How to use Literature in a sentence
Waller edited the Cambridge History of English Literature (1907, &c.).
In literature Argentina is still under the spell of Bohemianism and dilettanteism.
His love for literature was a passion.
In a state of deep depression, she stopped by the social services office on the way home and picked up some literature and a form.
In a word, literature is my Utopia.Advertisement
At the university he made rapid progress, especially in jurisprudence, though preferring the study of history, literature, juridical science and philosophy.
See further the literature on Gen.
For further references to the literature on Alexander, see Kaerst's article in Pauly-Wissowa's Realencyclopadie (1894).
In France Cartesianism won society and literature before it penetrated into the universities.
His most important work is his standard History of English Dramatic Literature to the Age of Queen Anne (1875), re-edited after a thorough revision in three volumes in 1899.Advertisement
They were famous for their skill in music and literature.
Sophocles, and the Lexicon Graecum suppletorium et dialecticum of Van Herwerden; whilst the new great Latin Lexicon, published by the Berlin Academy, is calculated to meet the needs of students of Latin patristic literature.
Properly speaking, "Hebrew Literature" denotes all works written in the Hebrew language.
In catalogues and bibliographies, however, the expression is now generally used, conveniently if incorrectly, as synonymous with Jewish literature, including all works written by Jews in Hebrew characters, whether the language be Aramaic, Arabic or even some vernacular not related to Hebrew.
The literature begins with, as it is almost entirely based upon, the Old Testament.Advertisement
The traditional view that Moses was the author of the Pentateuch in its present form, would make this the earliest monument of Hebrew literature.
The Jews have always been, however, an intensely literary people, and the books ultimately accepted as canonical were only a selection from the literature in existence at the beginning of the Christian era.
Very important for the study of Midrashic literature are the Yalgut (gleaning) Shim`oni, on the whole Bible, the Yalqut Mekhiri, on the Prophets, Psalms, Proverbs and Job, and the Midrash ha-gadhol, 2 all of which are of uncertain but late date and preserve earlier material.
With the Talmud, the anonymous period of Hebrew literature may be considered to end.
Individual Geonim produced valuable works (of which later), but what is perhaps most important from the point of view of the development of Judaism is the literature of their Responsa or answers to questions, chiefly on halakhic matters, addressed to them from various countries.Advertisement
Their literature, with which alone we are here concerned, is largely polemical and to a great extent deals with grammar and exegesis.
The Ahoms had a considerable literature, much of which is still in existence.
They adopted the French tongue, and were presently among the first to practise and spread abroad its literature.
He was educated for the law, but gave up his profession on the death of his father, and devoted four years to the study of literature, philosophy and science.
He determined the course which Roman literature followed for more than a century after his time.Advertisement
He was educated at the lycee Louis le Grand, and afterwards studied medicine, a profession which he abandoned in 1894 for that of literature.
In his early years he was seized with a passionate enthusiasm for Greek literature, and this continued through life.
It was the basis of the earliest specimen of Provençal literature.
Sometimes defendants' speeches passed into literature, e.g.
C. Baur and his school - important as the first scientific attempt to conceive New Testament conditions and literature as a whole - has been abandoned.
While they had no written language, a considerable oral literature of songs, legends and traditions existed.
The sacred literature of the Balinese is written in the ancient Javanese or Kawi language, which appears to be better understood here than it is in Java.
C. Miall's Aquatic Insects (London, 1895), the special literature of the Coleoptera is enormous.
It remains to mention his alleged services to literature.
A taste for French literature spread rapidly, and the poets and dramatists of Paris found clever imitators in St Petersburg.
Soloviev's history, from the earliest times to 1774, is based throughout on original investigation of sources, and therefore, though inferior to Karamzin's work as literature, is incomparably superior to it in authority.
Lastly it should be recollected that the entire body of the fragments of tradition and literature belonging to northern Israel has come down to us through the channel of Judaean recensions.
The second path is that which is traced out by the priest-prophet Ezekiel, and is that of legalism, which was destined to secure a permanent place in the life and literature of the Jewish people.
Alexander disliked business of state, preferring literature and philosophy; a collection of his Latin poems appeared at Paris in 1656 under the title Philomathi Labores Juveniles.
He next turned to French literature, and to the early English drama and ballad literature.
In pursuance of his method of successive studies he began in 1823 the study of Italian literature, passing over German as demanding more labour than he could afford.
In the following year he made his first acquaintance with the literature of Spain under the influence of his friend and biographer, Ticknor; and, while its attractiveness proved greater than he had at the outset anticipated, the comparative novelty of the subject as a field for research served as an additional stimulus.
On the 6th of October 1829 he began the actual work of composition, which was continued without more serious interruptions than those occasioned by the essays on Asylums for the Blind (1830), Poetry and Romance of the Italians (1831), and English Literature of the 19th Century (1832), until the 25th of June 1836, when the concluding note was written.
He had been fortunate in obtaining the aid of Don Pascual de Gayangos, then professor of Arabic literature at Madrid, by whose offices he was enabled to obtain material not only from the public archives of Spain but from the muniment rooms of the great Spanish families.
From the numerous incidental references in his works, and from his knowledge of European literature, it may be inferred that he spent some time abroad.
It was the starting-point of a new satirical literature.
Of an enthusiastic temperament, accomplished in classical literature, he seems while a pagan to have courted discussion with the converts to Christianity.
He also read largely, though somewhat indiscriminately, in French literature, and appears to have been particularly struck with Pascal's Provincial Letters, which he tells us he reperused almost every year of his subsequent life with new pleasure, and which he particularly mentions as having been, along with Bleterie's Life of Julian and Giannone's History of Naples, a book which probably contributed in a special sense to form the historian of the Roman empire.
He renewed former acquaintance, however, with the " poet " Mallet, and through him gained access to Lady Hervey's circle, where a congenial admiration, not to say affectation, of French manners and literature made him a welcome guest.
The subject of this youthful effort was suggested, its author says, by a refinement of vanity - " the desire of justifying and praising the object of a favourite pursuit," namely, the study of ancient literature.
His boyhood was spent with a grandmother in Middletown, Connecticut; and prior to his entering college he had read widely in English literature and history, had surpassed most boys in the extent of his Greek and Latin work, and had studied several modern languages.
From his early youth he applied himself to historical studies and literature in general.
He made no attempt at a critical examination of historical traditions, and wrote in a flowery and often bombastic style, but in spite of this drawback, Mirkhond's Rauzat remains one of the most marvellous achievements in literature.
Nevertheless, or rather for this very reason, its symbols found their way into the rising literature of the vulgar tongues, and helped to quicken the fancy of the artists employed upon church buildings and furniture.
The historical traditions are to be supplemented by the great body of prophetic, legal and poetic literature which reveal contemporary conditions in various internal literary, theological or sociological features.
The disaster became the great epoch-making event for Jewish history and literature.
This interest and the popular tone of the history may be combined with the fact that the literature does not take us into the midst of that world of activity in which the events unfolded themselves.
Thus, in any estimate of the influence of Babylonia upon the Old Testament, it is obviously necessary to ask whether certain features (a) are of true Babylonian origin, or (b) merely find parallels or analogies in its stores of literature; whether the indebtedness goes back to very early times or to the age of the Assyrian domination or to the exiles who now returned.
To this age we may ascribe the literature of the Priestly writers (symbolized by P), which differs markedly from the other sources.
It has been easy to confuse the study of the Old Testament in its relation to modern religious needs with the technical scientific study of the much edited remains of the literature of a small part of the ancient East.
The early myths, legends and traditions which can be traced differ profoundly from the canonical history, and the gap is wider than that between the latter and the subsequent apocalyptical and pseudepigraphical literature.
He seems to regard this body of literature as the answer to the charge that the Jews had contributed nothing useful for human life.
Literature and affairs, science and statecraft, poetry and medicine, these various expressions of human nature and activity were so harmoniously balanced that they might be found in the possession of one and the same individual.
In the early 14th century, the age of Dante, the new spirit of the Renaissance made Italian rulers the patrons of art and literature, and the Jews to some extent shared in this gracious change.
Many Jews have been members of the Reichsrath, some have risen to the rank of general in the army, and Austrian Jews have contributed their quota to learning, the arts and literature.
Many Jews have filled professorial chairs at the universities, others have been judges, and in art, literature (there is a notable Jewish publication society), industry and commerce have rendered considerable services to national culture and prosperity.
In The Ever Green, being a Collection of Scots Poems wrote by the Ingenious before 1600, Ramsay had another purpose, to reawaken an interest in the older national literature.
He revived the interest in vernacular literature, and directly inspired the genius of his greater successors.
The praise of the fair sex in the first poem is exceptional in the literature of his age; and its geniality may help us to understand the author's popularity with his contemporaries.
He also posed as an author and patron of literature; his poems, severely criticized by Philoxenus, were hissed at the Olympic games; but having gained a prize for a tragedy on the Ransom of Hector at the Lenaea at Athens, he was so elated that he engaged in a debauch which proved fatal.
Persian literature after that date, and especially Persian poetry, is full of an ardent natural pantheism, in which a mystic apprehension of the unity and divinity of all things heightens the delight in natural and in human beauty.
The social instincts and industrious habits of ants have always made them favourite objects of study, and a vast amount of literature has accumulated on the subject of their structure and their modes of life.
The literature on ants is so vast that it is only possible to refer the reader to a few of the most important works on the family.
As they are now known to us, they have undergone a process of partial civilization, first at the hands of the Brahminical Indians, from whom they borrowed a religion, and to some extent literature and an alphabet, and subsequently from intercourse with the Arabs, which has led to the adoption of Mahommedanism by most of them.
The most conspicuous figure in Chinese literature is Confucius (55 1 -475 B.C.).
On the other hand it is noticeable that the Japanese have little which is original in the way of religion, literature or philosophy.
This epoch is marked by the renaissance of Sanskrit literature and the gradual revival of Hinduism at the expense of Buddhism.
Even the great dynasties have left few traces, and it is with difficulty that the patient historian disinters the minor kingdoms from obscurity, but Indian religion, literature and art have influenced all Asia from Persia to Japan.
The achievements of the Persians in art, literature and religion are by no means contemptible, but somewhat mixed and cosmopolitan.
It is perhaps on account of this intermediate flavour that the literature of Persia - for instance the adaptations of Omar Khayyam - is more appreciated in Europe than that of other Oriental nations.
It is plain from early Moslem literature that Persian, Christian and especially Jewish ideas had penetrated into Arabia.
But in spite of this total political collapse, Arabic religion and literature are still one of the greatest forces working in the western half of Asia, in northern Africa and to some extent in eastern Europe.
Almost all Asiatic countries have a literature, but it is often not indigenous and consists of foreign works, chiefly religious, read either in translations or the original.
Thus with the exception of a little folklore the literature of Indo-China, Tibet, Mongolia, Korea and Manchuria is mainly Indian or Chinese.
The extensive Sanskrit literature, which has reached in translations China, Japan and Java, is chiefly theological and poetical, history being conspicuously absent.
India has also a considerable medieval and modern literature in various languages.
Pali, though only a form of Hindu literature, has a separate history, for it died in India and was preserved in Ceylon, whence it was imported to Burma and Siam as the language of religion.
Persian, after being itself transformed by Arabic, has in its turn largely influenced all west Asiatic Moslem literature from Hindustani to Turkish.
If one excepts the Old Testament, which is a product of the extreme west of Asia, it is remarkable how small has been the influence of Asiatic literature on Europe.
Though Greek and Slavonic almost ceased to be written languages under Turkish rule, Europeans showed no disposition to replace them by Ottoman or Arabic literature.
Mahommedan art is also largely architectural and has affected Literature, art, science.
In both art and literature modern Asia is inferior to the past more conspicuously than Europe.
In spite of the mass of literature which has accumulated on the subject, neither his death in the Temple nor his escape therefrom has been definitely established, though a very strong presumption is established in favour of the latter.
His mother belonged to the brilliant Gregory family (q.v.), which, in the 18th century, gave so many representatives to literature and science in Scotland.
In his later years he dabbled in literature and the drama, and interested himself in arboriculture in his retirement at Henley-on-Thames.
Aberdeen was a distinguished scholar with a retentive memory and a wide knowledge of literature and art.
English readers, who know the story only through the medium of Malory's noble prose and Tennyson's melodious verse, carry away an impression entirely foreign to that produced by a study of the original literature.
He went over every part of the translation with me, observed on every passage in which justice was not done to the thought or the force of the expression lost, and made many useful criticisms. During this occupation we had occasion to see one another often, and became very intimate; and, as he had read much, had seen a great deal of the world, was acquainted with all the most distinguished persons who at that time adorned either the royal court or the republic of letters in France; had a great knowledge of French and Italian literature, and possessed very good taste, his conversation was extremely interesting and not a little instructive.
Though they have produced some poetry, the Mahrattas have never done much for literature.
Like Jean Hardouin he got to believe that a great deal of what is called classical literature was compiled by anonymous authors at a much later date, and he used frequently to startle his colleagues, the Gustavian academicians, by his audacious paradoxes.
The literature of agriculture, in abeyance since the treatise of Walter of Henley, makes another beginning in the 16th century.
American literature began as far back as 1788, when a report on the Hessian fly was issued by Sir Joseph Banks; in 1817 Say began his writings; while in 1856 Asa Fitch started his report on the " Noxious Insects of New York."
Since that date the literature has largely increased.
The span of life is limited; the work requires an extensive knowledge of the economic literature of several countries and the general features of all the important departments of modern economic activity.
For such a general theory there is ample material in the economic literature of all civilized countries.
Other books dealing with special subjects are likely to take a very high place in economic literature.
Mahmud ibn Sabuktagin, the second of the dynasty (998-1030), continued to make himself still more independent of the caliphate than his predecessors, and, though a warrior and a fanatical Moslem, extended a generous patronage to Persian literature and learning, and even developed it at the expense of the Arabic institutions.
The folly of the monarchs of the Holy Alliance in Europe gained for the writings of Montholon and Las Cases (that of Gourgaud was not published till 1899) a ready reception, with the result that Napoleon reappeared in the literature of the ensuing decades wielding an influence scarcely less potent than that of the grey-coated figure into whose arms France flung herself on his return from Elba.
In Greek literature his master was Emmanuel Chrysoloras.
Frisch began the long series of works on the birds of Germany with which the literature of ornithology is enriched, by his Vorstellung der Vogel Teutschlands, which was only completed in 1763, and, its coloured plates proving very attractive, was again issued at Berlin in 1817.
In addition to an enormous body of new information chiefly on the shoulder girdle, the alar muscles and the nerve plexuses of birds, this work contained a critical and descriptive summary of practically the whole pre-existing literature on the structure of birds, and it is hardly necessary for the student of ornithology to refer to earlier literature at first hand.
His taste for literature was early seen, and his father Pierre (1496-1556) cultivated it to the utmost.
In classical literature he was the first who made the world acquainted with the Fables of Phaedrus (1596); he also edited the Pervigilium Veneris (1587), and Juvenal and Persius (1585).
Welcker returned to Giessen in 1808, and resuming his schoolteaching and university lectures was in the following year appointed the first professor of Greek literature and archaeology at that or any German university.
Two Boston periodicals (one no longer so) that still hold an exceptional position in periodical literature, the North American Review (1815) and the Atlantic Monthly (1857), date from this period.
The great English writers of Queen Anne's reign seem to have been but little known in the colony, and the local literature, though changed somewhat in character, showed but scant improvement.
It is not till much later that Palmyra first appears in Western literature.
Certainly it is due to this very much more than we commonly think, and the more it is due to this the more do moral therapeutics rise in possibility and importance " (Literature and Dogma, pp. 143-144).
In Irish literature, however, the Druids are frequently mentioned, and their functions in the island seem to correspond fairly well to those of their Gaulish brethren described by classical writers.
The following is the position of the Druid in the pagan literature.
In the religious literature they are almost exclusively represented as magicians and diviners opposing the Christian missionaries, though we find two of them acting as tutors to the daughters of Laegaire, the high-king, at the coming of St Patrick.
An excellent article in Herzog-Hauck, Realencyklopcidie (3rd ed.), "Briider des gemeinsamen Lebens," supplies copious information with references to all the literature; see also Max Heimbucher, Orden and Kongregationen (1897), ii.
In 1893 he published a history of early Christian literature down to Eusebius, Geschichte der altchristl.
But the new field of poetic literature afforded by the Crusades is still more striking than this development of science.
The Catholic mission has done very good work in what relates to schools, institutes and the diffusion of literature.
The Cid of romance, the Cid of a thousand battles, legends and dramas, the Cid as apotheosized in literature, the Cid invoked by good Spaniards in every national crisis, whose name is a perpetual and ever-present inspiration to Spanish patriotism, is a very different character from the historical Rodrigo Diaz - the freebooter, the rebel, the consorter with the infidels and the enemies of Spain.
In the popular literature of Spain he holds a place such as has no parallel in other countries.
Huber, Muller, and Ferdinand Wolf are among the leading authorities in the history and literature of the Cid.
He was the author of several contributions to the literature of horticulture, including a Practical Treatise on the Culture of the Dahlia (1838), and a Pocket Botanical Dictionary (1st ed., 1840).
Iphigeneia is a favourite subject in Greek literature.
It has fallen to the lot of no other patron of literature to have his name associated with works of such lasting interest as the Georgics of Virgil, the first three books of Horace's Odes, and the first book of his Epistles.
The few fragments that remain show that he was less successful as an author than as a judge and patron of literature.
Such is Koheleth's view of life, and it is obvious that such a conception of an aimless cosmos is thoroughly non-Jewish, if we may judge Jewish thought by the great body of the extant literature.
By about the beginning of our era the Jews had given up Hebrew and wrote in Aramaic; the process of expulsion had been going on, doubtless, for some time; but comparison with the later extant literature (Chronicles, the Hebrew Ecclesiasticus or Ben-Sira, Esther) makes it improbable that such Hebrew as that of Koheleth would have been written earlier than the 2nd century B.C. (for details see Driver's Introduction).
The conception of the world and of human life as controlled by natural law, a naturalistic cosmos, is alien not only to the prophetic and liturgical Hebrew literature but also to Hebrew thought in general.
Malay Language And Literature The Malay language is a member of the Malayan section of the Malayo-Polynesian class of languages, but it is by no means a representative type of the section which has taken its name from it.
The Malays cannot, strictly speaking, be said to possess a literature, for none of their writings can boast any literary beauty or value.
Their most characteristic literature is to be found, not in their writings, but in the folk-tales which are trans mitted orally from generation to generation, and repeated by the wandering minstrels called by the people Peng-lipor Lara, i.
They also contributed to sacred literature themselves in the composition of new psalms. Attendance to the ordinary needs of nature was entirely relegated to the hours of darkness.
After being twice imprisoned during the Terror he retired to Brittany, where he devoted himself to literature till 1814.
Thus, in the treatise known as Physica et Mystica and falsely ascribed to Democritus (such false attributions are a constant feature of the literature of alchemy), various receipts are given for colouring and gilding metals, but the conception of transmutation does not occur.
But the Arabs did not acquire their knowledge of this literature at first hand.
Drew continued to work at his trade till 1805, when he entered into an engagement with Dr Thomas Coke, a prominent Wesleyan official, which enabled him to devote himself entirely to literature.
We have above all his Letters (Epistolae), difficult to date, but extremely important from the standpoint of history, dogma, or literature; see Dummler's edition in the Monumenta Germaniae historica, 1892.
Taking up his residence in New York, he was in 1832-1839 president of the National Bank (afterwards the Gallatin Bank) of New York, but his duties were light, and he devoted himself chiefly to the congenial pursuits of science and literature.
In the next place comes the evidence derived from the whole range of ancient literature and specially from descriptions of the city or its different localities.
The literature of succeeding centuries furnishes only isolated references; the more important are found in the scholia on Aristophanes, the lexicons of Hesychius, Photius and others, and the Etymologicum Magnum.
Leake (Topography of Athens and the Demi, 2nd ed., 1841) brought the descriptive literature to an end and inaugurated the period of modern scientific research, in which German archaeologists have played a distinguished part.
The attention of many students has naturally been concentrated on the ancient city, the birthplace of European art and literature, and a great development of investigation and discussion in the special domain of Athenian archaeology has given birth to a voluminous literature.
After this catastrophe the benefactors of Athens were for the most part Romans; the influence of Greek literature and art had begun to affect the conquering race.
Her achievements in literature are hardly less great.
Athenian art and literature in the 4th century declined but slightly from their former standard; philosophy and oratory reached a standard which was never again equalled in antiquity and may still serve as a model.
He came to the throne after the ten years of confusion which followed the death of Archelaus, the patron of art and literature, and showed the same taste for Greek culture and its representatives.
The literature connected with the Spiritual Exercises is also large.
His publications include Philosophy of Kant (1878); Critical Philosophy of Kant (1889); Religion and Social Philosophy of Comte (1885); Essays on Literature and Philosophy (1892); Evolution of Religion (Gifford Lectures, 1891-1892); Evolution of Theology in the Greek Philosophers (1904); and he is represented in this encyclopaedia by the article on Cartesianism.
Prominent among its buildings are the federal building, the auditorium, the public library and the Masonic library, which contains one of the best collections of Masonic literature in the world.
Besides many contributions to periodical literature he wrote,.
Chemical literature was full of the phlogistic modes of expression - oxygen was '" phlogisticated air," nitrogen " dephlogisticated air," &c. - and this tended to retard its promotion.
The growth of chemical literature since the publication of Lavoisier's famous Traite de chimie in 1789, and of Berzelius' Lehrbuch der Chemie in 1808-1818, has been enormous.
The great number and striking character of the compounds of this group of metals have formed the subject of many investigations, and already there is a most voluminous literature.
The literature of this subject is very large.
Again, he began with far greater facility in literature than in music, if only because a play can be copied ten times faster than a full score.
To handle these so successfully that we can discriminate defects from qualities at all, is proof of the technique of a master, even though the faults extend to whole categories of literature.
It is no exaggeration to say that a parallel condition in literature would be produced by a strong public opinion to the effect that any Enelish style was hopelessly out of date unless it consisted exclusively of the most difficult types of phrase to be found in the works of Browning and Meredith.
Setting aside London and Edinburgh, no locality in the British Isles is so intimately associated with the history of English literature as the Lake District.
German literature tells of several literary schools, or groups of writers animated by the same ideas, and working in the spirit of the same principles and by the same poetic methods.
The most notable instance - indeed it is almost the only instance - of the kind in English literature is the Lake School of Poets.
He combined a roving disposition with a natural taste for mechanics and for literature.
Equally certain is a second observation of a general character that the epic originating as the greater portion of the literature in Assur-bani-pal's collection in Babylonia is a composite product, that is to say, it consists of a number of independent stories or myths originating at different times, and united to form a continuous narrative with Gilgamesh as the central figure.
Martyrology was the most popular literature in the early Church.
She figured much in 16th-century literature, notably in the Mirrour for Magistrates, and in Thomas Heywood's Edward IV .
One may notice that the first Ptolemy himself made a contribution of some value to historical literature in his account of Alexander's campaigns; the fourth Ptolemy not only instituted a cult of Homer but himself published tragedies; and even Ptolemy Euergetes II.
He was an indefatigable writer, and the first germ of his future socialism is contained in a letter of the 21st of March 1787, one of a series - mainly on literature - addressed to the secretary of the Academy of Arras.
Charles the Bold maintained the traditions of his house as a patron of literature, and showed special favour to Chastellain, who, after being constituted indiciaire or chronicler of the order of the Golden Fleece, was himself made a knight of the order on the 2nd of May 1473.
This idea that the Messianic kingdom of the future on earth should have a definite duration has - like the whole eschatology of the primitive Church - its roots in the Jewish apocalyptic literature, where it appears at a comparatively late period.
In the Semitic churches of the East (the Syrian, Arabian and Ethiopian), and in that of Armenia, the apocalyptic literature was preserved much longer than in the Greek Church.
She died at Jerusalem about 460, after devoting her last years to literature.
Now, however, a more logical and scholarly aspect was given to their literature by the writings of Barclay, especially his Apology for the True Christian Divinity published in Latin (1676) and in English (1678), and by the works of Penn, amongst which No Cross No Crown and the Maxims or Fruits of Solitude are the best known.
It has abandoned its peculiarities of dress and language, as well as its hostility to music and art, and it has cultivated a wider taste in literature.
In 1806 he became a medical practitioner in partnership with James Gregory, but, though successful in his profession, preferred literature and philosophy.
Turning his attention from law to divinity, Hare took priest's orders in 1826; and, on the death of his uncle in 1832, he succeeded to the rich family living of Hurstmonceaux in Sussex, where he accumulated a library of some 12,000 volumes, especially rich in German literature.
A man of literary taste and culture, familiar with the classics, a facile writer of Latin verses' as well as of Ciceronian prose, he was as anxious that the Roman clergy should unite human science and literature with their theological studies as that the laity should be educated in the principles of religion; and to this end he established in Rome a kind of voluntary school board, with members both lay and clerical; and the rivalry of the schools thus founded ultimately obliged the state to include religious teaching in its curriculum.
He always showed the greatest interest in science and in literature, and he would have taken a position as a statesman of the first rank had he held office in any secular government.
They appeared also in literature, e.g.
She was well versed in mathematics, which she studied at the university of Moscow, and in general literature her favourite authors were Bayle, Montesquieu, Boileau, Voltaire and Helvetius.
Here the young Marsilio received his elementary education in grammar and Latin literature at the high school or studio pubblico.
Not only literature, but the physical sciences, as then taught, had a charm for him; and he is said to have made considerable progress in medicine under the tuition of his father.
The Joachimite literature is extremely vast.
It may be presumed, however, that from the very first it was employed as the vehicle for Roman literature.
Even after the introduction of vellum as the ordinary vehicle for literature papyrus still continued to some extent in use outside Egypt, and was not entirely superseded until a late date.
The study of the whole subject being wrapped up with Gnosticism and Oriental theosophy, the related literature is immense.
Though the early Hebrews (of the time before the 5th century B.C.) must have reflected on life, there is no trace of such reflection, of a systematic sort, in their extant literature.
There was nothing in their general position to make them in- 'hospitable to ethical conceptions of the future life, as is shown by the fact that so soon as the Egyptian-Greek idea of immortality made itself felt in Jewish circles it was adopted by the author of the Wisdom of Solomon; but prior to the 1st century B.C. it does not appear in the Wisdom literature, and the nationalistic dogma of resurrection is not mentioned in it at all.
Yet, with this adoption of the Greek point of view, the tone and spirit of this literature remain Hebrew.
The literature of Travel is rich.
Consult the literature of history and colonial reform given below.
A complete classification of mathematical sciences, as they at present exist, is to be found in the International Catalogue of Scientific Literature promoted by the Royal Society.
The school did not produce an extensive literature, but it played an important part in resisting an exaggerated Augustinianism by reasserting the freedom of the will and the continued existence of the divine image in human nature after the fall.
A full account of this language, and its literature, is given under Servia and Croatia-Slavonia.
Amid the cares of state he found time for works of public utility and for the support of literature and art; he is credited with having sent the first embassy to a Christian power, after the Venetian expedition to Gallipoli in 1416, and the Ottoman navy is first heard of in his reign.
In all literary matters the Ottoman Turks have shown themselves a singularly uninventive people, the two great schools, the old and the new, into which we may divide their literature, being closely modelled, the one after the classics of Persia, the other after those of modern Europe, and more especially of France.
Why Persian rather than Arabian or any other literature became the model of Ottoman writers is explained by the early history of the race (see Turks).
Ottoman literature may be said to open with a few mystic lines, the work of Sultan Veled, son of Maulana Jelal-ud-Din, the author of the great Persian poem the Mathnawi.
The writers mentioned above are the most important previous to the capture of Constantinople; but there is little literature of real merit prior to that event.
The poems of this statesman, though possessing little merit of their own, being for the most part translations from Nevayi, form one of the landmarks in the history of Ottoman literature.
This prolific author copied, and so imported into Ottoman literature, a didactic style of ghazel-writing which was then being introduced in Persia by the poet Sa'ib; but so closely did the pupil follow in the footsteps of his master that it is not always easy to know that his lines are intended to be Turkish.
More intimate relations with western Europe and a pretty general study of the French language and literature, together with the steady progress of the reforming tendency fairly started under Mahmud II., resulted in the birth of the new or modern school, whose objects are truth and simplicity.
He wrote with conspicuous success in almost every branch of literature - history, romance, ethics, poetry and the drama; and his influence on the Young Turk party of later days was profound.
In literature, art and science, it divided the supremacy of the world with Cordova; in commerce and wealth it far surpassed that city.
If it was due to Livius that the forms of Latin literature were, from the first, moulded on those of Greek literature, it was due to Naevius that much of its spirit and substance was of native growth.
An important influence in Roman literature and belief, which had its origin in Sicily, first appeared in this poem - the recognition of the mythical connexion of Aeneas and his Trojans with the foundation of Rome.
He was one of those who made the Latin language into a great organ of literature.
In 5802 she published the first of her really noteworthy books, the novel of Delphine, in which the "femme incomprise" was in a manner introduced to French literature, and in which she herself and not a few of her intimates appeared in transparent disguise.
Mme de Stael occupies a singular position in French literature.
But Corinne is still a very remarkable exposition of a certain kind of aestheticism, while De l'Allemagne is still perhaps the most remarkable account of one country, by a native and inhabitant of another, which exists in literature.
He spent his life and devoted himself in Basra chiefly to the study of polite literature.
As to the general literature on Greenland, a number of the more important modern works have been noticed in footnotes.
The peach has not, it is true, been found wild in China, but it has been cultivated there from time immemorial; it has entered into the literature and folk-lore of the people; and it is designated by a distinct name, "to" or "tao," a word found in the writings of Confucius five centuries before Christ, and even in other writings dating from the 10th century before the Christian era.
It may, however, well be that both peach and almond are derived from some pre-existing and now extinct form whose descendants have spread over the whole geographic area mentioned; but this is a mere speculation, though indirect evidence in its support might be obtained from the nectarine, of which no mention is made in ancient literature, and which, as we have seen, originates from the peach and reproduces itself by seed, thus offering the characteristics of a species in the act of developing itself.
The charm of the personal character of Stevenson and the romantic vicissitudes of his life are so predominant in the minds of all who knew him, or lived within earshot of his legend, that they made the ultimate position which he will take in the history of English literature somewhat difficult to decide.
He had mastered his manner and, as one may say, learned his trade, in the exercise of criticism and the reflective parts of literature, before he surrendered himself to that powerful creative impulse which had long been tempting him, so that when, in mature life, he essayed the portraiture of invented character he came to it unhampered by any imperfection of language.
But many hold that his letters and essays are finer contributions to pure literature, and that on these exquisite mixtures of wisdom, pathos, melody and humour his fame is likely to be ultimately based.
It has attracted the attention of many workers, and has formed the subject of a huge literature.
Though contributing few names of the highest rank to German literature, the city has been intimately associated with the literary movement.
But all other interests were early subordinated to his love of literature, to which the greater part of his long life was devoted.
He published his first volume of Poems in 1827, and in 1833 appeared his Poems and Prose Writings, republished in 1850 in two volumes, in which were included practically all of his poems and of his prose contributions to periodical literature.
Although the bulk of his published writings was not large, his influence on American literature during the first half of the 19th century was surpassed by that of few of his contemporaries.
Orthodox in practice and feeling, his critical treatment of the rabbinic literature prepared the way for the scientific investigations of the 19th century.
He expressed himself plainly during the canvass on the questions of slavery and the bank, at the same time voting, perhaps with a touch of bravado, for a bill offered in 1836 to subject abolition literature in the mails to the laws of the several states.
His interest was not, however, confined to theological literature; he annotated the margins of his classical texts with numerous scholia (many of which are preserved), and had several MSS.
Ulm is remarkable in the history of German literature as the spot where the Meistersinger lingered longest, preserving without text and without notes the traditional lore of their craft.
Shirazi (f9o5); but the literature in new translations and imitations has recently multiplied exceedingly.
He also mastered the English language and studied English literature.
Among the earliest examples of pulpit oratory which have been preserved in English literature, the discourses of Wycliffe and his disciples may be passed by, to arrive at the English sermons of John Fisher (1469?-1535), which have a distinct literary value.
But Hugh Latimer (1485?-1555) is the first great English preacher, and the wit and power of his sermons (1549) give them prominence in our literature.
It was the popular movement of the Reformation, which made the sermon a piece of literature, on the lips of Jean Calvin (1509-1564), Pierre Viret (1511-1571) and Theodore de Beze (1519-1605).
These are the great classic preachers whose discourses continue to be read, and to form an inherent pare of the body of French literature.
Since the end of the 18th century, although a great number of volumes of sermons have been and continue to be published, and although the pulpit holds its own in Protestant and Catholic countries alike, for purposes of exhortation and encouragement, it cannot be said that the sermon has in any way extended its influence as a form of pure literature.
The tragic story of Niobe was a favourite subject in literature and art.
Though not a profound and systematic philosophical thinker, Thomasius prepared the way for great reforms in philosophy, and, above all, in law, literature, social life and theology.
He thus created an epoch in German literature, philosophy and law, and Spittler opens with him the modern period of ecclesiastical history.
On the collapse of the insurrection he emigrated, and on his return to Poland devoted himself exclusively to literature and the cultiva tion of his estates.
Literature - modern as well as ancient - occupied his attention; one of his works was a translation of four parts of Clarissa; and translations of some of the then current English paraphrases on biblical books manifested his sympathy with a school which, if not very learned, attracted him by its freer air.
For the literature of Trilobites see ('22*).
A species of Acarus is recorded as infesting a store of powdered strychnine and feeding on that drug, so poisonous to larger organisms. Reference to literature (40).
Zittel, American edition of his Palaeontology (the Macmillan Co., New York), where ample references to the literature of Trilobitae and Eurypteridae will be found; also references to literature of fossil Scorpions and Spiders; 23.
We shall therefore enter at once on a short account of the origin of this literature in Judaism, of its adoption by early Christianity, of the various meanings which the term " apocryphal " assumed in the course of its history, and having so done we shall proceed to classify and deal with the books that belong to this literature.
But such literature was not confined to the members of these communities, but had been current among the Chasids and their successors the Pharisees.'
To this literature belong essentially the apocalypses which were published in fast succession from Daniel onwards.
It is not improbable that with many Jewish enthusiasts this literature was more highly treasured than the canonical scriptures.
Now the current religious literature of Judaism outside the canon was composed of apocryphal books, the bulk of which bore an apocalyptic character, and dealt with the coming of the Messianic kingdom.
While the characteristic features of apocalyptic literature were derived from Judaism, those of Gnosticism sprang partly from Greek philosophy, partly from oriental religions.
We have remarked above that the Jewish apocrypha - especially the apocalyptic section and the host of Christian apocryphsbecame the ordinary religious literature of the early Christians.
The former literature was generally written in Hebrew or Aramaic, and seldom in Greek; the latter naturally in Greek.
Before we discuss these three documents we shall mention other members of this literature, which, though derivable ultimately from Jewish sources, are Christian in their present form.
The book holds the same place in rabbinical literature as the Book of Proverbs in the Bible.
See literature generally in Hennecke, NTliche Apok.
For the literature see Hennecke, Neutestamentliche Apokryphen Handbuch, 395 sqq.
The literature is overwhelming in its extent.
After the imperial university was founded, he was appointed professor of Greek literature (1809) with Boissonade as his assistant.
The Brazilian people have the natural taste for art, music and literature so common among the Latin nations of the Old World.
Brazilian literature has been seriously prejudiced by partisan politics and dilettantism.
In historical literature Brazil has produced one writer of high standing - Francisco Adolpho Varnhagen (Visconde de Porto Seguro), whose Historia Geral do Brazil is a standard authority on that subject.
Of these a brief summary, beginning with the department of general literature and passing on to history and science, is subjoined.
In the 17th century we find Ludovico Sergardi (Quinto Settano), a Latinist and satirical writer of much talent and culture; but the most original and brilliant figure in Sienese literature is that of Girolamo Gigli (1660-1722), author of the Gazzettino, La Sorellina di Don Pilone, Il Vocabolario cateriniano and the Diario ecclesiastico.
As humorist, scholar and philologist, Gigli would take a high place in the literature of any land.
A certain confusion exists in cuneiform literature between Ninib and Nergal, perhaps due to the traces of two different conceptions regarding these two solar deities.
It is also the earliest outstanding work which discloses that habit of Scotticism which took such strong hold of the popular Northern literature during the coming years of conflict with England.
In this respect it is in marked contrast with all the patriotic verse of preceding and contemporary literature.
But now, and until 1728, he created an entirely new class of humorous literature under the pseudonym of Hans Mikkelsen.
Holberg was not only the founder of Danish literature and the greatest of Danish authors, but he was, with the exception of Voltaire, the first writer in Europe during his own generation.
For albeit the other studies assist literature, yet this has the sole privilege of making one lettered.
A critical survey of recent literature on Scholasticism is given by Baeumker in the Archiv far Geschichte der Philosophie, vols.
Mihaly V6rosmartyo, Ferencz KOlcsey, Ferencz Kazinczy and his associates, to mention but a few of many great names, were, consciously or unconsciously, as the representatives of the renascent national literature, accomplishing a political mission, and their pens proved no less efficacious than the swords of their ancestors.
Literature The Catholic ecclesiastics who settled in Hungary during the 1 1th century, and who found their way into the chief offices of the state, were mainly instrumental in establishing Latin as the predominant language of the court, the higher schools and public worship, and of eventually introducing it into the administration.
Having thus become the tongue of the educated and privileged classes, Latin continued to monopolize the chief fields of literature until the revival of the native language at the close of the 18th century.
The period placed by Hungarian authors between 1 437 and 1530 marks the first development of Magyar literature.
In polite literature the heroic poem Zrinyidsz (1651), descriptive of the fall of Sziget, by Nicholas Zrinyi, grandson of the defender of that fortress, marks a new era in Hungarian poetry.
Among the few prose writers of distinction were Andrew Spangar, whose " Hungarian Bookstore," Magyar Konyvtdr (Kassa, 1738), is said to be the earliest work of the kind in the Magyar dialect; George Baranyi, who translated the New Testament (Lauba, 1 754); the historians Michael Cserei and Matthew Bel, which last, however, wrote chiefly in Latin; and Peter Bod, who besides his theological treatises compiled a history of Hungarian literature under the title Magyar Athends (Szeben, 1766).
The first two, marking respectively the progress of the " Regeneration of the Native Literature " (1772-1807) and the " Revival of the Language " (1807-1830), were introductory to and preparatory for the third or " Academy," period, which began about 1830.
For the general history of culture the work of Syriac writers as translators is, perhaps, as important as any of their original contributions to literature.
All our historical sources support the view taken above that Edessa, the capital of the kingdom which the Greeks and Romans called Osrhoene, was the earliest seat of Christianity in Mesopotamia and the cradle of Syriac literature.
This is the Syriac version of a narrative which has had an extraordinary vogue in the world's literature.
The author has incorporated in it the finest poem to be found in all Syriac literature, the famous Hymn of the Soul.
The life and writings of Bardaisan, " the last of the gnostics," and in some sense the father of Syriac literature and especially of Syriac poetry, have been treated in a separate article.
It is almost the only exception to the rule that all surviving Syriac literature is Christian.
One result of this and later persecutions of the same kind has been to enrich Syriac literature with a long series of Acts of Persian Martyrs, which, although in their existing form intermixed with much legendary matter, nevertheless throw valuable light on the history and geography of western Persia under Sasanian rule.
On Isaac of Antioch, "one of the stars of Syriac literature," see the special article.
It will be sufficient to group the more important contributors to each of the chief branches of literature.
Other important contributors to this sphere of literature were Isho' bar Nan (t827/8), John bar Zo`bi (beginning of the 13th century), Jacob bar Shakko (f1241), and the great Nestorian scholar `Abadisho' (f 1318).
Fontenelle forms a link between two very widely different periods of French literature, that of Corneille, Racine and Boileau on the one hand, and that of Voltaire, D'Alembert and Diderot on the other.
In any case the doctor had expected more help from a professed patron of literature, and wrote the earl the famous letter in defence of men of letters.
The word appears in English in the 18th century, and was first applied to the correct representation, in literature and art, of the manners, dress, furniture and general surroundings of the scene represented.
After bringing out these plays Terence sailed from Greek parts, either to escape from the suspicion of publishing the works of others as his own, or from the desire to obtain a more intimate knowledge of that Greek life which had hitherto been known to him only in literature and which it was his professed aim to reproduce in his comedies.
The latter is the more probable motive, and we recognize in this the first instance of that impulse to visit the scenes familiar to them through literature which afterwards acted on many of the great writers of Rome.
No writer in any literature, who has contented himself with so limited a function, has gained so great a reputation as Terence.
The extraordinary result obtained by Terence is that, while he has left no trace in any of his comedies of one sketching from the life by which he was surrounded, there is perhaps no more truthful, natural and delicate delineator of human nature, in its ordinary and more level moods, within the whole range of classical literature.
His permanent position in literature is due, no doubt, to the art and genius of Menander, whose creations he has perpetuated, as a fine engraver may perpetuate the spirit of a great painter whose works have perished.
The importance of his position in Roman literature consists in this, that he was the first writer who set before himself a high ideal of artistic perfection, and was the first to realize that perfection in style, form, and consistency of conception and execution.
While his great gift to Roman literature is that he first made it artistic, that he imparted to "rude Latium" the sense of elegance, consistency and, moderation, his gift to the world is that through him it possesses a living image of the Greek society in the 3rd century B.C., presented in the purest Latin idiom.
We learn from these prologues that the best Roman literature was ceasing to be popular, and had come to rely on the patronage of the great.
His great characteristics are humanity and urbanity, and to this may be attributed the attraction which he had for the two chief representatives of these qualities in Roman literature - Cicero and Horace.
The best judges and the greatest masters of style in the best period of Roman literature were his chief admirers in ancient times.
Horace, so depreciatory in general of the older literature, shows his appreciation of Terence by the frequent reproduction in his Satires and Odes of his language and his philosophy of life.
Sainte-Beuve calls Terence the bond of union between Roman urbanity and the Atticism of the Greeks, and adds that it was in the r 7th century, when French literature was most truly Attic, that he was most appreciated.
For a conspectus of Terentian studies see Teuffel-Schwabe-Warr, History of Roman Literature, and Schanz's Geschichte der romischen Litteratur (3rd ed., 1907).
Further educational facilities are provided by a national library with about 50,000 volumes, a national museum, with a valuable historical collection, the Cajigal Observatory, devoted to astronomical and meteorological work, and the Venezuelan Academy and National Academy of History - the first devoted to the national language and literature, and the second to its history.
In 1828 he became a member of the government commission established for the encouragement of literature.
He won a scholarship at the age of sixteen, and was teaching literature at eighteen.
The special interest of Map lies in the perplexing question of his relation to the Arthurian legend and literature.
For some time afterwards he lived at home, reading romantic and poetical literature, but in 1811 he set out for Italy, where he seems to have sojourned nearly two years.
In the Flyting of Dunbar and Kennedie, an outstanding specimen of a favourite northern form, analogous to the continental estrif, or tenzone, he and his rival reach a height of scurrility which is certainly without parallel in English literature.
If further selection be made from the large body of miscellaneous poems, the comic poem on the physician Andro Kennedy may stand out as one of the best contributions to medieval Goliardic literature; The Two Mariit Wemen and the Wedo, as one of the richest and most effective pastiches in the older alliterative style, then used by the Scottish Chaucerians for burlesque purposes; Done is a battell on the Dragon Blak, for religious feeling expressed in melodious verse; and the well-known Lament for the Makaris.
It is doubtful whether the treatise in which this theory is fully expounded is as old as Hippocrates himself; but it was regarded as a Hippocratic doctrine, and, when taken up and expanded by Galen, its terms not only became the common property of the profession, but passed into general literature and common language.
The whole body of medical literature belonging to the Hippocratic and Alexandrian times is ably summarized, and a knowledge of the state of medical science up to and during the times of the author is thus conveyed to us which can be obtained from no other source.
Like Celsus, he had little influence on succeeding medical literature or practice.
As a writer he was worthy of a better period of medical literature.
These poor compilations, together with Latin translations of certain works of Galen and Hippocrates, formed a medical literature, meagre and unprogressive indeed, but of which a great part survived through the middle ages till the discovery of printing and revival of learning.
The works of the Arabian medical writers who have now been mentioned form a very small fraction of the existing literature.
It is now necessary to consider what was the state of medicine in Europe after the fall of the Western Empire and before the influence of Arabian science and literature began to be felt.
The medical literature of this period is extremely voluminous, but essentially second-hand, consisting mainly of commentaries on Hippocrates, Galen, Avicenna and others, or of compilations and compendia still less original than commentaries.
The impulse which all departments of intellectual activity received from the revival of Greek literature in Europe was felt by medicine among the rest.
It was at first very naturally imagined that the simple revival of classical and especially of Greek literature would at once produce the same brilliant results in medicine as in literature and philosophy.
Nearly all medieval medical literature was condemned under this name; and for it the humanists proposed to substitute the originals of Hippocrates and Galen, thus leading back medicine to its fountain-head.
Besides all this he was probably more profoundly acquainted with the literature and bibliography of medicine than any one before or since.
In his literature it has played a prominent part from the Nibelungenlied to the present day; and its weird and romantic legends have been alternately the awe and the delight of his childhood.
If the Roman aristocracy of his time had lost much of the virtue and of the governing qualities of their ancestors, they showed in the last years before the establishment of monarchy a taste for intellectual culture which might have made Rome as great in literature as in arms and law.
Yet it is not too much to say that there is no work in any literature that produces a profounder impression of sincerity.
The peculiarity of the poem of Lucretius, that which makes it unique in literature, is that it is a reasoned system of philosophy, written in verse.
The first two books enable us better than anything else in ancient literature to appreciate the boldness and, on the whole, the reasonableness of the ancient mind in forming hypotheses on great matters that still occupy the investigations of physical science.
In August 1711, at the age of seventeen, he came home, and the usual battle followed between a son who desired no profession but literature and a father who refused to consider literature a profession at all.
Before the English visit Voltaire had been an elegant trifler, an adept in the forms of literature popular in French society, a sort of superior Dorat or Boufflers of earlier growth.
He then took lodgings with an agent of his, one Demoulin, in an out-of-the-way part of Paris, and was, for some time at least, as much occupied with contracts, speculation and all sorts of means of gaining money as with literature.
He appears to have had no great sense of natural beauty, in which point he resembled his generation (though one remarkable story is told of his being deeply affected by Alpine scenery); and, except in his passion for the stage, he does not seem to have cared much for any of the arts, Conversation and literature were, again as in Johnson's case, the sole gods of his idolatry.