Of George Sand's style a foreigner can be but an imperfect judge, but French critics, from Sainte-Beuve, Nisard and Caro down to Jules Lemaitre and Faguet, have agreed to praise her spontaneity, her correctness of diction, her easy opulence - the lactea ubertas that Quintilian attributes to Livy.
See Livy i.
Manlius Torquatus (Livy xxiii.
28-45, whose account differs in some respects from Livy's; Cicero, De finibus, ii.
Livy mentions a temple of Apollo.
35; Appian, Illyrica, To, 14, 16; Livy, Epit.
We find it in possession of a treaty with Rome, similar to that of the Camertes Umbri; and in 167 B.C. it was used as a place of safe custody for the Illyrian King Gentius and his sons (Livy xlv.
I, 22) and professed to detect in Livy's style certain provincialisms of his native Padua (Quintilian, i.
Livy regards him as a less trustworthy authority than Fabius Pictor, and Niebuhr considers him the first to introduce systematic forgeries into Roman history.
He was freely used by Livy in part of his work (from the sixth book onwards).
Livy made great use of him in his third decade.
He is best known for his famous supplements to Quintus Curtius and Livy, containing the missing books written by himself.
But he has carefully consulted the best authorities, and his work and that of Livy are the only connected and detailed extant accounts of early Roman history.
Its chief distinctions are that during the later Republic and earlier Empire it yielded excellent soldiers, and thus much aided the success of Caesar against Pompey and of Octavian against Antony, and that it gave Rome the poet Virgil (by origin a Celt), the historian Livy, the lyrist Catullus, Cornelius Nepos, the elder and the younger Pliny and other distinguished writers?
392 ff.); a second festival, in August, to celebrate the reunion of Ceres and Proserpine, in which women, dressed in white, after a fast of nine days offered the goddess the first-fruits of the harvest (Livy xxii.
56); and the Jejunium Cereris, a fast also introduced (191 B.C.) by command of the Sibylline books (Livy xxvi.
In 240, the year after the end of the first Punic War, he produced at the ludi Romani a translation of a Greek play (it is uncertain whether a comedy or tragedy or both), and this representation marks the beginning of Roman literature (Livy vii.
Livy could never get rid of the idea that the old struggle between patrician and plebeian was something like the struggle between the nobility and the people at large in the later days of the commonwealth.
In January 1756 he says: " I determined to read over the Latin authors in order, and read this year Virgil, Sallust, Livy, Velleius Paterculus, Valerius Maximus, Tacitus, Suetonius, Quintus Curtius, Justin, Florus, Plautus, Terence and Lucretius.
Its long and noble resistance, told by the Roman historian Livy in no less noble language, ranks with the Spanish defence of Saragossa in the Peninsular War.
Thus the discovery of Numa's laws in Rome (Livy xl.
adversus Paganos, 1844); besides the Old and New Testaments, he appears to have consulted Caesar, Livy, Justin, Tacitus, Suetonius, Florus and a cosmography, attaching also great value to Jerome's translation of the Chronicles of Eusebius.
If a codex could not be obtained by fair means, he was ready to use fraud, as when he bribed a monk to abstract a Livy and an Ammianus from the convent library of Hersfield.
Poggio's History of Florence, written in avowed imitation of Livy's manner, requires separate mention, since it exemplifies by its defects the weakness of that merely stylistic treatment which deprived so much of Bruni's, Carlo Aretino's and Bembo's work of historical weight.
He prided himself on his ancient Etruscan lineage, and claimed descent from the princely house of the Cilnii, who excited the jealousy of their townsmen by their preponderating wealth and influence at Arretium in the 4th century B.C. (Livy x.
Taking Varro for his model, Fenestella was one of the chief representatives of the new style of historical writing which, in the place of the brilliant descriptive pictures of Livy, discussed curious and out-of-the-way incidents and customs of political and social life, including literary history.
The greatest monument, however, of the Hellenistic period is the colossal Olympieum or temple of Olympian Zeus, " unum in terris inchoatum pro magnitudine dei " (Livy The 01 m- xli.
12; Plutarch, Marius, 28-30; Livy, Epit.
This fund was not to be touched except in cases of extreme necessity (Livy vii.
82, 13; Antigonid, Livy, xlv.
Cicero and Livy bear testimony to the disappearance of a free plebs from the country districts and its replacement by gangs of slaves working on great estates.
Nepet had become Roman before 386 B.C., when Livy speaks of it and Sutrium as the keys of Etruria.
Rom., 15; Livy i.
2.9; Livy i.
The region properly called by their name, bounded on the south by the Douro and on the east by the Navia, was first entered by the Roman legions under Decius Junius Brutus in 137-136 B.C. (Livy lv., lvi., Epit.); but the final subjugation cannot be placed earlier than the time of Augustus (31 B.C. - A.D.
The chief authority for his life is the portion of Livy dealing with the history of the period.
See Livy v.
See Livy vii.
The collective name for the corps was celeres (" the swift," or possibly from Kan s, "a riding horse"); Livy, however, restricts the term to a special body-guard of ' Romulus.
The origin of these equites equo privato dates back, according to Livy (v.
Livy states that the walls had a length of 12 m.
Its position, at the point where the Volscian Hills reach the coast, leaving no space for passage between them and the sea, commanding the Pomptine Marshes (urbs pron g in paludes, as Livy calls it) and possessing a small harbour, was one of great strategic importance; and it thus appears very early in Roman history.
Livy's account of the siege, too, is full of topographical difficulties (Lupus, 214 sqq.).
According to Livy (vi.
The history of Rome, which consisted of eighty books, - and, after the example of Livy, was divided into decades, - began with the landing of Aeneas in Italy, and was continued as far as the reign of Alexander Severus (222-23s).
Abano in the neighbourhood was made illustrious by the birth of Livy, and Padua was the native place of Valerius Flaccus, Asconius Pedianus and Thrasea Paetus.
The Annales have been generally regarded as the same with the Commentarii Pontificum cited by Livy, but there seems reason to believe that the two were distinct, the Commentarii being fuller and more circumstantial.
At the division of Macedonia into four districts by the Romans after the battle of Pydna (168) the Bisaltae were included in Macedonia Prima (Livy xlv.
He subsequently returned both the land and the hostages (Livy, ii.
The style is modelled on that of Livy, of whom Dlugosz was a warm admirer.
None of his great orations has survived, a loss regretted by Pitt more than that of the missing books of Livy and Tacitus, and no art perishes more completely with its possessor than that of oratory.
The latest and probably the most important of these rude and inchoate forms was that of dramatic saturae (medleys), put together without any regular plot and consisting apparently of contests of wit and satiric invective, and perhaps of comments on current events, accompanied with music (Livy vii.
The idea which inspired Ennius was ultimately realized in both the national epic of Virgil and the national history of Livy.
Nevertheless it was by the work of a number of Roman chroniclers during this period that the materials of early Roman history were systematized, and the record of the state, as it was finally given to the world in the artistic work of Livy, was extracted from the early annals, state documents and private memorials, combined into a coherent unity, and supplemented by invention and reflection.
Livius or Livy (59 B.C. - A.D.
The prose style of Rome, as a vehicle for the continuous narration of events coloured by a rich and picturesque imagination and instinct with dignified emotion, attained its perfection in Livy.
Although there are some works of this so-called Silver Age of considerable and one at least of supreme interest, from the insight they afford into the experience of a century of organized despotism and its effect on the spiritual life of the ancient world, it cannot be doubted that the steady literary decline which characterized the last centuries of paganism was beginning before the death of Ovid and Livy.
Two epitomists of previous histories may be mentioned: Justinus (of uncertain date) who abridged the history of Pompeius Trogus, an Augustan writer; and P. Annius Florus, who wrote in the reign of Hadrian a rhetorical sketch based upon Livy.
Livy in general adheres to the epoch of Cato, though he sometimes follows that of Fabius Pictor.
It was according to Roman tradition one of the oldest cities of Etruria and indeed of all Italy, and, if Camars (the original name of the town, according to Livy) is rightly connected with the Camertes Umbri, its foundation would go back to pre-Etruscan times.
Near Clusium too, according to Livy (according to Polybius ii.
The position of Sutri was important, commanding as it did the road into Etruria, the later Via Cassia; and it is spoken of by Livy as one of the keys of Etruria, Nepet being the other.
His reading in Livy taught him to admire the Roman system of employing armies raised from the body of the citizens; and Cesare Borgia's method of gradually substituting the troops of his own duchy for aliens and mercenaries showed him that this plan might be adopted with success by the Italians.
Cast in the form of comments on the history of Livy, the Discorsi are really an inquiry into the genesis and maintenance of states.
In point of form the Florentine History is modelled upon Livy.
See Livy xxiv.
In Livy it signifies the oath (q.v.) which soldiers took among themselves not to run away or desert.
The identification with the Fosso della Valchetta is fixed as correct by the account in Livy ii.
Horatius was condemned to be scourged to death, but on his appealing to the people his life was spared (Livy i.
Monuments of the tragic story were shown by the Romans in the time of Livy (the altar of Janus Curiatius near the sororium tigillum, the "sister's beam," or yoke under which Horatius had to pass; and the altar of Juno Sororia).
For the life of Marius the original sources are numerous passages in Cicero's works, Sallust's Jugurtha, the epitomes of the lost books of Livy, Plutarch's Lives of Sulla and Marius, Velleius Paterculus, Florus and Appian's Bellum civile.
The History of the City of Rome (1865) down to the end of the middle ages was followed by the History of the Kings of Rome (1868), which, upholding against the German school the general credibility of the account of early Roman history, given in Livy and other classical authors, was violently attacked by J.
Roma Regalis (1872) and A Plea for Livy (1873) were written in reply to his critics.
Suetonius, Tiberius, i.; Livy ii.
Lastly, he gained enduring fame by the construction of a road and an aqueduct, which - a thing unheard of before - he called by his own name (Livy ix.
In 2 9 8 he was interrex; in 296, as consul, he led the army in Samnium, and although, with his colleague, he gained a victory over the Etruscans and Samnites, he does not seem to have specially distinguished himself as a soldier (Livy x.
Livy, Epit., 19; Polybius i.
121; Livy xl.
But the authors whom he quotes most frequently are Virgil, and, next to him, Terence, Cicero, Plautus; then Lucan, Horace, Juvenal, Sallust, Statius, Ovid, Livy and Persius.
391, aroused in his own immediate circle an interest in Livy, the whole of whose history was still extant.
He also encouraged the transcription of Latin MSS., which became models of style to Widukind of Corvey, the imitator of Sallust and Livy.
His standard authors in Latin prose are Cicero, Livy, Pliny, Frontinus and Orosius.
He here urges that the foundation of all true learning is a " sound and thorough knowledge of Latin," and draws up a course of reading, in which history is represented by Livy, Sallust, Curtius, and Caesar; oratory by Cicero; and poetry by Virgil.
The Latin poets to be studied include Virgil, Lucan, Statius, Ovid's Metamorphoses, and (with certain limitations) Horace, Juvenal and Persius, as well as Plautus, Terence and the tragedies of Seneca; the prose authors recommended are Cicero, Livy and Sallust.
Among the Latin authors studied were Virgil and Lucan, with selections from Horace, Ovid and Juvenal, besides Cicero and Quintilian, Sallust and Curtius, Caesar and Livy.
475; Livy xli.
/n==Authorities== - The principal ancient authorities for the life of Caesar are his own Commentaries, the biographies of Plutarch and Suetonius, letters and speeches of Cicero, the Catiline of Sallust, the Pharsalia of Lucan, and the histories of Appian, Dio Cassius and Velleius Paterculus (that of Livy exists only in the Epitome).
From Livy it would appear that tradition recognized two sons of Aeneas called by this name, the one the son of his Trojan, the other of his Latin wife.
666; Livy i.
See Livy, i.
In spite of this, and of the influence of Hadria, a Latin colony founded about 290 B.C. (Livy, Epit.
Livy tells us it was taken from the Sabines, while Virgil speaks of it as a Latin colony.
During his residence in Rome Niebuhr discovered and published fragments of Cicero and Livy, aided Cardinal Mai in his edition of Cicero De Republica, and shared in framing the plan of the great work on the topography of ancient Rome by Christian C. J.
See Cicero, Orelli's Ononiasticon; Sallust, Catiline, 18; Suetonius, Caesar, 79; Livy, Epit.
The status had its origin in the conferment of citizenship upon Tusculum in 381 B.C. (Livy vi.
Some, such as Fundi (Livy viii.
19), enjoyed a local self-government only limited in the matter of jurisdiction; others, such as Anagnia (Livy ix.
If the rites are not properly performed or not performed by the proper person, no relation is considered as established between the deceased and anybody surviving Livy
See Cicero, Pro Fonteio, 17, Brutus, 22, 30; Livy, edit.
After this we find them engaged in hostilities with the Tarentines, and with Alexander, king of Epirus, who was called in by that people to their assistance, 326 B.C. In 298 B.C. (Livy x.
23, 20; Livy, Epit.
Strabo speaks of it as varying seven times in the day, but it is more accurate to say, with Livy, that it is irregular.
He halted his army in pious respect before the birthplace of a Latin writer, carried Livy or Caesar on his campaigns with him, and his panegyrist Panormita did not think it an incredible lie to say that the king was cured of an illness by having a few pages of Quintus Curtius read to him.
On his return to Rome, Nobilior celebrated a triumph (of which full details are given by Livy) remarkable for the magnificence of the spoils exhibited.
10; Livy, Epit.
It is probably alluded to in Livy's account of the Valerio-Horatian laws of 449 B.C. (Livy iii.
The legends as to its foundation, and the accounts of its early relations with Rome, are untrustworthy; but Livy's account of wars between Antium and Rome, early in the 4th century B.C., may perhaps be accepted.
GNAEUS POMPEIUS TROGUS, Roman historian from the country of the Vocontii in Gallia Narbonensis, nearly contemporary with Livy, flourished during the age of Augustus.
He left untouched Roman history up to the time when Greece and the East came into contact with Rome, possibly because Livy had sufficiently treated it.
His idea of history was more severe and less rhetorical than that of Sallust and Livy, whom he blamed for putting elaborate speeches into the mouths of the characters of whom they wrote.
139), and while he honours eminent members of distinguished Roman houses, he is free from Livy's undue partiality for the aristocracy.
49-51), Livy (xxxi.
26; Livy, Epit.
In 499 B.C., according to Livy, Praeneste withdrew from the Latin League, in the list of whose members given by Dionysius (v.
It was an important Roman base during the Hannibalic wars (though at one time it threatened defection - Livy xxvii.
21-24), and in 205 B.C. was able to furnish Scipio with a considerable quantity of arms and provisions (Livy xxviii.
No volcanic eruptions are known to have taken place in these mountains within the historic period, though Livy sometimes speaks of it " raining stones in the Alban hills " (i.
from Rome, where Coriolanus encamped (Livy ii.
Thucydides mentions eruptions in the 8th and 5th centuries B.C., and others are mentioned by Livy in 125, 121 and 43 B.C. Catania was overwhelmed in 1169, and many other serious eruptions are recorded, notably in 1669, 1830, 1852, 1865, 1879, 1886, 1892, 1899 and March 1910.
Cornewall Lewis, Credibility of early Roman History, ii.; Livy, iv.
2), and Cleopatra by Livy (xxvii.
He was the author of a brief epitome of Roman history based upon Livy, which he utilized as a means of displaying his antiquarian lore.
8), Livy (Epic. 95-97), and the fragments of the Histories of Sallust, whose account seems to have been full and graphic.
Originally Carthaginian mercenaries, they were induced to serve the Romans in a similar capacity, and Livy (xxiv.
Ancient authorities: Livy i.
The board was increased to fifteen in the last century of the Republic. Its chief function was the care of the Sibylline books, and the celebration of the games of Apollo (Livy x.
About 400 B.C., under the leadership of Elitovius (Livy v.
Livy gives their chief towns as Brixia (Brescia) and Verona; Pliny, Brixia and Cremona.
The asylum of Romulus (Livy i.
In the early r6th century the use of the vernacular is extended, chiefly in the treatment of historical and polemical subjects, as in Murdoch Nisbet's version of Purvey (in MS. till 1901), a compromise between northern and southern usage; Gau's (q.v.) Richt Vay, translated from Christiern Pedersen; Bellenden's (q.v.) translation of Livy and Scottish History; the Complaynt of Scotlande, largely a mosaic of translation from the French; Ninian Winzet's (q.v.) Tractates; Lesley's (q.v.) History of Scotland; Knox's (q.v.) History; Buchanan's (q.v.) Chamaeleon; Lindesay of Pitscottie's (q.v.) History; and the tracts of Nicol Burne and other exiled Catholics.
The southern frontier is unknown: the language of Livy (xxxviii.
The poem is probably intended to celebrate the victory gained in 129 by Gaius Sempronius Tuditanus (consul and himself an annalist) over the Illyrian Iapydes (Appian, Illyrica, 10; Livy, epit.
Aeginium is described by Livy as a strong place, and is frequently mentioned during the Roman wars; and Stagus appears from time to time in Byzantine writers.
Livy's words, " inhumana crudelitas, perfidia plus quam Punica," might, it is to be feared, have been applied as justly to the vikings as to any people of western 1 Steenstrup (Normannerne, i.
First, in the struggle between the two orders for political privilege we find the clients struggling on the side of the patricians against the main body of the plebeians (Livy ii.
Valerius Publicola, the champion of popular rights, further established the custom that the fasces should be lowered before the people, as the real representatives of sovereignty (Livy ii.
And yet it is singular that no mention of them occurs in Cicero or Livy, and that altogether literary allusions to them are very scarce.
BITURIGES, a Celtic people, according to Livy (v.
After much diplomacy, Antiochus advanced into Greece and Rome declared war upon him in 191 B.C. (Livy xxxvi.
Maeniana; Livy viii.
It consists of some translations of Livy and Seneca, and of a very large number of interesting and admirably written letters, many of which are addressed to Peiresc, the man of science of whom Gassendi has left a delightful Latin life.
Livy's practice is exactly opposite to that of Cicero, since he has a marked preference for the S forms, "thereby exemplifying Cicero's saying that long syllables are more appropriate to history than to oratory.'
Gracchus, 21; Livy, Epit.
13; Livy, Epit.
According to Livy (v.
A tenth province 1 Some writers, following Livy vi.
Biicheler, 1893); Censorinus (1845); Florus (1852); Cicero's Brutus (4th ed., 1877); and Orator (3rd ed., 1869) the Periochae of Livy (1853); the Psyche et Cupido of Apuleius (3rd ed., 1884; 5th ed., 1905); Longinus ., (1867; 3rd ed.
The great plague referred to by Livy (lx.
During this century the best histories - Bruno's and Poggio's annals of Florence, for example - were composed in Latin after the manner of Livy.
The story of his success, related five times under five different years, possibly rests on an historical basis, but the account given in Livy of the achievements of the Roman army is obviously incredible.
See Livy iii.
It is definitely stated by Livy (v.
It gave its name to the terrible defeat which the Romans suffered at the hands of the Gauls on the 18th of July 390 B.C. Livy (v.
In 302 B.C. a temple was dedicated to Salus on the Quirinal (Livy x.
In 180 B.C., on the occasion of a plague, vows were made to Apollo, Aesculapius and Salus (Livy xl.
In the four decades of his Asia, Joao de Barros, the Livy Century of his country, tells in simple vigorous language the "deeds achieved by the Portuguese in the dis History.
ii., iv., v., xxiii., xxviii.), who is followed by Livy (bks.
Ancient authorities: - Livy i.
About this time also took place a great invasion of Italy; Segovisus and Bellovisus, the nephews of Ambigatus, led armies through Switzerland, and over the Brenner, and by the Maritime Alps, respectively (Livy v.
13; index to Livy; Appian, Syr.
According to Livy (i.
The tradition that Romulus and Remus were suckled by a wolf has been explained by the suggestion that Larentia was called lupa ("courtesan," literally "she-wolf") on account of her immoral character (Livy i.
Livy, epitome, II-14; Polybius ii.
LIVY [TITUS Livius] (59 B.C. - A.D.
A more real bond of union was found in the dangers to which both had been exposed from the assaults of the Celts (Livy x.
Moreover, at the time of Livy's birth, Padua had long been in possession of the full Roman franchise, and the historian's family name may have been taken by one of his ancestors out of compliment to the great Livian gens at Rome, whose connexion with Cisalpine Gaul is well-established (Suet.
Livy's easy independent life at Rome, and his aristocratic leanings in politics seem to show that he was the son of well-born and opulent parents; he was certainly well educated, being widely read in Greek literature, and a student both of rhetoric and philosophy.
He writes of it with despondency as a degenerate and declining age; and, instead of triumphant prophecies of world-wide rule, such as we find in Horace, Livy contents himself with pointing out the dangers which already threatened Rome, and exhorting his contemporaries to learn, in good time, the lessons which the past history of the state had to teach.
It was probably about the time of the battle of Actium that Livy established himself in Rome, and there he seems chiefly to have resided until his retirement to Padua shortly before his death.
14) materially altered for the worse the prospects of literature in Rome, and Livy retired to Padua, where he died.
For us the interest of Livy's life centres in the work to which the greater part of it was devoted, the history of Rome from its foundation down to the death of Drusus (9 B.C.).
burnt all the copies of Livy he could lay his hands on rests on no good evidence.
They have been expanded with great ingenuity and learning by Freinsheim in Drakenborch's edition of Livy.
2 The Prodigia of Julius Obsequens and the list of consuls in the Chronica of Cassiodorus are taken directly from Livy, and to that extent reproduce the contents of the lost books.
If we are to form a correct judgment on the merits of Livy's history, we must, above all things, bear in mind what his aim was in writing it, and this he has told us himself in the celebrated preface.
Still less has Livy anything in common with the naïve anxiety of Dionysius of Halicarnassus to make it clear to his fellow Greeks that the irresistible people who had mastered them was in origin, in race and in language Hellenic like themselves.
Livy writes as a Roman, to raise a monument worthy of the greatness of Rome, and to keep alive, for the guidance and the warning of Romans, the recollection alike of the virtues which had made Rome great and of the vices which had threatened her with destruction.
Moore, "The Oxyrhynchus Epitome of Livy in relation to Obsequens and Cassiodorus," in American Journal of Philology (1904), 241.
2 The various rumours once current of complete copies of Livy in Constantinople, Chios and elsewhere, are noticed by B.
Livy's own circumstances were all such as to render these views natural to him.
And, though we are nowhere told that Livy undertook his history at the emperor's suggestion, it is certain that Augustus read parts of it with pleasure, and even honoured the writer with his assistance and friendship.
Livy was deeply penetrated with a sense of the greatness of Rome.
To the same general attitude is also due the omission by Livy of all that has no direct bearing on the fortunes of the Roman people.
As the result, we get from Livy very defective accounts even of the Italic peoples most closely connected with Rome.
It is in the highest degree natural that Livy should have sought for the secret of the rise of Rome, not in any large historical causes, but in the moral qualities of the people themselves, and that he should have looked upon the contemplation of these as the best remedy for the vices of his own degenerate days.
The prominence thus given to the moral aspects of the history tends to obscure in some degree the true relations and real importance of the events narrated, but it does so in Livy to a far less extent than in some other writers.
Fabius Maximus, in his descriptions of the unshaken firmness and calm courage shown by the fathers of the state in the hour of trial, Livy is at his best; and he is so largely in virtue of his genuine appreciation of character as a powerful force in the affairs of men.
9), Livy is by no means a philosophic historian.
But we find no trace in Livy of any systematic application of philosophy to the facts of history.
If from the general aim and spirit of Livy's history we pass to consider his method of workmanship, we are struck at once by the very different measure of success attained by him in the two great departments of an historian's labour.
It is on the second of these two kinds of evidence that Livy almost exclusively relies.
We know from Livy himself (iv.
20) that the breastplate dedicated by Aulus Cornelius Cossus (428 B.C.) was to be seen in his own day in the temple of Jupiter Feretrius, nor is there any reason to suppose that the libri lintei, quoted by Licinius Macer, were not extant when Livy wrote.
For more recent times the materials were plentiful, and a rich field of research lay open to the student in the long series of laws, decrees of the senate, and official registers, reaching back, as it probably did, at least to the beginning of the 3rd century B.C. Nevertheless it seems certain that Livy never realized the duty of consulting these relics of the past, even in order to verify the statements of his authorities.
The consequence of this indifference to original research and patient verification might have been less serious had the written tradition on which Livy preferred to rely been more trustworthy.
In the fourth and fifth decades of Livy the two appear side by side, and the contrast between them is striking.
Such was the written tradition on which Livy mainly relied.
Even where he mentions a writer by name, it is frequently clear that the writer named is not the one whose lead he is following at the moment, but that he is noticed incidentally as differing from Livy's guide for the time being on some point of detail (compare the references to Piso in the first decade, i.
It is very rarely that Livy explicitly tells us whom he has selected as his chief source (e.g.
Passing to the third decade, we find ourselves at once confronted by a question which has been long and fully discussed - the relation between Livy and Polybius.
Did Livy use Polybius at all, and, if so, to what extent ?
It is conceded on all hands that Livy in this decade makes con For Livy's debt to Valerius Antias, see A A Howard in Harvard Studies Classical Philology, xvii (1906), pp 161 sqq.
It is also agreed that we can detect in Livy's account of the Hannibalic war two distinct elements, derived originally, the one from a Roman, the other from a non-Roman source.
Relliq.) that those parts of Livy's narrative which point to a non-Roman authority (e.g.
Hannibal's movements prior to his invasion of Italy) are taken by Livy directly from Polybius, with occasional reference of course to other writers, and with the omission (as in the later decades) of all matters uninteresting to Livy or his Roman readers, and the addition of rhetorical touches and occasional comments.
It is urged that Livy, who in the fourth and fifth decades shows himself so sensible of the great merits of Polybius, is not likely to have ignored him in the third, and that his more limited use of him in the latter case is fully accounted for by the closer connexion of the history with Rome and Roman affairs, and the comparative excellence of the available Roman authorities, and, lastly, that the points of agreement with Polybius, not only in matter but in expression, can only be explained on the theory that Livy is directly following the great Greek historian.
Bottcher) that the extent and nature of Livy's agreement with Polybius in this part of his work point rather to the use by both of a common original authority.
It is argued that Livy's mode of using his authorities is tolerably uniform, and that his mode of using Polybius in particular is known with certainty from the later decades.
But all these are made intelligible if we suppose Livy to have been here following directly or indirectly the same original sources that were used by Polybius.
The latter Livy certainly used directly for some parts of the decade.
This writer, who confined himself to a history of the Second PunicWar, in seven books, is expressly referred to by Livy eleven times in the third decade; and in other passages where his name is not mentioned Livy can be shown to have followed him (e.g.
In the fourth and fifth decades the question of Livy's authorities presents no great difficulties, and the conclusions arrived at by Nissen in his masterly Untersuchungen have met with general acceptance.
In the portions of the history which deal with Greece and the East, Livy follows Polybius, and these portions are easily distinguishable from the rest by their superior clearness, accuracy and fulness.
Livy's general method of using these authorities was certainly not such as would be deemed satisfactory in a modern historian.
Further than this, however, Livy's criticism does not go.
At the most it only presupposes a comparison with other versions, equally second-hand, but either less generally accepted or less in harmony with his own views of the situation; and in many cases the reasons he gives for his preference of one account over another are eminently unscientific. Livy's history, then, rests on no foundation of original research or even of careful verification.
Thus many of Livy's inconsistencies are due to his having pieced together two versions, each of which gave a differently coloured account of the same event.
In other cases where the same event has been placed by different annalists in different years, or where their versions of it varied, it reappears in Livy as two events.
Without doubt, too, much of the chronological confusion observable throughout Livy is due to the fact that he follows now one now another authority, heedless of their differences on this head.
Finally, Livy cannot be altogether acquitted on the charge of having here and there modified Polybius in the interests of Rome.
Serious as these defects in Livy's method appear if viewed in the light of modern criticism, it is probable that they were easily pardoned, if indeed they were ever discovered, by his contemporaries.
Tried by this standard, Livy deservedly won and held a place in the very first rank.
Nor is anything more remarkable than the way in which Livy's fine taste and sense of proportion, his true poetic feeling and genuine enthusiasm, saved him from the besetting faults of the mode of treatment which he adopted.
At the same time they are not treated as mere tales for children, for Livy never forgets the dignity that belongs to them as the prelude to the great epic of Rome, and as consecrated by the faith of generations.
Perhaps an even stronger proof of the skill which enabled Livy to avoid dangers which were fatal to weaker men is to be found in his speeches.
The substance, no doubt, of many of them Livy took from his authorities, but their form is his own, and, in throwing into them all his own eloquence and enthusiasm, he not only acted in conformity with the established traditions of his art, but found a welcome outlet for feelings and ideas which the fall of the republic had deprived of all other means of expression.
To us, therefore, they are valuable not only for their eloquence, but still more as giving us our clearest insight into Livy's own sentiments, his lofty sense of the greatness of Rome, his appreciation of Roman courage and firmness, and his reverence for the simple virtues of older times.
But, freely as Livy uses this privilege of speechmaking, his correct taste keeps his rhetoric within reasonable limits.
With a very few exceptions the speeches are dignified in tone, full of life and have at least a dramatic propriety, while of such incongruous and laboured absurdities as the speech which Dionysius puts into the mouth of Romulus, after the rape of the Sabine women, there are no instances in Livy.
With Livy this portrait-painting was a labour of love.
The general effect of Livy's narrative is no doubt a little spoilt by the awkward arrangement, adopted from his authorities, which obliges him to group the events by years, and thus to disturb their natural relations and continuity.
In style and language Livy represents the best period of Latin prose writing.
From the tendency to use a poetic diction in prose, which was so conspicuous a fault in the writers of the silver age, Livy is not wholly free.
But in Livy this poetic element is kept within bounds, and serves only to give warmth and vividness to the narrative.
These merits, not less than the high tone and easy grace of his narrative and the eloquence of his speeches, gave Livy a hold on Roman readers such as only Cicero and Virgil besides him ever obtained.
Plutarch, writers on rhetoric like the elder Seneca, moralists like Valerius Maximus, went to Livy for their stock examples.
The received text of the extant thirty-five books of Livy is taken from different sources, and no one of our MSS.
A bibliography of the various editions of Livy, or of all that has been written upon him, cannot be attempted here.
c. before Hannibal; but there is some doubt as to the correctness of Livy's statement, for, though there were continual wars with the Ligurians, after this time, it is not mentioned again until we are told that in 177 B.C. a Latin colony was founded there in territory offered by the Pisans for the purpose.'
See Plutarch's Lucullus; Appian's Mithridatic War; the epitomes of the lost books of Livy; and many passages in Cicero.
2; Livy viii.
Almost down to the times of the empire, the care of the corn-supply formed part of the aedile's duties, although in 440 B.C. (if the statement in Livy iv.
Both Livy (v.
The Augustan age produced in Livy a great popular historian and natural artist and a trained rhetorician (in the speeches), - but as uncritical and inaccurate as he was brilliant.
From Livy to Tacitus the gulf is greater than from Herodotus to Thucydides.
Livy, Caesar, Tacitus and Suetonius were plundered for the story of h)rrors; until finally even the Goths in Spain shine by contrast with the pagan heroes; and through the confusion of the German invasions one may look forward to Christendom, - and its peace.
His discoveries, co-ordinated and arranged in vast corpora inscriptionum, stand now alongside Herodotus or Livy, furnishing a basis for their criticism.
This site, moreover, corresponds with Livy's testimony, and would account for his statement that the towns of Palaeopolis and Neapolis were near together and identical in language and government.
14; Livy, Epit.
cornfield, and as he walked struck off the tallest and best-grown ears (a legend applied to Roman circumstances in Livy i.
Amongst the ancients (Livy i.
66), at the monastery of Palazzolo; but the position is quite unsuitable for an ancient city, and does not at all answer to Livy's description, ab situ porrectae in dorso urbis Alba longa appellata; and it is much more probable that its site is to be sought on the western side of the lake, where the modern Castel Gandolfo stands, immediately to the north of which the most important part of the archaic necropolis was situated.
Confirmation of this may be found in Cicero's description (Pro Milone, 85) of the destruction of the shrines and sacred groves of Alba by the construction of Clodius's villa, in the local application of the adjective Albanus, and in the position of Castel Gandolfo itself, which exactly suits Livy's description.
io; Livy, i.
21; Livy, Epit.
73-87; Plutarch, Antony; Livy, Epit.
It is a striking fact that Ammianus, though a professional soldier, gives excellent pictures of social and economic problems, and in his attitude to the non-Roman peoples of the empire he is far more broad-minded than writers like Livy and Tacitus; his digressions on the various countries he had visited are peculiarly interesting.
This number was doubled by Tarquinius Priscus, but in 300 B.C. it was only four, two places, according to Livy (x.
It is doubtful whether the fast mentioned by Livy (xxxvi.
The god was fetched from Epidaurus in the form of a snake and a temple assigned him on the island in the Tiber (Livy x.
15; Livy v.
The view from this point has been described by Livy in the following remarkable passage:- "When the traveller, in passing through the rugged districts of Thessaly, where the roads are entangled in the windings of the valleys, arrives at this city, on a sudden an immense level expanse, resembling a vast sea, is outspread before him in such a manner that the eye cannot easily reach the limit of the plains extended beneath:" (xxxii.
84 and Livy i.
18; Livy, Epit.
754 ff.) that they were never formally admitted to membership, but that they maintained their supremacy in the council (Livy xxxi.
They are probably identical with the Lacetani of Livy (xxi.
It was not long afterwards that the dual kingship ceased and Sparta fell under the sway of a series of cruel and rapacious tyrants - Lycurgus, Machanidas, who was killed by Philopoemen, and Nabis, who, if we may trust the accounts given by Polybius and Livy, was little better than a bandit chieftain, holding Sparta by means of extreme cruelty and oppression, and using mercenary troops to a large extent in his wars.
Nabis was forced to capitulate, evacuating all his possessions outside Laconia, surrendering the Laconian seaports and his navy, and paying an indemnity of 50o talents (Livy xxxiv.
49) and Feronia (Livy xxvi.
AEQUI, an ancient people of Italy, whose name occurs constantly in Livy's first decade as hostile to Rome in the first three centuries of the city's existence.
106), but they were not finally subdued till the end of the second Samnite war (Livy ix.
Among older writers Juan de Mariana, who ends with the Catholic sovereigns, professedly took Livy as a model, and wrote a fine example of a rhetorical history published in Latin (1592-1609), and then in Spanish translated and largely re-written by himself.
He compiled, chiefly from Livy, a brief sketch of the history of Rome from the foundation of the city to the closing of the temple of Janus by Augustus (25 B.C.).
Livy viii., ix.; Aurelius Victor, De viris illustribus, 31; Eutropius ii.
Here a festival called the lesser quinquatrus was celebrated on the 13th-14th of June, chiefly by the flute-players (Livy ix.
Cassius Longinus, and forced them to pass under the yoke (Livy, Epit.
Cosconius in Thrace (Livy, epit.
The bronze orbs mentioned by Livy (viii.
40; Livy xxxiii.
Of Polybius's anxiety to get at the truth no better proof can be given than his conscientious investigation of original documents and monuments, and his careful study of geography and topography - both of them points in which his predecessors, as well as his successor Livy, conspicuously failed.
In respect of form, Polybius is far the inferior of Livy, partly, owing to his very virtues.
So Livy and Clara (Spaulding) sat down forlorn, and cried, and I retired to a private, place to pray.
pp. 455, 463, 465), and their struggle with the Romans ended in complete extermination; their territory was parcelled out between the Latin colonies of Cales (Livy viii.
15), and the maritime colonies Sinuessa (the older Vescia) and Minturnae (both in 295 B.C., Livy x.
They broke away from Rome in 362 (Livy vii.
6 ff.) and in 306 (Livy ix.
He migrated to Rome from Aletrium (Livy ix.
In 282 (when consul) he defeated the Bruttians and Lucanians, who had besieged Thurii (Livy, Epit.
This has been discredited because it is not mentioned by Polybius, Livy or Plutarch; but it is probable that Archimedes had constructed some such burning instrument, though the connexion of it with the destruction of the Roman fleet is more than doubtful.
38, 82; Livy xxxvi.
Cases, however, occur of the establishment of public hospitality between two cities (Rome and Caere, Livy v.
1 Its position between two good harbours, Naustathmus and Lampter (Livy xxxvii.
He was taken prisoner by Hannibal (Livy xxi.
Nevertheless, Livy at first made use of him as one of his chief authorities, until he became convinced of his untrustworthiness.
The breed - at least if the statement which Livy puts into the mouth of a Roman general can be relied on - degenerated greatly under Asiatic and Egyptian skies (Liv.
In 218, as a leader of the democratic opposition, Flaminius was one of the chief promoters of the measure brought in by the tribune Quintus Claudius, which prohibited senators and senators' sons from possessing sea-going vessels, except for the transport of the produce of their own estates, and generally debarred them from all commercial speculation (Livy xxi.
The testimony of Livy (xxi., xxii.) and Polybius (ii., iii.) - no friendly critics - shows that Flaminius was a man of ability, energy and probity.
9-13; Livy xxxviii.
He also tells the historian that, when his uncle left Misenum to take a nearer view of the eruption of Vesuvius, he preferred to stay behind, making an abstract of a book of Livy (vi.
255): Carthage in her struggle with Rome was at last driven to levy oppressive tribute, whereupon the Maltese gave up the Punic garrison to Titus Sempronius under circumstances described by Livy (xxi.
patriotism (Livy x.
The temple was probably originally vowed by the elder Glabrio out of gratitude for the pietas shown during the engagement by his son, who may have saved his life, as the elder Africanus that of his father at the battle of Ticinus (Livy xxi.
Some, however, appear to have stayed behind, since, during the Second Punic War, Magalus, a Boian prince, offered to show Hannibal the way into Italy after he had crossed the Pyrenees (Livy xxi.
840), in his classic life of Charles the Great, models his style on that of Suetonius, and shows his familiarity with Caesar and Livy and Cicero, while Rabanus Maurus (d.
Meanwhile, in Germany, the styles of Sallust and Livy were being happily imitated in the Annals of Lambert of Hersfeld (d.
Hunt, who have also produced fragments of the Paeans of Pindar and many other classic texts (including a Greek continuation of Thucydides and a Latin epitome of part of Livy) in the successive volumes of the Oxyrhynchus papyri and other kindred publications.
The right of this assembly to exercise capital jurisdiction was questioned; but it possessed the undisputed right of pronouncing outlawry (aquae et ignis interdictio) against any one already in exile (Livy xxv.
During the 2nd century B.C. the jus suffragii and jus honorum were conferred upon numerous municipia (Livy xxxviii.
TEUTONI, or Teutones, a tribe of northern Europe, who became known to the Romans in the year 103 B.C., when, according to the Epitome of Livy, together with the Ambrones they reinforced the Cimbri after their repulse from Spain by the Celtiberi.
But, in spite of the severe punishment inflicted upon those who were found to be implicated in the criminal practices disclosed by state investigation, the Bacchanalia were not stamped out, at any rate in the south of Italy, for a very long time (Livy xxxix.
It began with Ninus, the founder of Nineveh, and ended at about the same point as Livy (A.D.
20 sq.; Polybius and Livy passim; W.
Savona is the ancient Savo, a town of the Ingauni (see Albenga), where, according to Livy, Mago stored his booty in the Second Punic War.
But leaving the questions suggested by these names (see Etruria, &c.), 2 as well as those which relate to the origin of Pompeii (q.v.), it is sufficient here to say that the first historical record about Herculaneum has been handed down by Livy (viii.
- Livy, Epitome, lxvii., lxviii.; Monumentum Ancy- ranum; Pomponius Mela iii.
For Padua claimed, like Rome, a Trojan origin, and Livy is careful to place its founder Antenor side by side with Aeneas.
Of the 142 libri composing the history, the first 15 carry us down to the eve of the great struggle with Carthage, a period, as Livy reckons it, of 488 years (xxxi.
Still less has Livy anything in common with the naÃ¯ve anxiety of Dionysius of Halicarnassus to make it clear to his fellow Greeks that the irresistible people who had mastered them was in origin, in race and in language Hellenic like themselves.
This enthusiasm for Rome and for Roman virtues is, moreover, saved from degenerating into gross partiality by the genuine candour of Livy's mind and by his wide sympathies with every thing great and good.
Polybius, for instance, gives the number of the slain at Cynoscephalae as 8000; the annalists raise it as high as 40,000 (Livy xxxiii.
Thus by the treaty with Antiochus (188 B.C.) it was provided that the Greek communities of Asia Minor "shall settle their mutual differences by arbitration," and so far Livy correctly transcribes Polybius, but he adds with a rhetorical flourish, "or, if both parties prefer it, by war" (xxxviii.
Elsewhere his blunders are apparently due to haste, or ignorance or sheer carelessness; thus, for instance, when Polybius speaks of the Aetolians assembling at their capital Thermon, Livy (xxxiii.
Florus and Eutropius abridged him; Orosius extracted from him his proofs of the sinful blindness of the pagan world; and in every school Livy was firmly established as a textbook for the Roman youth.
Livy, however, notwithstanding the extent to which he used his writings (see LivY), speaks of him in such qualified terms as to suggest the idea that his strong artistic sensibilities had been wounded by Polybius's literary defects.
In 1871, Mark Twain (Samuel Langhorne Clemens) began building the new home for his beloved, Livy (Olivia).
In 1903, the Twains sold the home and a year later Livy died.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.