The walls are abundantly decorated with paintings, one of a liturgical character.
He became a Salian priest at the age of eight, and soon knew by heart all the forms and liturgical order of the official worship, and even the sacred music. In the earliest statue we have he is a youth offering incense; he is a priest at the sacrificial altar in the latest triumphal reliefs.
See the liturgical and ecclesiastical dictionaries of Martigny, Migne, and Smith and Cheetham, sub voce, where all the scattered references are collected together and summarized.
(1727), have no liturgical significance.
It is noticeable that even the more highly developed forms of liturgical prayer tend, in the recitation of divine titles, attributes and the like, to present a survival of this magical use of potent names.
During the Russian Dark Ages certain clerical errors had crept into the liturgical books Reforms a nd certain peculiarities had been adopted in the ritual.
The change is marked in the rituals by the duplication of the liturgical forms. The prayers of intercession and oblation, which in earlier times are found only in connexion with the former offering, are repeated in the course of the same service in connexion with the latter.
The liturgical colour for Easter was everywhere white, as the sign of joy, light and purity, and the churches and altars were adorned with the best ornaments that each possessed.
By the 4th century the garments worn at liturgical functions had been separated from those in ordinary use, though still identical in form.
Stola), a liturgical vestment of the Catholic Church, peculiar to the higher orders, i.e.
In the seventh session it accepted the suggestion of Justinian, merely to order the name of Vigilius to be removed from the liturgical prayers, at the same time expressing its desire to maintain unity with the see of Old Rome (Hefele, sect.
Distinctive non-Judaean features are included, as in the Samaritan liturgical office (Deut.
,uLrpa, a band, head-band, head-dress), a liturgical head-dress of the Catholic Church, generally proper to bishops.
Lastly, the mitre, though a liturgical vestment, differs from the others in that it is never worn when the bishop addresses the Almighty in prayer - e.g.
Some have claimed for it apostolical sanction and found its origin in the liturgical head-gear of the Jewish priesthood.
as a liturgical ornament) according to Roman custom, in order to remind him that he is a disciple of the Roman see (Jaffe, Regesta pont.
2 On the other hand, the Roman ordines of the 8th and 9th centuries make no mention of the mitre; the evidence goes to prove that this liturgical head-dress was first adopted by the popes some time in the 10th century; and Father Braun shows convincingly that it was in its origin nothing else than the papal regnum or phrygium which, originally worn only at outdoor processions and the like, was introduced into the church, and thus developed into the liturgical mitre, while outside it preserved its original significance as the papal 1 Father Braun, S.
From Leo IX.'s time papal grants of the mitre to eminent prelates became increasingly frequent, and by the 12th century it had been assumed by all bishops in the West, with or without papal sanction, as their proper liturgical head-dress.
The cassock, which must always be worn under the vestments, is not itself a liturgical garment.
The liturgical use of the mitre was revived in the Church of England in the latter part of the 19th century, and is now fairly widespread.
- Some form of liturgical head-dress is common to all the Oriental rites.
In 1642 he was appointed lecturer at St Margaret's, Westminster, and delivered a series of addresses to the Commons in which he advocated episcopal and liturgical reform.
His historical research was exemplified in his De antiquitate ecclesiae, and his editions of Asser, Matthew Paris, Walsingham, and the compiler known as Matthew of Westminster; his liturgical skill was shown in his version of the psalter and in the occasional prayers and thanksgivings which he was called upon to compose; and he left a priceless collection of manuscripts to his college at Cambridge.
It is also known as Sidra' d'neshmatha, " Book of Souls," and besides hymns and doctrinal discourses contains prayers to be offered by the priests at sacrifice and at meals, as well as other liturgical matter.
Hence they were known in England as "grey amices" (from the ordinary colour of the fur), to distinguish them from the liturgical amice.
Ecclesiastical vestments may again be divided into two categories: (1) liturgical vestments, (2) non-liturgical vestments.
Liturgical vestments, as their name implies, are those which are especially associated with the various functions of the liturgy.
Of these again, according to the fully developed rules of the Catholic Church, there are three classes: (I) vestments worn only at the celebration of mass - chasuble, maniple, pontifical gloves, pontifical shoes, the pallium and the papal fanone and subcinctorium; (2) vestments never worn at mass, but at other liturgical functions, such as processions, administration of the sacraments, solemn choir services, i.e.
the word "vestment" is used as synonymous with but one liturgical garment - the chasuble, the "mass vestment" par excellence; in the Prayer Book of 1559 "vestments" are eliminated altogether, "ornaments" being substituted as a more comprehensive term.
- The liturgical vestments of the Catholic Church, East and West, are not, as was at one time commonly supposed, borrowed from the sacerdotal ornaments of the Jewish ritual, although the obvious analogies of this ritual doubtless to a certain extent determined their sacral character; they were developed independently out of the various articles of everyday dress worn by citizens of the Graeco-Roman world under the Empire.
About the 6th century the long tunica alba went out of fashion in civil life, but it was retained in the services of the Church and developed into the various forms of the liturgical alb (q.v.) and surplice (q.v.).
This was the origin of the principal liturgical vestment, the chasuble (q.v.).
About the same time the orarium, or stole (q.v.), becomes fixed in liturgical use.
By this time, moreover, the liturgical character of the vestments was so completely established that they were no longer worn instead of, but over, the ordinary dress.
The adoption of the Roman liturgical dress had, however, at most an indirect connexion with these claims. Charlemagne was active in prescribing the adoption of the Roman use; but this was only as part of his general policy in the organization of his em pire.
If Spain and Gaul borrowed from Rome, they also exercised a reciprocal influence on the Roman use; it is interesting to note in this connexion, that of the names of the liturgical vestments a very large proportion are not of Roman origin, and that the non-Roman names tended to supersede the Roman in Rome itself.'
' Apart from the archiepiscopal pallium, the Churches of Spain and Gaul had need to borrow from Rome only the dalmatic, maniple and liturgical shoes.
In the 9th century appeared the pontifical gloves; in the loth, the mitre; in the 11th, the use of liturgical shoes and stockings was reserved for cardinals and bishops.
Very significant, too, is the parting of the ways in the development of liturgical vestments in the East and West.
With the exception of the mitre, introduced in the 15th or 16th century, the liturgical costume of the Eastern clergy remains now practically what it was in the 9th century.
In the Western Church, though from the 9th century onwards the Roman use had been the norm, considerable alterations continued to be made in the shape and decoration of the liturgical vestments.
of their use by the various orders of the clergy in the several liturgical functions, however, was established by the close of the 13th century and still continues in force.
It should be noted that the liturgical head-dress of the pope is the mitre, not the tiara, which is the symbol of his supreme office and jurisdiction.
Of the liturgical vestments not immediately or exclusively associated with the sacrifice of the mass the most conspicuous are the cope and surplice.
An Orthodox bishop, vested for the holy liturgy, wears over his cassock - (i) the rnxcipcov, or alb (q.v.); the E7nrpay,Acov, or stole (q.v.); (3) the a narrow stuff girdle clasped behind, which holds together the two vestments above named; (4) the E7 n, uaviexa, liturgical cuffs, corresponding, possibly, to the pontifical gloves of the West;' (5) the i 7rtyovarcov, a stiff lozengeshaped piece of stuff hanging at the right side by a piece of riband from the girdle or attached to the o-AKKos, the equivalent of the Western maniple (q.v.); (6) the like the Western dalmatic (q.v.), worn instead of the 4acv6Acov, or chasuble; (7) the c?µocp6pcov, the equivalent of the Western pallium (q.v.).
The liturgical handkerchief, which in the Greek Church has become the epigonation, has retained its original form in the Armenian.
In the East there is no sequence of liturgical colours, nor, indeed, any definite sense of liturgical colour at all; the vestments are usually white or red, and stiff with gold embroidery.
In the West the custom, long universal, of marking the seasons of the ecclesiastical year and the more prominent fasts and festivals by the colour of the vestments of clergy and altar dates, approximately, from the 12th century: the subject is mentioned (c. 1200) in the treatise of Innocent III., De sacro altaris mysterio (cap. 10), where the rules are laid down which are still essentially those of the Roman Church,' though the liturgical colours were only four, violet belonging to the category of black - as that of mourning.
xviii.) the liturgical colours are five: white, red, green, violet, black.
The Church of the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem seems already to have had its canon of liturgical colours.
It is clear from what has been said above that the liturgical vestments possessed originally no mystic symbolic meaning whatever; it was equally certain that, as their origins were forgotten, they would develop such a symbolic meaning.
" Take the amice, which signifies discipline in speech," while other interpretations survive in 1 In the Anglican Church, in the numerous cases when the liturgical colours are used, these generally follow the Roman use, which was in force before the Reformation in the important dioceses of Canterbury, York, London and Exeter.
The red hangings of the Holy Table, usual where the liturgical colours are not used, are also - like the cushions to support the service books - supposed to be a survival of the Sarum use.
Braun, S.J., in his paper on liturgical dress in the Church of England, contributed to Stimmen aus Maria-Laach (1910, Heft 7, Freiburg-im-Breisgau).
These liturgical notes make extremely probable the supposition that the poem has been taken from some collection like that of our present book of Psalms, probably on the ground of the authorship asserted by the superscription there attached to it.
The opinion of a liturgical scholar like Mgr.
Amongst other important codices are the Jorddnszky Codex (1516-1519), an incomplete copy of the translation of the Bible made by Ladislaus Batori, who died about 1456; and the Dobrentei or Gyulafehervdr Codex (1508), containing a version of the Psalter, Song of Solomon, and the liturgical epistles and gospels, copied by Bartholomew Halabori from an earlier translation (KSrnyei, A Magyar nemzeti irodalomtortenet vdzlata, 1861, p. 30).
When we thus understand its origin, the tradition becomes really instructive, and may be translated into a statement which throws light on a number of points connected with the book, namely, that the Psalter was (finally, at least) collected with a liturgical purpose.
i sqq., are not included in the collection, though motives from them are embodied in more modern psalms: the interest of the collector, we see, was not historical but liturgical.
The division into five books was known to Hippolytus, but a closer examination of the doxologies shows that it does not represent the original scheme of the Psalter; for, while the doxologies to the first three books are no part of the psalms to which they are attached, but really mark the end of a book in a pious fashion not uncommon in Eastern literature, that to book IV., with its rubric addressed to the people, plainly belongs to the psalm, or rather to its liturgical execution, and does not therefore really mark the close of a collection once separate.
and V., which, as a whole, is far more suitable for liturgical use.
and III., so that the collection of the last part of the Psalter must, if our argument up to this point is sound, fall within the second half of the 2nd century B.C. And here it is to be noted that though no part of the Psalter shows clearer marks of a liturgical purpose, we find that in books IV.
Such an enthusiasm of militant piety, plainly based on actual successes of Israel and the house of Aaron, can only be referred to the first victories of the Maccabees, culminating in the purification of the Temple in 164 B.C. This restoration of the worship of the national sanctuary, under circumstances that inspired religious feelings very different from those of any other generation since the return from Babylon, might most naturally be followed by an extension of the Temple psalmody; it certainly was followed by some liturgical innovations, for the solemn service of dedication on the 25th day of Chisleu was made the pattern of a new annual feast (that mentioned in John x.
and III., for the composition of a poem and its acceptance as part of the Levitical liturgy are not necessarily coincident in date, except in psalms written with a direct liturgical purpose.
His description of the Temple ritual is not strictly accurate, but he speaks of the worshippers as passing the night in gazing at the stars and calling on God in prayer; his words, if they do not exactly fit anything in the later ritual, are well fitted to illustrate the original liturgical use of Ps.
For details on the liturgical use of the Psalter in Christendom the reader may refer to Smith's Diet.
His writings seem to have been chiefly liturgical: he gave the first set of statutes to the school of Nisibis, which was founded during his bishopric.
Four of the homilies which deal with liturgical matters have been given in an English translation, accompanied with valuable notes, by R.
Isho`yabh III., Nestorian catholicus from 647 to 657/8, wrote controversial tracts, religious discourses and liturgical works.
Moses bar Kepha (f903), one of the most fertile of 9th-century authors, wrote commentaries, theological treatises and many liturgical works.
The same was the case of the festivals of St Stephen, St James and St John, and St Peter and St Paul, as is shown by the liturgical documents, but these festivals were held in connexion with that of Christmas (26th, 27th and 28th December), and were not strictly speaking anniversaries.
On the 31st of July 1899 the archbishops decided that the liturgical use of incense was illegal.
Beside the letters, he was the author of liturgical poetry and works on civil law.
2), it may be included among liturgical vestments in the widest sense.
in the Frankish empire (9th century) as alba, clericalis, in contradistinction to the liturgical alb, and in England (loth century) under the name of oferslip in the 46th canon of the ecclesiastical laws of Edgar.
Moreover, in further contradistinction to the Roman use, it had - especially in the German dioceses - a liturgical character, being used instead of the surplice.
The rochet was originally a robe-like tunic, and was therefore girdled, like the liturgical alb.
The service-books were wholly in MS. until the press of the archbishop of Canterbury's mission at Urmia issued the Takhsa (containing the liturgies, baptismal office, &c.) and several other liturgical texts.
the language of I Clem., esp. the liturgical parts, and even the Roman Mass).
70) the liturgical use of the name ceased, but the tradition was perpetuated in the schools of the rabbis.'
As his quotations from Scripture appear to be made from the Peshitta, he probably wrote the homilies before he embarked upon the Philoxenian version.2 Philoxenus wrote also many controversial 'works and some liturgical pieces.
liturgical reforms were set on foot before an attempt was made to systematize doctrinal teaching.
Liturgical forms for consecrating marriage are of late development, and the Church took the institution under its protection through outside social pressure rather than of its own will and wish.
Nor were they so solicitous, as it is pretended, to conceal from the authorities what they did and said in their liturgical meetings.
It is used, however, more definitely as the designation of two hymns distinguished by liturgical writers as the Greater and Lesser Doxologies.
A trace of them is found in one of the liturgical prayers of Serapion, bishop of Thmui, in Egypt, but they have left little mark on the liturgies of the church.
The liturgical use of the word in apostolic times is attested by the passage from 1 Cor.
Its colour varies with the liturgical colour of the day, or of the function at which it is worn.
In the middle ages, however, it was the custom to wear it at nearly all liturgical functions.
a special liturgical mark of distinction for deacons, which in course of time was extended to all the higher orders.
The centre of religious life was no longer the living prophetic word but the ordinances of the Pentateuch and the liturgical service of the sanctuary..
The monastery contains a school of picturemakers of ancient origin, whose productions are widely diffused throughout the empire, and a printing press, from which have issued liturgical and religious works, the oldest known examples bearing the date 1616.
Further, the Megillath Ta'anith (" roll of fasts "), an old source with a collection of miscellaneous legends, &c.; Megillath Antiokhos, on the martyrdom under Hadrian; Seder`Olam Rabbah, on biblical history from Adam to the rebellion of Bar Kokba (Barcocheba); the " Book of Jashar "; the Chronicle of Jerahmeel," &c. Liturgical Midrash is illustrated by the Haggada shel Pesah, part of the ritual recited at the domestic service of the first two Passover evenings.
In liturgical use the term is applied to that portion of the Eucharistic service which immediately precedes the canon or central portion; the preface, which begins at the words Vere dignum, " It is very meet, right, &c.," is ushered in, in all liturgies, with the Sursum Corda, "Lift up your hearts," and ends with the Sanctus, "Holy, Holy, Holy, &c."
This view receives some support from the long liturgical prayer at the close, which almost certainly represents the intercession used in the Roman eucharists.
casula, a little house, hut, from casa), a liturgical vestment of the Catholic Church.
It was not until the 11th century, when the cope (q.v.) had become established as a liturgical vestment, that the chasuble began to be reserved as special to the sacrifice of the Mass.
Its use, however, survived in the Lutheran churches; and though in those of Germany it is no longer worn, it still forms part of the liturgical costume of the Scandinavian Evangelical churches.
The liturgical vestments of the Armenians are derived, like their rite, from the Greek rite; so that in this case also there can be no doubt that the shurtshar was originally closed.
instituted the Corpus Christi Feast by way of giving liturgical expression to this view.
When the Psalter became a liturgical book the historical kingship had gone by, and the idea alone remained, no longer as the interpretation of a present political fact but as part of Israel's religious inheritance.
His earliest teacher (omitting the legendary Scotchman Menzies) was the dyak, or clerk of the council, Nikita Zotov, subsequently the court fool, who taught his pupil to spell out the liturgical and devotional books on which the children of the tsar were generally brought up. After Zotov's departure on a diplomatic mission, in 1680, the lad had no regular tutor.
In the Roman Catholic Church, which preserves in this respect the tradition that had become established during the middle ages, the component parts of a fixed altar in the liturgical sense are the table (mensa), or super-altar, consisting of a stone slab; the support (stipes), consisting either of a solid mass or of four or more columns; the sepulchrum, or altar-cavity, a small chamber for the reception of the relics of martyrs.
For Christian altars, reference is best made to the articles on the subject in the dictionaries of Christian and liturgical antiquities of Migne, Martigny, Smith and Cheetham, and Pugin, where practically all the available information is collected.
(Rouen, 1700); Voigt, Thysiasteriologia sive de altaribus veterum Christianorum (Hamburg, 1709); and the liturgical works of Bona.
in 1622, and added to by Urban VIII., who founded the celebrated College of the Propaganda for the education of missionaries, and his polyglot press for printing the liturgical books of the East.
With the latter is connected the commission for the examination of the liturgical books of the East (Commissio pro corrigendis libris ecclesiae Orientalis) .
(10) The Congregation of Rites (Congregatio sacrorum Rituum), founded by Sixtus V., has exclusive charge of the liturgy and liturgical books; it also deals with the proceedings in the beatification and canonization of saints.
Of late years there have been added to it a Liturgical Commission, a Historico-liturgical Commission, and a Commission for church song, the functions of which are sufficiently indicated by their names.
It was equally from Jerusalem that they subsequently adopted their lectionary and arrangement of the Christian year; and a 9th-century copy of this lectionary in the Paris library preserves to us precious details of the liturgical usages of Jerusalem in the 4th century.
dalmatica, tunica dalmatica), a liturgical vestment of the Western Church, proper to deacons, as the tunicle (tunicella) is to subdeacons.
In the Eastern churches the only vestment that has any true analogy with the dalmatic or liturgical upper tunic is the sakkos, the tunic worn by deacons and subdeacons over their everyday clothes being the equivalent of the Western alb.
Chorrock, choir coat), a liturgical vestment of the Christian Church.
It is worn in choir at the solemn offices; it is the official sacral dress of the lower clergy in their liturgical functions; it is worn by the priest when administering the sacraments, undertaking benedictions, and the like; the use of the alb being nowadays almost exclusively confined to the mass and functions connected with this.
In all probability the surplice is no more than an expansion of the ordinary liturgical alb, due to the necessity for wearing it over thick furs.
amictus, from amicire, to throw or wrap round, the change of t to s being probably due to an early confusion with the aumuce: see Almuce), a liturgical vestment of the Western Church.
The Latin word amictus was applied to any wrap-like garment, and, according to Father Braun, the liturgical amice originated in the ordinary neck-cloth worn by all classes of Romans.
It had at the outset no liturgical significance whatever, and was simply adopted by the clergy for the same reason that the clergy of the 18th century wore wigs - because it was part of the full dress of ordinary life.
The earliest extant account of a liturgical celebration of Palm Sunday is that given in the Peregrinatio Silviae (Eleutheriae),' which dates from the 4th century and contains a detailed account of the Holy Week ceremonies at Jerusalem by a Spanish lady of rank The actual festival began at one o'clock with a service in the church on the Mount of Olives; at three o'clock clergy and people went in procession, singing hymns, to the scene of the Ascension; two hours of prayer, singing and reading of appropriate Scriptures followed, until, at five o'clock the reading of the passage from the Gospel telling how "the children with olive branches and palms go to meet the Lord, and cry: ` Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord '" gave the signal for the crowd to break up, and, carrying branches of olive and palm, to conduct the bishop, in eo typo quo tune Dominus deductus est, 2 with cries of "Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord!"
At all of these Holdheim was a strong supporter of the policy of modifying ritual (especially with regard to Sabbath observance, marriage laws and liturgical customs).
of the Gospels have marginal marks, and sometimes actual interpolations, which can only be accounted for as indicating the beginnings and endings of liturgical lessons.
The third council of Carthage in 397 forbade anything but Holy Scripture to be read in church; this rule has been adhered to so far as the liturgical epistle and gospel, and occasional additional lessons in the Roman missal are concerned, but in the divine office, on feasts when nine lessons are read at matins, only the first three lessons are taken from Holy Scripture, the next three being taken from the sermons of ecclesiastical writers, and the last three from expositions of the day's gospel; but sometimes the lives or Passions of the saints, or of some particular saints, were substituted for any or all of these breviary lessons.
Nicephorus was also the author of lists of the emperors and patriarchs of Constantinople, of a poem on the capture of Jerusalem, and of a synopsis of the Scriptures, all in iambics; and of commentaries on liturgical poems.
The best known of his longer liturgical compositions are the philosophical Kether Malkuth (for the Day of Atonement) and the Azharoth, on the 613 precepts (for Shebhu`oth).
Owing to his pure biblical style he had an abiding influence on subsequent liturgical writers.
- Texts of the liturgical poems are to be found in the prayer-books: others in Dukes and Edelmann, Treasures of Oxford (Oxford, 1850); Dukes, Shire Shelomoh (Hanover, 1858); S.
The ecclesiastical laws relating to sacred images, to indulgences, and to liturgical books and books of devotion are maintained (Nos.
It is also a Jewish liturgical term, and was applied specifically to the "hosanna" branches carried in procession in the Feast of Booths or Tabernacles, the seventh day of which was called the Hosanna-day (so also in Syrian usage; cf.
The book contains rules for the conduct of the anchoresses, and gives liturgical directions for divine service; but the greater part of it is taken up with the purely spiritual side of religion.
The Hebrew word mashal, commonly rendered " proverb," is a general term for didactic and elegiac poetry (as distinguished from the descriptive and the liturgical),.
The tiara, the pontifical head-dress, is not used strictly speaking in the course of the liturgical functions, but only for processions.
The papal mass, now rarely celebrated, has preserved more faithfully the ancient liturgical usages of the 8th and 9th centuries.
Semitic. Till the 19th century the earliest form known of this alphabet was the Ethiopian or Geez, in which Christian documents have been preserved from the early centuries of our era, and which is still used by the Abyssinians for liturgical purposes.
had been neglected by the subsequent Arsacid line, was revived and the remains of its liturgical literature collected.
AC °E aï¿½ most important of these documents is the liturgical inscription of Hadji-abad, where the Arsacid and Sassanian alphabets are found side by side.
The cassock, though part of the canonical costume of the clergy, is not a liturgical vestment.
The popes, then, or at least the more politic of them, have been content to lay down as the condition of reunion no more than the acceptance of the distinctive dogmas of the Roman Catholic Church, especially the supremacy and infallibility of the pope; the ritus of the Uniat Oriental Churches - liturgies and liturgical languages, ecclesiastical law and discipline, marriage of priests, beards and costume, the monastic system of St Basil - they have been content for the most part to leave untouched.
The liturgical language of the Uniat Slav Churches is Old Slavonic, and, so far as their rite is concerned, they differ from the Orthodox Slav Churches only in using the Glagolitic instead of the Cyrillic alphabet.
The treatise De cursibus ecclesiasticis, discovered in 1853, is a liturgical manual for determining the hour of divers nocturnal offices by the position of the stars.
and editions this little collection of liturgical poems is entitled n7`i Ah how!, the first word of ch.
The idea that Lamentations was originally appended to Jeremiah in the Hebrew Canon, as it is in the old versions, and was afterwards separated from it and added to the other Megilloth for the liturgical convenience of the Synagogue, rests on the fact that Josephus (Ap. i.
And hence also his style (which contemporaries called anglicized and modern), though it occasionally rises into liturgical beauty, and often flashes into vivid historical portraiture, is generally kept close to the harsh necessities of the few years in which he had to work for the future.
Jean Beleth, a 12th-century liturgical author, gives the following list of books necessary for the right conduct of the canonical office: - the Antiphonarium, the Old and New Testaments, the Passionarius (liber) and the Legendarius (dealing respectively with martyrs and saints), the Homiliarius (homilies on the Gospels), the Sermologus (collection of sermons) and the works of the Fathers, besides, of course, the Psalterium and the Collectarium.
The Proprium Sanctorum contains the lessons, psalms and liturgical formularies for saints' festivals, and depends on the days of the secular month.
It has already been indicated, by reference to Matins, Lauds, &c., that not only each day, but each part of the day, has its own office, the day being divided into liturgical "hours."
The antiphons are short liturgical forms, sometimes of biblical, sometimes of patristic origin, used to introduce a psalm, The term originally signified a chant by alternate choirs, but has quite lost this meaning in the Breviary.
Taken in connexion with a statement which almost immediately precedes this - " Cereos autem non clara luce accendimus, sicut frustra calumniaris: sed ut noctis tenebras hoc solatio temperemus " (§ 7) - this seems to point to the fact that the ritual use of lights in the church services, so far as already established, arose from the same conservative habit as determined the development of liturgical vestments, i.e.
At every liturgical service, and especially at Mass and at choir services, there must be at least At two lighted tapers on the altar, 2 as symbols of the presence of God and tributes of adoration.
They differ from liturgical lights in that, whereas these must be tapers of pure beeswax or lamps fed with pure olive oil (except by special dispensation under certain circumstances), those used merely to add splendour to the celebration may be of any material; the only exception being, that in the decoration of the altar gas-lights are forbidden.
Of the five "faithful sayings," three occur in I Tim.; these condensed aphorisms tally with liturgical fragments such as the famous quotation in I Tim.
Later liturgical use regarded Pss.
The General Assembly of Glasgow in 1638 abjured Laud's book and took its stand again by the Book of Common Order, an act repeated by the assembly of 1639, which also demurred against innovations proposed by the English separatists, who objected altogether to liturgical forms, and in particular to the Lord's Prayer, the Gloria Pcrtri and the minister kneeling for private devotion in the pulpit.
The modern Book of Common Order or Euchologion is a compilation drawn from various sources and issued by the Church Service Society, an organization which endeavours to promote liturgical usages within the National Church of Scotland.
(For the liturgical dress see Vestments and subsidiary articles.) Monastic Life.
The Yasna, the principal liturgical book of the Parsees, in 72 chapters (hait-i, ha), contains the texts that are read by the priests at the solemn yasna (Izeshne) ceremony, or the general sacrifice in honour of all the deities.
The arrangement of the chapters is purely liturgical, although their matter in part has nothing to do with the liturgical action.
The Vispered, a minor liturgical work in 24 chapters (karde), is alike in form and substance completely dependent on the Yasna, to which it is a liturgical appendix.
For liturgical purposes the separate chapters of the Vendidad are sometimes inserted among those of the Yasna and Vispered.
But we must assume that these were included in such or such a nask, as the Yashts in the seventeenth or Bakan Yasht; or, it may be that other books, especially the Yasna, are a compilation extracted for liturgical purposes from various nasks.
Geez, as it is called, was introduced with the first immigrants from Yemen, and although no longer spoken is still studied as the liturgical language of the Abyssinian Christians.
The word is used in a liturgical sense for an office commending the souls of the dying and dead to the mercies of God.
Most of the liturgical books officially adopted gicaJ and revised in this period are still used for church ser vices.
The piece is obviously connected with the Easter cycle of liturgical drama, and the subject is treated in the York and Townley plays.
He was author of many "Responsa," but his chief work was liturgical.
(ii.) Then follows book vii., the first thirty-one chapters of which are an adaptation of the Didache, whilst the rest contain various liturgical forms of which the origin is still uncertain, though it has been acutely suggested by Achelis, and with great probability, that they originated in the schismatical congregation of Lucian at Antioch.
They speak of the ordination of bishops (the so-called Clementine Liturgy is that which is directed to be used at the consecration of a bishop, cc. 5-15), of presbyters, deacons, deaconesses, subdeacons and lectors, and then pass on to confessors, virgins, widows and exorcists; after which follows a series of canons on various subjects, and liturgical formulae.
of the Roman Church - sacred books, liturgical books, &c. - should be issued in official and more correct editions; the compilations of ecclesiastical law were also revised.
Neander, Harnack, Dr Armitage Robinson and James Martineau, whether it represents a real utterance of Christ and not rather the liturgical usage of the region in which the first gospel was compiled.
Augusti, Denkwiirdigkeiten (Leipzig, 1829-1831); Monumenta Ecclesiae Liturgica by Dom Cabrol and Dom Leclercq (Paris, 1902) (a summary of all liturgical passages given in the early Fathers); Corblet, Histoire du sacrement de bapteme (2 vols.
The chief liturgical expressions of this cult are the institution of a feast of the Sacred Heart and public representations of it by statues and pictures.
capa, cappa), a liturgical vestment of the Western Church.
The use of the cope as a liturgical vestment can be traced to the end of the 8th century: a pluviale is mentioned in the foundation charter of the monastery of Obona in Spain.
Before this the so-called cappa choralis, a black, bell-shaped, hooded vestment with no liturgical significance, had been worn by the secular and regular clergy at choir services, processions, &c. This was in its origin identical with the chasuble, and if, as Father Braun seems to prove, the cope developed out of this, cope and chasuble have a common source.'
By the beginning of the 13th century the liturgical use of the cope had become finally fixed, and the rules for this use included by Pope Pius V.
It is clear from this that the cope, though a liturgical, was never a sacerdotal vestment.
With the liturgical cope may be classed the red mantle (mantum), which from the 11th century to the close of the middle ages formed, with the tiara, the special symbol of the papal dignity.
In the 12th century it was provided with arms (cappa manicata), but the use of this form was forbidden at choir services and other liturgical functions.
In many parts of Germany the seasons of Lent and Advent are still marked by the use of emblems of mourning in the churches, by the frequency of certain phrases (Kyrie eleison, Agnus Dei) and the absence of others (Hallelujah, Gloria in excelsis) in the liturgical services, by abstinence from some of the usual social festivities, and by the non-celebration of marriages.
tunicella), a liturgical vestment of the Christian church, proper to subdeacons.
ELEAZER KALIR [QALIR], Hebrew liturgical poet, whose hymns (piyyutim) are found in profusion in the festival prayers of the German synagogal rite.
After the disappearance of the Servian printing-presses in the 16th century, all liturgical books were brought from Russia and printed in the Russian-Slavonic language; while the teachers in the Servian schools were Russians.
The Orthodox Serbs, moreover, use a modified form of the Cyrillic alphabet, while the Roman Catholic Croats use Latin characters, except in a few liturgical books which are written in the ancient Glagolitic script.
It is not in the strictest sense a liturgical head-dress, its use not being confined to liturgical functions.
He was also a liturgical poet of considerable merit.
aligned north-south, with liturgical east at the south end.
anthropology of religion; local clergy and diocesan liturgical advisors.
Again, we have atonality and microtonality, drones and clusters, and also the setting of a liturgical text.
autonomous in a way that it never could if it were regard as a liturgical text.
St Brigit's name appears under 1 February in the two tenth-century liturgical calendars with Glastonbury associations.
Christopher's hobbies include calligraphy, Indian cooking and liturgical dance.
At these sites choirs of holy men maintained a constant liturgical chant which varied over the seasons and cycles.
devotions of the faithful have sometimes been constrained into a liturgical form that does not suit them.
Historical, liturgical and theological arguments make it impossible to uphold the legitimacy of a female diaconate as part of the ordained clergy.
liturgical chant the assembly does not have to be the only protagonist.
liturgical celebrations gather today, we see the great crowds to whom we are sent.
liturgical calendar means to change our way of relating to God.
liturgical prayer during the English revolution.
But there are other aspects of this, even in the strictly liturgical field, that we haven't yet touched on.
He has an almost liturgical refrain in the text " and there was evening and there was morning " .
liturgical in nature, with occasional answers to doubts about Pure Land practice.
The Structure of the MA in theology: Liturgical Studies Students will be awarded the ma in theology: Liturgical Studies Students will be awarded the MA in Theology by successfully completing 180 credits.
Should the composer feel obliged to stick to a form of words found in a translation authorized for liturgical use?
Right through the scrolls runs a tremendous stress on the due observance of the liturgical year.
A small number of vestments are always laid out in the main sacristy in the appropriate liturgical color of the day.
However, that Independence should not be confused with pandering to doctrinal syncretism or liturgical modernism.
The Treasury was also an amazing place with gold, silver, enamel and ivory objects and magnificent liturgical vestments.
You can imagine the late-medieval liturgical presence here as easily as you can imagine its current use for Anglican congregational worship.
The date of its definite adoption as a liturgical vestment is uncertain; at Rome - where until the 13th century it was known as the linea or camisia (cf.
But as late as the 9th and 10th centuries the alba is still an everyday as well as a liturgical garment, and we find bishops and synods forbidding priests to sing mass in the alba worn by them in ordinary life (see Braun, p. 62).
Whilst the two last priests have assigned to them special liturgical collections of the texts to be used by them, the Samaveda-samhita and Yajurveda-samhita respectively, the Hotri has to deal entirely with hymns and verses taken from the Rigveda-samhita, of which they would, however, form only a comparatively small portion.
To these also belong the rite of wµoc¢ayta,and the communication of liturgical formulae for the guidance of the soul of the dead man on his way to the underworld, which also served as credentials to the gods below.
He also composed liturgical poems. At the end of the Ilth century Judah ibn Bal'am wrote grammatical works and commentaries (on the Pentateuch, Isaiah, &c.) in Arabic; the liturgist Isaac Gayyath (d.
The trouble began early in the 17th century with the attempt, made in connexion with the printing of the liturgical books, to emend certain ritual details in which there was proved to have been a departure from primitive usage; 1 it came to a head under the patriarch Nikon.
Mitra, even as late as the 15th century, retained its simple meaning of cap (see Du Cange, Glossarium, s.v.); to Isidore of Seville it is specifically a woman's cap. Infula, which in late ecclesiastical usage was to be confined to mitre (and its dependent bands) and chasuble, meant originally a piece of cloth, or the sacred fillets used in pagan worship, and later on came to be used of any ecclesiastical vestment, and there is no evidence for its specific application to the liturgical head-dress earlier than the 12th century.
In general, however, there is no evidence to prove that this use was liturgical, though the silver-gilt mitre of Bishop Wren of Ely (d.
The tunica dalmatica was a long, sleeved upper tunic, originating, as its name implies, in Dalmatia, and first becoming fashionable at Rome in the 2nd century; it is the origin of the liturgical dalmatic and tunicle (see Dalmatic).
(,74,1" The period between the 9th and the 13th centuries is that of the final development of the liturgical vestments in the West.
In the Western Church, though from the 9th century onwards the Roman use had been the norm, considerable alterations continued to be made in the shape and decoration of the liturgical vestments, and in this respect various Churches developed different traditions (see, e.g.
the pectoral cross, the pontifical gloves, the pontifical ring, the liturgical sandals and caligae, a tunicle worn over the stole and under the chasuble, and the mitre (see fig.
It should be noted that the liturgical head-dress of the pope is the mitre, not the tiara, which is the symbol of his supreme office and jurisdiction (see Tiara) .
The biretta, too, though not in its origin or in some of its uses a liturgical vestment, has developed a distinctly liturgical character (see Biretta).
Besides the strictly liturgical vestments there are also numerous articles of costume worn at choir services, in processions, or on ceremonial occasions in everyday life, which have no sacral character; such are the almuce, the cappa and mozzetta (see Cope), the rochet (q.v.), the pileolus, a skullcap, worn also sometimes under mitre and tiara.
xxxiii., which may have been added as a liturgical sequel to Ps.
(See Tacitus, Cornelius.) In the middle ages, when the order of the liturgical feasts was partly determined by the date of Easter, the custom was early established in the Western Church of drawing up tables to indicate that date for a certain number of years or even centuries.
Upon these officers devolved ultimately not only the disciplinary, financial and liturgical duties referred to, but also the still higher function of instructing their fellow-Christians in God's will and truth, and so they became the substitutes of the apostles, prophets and teachers in all respects (cf.
Though early used in the celebration of the liturgy it had for several centuries no specifically liturgical character, the first clear instances of its ritual use being in a letter of St Germanus of Paris (d.
Eucharistic or any other liturgical vestments were unknown until late in the 5th century, when certain bishops were honoured with the same gallium worn by civil officials (see Vestments).
These embroidered frontals are changeable, so that the principal colour in the pattern can accord with the liturgical colour of the day.
How far, however, this rule was strictly observed, and what was the relation of the Roman dalmatic to the diaconal alba and subdiaconal tunica, which were in liturgical use in Gaul and Spain so early as the 6th century, are moot points (see Braun, p. 252).
The sakkos, which, as a liturgical vestment, first appears in the 12th century as peculiar to patriarchs, is now a scapular-like robe very similar to the modern dalmatic (see fig.
Under the abbot were several officials to superintend the various departments; the liturgical services in the church took up a considerable portion of the day, but Theodore seems to have made no attempt to revive the early practice of the Studium in this matter (see Ac0EMETI); the rest of the time was divided between reading and work; the latter included the chief handicrafts, for the monks, only ten in number, when Theodore became abbot, increased under his rule to over a thousand.
The distinctive mark of the clergy (at least of the more dignified) has been the tippet or scarf above mentioned, a broad band of black silk worn stole-wise, but not to be confused with the stole, since it has no liturgical significance and was originally no more than part of the clerical outdoor dress (see Stole).
In 1786, on the initiative of the archbishop, the legal difficulties in England were removed by the act for the consecration of bishops abroad; and, on being satisfied as to the orthodoxy of the church in America and the nature of certain liturgical changes in contemplation, the two English archbishops proceeded, on the 14th of February 1787, to consecrate William White and Samuel Prevoost to the sees of Pennsylvania and New York (see Protestant Episcopal Church).
Over this costume the pope wears, on less solemn occasions, the lace rochet and the red mozetta, bordered with ermine, or the camauro, similar to the mozetta, but with the addition of a hood, and over all the stole embroidered with his arms. The pope's liturgical costume consists, in the first place, of all the elements comprising that of the bishops: stockings and sandals, amice, alb, cincture, tunicle and dalmatic, stole, ring, gloves, chasuble or cope, the latter, however, with a morse ornamented with precious stones, and for head-dress the mitre (see Vestments).
AC Ã‚°E aÃ¯¿½ most important of these documents is the liturgical inscription of Hadji-abad, where the Arsacid and Sassanian alphabets are found side by side.
- Servian literature begins with the biblical and liturgical books, written in " Old Slavonic," or " Church Slavonic," into which " the Slavonic apostles " Cyril and Methodius (see Slavs) had translated the Bible and other church books about the middle of the 9th century.
The Catholic Liturgical Library is a valuable resource with articles, documents and texts covering topics like theology, magazine and newspaper articles, liturgical documents and much more.
Rivers Edge Dancewear offers made-to-order plus size tutus, swing skirts, wrap skirts, liturgical skirts, and character skirts.
Since liturgical dance can be any style of movement from hip hop to interpretive signing; the list of steps available for choreography and teaching is broad and diverse.
Praise dance, which is also sometimes called liturgical dance, is a Christian dance genre usually performed in churches as part of their worship time, prayer hour, or at special evangelical events.
Praise dance steps are simply borrowed from different genres of dance, but some are used so frequently in praise dance choreography that they are considered to have secondary ownership in the liturgical dance world.
This is often used in liturgical dance, especially in Davidic dance when the group often forms a circle, holds hands, and grapevines around the stage.
If you are involved in a church, you may also be able to find a liturgical dance team.
There are two types of dancers who are likely to choose praise dance costumes: dancers who perform lyrical and liturgical dancing onstage, and church groups who dance inside the church setting.
Praise, or lyrical and liturgical, dance costumes come in fewer styles than ballet or jazz costumes.
Dance Fashion Warehouse: Offering a wide selection of dance wear for virtually every genre of dance, this site also has an extensive praise dance collection in the sections for liturgical and lyrical dance.
The conception of the world and of human life as controlled by natural law, a naturalistic cosmos, is alien not only to the prophetic and liturgical Hebrew literature but also to Hebrew thought in general.
It had originally nothing of its present liturgical character; this was given to it in the post-Carolingian period.
It is to be remarked that the "laying on of hands," which in the Old and the New Testament alike is the usual "form" of blessing, is not used in liturgical benedictions, the priest being directed merely to extend his right hand towards the person to be blessed.
alba, from albus, white), a liturgical vestment of the Catholic Church.
There is nothing in the standards of the Presbyterian Church against liturgical worship.
a contain an expanded form of the same liturgical direction as Table I.
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