Liverworts sentence example

liverworts
  • The Mosses and Liverworts include forms with a more or less leaf-like thallus, such as many of the liverworts, and forms in which the plant shows a differentiation into a stem bearing remarkably simple leaves, as in the true mosses.
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  • A sufficient description of the thallus of the liverworts will be found in the article BRYOIHYTA.
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  • The sporogonium of the liverworts is in the simpler forms simply a spore-capstile with arrangements for the development, protection and distribution of the spores.
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  • Opposed to the thalloid forms are the group of leafy Liverworts (Acrogynae), whose plant-body consists of a thin supporting stem bearing leaves.
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  • In the liverworts we find fixation of the thallus by water-absorbing rhizoids; in certain forms with a localized region of water-absorption the development of a primitive hydrom or water-conducting system; and in others with rather a massive type of thallus the differentiation of a special assimilative and transpiring system.
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  • The gametophyte, which bears the sexual organs, is either a free-living thallus corresponding in degree of differentiation with the lower liverworts, or it is a mass of cells which always remains enclosed in a spore and is parasitic upon the sporophyte.
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  • The plants showing it are not all forest trees, hut include also some Pteridophytes and some of the prothallia of the Ferns, Club-mosses, Liverworts and Horsetails.
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  • The excluded genera are distributed among the liverworts, lichens and fungi; but notwithstanding the great advance in knowledge since the time of Linnaeus, the difficulty of deciding what limits to assign to the group to be designated Algae still remains.
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  • In the Lower Carboniferous of Scotland Mr Kidston has found several specimens of a large dichotomous thallus, with a very distinct midrib; the specimens, referred to the provisional genus Thallites, much resemble the larger thalloid Liverworts.
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  • The geological history of Mosses and Liverworts is at present very incomplete, and founded on few and generally unsatisfactory fragments.
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  • Of Liverworts there are a few species, such as Palaeohepatica Rostafinskii from the Lower Jurassic (After Feistmantel.) FIG.
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  • These fossil Hepaticae are unfortunately founded only on sterile fragments, and placed in the Liverworts on the strength of their resemblance to the thallus of Marchantia and other recent genera.
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  • Typical associates include other Atlantic liverworts and Hymenophyllum wilsonii.
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  • Most bryophytes have erect or creeping stems and tiny leaves, but hornworts and some liverworts have only a flat thallus and no leaves.
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  • The Mosses and Liverworts (see BRYOPHYTA) include forms with a more or less leaf-like thallus, such as many of the liverworts, and forms in which the plant shows a differentiation into a stem bearing remarkably simple leaves, as in the true mosses.
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  • Frequently, also, a considerable differentiation of vegetative tissue occurs in the wall of the spore-capsule itself, and in some of the higher forms a special assimilating and transpiring organ situated just below the capsule at the top of the seta, with a richly lacunar chlorophyllous parenchyma and stomata like those of the wall of the capsule in the Anthocerotean liverworts.
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  • Within the limits of the sporophyte generation the Pteridophytes and Phanerogams also differ from the Bryophytes in possessing special assimilative and transpiring organs, the leaves, though these organs are developed, as we have seen, in the gametophyte of many liverworts and of all the mosses.
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