load w per ft.

    0
    0
  • of span, consider a small interval Fk =Am on which the load is wLm.

    0
    0
  • Hence the moment of the load on Am at C is wy0m, and the moment of a uniform load over any portion of the girder is w X the area of the influence curve Ip' G' E ' under that portion.

    0
    0
  • on the vertical under the load.

    0
    0
  • Repeating the process for other positions, we get the influence line Aghb, for the shear at C due to unit load anywhere on the girder.

    0
    0
  • If the load is in the bay D'E' and is carried by a rail girder which distributes it to cross girders at D'E', the part of the influence line under this bay is altered.

    0
    0
  • 55) be the distance of the load from D', x 1 the distance of D' from the left abutment, and p the length of a bay.

    0
    0
  • Clearly, the distribution of the load by the rail girder considerably alters the distribution of shear due to a load in the bay in which the section considered lies.

    0
    0
  • Generally, the greatest shear S at C will occur when the longer of the segments into which C divides the girder is fully loaded and the other is unloaded, the leading load being at C. If the loads are very unequal or unequally spaced, a trial or two will determine which position gives the greatest value of S.

    0
    0
  • For a uniformly distributed load w per ft.

    0
    0
  • run the shear at C is w X the area of the influence curve under the segment covered by the load, attention being paid to the sign of the area of the curve.

    0
    0
  • If the load rests directly on the main girder, the greatest -Iand - shears at C will be wXAGC and -w X CHB.

    0
    0
  • But if the load is distributed to the bracing intersections by rail and cross girders, then the shear at C' will be greatest when the load extends to N, and will have the values wXADN and -wXNEB.

    0
    0
  • - Another method of investigating the maximum shear at a section due to any distribution of a travelling load has been given by Prof. H.

    0
    0
  • 56) represent in magnitude and position a load W, at x from the left abutment, on a girder AB of span 1.

    0
    0
  • Also mn/mf = hk/kf 'or' mn-W (l-x)/l, which is the reaction at A due to the load at C, and is the shear at any point of AC. Similarly, po is the reaction at B and shear at any point of CB.

    0
    0
  • The shaded rectangles represent the distribution of shear due to the load at C, while no may be termed the datum line of shear.

    0
    0
  • Let the load move to D, so that its distance from the left abutment is x+a.

    0
    0
  • Then qr/ro = hk/hg or ro =W (l-x-a)/l, which is the reaction at A and shear at any point of AD, for the new position of the load.

    0
    0
  • The cost of the main girders for one span will vary nearly as the square of the span for any given type of girder and intensity of live load.

    0
    0
  • A frame used to support a weight is often called a truss; the stresses on the various members of a truss can be computed for any given load with greater accuracy than the intensity of stress on the various parts of a continuous structure such as a tubular girder, or the rib of an arch.

    0
    0
  • Many assumptions are made in treating of the flexure of a continuous structure which are not strictly true; no assumption is made in determining the stresses on a frame except that the joints are flexible, and that the frame shall be so stiff as not sensibly to alter in form under the load.

    0
    0
  • In the Forth bridge stability is obtained partly by the great excess of dead over live load, partly by the great width of the river piers.

    0
    0
  • transmit load to the main girders.

    0
    0
  • half the load carried between the two lower joints next the piers on either side is directly carried by the abutments.

    0
    0
  • 67 b, superimposed and divided so that the length AX represents the load AX, the length AB the load AB, the length YX the reaction YX, and so forth.

    0
    0
  • The weight load was pushing downwards, causing pressure on the strut.

    0
    0
  • - If the lengths of the links be assumed indefinitely short, the chain under given simple distributions of load will take the form of comparatively simple mathematical curves known as catenaries.

    0
    0
  • - In order that a girder may become straight under its working load it should be constructed with a camber or upward convexity equal to the calculated deflection.

    0
    0
  • Rankine gives the approximate rule Working deflection =5= l a /t o,000h, where l is the span and h the depth of the beam, the stresses being those usual in bridgework, due to the total dead and live load.

    0
    0
  • Tondern was in early days a seaport, but since the reclamation of the marshes and the dredging of the Widane navigation has ceased, and vessels load and unload at Hoyer, with which the place has direct railway communication.

    0
    0
  • As a matter of fact, it is difficult to rely upon most electric meters to register correctly to less than 4% even between quarter-load and full load.

    0
    0
  • If possible, however, the departures from absolute accuracy should not be more than 2% at quarter-load, nor more than 3% at a full load.

    0
    0
  • The accuracy of a meter is tested by drawing calibration curves showing the percentage departure from absolute accuracy in its reading for various decimal fractions of full load.

    0
    0
  • A good meter should start with a current which is not more than 2% of its full load current.

    0
    0
  • If whitened, the loss in bulk and in rejection being two-thirds, this would produce about 44 bolts, which at £30 per load of 80 bolts, the appreciated market value of 1907, would be worth £16, ios.

    0
    0
  • In years of abundant crops and short demand, prices have fallen to £24 per load.

    0
    0
  • When the ice sheets fronted on land sloping southward to the Ohio, Mississippi and Missouri rivers, the drift-laden streams flowed freely away from the ice border; and as the streams, escaping from their subglacial channels, spread in broader channels, they ordinarily could not carry forward all their load; hence they acted not as destructive but as constructive agents, and aggraded their courses.

    0
    0
  • The great river receives an abundant load of silt from its tributaries, and takes up ano lays down silt from its own bed and banks with every change of velocity.

    0
    0
  • The load of silt borne down stream by the river finally, after many halts on the way, reaches the waters of the Gulf, where the decrease of velocity, aided by the salinity of the sea water, causes the formation of a remarkable delta, leaving less aggraded areas as shallow lakes (Lake Pontchartrain on the east, and Grand Lake on the west of the river).

    0
    0
  • The plan commonly adopted to obviate the necessity of inconveniently long stems is to construct a number of hydrometers as nearly alike as may be, but to load them differently, so that the scaledivisions at the bottom of the stem of one hydrometer just overlap those at the top of the stem of the preceding.

    0
    0
  • Vessels load and discharge by means of lighters.

    0
    0
  • The slightest change in the load will cause motion in one direction or the other - the system is thermodynamically reversi ble.

    0
    0
  • To give a rough idea, however, it may be said that its safe crushing load would be about a cwt.

    0
    0
  • cracking under a heavy load.

    0
    0
  • But in a thin slab, with its comparatively small span and light load, the concrete is generally strong enough to bear the shearing stresses unaided, and the reinforcement is devoted to assisting it where the tensile stresses occur.

    0
    0
  • Sea-going vessels load and unload at Salmio, 7 m.

    0
    0
  • The distortion which rails undergo in manufacture and use is incomparably less than that to which rivets are subjected, and thus rail steel may safely be much richer in carbon and hence in cementite, and therefore much stronger and harder, so as to better endure the load and the abrasion of the passing wheels.

    0
    0
  • About 12,000 carriers were collected, the load allotted to each being 50 1b.

    0
    0
  • The provincial population, crushed under a load of unjust taxation, could no longer furnish soldiers in the numbers required for the defence of the empire; and on the other hand, the emperors, ever fearful that a brilliantly successful general of Roman extraction might be proclaimed Augustus by his followers, preferred that high military command should be in the hands of a man to whom such.

    0
    0
  • In fact, with a simple ram it is not possible to lift beyond a certain height with a given pressure and load.

    0
    0
  • Below the piston of the upper cylinder is an annular space E (surrounding the common piston rod) with a capacity equal to the maximum displacement of the liftram, while the corresponding annular area C of the piston of the lower cylinder is just large enough when subjected to the working water pressure to enable the work of lifting the net load to be done and any friction to be overcome.

    0
    0
  • To work the lift, pressure-water is admitted to the annular space C above the lower of the two balance pistons (the space B above the upper one is always in communication with the pressure-water), and the combined pressure on the two pistons is sufficient to lift the cage, ram and load.

    0
    0
  • ram with a lift of 90 ft., the working load being 1 ton and the maximum working speed 180 ft.

    0
    0
  • Here again, since the intensity of the pressure on A becomes greater as it descends owing to the increased head, the apparent increase of weight of the lift-ram as it rises is automatically balanced; water from the high-pressure system is admitted down the hollow ram B and does the work of lifting the live load.

    0
    0
  • Pelton wheels are very sensitive to variation of load, and considerable trouble was experienced at first in securing adequate A s has now become one of 5.

    0
    0
  • 2 The following statistics of turbine construction in Switzerland are taken from Schweizerische Bauzeitung (1901), p. 128, which, in the same volume at p. 53, contains a valuable article on the most important improvements in turbines and their regulation shown in the Paris Exhibition of 1901: - of one of these, which gave an efficiency of 87% at full load and 70% at about three-fifths full load.

    0
    0
  • The total power developed is 600 H.P., and though the load factor varies very greatly in this case, the differential type of governor used secures perfect control of the running of the wheels.

    0
    0
  • efficiency of the Francis turbine being in this case 86% at full load and 77% at half load.

    0
    0
  • In spite of this, however, the average yield in the profitable mines is only from 0.2 carat to o 6 carat per load of 1600 lb, or on an average about IIgrs.

    0
    0
  • Fish are caught in great numbers in the rivers and marshes, chiefly barbel and carp, and the latter attain so great a size that one is a sufficient load for an ass.

    0
    0
  • Load >>

    0
    0
  • Large vessels generally load in the roads at Graberg, 6 in.

    0
    0
  • It has been suggested that the gradual cumulative result of the activity of the nerve cells during the waking day is to load the brain tissue with "fatigue-substances" Theories of which clog the action of the cells, and thus periodi cally produce that loss of consciousness, &c., which is sleep. Such a drugging of tissue by its own excreta is known in muscular fatigue, but the fact that the depth of sleep progressively increases for an hour and more after its onset prevents complete explanation of sleep on similar lines.

    0
    0
  • When the slope down which a river runs has become very slight, it is unable to carry the sediment brought from higher regions nearer its source, and consequently the lower portion of the river valley becomes filled with alluvial deposits; and since in times of flood the rush of water in the high regions tears off and carries down a greater quantity of sediment than usual, the river spreads this also over the lower valley where the plain is flooded, because the rush of water is checked, and the stream in consequence drops its extra load.

    0
    0
  • course, such as a band of hard rock, may form a flood plain behind it, and indeed anything which checks a river's course and causes it to drop its load will tend to form a flood plain; but it is most commonly found near the mouth of a large river, such as the Rhine, the Nile, or the Mississippi, where there are occasional floods and the river usually carries a large amount of sediment.

    0
    0
  • On the left the prince's men could not load their pieces, their powder being ruined by the tempestuous rain.

    0
    0
  • The horses are guided from the boat, and a twentyor thirty-foot barge with a heavy load of men and goods will be towed across the river at Kilif (where, as already stated, the width of the river is between 500 and 600 yards only) with ease by two of these animals.

    0
    0
  • A load of sawn or hewn timber contains 50 cub.

    0
    0
  • ft., and a load of unhewn timber 40 cubic ft.

    0
    0
  • The tidal harbour is enclosed by stone breakwaters, and large vessels enter and load frozen meat direct from the refrigerator cars.

    0
    0
  • Lay days, which are days given to the charterer in a charter party either to load or unload without paying for the use of the ship, are days of the week, not periods of twenty-four hours.

    0
    0
  • female figures, the artists trust more and more to swelling breasts and towering chignons, and load the neck with constantly accumulating jewels.

    0
    0
  • silver-on-glass mirror (weighing about one ton) rests at the lower end of the tube on a support-system consisting of a large number of weighted levers which press against the back of the glass and distribute the load.

    0
    0
  • After three days spent in cutting down the sledge and rearranging its load Mawson started on his lonely tramp, and after appalling difficulties, when nearly exhausted, he stumbled on a food depot laid out by a search party 20 m.

    0
    0
  • Four lines of rails on deck gave accommodation for 54 ten-ton wagons carrying an average load of 900 tons.

    0
    0
  • It Would Have Been Desirable, If Possible, To Have Tried The Effect Of A Larger Range Of Variation In The Experimental Conditions Of Load And Speed, With A View To Detect The Existence Of Constant Errors; But Owing To The Limitations Imposed By The Use Of A Steam Engine, And The Difficulty Of Securing Steady Conditions Of Running, This Proved To Be Impossible.

    0
    0
  • Again if PQ be any segment of the beam which is free from load, Q lying to the right of P, we find FPFQ, MPMQ=--F.PQ; (12)

    0
    0
  • If PQ be a short segment containing an isolated load W, we have FeFi.=W, MQ=MP; (3) hence F is discontinuous at a p concentrated load, diminishing by an amount equal to the load as we pass the loaded point to the right, whilst M is continuous.

    0
    0
  • The load on an element bx of the beam may be represented by wbx, where - w is in general a function of x.

    0
    0
  • In the case of uniform load we have F=w~+A, M=1/2wxi_Ax+B, (5) where the arbitrary constants A,B are to be determined by the conditions of the special problem, -

    0
    0
  • If we wish to study the effects of a movable load or system of loads, in different positions on the beam, it is only neces sary to shift the lines of action of the pressures of the support~ relatively to the funicular, keeping them at the same distanci apart; the only change is then in the position of the closing line of the funicular.

    0
    0
  • Support of .tructures.Every structure, as a whole, is maintained in equilibrium by the joint action of its own weIght, of the external load or pressure applied to it from without and tending to displace it, and of the resistance of the material which supports it.

    0
    0
  • because the resistances to displacement are the effect of a strained state of the pieces, which strained state is the effect of the load, and when the load is applied the strained state and the resistances produced by it increase until the resistances acquire just those magnitudes which are sufficient to balance the load, after which they increase no further.

    0
    0
  • Relations between Polygons of Loads and of Resistances.In a structure in which each piece is supported at two joints only, the well-known laws of statics show that the directions of the gross load on each piece and of the two resistances by which it is supported must lie in one plane, must either be parallel or meet in one point, and must bear to each other, if not parallel, the proportions of the sides of a triangle respectively parallel to their directions, and, if parallel, such proportions that each of the three forces shall be proportional to the distance between the other two,all the three distances being measured along one direction.

    0
    0
  • Considering, in the first place, the case in which the load and the two resistances by which each piece is balanced meet in one point, which may be called the centre of load, there will be as many such points of intersection, or centres of load, as there are pieces in the structure; and the directions and positions of the resistances or mutual pressures exerted between the pieces will be represented by the sides of a polygon joining Pi h2 ~, ~ those points, as in fig.

    0
    0
  • P4 represent the centres of load in a structure of four pieces, and the sides of the ~ polygon of resistances P1 P2 P2 P4 represent respectively the direc~ I~~ tions and positions FIG.

    0
    0
  • Further, at any one of the centres of load let PL represent the magnitude and direction of the gross load, and Pa, Pb the two resistances by which the piece to which that load is applied is supported; then wifl those three lines be respectively the diagonal and sides of a parallelogram; or, what is the same thing, they will be equal to the three sides of a triangleS and they must be in the same plane, although the sides of the polygon of resistances may be in different planes.

    0
    0
  • Then from the proportionality and parallelism sides of a triangle, there results the following of the load and the two resistances applied to each piece of the structure to the three theorem (originally due to Rankine): If from the angles of the polygon of loads there be drawn lines (Ri, R2, &c.), each of which is parallel to the resistance (as Pi F2, &c.) exerted FIG.

    0
    0
  • When the load on one of the pieces is parallel to the resistances which balance it, the polygon of resistances ceases to be closed, two of the sides becoming parallel to each other and to the load in question, and extending indefinitely.

    0
    0
  • In the polygon of loads the direction of a load sustained by parallel resistances traverses the point O-i i Since the relation discussed in 7 was enunciated by Rankine, an enormous development has taken place in the subject of Graphic Statics, the first comprehensive textbook on the subject being Die Graphische Statik by K.

    0
    0
  • structed of lines connecting, the centres of load of any continuous series of pieces.

    0
    0
  • In considering its properties, the load at each centre of load is to be held to include the resistances of those joints which are not comprehended in the partial polygon of resistances, to which the theorem of 7 will then apply in every respect.

    0
    0
  • Stability of Position, and Stability of Frictio-n.The resistances at the several joints having been determined by the principles set forth in 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10, not only under the ordinary load of the structure, but under all the variations to which the load is subject as to amount and distribution, the joints are now to be placed and shaped so that the pieces shall not suffer relative displacement under any of those loads.

    0
    0
  • Condition of Stability of Position.If the materials of a structure were infinitely stiff and strong, stability of position at any joint would be insured simply by making the centre of resistance fall within the joint under all possible variations of load.

    0
    0
  • Frames of timber or metal, under their ordinary or average distribution of load I: 3

    0
    0
  • consequently the condition of stability of friction is fulfilled if tht angle PCR is not greater than ~ that is to say, if the obliquity o~ the resistance required at the joint does not exceed the angle of repose and this condition ought to be fulfilled under all possible variation~ of the load.

    0
    0
  • Conditions of Stiffness and Strength.After the arrangement of the pieces of a structure and the size and figure of their joints or surfaces of contact have been determined so as to fulfil the conditions of stabilityconditions which depend mainly on the position and direction of the resultant or total load on each piece, and the relative magnitude of the loads on the different piecesthe dimensions of each piece singly have to be adjusted so as to fulfil the conditions of stiffness and strengthconditions which depend not only on the absolute magnitude of the load on each piece, and of the resistances by which it is balanced, but also on the mode of distribution of the load over the piece, and of the resistances over the joints.

    0
    0
  • The effect of the pressures applied to a piece, consisting of the load and the sispporting resistances, is to force the piece into a state of strain or disfigurement, which increases until the elasticity, or resistance to strain, of the material causes it to exert a stress, or effort to recover its figure, equal and opposite to the system of applied pressures.

    0
    0
  • It appears therefore that in general the mechanism is to be designed first and the frame afterwards, and that the designing of the frame is regtilated by the principles of the stability of structures and of the strength and stiffness of materials,care being taken to adapt the frame to the most severe load which can be thrown upon it at any period of the action of the mechanism.

    0
    0
  • - Each indepgndent piece of the mechanism also is a structure, and its dimensions are to be adapted, according to the principles of the strength and stiffness of materials, to the most severe load to which it can he subjected during the action of the machine.

    0
    0
  • supports a load P at the point lv.

    0
    0
  • What load is required at the pointy to maintain the configuration shown, both loads being supposed to act vertically?

    0
    0
  • load in the respective, .V P

    0
    0
  • Eng., 1883) showed that when oil is supplied to a journal by means of an oil bath the coefficient of friction varies nearly inversely as the load on the bearing, thus making the product of the load on the bearing and the coefficient of friction a constant.

    0
    0
  • The more recent experiments of Lasche (Zeitsch, Verein Deutsche Ingen., 1902, 46, 1881) show that the product of the coefficient of friction, the load on the bearing, and the temperature is approximately constant.

    0
    0
  • The British resident estimated in 1904 that at least 3000 loads of British cotton goods, which he valued at 5 a load, were imported.

    0
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  • Thus it came about that, only a few years after he had commenced to free the country from the weight of the loans and taxes which crushed her to the dust, Colbert was forced to heap upon her a new load of loans and taxes more heavy than the last.

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  • Stewart stated that the Khorasan camel is celebrated for its size and strength, that it has very long hair, and bears cold and exposure far better than the ordinary Arabian or Persian camel, and that, while the ordinary Persian camel only carries a load of some 320 lb and an Indian camel one of some 400 Ib, the Khorasan camel will carry from 600 to 700 lb.

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  • The mule thrives in every condition of climate, is fever-proof, travels over the most difficult mountain passes with absolute security, and can carry with ease a load of 200 lb.

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  • The practical limit of height was reached when the sectional area of the masonry of the piers of the exterior walls in the lower storey had to be made so great, in order to support safely the weight of the dead load of the walls and floors and the accidental load imposed upon the latter in use, as to affect seriously the value of the lower storeys on account of the loss of light and floor space.

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  • The walls thus supported no load but their own weight, and were tied to the inner cage formed by the wall columns, interior columns, girders, and floors by anchors arranged to provide for the shrinkage of masonry in drying out which always occurs to a greater or less extent.

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  • The advantages that led to the very rapid introduction of this system were not only the power of greatly reducing the size of the piers, but the enormous facility afforded for quick construction, the small amount of materials relatively used and the proportionately small load upon the foundations, and the fact that as the walls are supported at each storey directly from the cage, the masonry can be begun at any storey independently of the masonry below it.

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  • In buildings to be used as offices, hotels, apartments, &c., it is usual in establishing the loads for the purpose of computation to assume that the columns carrying the roof and the upper storey will be called upon to sustain the full dead load due to material and the maximum computed variable load, but it is customary' to reduce the variable loads at the rate of about 5% storey by storey towards the base, until a minimum of about 20% of the entire variable load is reached, for it is evidently impossible that the building can be loaded by a densely-packed moving crowd in all of its storeys simultaneously.

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  • In the case of factories and buildings used for storage purposes the maximum variable load which can be imposed for any serious length of time on each floor must be used without reduction in computing the loads of the lower column, and proper allowances must be made for vibrating loads.

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  • In the case of very tall exposed buildings of small depth, the vertical load on the columns due to wind pressure in the opposite side of the building must be computed and allowed for, and in case the lower columns are without lateral support their bending moment must be sufficient to resist the lateral pressure due to wind and eccentricity of loading.

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  • In very short girders the shear must be computed, and in long girders the deflexion, particularly the flexure from the variable load, since a flexure of more than of the length is liable to crack the plastering of the ceilings carried by the girders.

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  • It is usual in both girders and beams to provide not only for the safe support of the greatest possible distributed load, but for the greatest weight, such as that of a safe or other heavy piece of furniture which may be moved over the floor at its weakest points, the centres of the girders and beams. It must always be borne in mind that the formulae for the ultimate strength of the " I " beams only hold good when the upper chord or flange is supported laterally.

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  • The spacing, or distance from centre to centre of the floor beams, will depend upon the type of fire-proof flooring employed; it also depends to a considerable extent upon the amount and character of the floor load and the length of span.

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  • apart; under a load in the centre of the piece of 2500 lb the deflexion must not exceed - in.

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  • In all cases it is customary to fill on top of the arches with a strong Portland cement concrete to a uniform level, generally the top of the deepest beam; the floor filling is constructed and carried to this level immediately upon the completion of each tier of beams, for the purpose not only of stiffening the frame laterally, and of adding to its stability by the imposition of a static load, but also to afford constantly safe and strong working platforms at regular and convenient intervals for use throughout the entire period of the construction.

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  • of the dam, and g its centre of gravity, the centre of pressure upon the base will be vertically under g, that is, at the centre of the base, and the load will be properly represented by the rectangle bfgc, of which the area represents the total load and the uniform depth of its uniform intensity.

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  • The only objection that can in any case be urged against most of the natural products is that a longer time is required for induration; but in the case of masonry dams sufficient time necessarily passes before any load, beyond that of the very gradually increasing masonry, is brought upon the structure.

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  • crust be a perfectly safe load.

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  • It is clear that the material upon which any high masonry dam is founded must also have a large factor of safety against crushing under the greatest load that the dam can impose upon it, and this consideration unfits any site for the construction of a masonry dam where sound rock, or at least a material equal in strength to the strongest shale, cannot be had; even in the case of such a material as shale the foundation must be well below the ground.

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  • Any given yard of height measured during construction, or at any time after construction, will be less than a yard when additional weight has been placed upon it; hence the ends of such dams placed against rock surfaces must move with respect to those surfaces when the superincumbent load comes upon them.

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  • When constructed for purposes of extreme accuracy they will turn with the one-millionth part of the load weighed, though to ensure such a result the knife-edges and their bearings must be extremely hard (either hardened steel or agate) and worked up with great care.

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  • With balances of the highest precision it may be as high as 17 - 6 - 6 4, 0 o th of the load weighed, while with trade balances when new it would be about 2000 t h of the load.

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  • The ordinary way of using a steelyard is to bring it into a horizontal position by means of movable weights, and to infer the amount of the load from the positions of these.

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  • But it is sometimes convenient to use a fixed weight on the long arm, and to infer the amount of the load from the position of the steelyard.

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  • The more elaborate ones are made either with a heavy travelling poise to measure the bulk of the load with a light travelling poise for the remainder, or else with a knife-edge at the end of the steelyard, on which loose weights are hung to measure the bulk of the load, the remainder being measured with a light travelling poise.

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  • 7 let Z be the fulcrum knife-edge, X the knife-edge on which the load R is hung, and H the centre of gravity of the weights to the right of Z, viz.

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  • The automatic personal weighing machine found at most railway stations operates by means of a steelyard carrying a fixed weight on its long arm, the load on the platform being inferred from the position of the steelyard.

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  • When the load on the platform is large, so that the value of the goods may be considerable, it is convenient to measure the larger part of the value by loose weights which, when hung at the end of the steelyard, represent each a certain money value, and the balance of the value is determined by the sliding poise Q.

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  • The load is received upon four knife-edges, so that on the average each knife-edge receives only one-fourth of the load, and, as will be seen, it is immaterial whether the load is received equally by the four knife-edges or not, which is essential to the useful application of these machines.

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  • The platform and the load upon it are carried on four knife-edges, two of which, x 1 and x 2, are shown, and the load is transferred to the steelyard by the two levers shown, the upper one CD being known as the long body," and the lower, one EF as the " short body."

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  • When the poises have been adjusted to weigh a load on the platform the punch is operated by a strong pull, and the impression of the raised figures is left on the card.

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  • long, and are arranged to weigh up to loo tons or more - it is practically composed of two platform machines end to end, each having its four knife-edges to receive the load, and the two long bodies take bearing on the opposite sides of an intermediate horizontal lever, the end of which is connected with the steelyard.

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  • The gauge has a plain dial, marked off to indications given by the application of standard tons and cwts.; it could probably be read to about 2% of the load weighed.

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  • For the sake of compactness and convenience of reading the extension of the springs, and consequently the load, is frequently indicated on a dial, by means of a small rack and pinion, which give motion to a finger on the dial-plate, but the regularity and correctness of the indications of the finger will depend upon the condition of the rackwork and upon the friction, and these will vary with the wear of the machine.

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  • The pull of the load is transmitted to a hook which hangs freely from the middle of a horizontal bar below the drum casing.

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  • The horizontal bar which receives the pull of the load is connected at its ends with the two spiral springs and pulls verti - cally upon them.

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  • To deaden the vibration of the springs after a load has been placed on the platform, and thus to enable the weights and values of the goods to be read rapidly, the piston of a glycerin cylinder is attached to the end of the lever which pulls upon the hook of the horizontal bar and is worked by it in the glycerin.

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  • Up to 2 lb the weight of the load is registered automatically on the chart in much the same manner as in the case of the automatic computing weighing machine already described.

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  • When the load exceeds 2 lb one or more 2-lb weights are placed in the weights-pan, and the value of the portion of the goods corresponding to these 2-lb weights is computed, at the rate per lb, in the ordinary manner; and the value of the balance of the weight of the goods is read off the chart, and the two are added together.

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  • The advantage of this is that a very open scale is obtained for reading the value of the balance of the load.

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  • Thus, for weighing up to the full load of 14 lb, six 2-lb weights are required and no others.

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  • The manner in which the balance of the load is weighed is as follows: Near the bottom of the vertical leg from the goods-pan, a projecting piece is rigidly attached to it, and as the pan descends with the balance of the load this piece pulls by a hook on a thin band of steel, which llIwwim is led upwards and wraps round the surface of a disk to which it is firmly secured.

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  • stand still while the load is discharged.

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  • For the bulk of the filling both brushes are in operation, but when the load is nearly complete the longer brush is stopped and the filling is completed by the shorter brush only.

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  • When the load is complete the shorter brush also is stopped while the compartment of the drum is emptied.

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  • And the long arm of the indicator lever pulls vertically upon the spring of an ordinary spring balance, which registers the load, and with the addition of suitable counting mechanism sums up the weights of any number of successive loads.

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  • The trucks or other receptacles containing the coal, &c., are drawn upon the platform of the machine, and the pull of the load is transferred by a vertical rod at the left-hand end of the machine to the knife-edge on the short arm of the steelyard, whose fulcrum is carried on bearings in the frame.

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  • By the first part of this drop the movement of the poise is suddenly stopped, as will be explained below, and the travel of the poise along the steelyard, which measures the load on the platform, is recorded by the amount of rotation of the large spur wheel, and this is suitably shown on a dial in connexion with the wheel.

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  • end in readiness for the next load.

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  • When the poise is at the zero end, and there is no load on the platform, the end of the steelyard is down, and has locked the ratchet wheel by means of the pawl; the shaft being thus locked, the sprocket wheels are stopped, the drum-shaft runs free by the friction clutch, and the two pulleys which are connected by the crossed band are running idle.

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  • When the load to be weighed comes upon the platform, the end of the steelyard rises and unlocks the ratchet wheel through the pawl; the sprocket gearing is driven by the friction clutch, and drives the axle of the left-hand small pulley.

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  • When the poise arrives at zero it frees the clutch which connects the pulley and the sprocket wheel, and the machine is then ready for the next load.

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  • next load comes upon the platform.

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  • When the load comes upon the platform the pull of the vertical rod is transmitted by the nickel bands to the cylinders around which they are wrapped, and causes them to revolve.

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  • Benjamin (American Machinist, 1898) on castiron pulleys loaded by a belt to imitate the conditions in practice led him to the conclusion that the rim is usually not sufficiently rigid to load the arms equally, and that the ends of the arms are subjected to bending movements of opposite sign, that at the nave being almost invariably the greater.

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  • The load, supported by the lower hook, is raised by hauling on the free end and, neglecting any slight obliquity of the plies of rope, the free end moves six times as fast H L C FIG.

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  • For a single pulley of diameter D, turning on a fixed pin of diameter d, the relation of the effort E to the load W, where f is the coefficient of friction, is expressed by E/W = (D-pfd)/(D - fd) _ 1 +2fd/D approximately.

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  • (I) If the load is self-sustaining E' is zero or negative, and hence b -{- M/R must be equal to or greater than unity, and therefore it is impossible for the ratio of RÆ to rise to a greater value than (I - a)/2, and hence at least half the effort is wasted if the tackle 6.

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  • has the valuable property of sustaining a load when the effort is removed.

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  • As an example we may take the case where a brake is provided offering a resistance, c R, proportional to the load sustained, and where the values a and b are small compared with unity.

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  • Equation (I) becomes E/R= (I - b - c - M/R)/(i - a), and hence b+c +M /R is equal to or greater than unity when the load is self-sustained, and we thus obtain a relation between R and E in the form i - a/2 - c, which shows to a first approximation, that as c approaches unity a high efficiency is obtainable, while the self-sustaining power of the tackle is retained.

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  • Other forms, which do not require so lengthy a chain, sometimes employ an epicyclic train to obtain the reduced velocity of the load.

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  • In the brake shown, the cone I is pressed against a corresponding recess in the ratchetwheel J, which latter turns loosely in the casing and is provided with a pawl not shown in the figure; this pawl allows freedom of motion when the load is being raised.

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  • The frictional grip between the two surfaces prevents return motion of the worm shaft and the load remains suspended, but it may be lowered by turning the hand-wheel so as to overcome the friction brake.

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  • Various other arrangements of friction brakes have been devised to give a resistance proportional to the load.

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  • There is extensive quayage, and the largest wool ships are able to load alongside the wharves, which are connected by rail with all parts of the colony.

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  • a load which his increasing years made it impossible for him to sustain (see the article GLADSTONE).

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  • off-shore to load or discharge cargo by means of lighters.

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  • When they are weary they lie down upon the ground, and as there are no means of making them get up, either by beating or assisting them, the load must of necessity be taken off.

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  • The further development of the honey extractor has of late been limited to an increase in the size of machine used, in order to save time and manual labour, and thus meet the requirements of the largest honey producers, who extract honey by the car load.

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  • Both at very high and very low pressures the coefficient of friction is affected by the intensity of pressure, and, just as with velocity, it can only be regarded as independent of the intensity and proportional simply to the total load within more or less definite limits.

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  • I'm not saying exposure to a unique power load might not somehow intensify his imagination and perhaps cause heightened awareness; I'm simply stating there isn't some time machine or magical forest upstairs.

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  • "It shouldn't be much of a load," he said as he ate his dry toast—butter was fattening.

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  • "I hope you.re good at what you do," she said with some discomfort as he continued to load his body with weapons.

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  • In the time that I've been here, it looks to me like you carry your share of the load – sometimes more.

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  • The test scientifically analyzes battery performance with a true constant current load capacity test that is graphically displayed.

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  • Therefore the ideal fetal microphone does not load the maternal abdomen.

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  • Acrobat Reader Down load the adobe acrobat Reader Down load the adobe acrobat reader to enable you to read PDF files.

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  • I bought a new Ethernet adapter for my new PC, on the basis that my browser would load things faster.

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  • Changed ' load info ' window to appear if you hold down alt.

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  • The electrical load on one socket should not exceed 13 amps or 3 kilowatts.

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  • anode voltage is about 3000 volts under a load of 850 ma.

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  • anode load for these is the modulation transformer primary, which is fed from the high voltage 4750 line on its center tap.

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  • does anyone have to got onto the vehicle or load, putting them at risk of falling?

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  • The 25 ton axle load may have been just two high for industrial lines in the 1950s.

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  • I doubt that there are more than two or three behind a load balancer managing the traffic.

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  • bathymetry mapping and sediment load.

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  • Each point will take a two ton load, giving a total distributed load bearing of 12 tons.

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  • For heavy loads, a padded waist belt is invaluable, taking much of the load off your shoulders.

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  • Here is the code to load a 256 color bitmap into the structure given above.

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  • Load This command is used to load a new bitmap file into the bitmap editor.

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  • blame culture by the sack load.

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  • A load of old bollocks is nearer the mark.

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  • I carefully hopped up onto it mindful of a load of perched boulders.

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  • To protect against excessive force exerted on the torso, there is a load limiting device to reduce the risk of bone breakage.

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  • The critical load for adhesion failure is easiest to identify in the case of a hard, relatively brittle film on a softer substrate.

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  • bucket load of online retro games.

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  • The last thing we need is a load of cowboy builders returning their right ears to us claiming it was down to our product!

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  • Special design allows even load during cutting and produces a burr free hole that needs no extra finishing.

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  • To turn images off, click on the radio button next to ' Do not load any images ' .

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  • Gripped by a six-piston caliper, braking forces are transferred optimally to the rim, virtually eliminating torsional load on the front wheel.

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  • Process Reactor mounted on the unique double cantilever KIS load cell.

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  • input capacitance of driven cell is the load capacitance of the driving cell.

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  • capacitive reactance to cause a significant phase shift in the current that flows through the load.

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  • capacitive load.

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  • A 6 hr. necropsy revealed cardiomyopathy and a heavy parasitical load of this a MALE Kogia breviceps.

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  • cargo vessel whose load included uranium dioxide powder.

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  • carrying the load since we left.

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  • METHODS AND RESULTS: plasma catecholamine, glucose, and insulin levels were measured before and after an oral glucose load.

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  • Chinook helicopters from 18 Squadron were deployed to assist with troop and load carrying, particularly for the building of radar stations.

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  • Posted by: Stuart | January 7, 2004 01:17 PM BMI is a load of old cobblers.

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  • You can't, and you're more likely to come across a load of total cobblers first.

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  • Maybe spiritual leaders always talk a load of old codswallop on ceremonial occasions.

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  • The backpack was ditched for a plastic one and a load of green stuff used to make the chain mail coif.

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  • compressive strength of every fourth load of concrete is tested.

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  • The button second from left will load a text file describing a constellation.

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  • containerized cargo, palletized load packages, medium sized and weight equipment, supplies, or vehicles.

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  • rotary phase convertors are capable of starting many motors simultaneously, even under load.

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  • Got amazing cpu temp results, air volume is 73 cfm for the fan = really low CPU temp results, air volume is 73 cfm for the fan = really low cpu temps at full load.

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  • The load quivered, and from under the runners arose a crisp crackling.

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  • If upgrading to a GP crankshaft high load bearings are required.

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