Liquid sentence example

liquid
  • There was a tall glass of clear liquid in her hand.
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  • He sipped the hot liquid and winced.
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  • The liquid was a light amber color and had bubbles in it.
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  • The cool liquid entered her mouth.
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  • She drank the caramel liquid too fast and was soon too dizzy to stand.
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  • She slammed the coffee cup in the sink and the hot liquid splashed against the window.
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  • Of liquid collectors the representative is Lord Kelvin's water-dropping electrograph; while Benndorf's is the form of radium collector that has been most used.
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  • It is a colourless fuming liquid boiling at 90.5° C. With water and with ammonia it undergoes the same reactions as the chloride.
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  • Some consider blue "to be the color of pure water, whether liquid or solid."
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  • He sipped the hot liquid and grimaced.
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  • It is found in the allantoic liquid of the cow, and in the urine of sucking calves.
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  • If this course is inconvenient, some liquid of low freezing-point, such as glycerine, may be mixed with the water.
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  • Lisa stared at the bowl, the liquid frozen half way up her throat.
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  • He sliced his wrist, and her attention turned immediately to thick liquid bubbling against his olive skin.
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  • She poured herself amber liquid and took a long swallow.
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  • Taking a sip of the wine colored liquid, he sat the glass in a coaster on the smooth mahogany desk and dropped the letter beside it.
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  • When a few lumps of sugar are added to a glass of water and stirred, the sugar soon disappears and we are left with a uniform liquid resembling water, except that it is sweet.
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  • Conh 2j is a liquid readily soluble in water,, boiling at about 195° C. with partial decomposition.
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  • His liquid eyes were assessing but not flared, his large frame still imposing.
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  • And without linking up the events of the day or drawing a conclusion from them, Pierre closed his eyes, seeing a vision of the country in summertime mingled with memories of bathing and of the liquid, vibrating globe, and he sank into water so that it closed over his head.
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  • Liebig and Pasteur were in agreement on the point that fermentation is intimately connected with the presence of yeast in the fermenting liquid, but their explanations concerning the mechanism of fermentation were quite opposed.
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  • All remaining impurities, including the excess of oxygen, can then be taken out of the gas by Sir James Dewar's ingenious method of absorption with charcoal cooled in liquid air.
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  • The same type of calorimeter is used in determining the heat of solution of a solid or liquid in water.
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  • If they were permanently congealed, and small enough to be clutched, they would, perchance, be carried off by slaves, like precious stones, to adorn the heads of emperors; but being liquid, and ample, and secured to us and our successors forever, we disregard them, and run after the diamond of Kohinoor.
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  • Cynthia's cheeks were quick to color as she sipped the liquid, making a face with each gulp.
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  • If 127 parts of iodine, which is an almost black solid, and loo parts of mercury, which is a white liquid metal, be intimately mixed by rubbing them together in a mortar, the two substances wholly disappear, and we obtain instead a brilliant red powder quite unlike the iodine or the mercury; almost the only property that is unchanged is the weight.
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  • The liquid is then evaporated under a vacuum of 27 to 28 in.
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  • In 1890, at Plymouth, competitions took place of light portable engines (a) using solid fuel, (b) using liquid or gaseous fuel, grist mills for use on a farm, disintegrators, and cider-making plant for use on a farm.
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  • In 1899, at Maidstone, special prizes were offered for machines for washing hops with liquid insecticides, cream separators (power and hand), machines for the evaporation of fruit and vegetables, and packages for the carriage of (a) soft fruit, (b) hard fruit.
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  • Deidre tipped the vial to tap the last of the liquid out and glanced up at Wynn.
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  • Hansen counted the number of yeast cells suspended in a drop of liquid diluted with sterilized water.
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  • After being well shaken, the liquid was poured into a sterile glass Petrie dish and covered with a moist and sterile bell-jar.
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  • The solid melts to a pale yellow liquid which on continued heating gradually darkens and becomes more viscous, the maximum viscosity occurring at 180°, the product being dark red in colour.
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  • Walden (ibid.) has shown that certain salts dissolve in liquid sulphur dioxide forming additive compounds, two of which have been prepared in the case of potassium iodide: a yellow crystalline solid of composition, KI 14 S0 2, and a red solid of composition, KI 4S0 2.
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  • It is a colourless, highly refracting liquid, boiling at 78°; it fumes on exposure to moist air.
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  • Fluorsulphonic acid, SO 2 F OH, is a mobile liquid obtained by the action of an excess of hydrofluoric acid on well-cooled sulphur trioxide.
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  • It is a colourless fuming liquid which boils at 152-153° C. When heated under pressure it decomposes, forming sulphuric acid, sulphuryl chloride, &c. (Ruff, Ber., 1901, 34, p. 35 0 9).
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  • It is a colourless, oily, fuming liquid which is decomposed by water into sulphuric and hydrochloric acids.
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  • Sulphur sesquioxide, S203, is formed by adding well-dried flowers of sulphur to melted sulphur trioxide at about 12-15° C. The sulphur dissolves in the form of blue drops which sink in the liquid and finally solidify in blue-green crystalline crusts.
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  • Persulphuric anhydride, S207, is a thick viscous liquid obtained by the action of the silent discharge upon a mixture of sulphur trioxide and oxygen.
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  • Buchu leaves contain a volatile oil, which is of a dark yellow colour, and deposits a form of camphor on exposure to air, a liquid hydro-carbon being the solvent of the camphor within the oil-glands.
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  • It is of course in such a case necessary to know the specific heat of the liquid in the calorimeter.
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  • The total quantity of liquid employed need not in general exceed half a litre if a sufficiently delicate thermometer is available.
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  • Now we know the heats of formation of carbon dioxide (from diamond) and of liquid water to be 94300 cal.
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  • For example, ethylene, C2H4 j is formed with absorption of 16200 cal., acetylene, C 2 H 2, with absorption of 59100 cal., and liquid benzene, C 6 H 6, with absorption of 9100 cal.
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  • The liquid is filterpressed, and any excess of iron in the filtrate is precipitated by the careful addition of caustic soda and then removed.
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  • As in all such introand e-versible organs, eversion of the Gastropod proboscis is effected by pressure communicated by the muscular body-wall to the liquid contents (blood) of the body-space, accompanied by the relaxation of the muscles which directly pull upon either the sides or the apex of the tubular organ.
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  • The first is flaccid and sluggish in its movements, and has not much power of contraction; its epipodial lobes are enormously developed and extend far forward along the body; it gives out when handled an abundance of purple liquid, which is derived from cutaneous glands situated on the under side of the free edge of the mantle.
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  • On warming citric acid with an excess of lime-water a precipitate of calcium citrate is obtained which is redissolved as the liquid cools.
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  • A Russian traveller, Peter Kalm, in his work on America, published in 1748, showed on a map the oil springs of Pennsylvania, and about the same time Raicevich referred to the " liquid bitumen " of Rumania.
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  • Thus, while the mineral may be formed in a stratum other than that in which it is found, though in many cases it is indigenous to it, for the formation of a natural reservoir of the fluid (whether liquid or gas) it is necessary that there should be a suitable porous rock to contain it.
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  • Peckham, but others have held that it is of exclusively animal origin, a view supported by such occurrences as those in the orthoceratities of the Trenton limestone, and by the experiments of C. Engler, who obtained a liquid like crude petroleum by the distillation of menhaden (fish) oil.
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  • In an experiment on 3500 grams of paraffin produced from shale (melting point 44'5° C.) they obtained nearly 4 litres of liquid hydrocarbons, which they subjected to fractional distillation, and on examining the fraction distilling below loo° C., they found it to consist mainly of olefines.
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  • In the American petroleum refineries it is found that sufficient cracking can be produced by slow distillation in stills of which the upper part is sufficiently cool to allow of the condensation of the vapours of the less volatile hydrocarbons, the condensed liquid thus falling back into the heated body of oil.
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  • At the inception of the industry kerosene came into the market as a dark yellow or reddish-coloured liquid, and in the first instance, the removal of colour was attempted by treatment with soda lye and lime solution.
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  • The vessel is filled by placing the capillary in a vessel containing the liquid and 6 gently aspirating.
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  • They found that the paraffin was thus converted, with the evolution of but little gas, into hydrocarbons which were liquid at ordinary temperatures.
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  • The use of petroleum as liquid fuel is dealt with under Fuel, as is the employment of its products in motors, which has greatly increased the demand for petroleum spirit.
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  • In France, the standard is 35° C. (Granier tester, equivalent to 98° F.), and according to their flashpoint, liquid hydrocarbons are divided into two classes (below and above 35° C.), considered differently in regard to quantities storable and other regulations.
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  • It consists of a glass bulb, in which there is a loop of fine wire, and to the bulb is attached a U-tube in which there is some liquid.
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  • When a current is passed through the wire, continuous or alternating, it creates heat, which expands the air in the bulb and forces the liquid up one side of the U-tube to a certain position in which the rate of loss of heat by the air is equal to the rate at which it is gaining heat.
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  • The only possible consonantal nexus in purely Malay words is that of a nasal and mute, a liquid and mute and vice versa, and a liquid and nasal.
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  • In the manufacture of stearin for candles, &c., the fatty matter is decomposed, and the liquid olein, separated from the solid fatty acids, is employed as an ingredient in soapmaking.
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  • Thus the operator had to remove from ordinary mercury, earth or an earthy principle or quality, and water or a liquid principle, and to fix it by taking away air or a volatile principle.
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  • The crude product is very impure and possesses an offensive smell; it may be purified by forcing a fine spray of lime water through the liquid until the escaping water is quite clear, the washed bisulphide being then mixed with a little colourless oil and distilled at a low temperature.
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  • Compounds were denoted by joining the symbols of the components, and by varying the manner of joining compounds of the same elements were distinguished The symbol V was used to denote a liquid, and a vertical line to denote a gas.
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  • As an example of the complexity of this system we may note the five oxides of nitrogen, which were symbolized as the first three representing the gaseous oxides, and the last two the liquid oxides.
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  • The elements are usually divided into two classes, the metallic and the non-metallic elements; the following are classed as non-metals, and the remainder as metals: Of these hydrogen, chlorine, fluorine, oxygen, nitrogen, argon, neon, krypton, xenon and helium are gases, bromine is a liquid, and the remainder are solids.
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  • All the metals are solids at ordinary temperatures with the exception of mercury, which is liquid.
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  • In the formation of gaseous hydrobromic acid from liquid bromine and gaseous hydrogen H2+Br2=HBr+HBr, in addition to the energy expended in decomposing the hydrogen and bromine molecules, energy is also expended in converting the liquid bromine into the gaseous condition, and probably less heat is developed by the combination of bromine and hydrogen than by the combination of chlorine and hydrogen, so that the amount of heat finally developed is much less than is developed in the formation of hydrochloric acid.
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  • If, however, the precipitate refuses to settle, it is directly transferred to the filter paper, the last traces being removed by washing and rubbing the sides of the vessel with a piece of rubber, and the liquid is allowed to drain through.
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  • It is washed by ejecting a jet of water, ammonia or other prescribed liquid on to the side of the filter paper until the paper is nearly full.
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  • This subject is treated in the article Solution; for the properties of liquid mixtures reference should also be made to the article Distillation.
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  • Recent researches have shown that the law originally proposed by Kopp - " That the specific volume of a liquid compound (molecular volume) at its boiling-point is equal to the sum of the specific volumes of its constituents (atomic volumes), and that every element has a definite atomic value in its compounds " - is by no means exact, for isomers have different specific volumes, and the volume for an increment of CH 2 in different homologous series is by no means constant; for example, the difference among the esters of the fatty acids is about 57, whereas for the aliphatic aldehydes it is 49.
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  • At the critical point liquid and vapour become identical, and, consequently, as was pointed out by Frankenheim in 1841, the surface tension is zero at the critical temperature.
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  • This tube was placed in an outer tube containing the liquid to be experimented with; the liquid is raised to its boiling-point, and then hermetically sealed.
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  • The whole is enclosed in a jacket connected with a boiler containing a liquid, the vapour of which serves to keep the inner tube at any desired temperature.
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  • The line BC, representing the equilibrium between monoclinic and liquid sulphur, is thermodynamically calculable; the point B is found to correspond to 131° and 400 atmospheres.
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  • From B the curve of equilibrium (BD) between rhombic and liquid sulphur proceeds; and from C (along CE) the curve of equilibrium between liquid sulphur and sulphur vapour.
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  • Of especial interest is the 0 curve BD; along this line liquid and rhombic sulphur are in equilibrium, which means that at above 131° and 400 atmospheres the rhombic (and not the monoclinic) variety would separate from liquid sulphur.
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  • It is a feebly basic, colourless liquid which boils at 130° C., and possesses a smell resembling that of chloroform.
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  • Zinc dust and hydrochloric acid reduce pyrrol to pyrrolin (dihydropyrrol), C 4 H 6 NH, a liquid which boils at 90° C. (748 mm.); it is soluble in water and has strongly basic properties and an alkaline reaction.
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  • Methyl Salicylate, C,H 4 (OH) CO 2 CH 31 found in oil of wintergreen, in the oil of Viola tricolor and in the root of varieties of Polygala, is a pleasant-smelling liquid which boils at 222° C. On passing dry ammonia into the boiling ester, it gives salicylamide and dimethylamine.
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  • It is a pleasantsmelling liquid which boils at 233° C. It is practically unchanged when boiled with aniline.
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  • Normal butyl alcohol, CH 3 (CH 2) 2 CH 2 OH, is a colourless liquid, boiling at 116.8°, and formed by reducing normal butyl aldehyde with sodium, or by a peculiar fermentation of glycerin, brought about by a schizomycete.
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  • It is a liquid, smelling like fusel oil and boiling at 108.4° C. Methyl ethyl carbinol, CH 3 C 2 H 5 CHOH, is the secondary alcohol derived from nbutane.
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  • It is a strongly smelling liquid, boiling at 99°.
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  • Saturated steam is steam in contact with liquid water at a temperature which is the boiling point of the water and condensing point of the steam; superheated steam is steam out of contact with water heated above this temperature.
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  • To preserve from insects, the plants, after mounting, are often brushed over with a liquid formed by the solution of lb.
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  • It may be liquefied, its critical temperature being -93, 5°, and the liquid boils at -153.6° C. It is not a supporter of combustion, unless the sustance introduced is at a sufficiently high temperature to decompose the gas, when combustion will continue at the expense of the liberated oxygen.
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  • He then tried the direct combination of nitric oxide with liquid nitrogen peroxide.
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  • A dark blue liquid is produced, and the first portions of gas boiling off from the mixture correspond fairly closely in composition with nitrogen trioxide.
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  • The liquid prepared by Baker is green in colour, and has a specific gravity III at ordinary temperature, but below -2° C. becomes of a deep indigo blue colour.
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  • It forms a mass of deep blue crystals at the temperature of liquid air.
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  • As the temperature increases the liquid becomes yellowish, the colour deepening with rise of temperature until at +15° C. it has a deep orange tint.
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  • It crystallizes in large prisms which melt at 29-30° C. to a yellowish liquid, which boils at 45-50° C. with rapid decomposition.
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  • The liquid boils at -5° C. and the solid melts at -65° C. It forms double compounds with many metallic chlorides, and finds considerable application as a means of separating various members of the terpene group of compounds.
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  • Geisel (Ber., 1904, 37, p. 1 573; 1905, 38, p. 2659), who also obtained it by dissolving sulphur in liquid ammonia.
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  • An effect of the greater tide-generating force will also be instability of the liquid magmas underlying volcanic areas, leading to violent eruptions and earthquakes.
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  • He also found that the liquid round the anode became acid, and that round the cathode alkaline.
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  • Thus, as long as every ion of the solution is present in the layer of liquid next the electrode, the one which responds to the least electromotive force will alone be set free.
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  • The obvious phenomena to be explained by any theory of electrolysis are the liberation of the products of chemical decomposition at the two electrodes while the intervening liquid is unaltered.
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  • Interchanges must be supposed to go on whether a current passes or not, the function of the electric forces in electrolysis being merely to determine in what direction the parts of the molecules shall work their way through the liquid and to effect actual separation of these parts (or their secondary products) at the electrodes.
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  • Hence there can be no reverse forces of polarization inside the liquid itself, such forces being confined to the surface of the electrodes.
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  • The opposite parts of an electrolyte, which work their way through the liquid under the action of the electric forces, were named by Faraday the ions - the travellers.
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  • But if one ion, say the anion, travels faster through the liquid than the other, the end of the solution from which it comes will be more exhausted of salt than the end towards which it goes.
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  • If either ion carried with it some of the unaltered salt or some of the solvent, concentration or dilution of the liquid would be produced where the ion was liberated.
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  • In some cases porous diaphragms have been employed; but such diaphragms introduce a new complication, for the liquid as a whole is pushed through them by the action of the current, the phenomenon being known as electric endosmose.
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  • In 1887 Svante Arrhenius, professor of physics at Stockholm, put forward a new theory which supposed that the freedom of the opposite ions from each other was not a mere momentary freedom at the instants of molecular collision, but a more or less permanent freedom, the ions moving independently of each other through the liquid.
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  • Kohlrausch formulated a theory of electrolytic conduction based on the idea that, under the action of the electric forces, the oppositely charged ions moved in opposite directions through the liquid, carrying their charges with them.
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  • On the view of the process of conduction described above, the amount of electricity conveyed per second is measured by the product of the number of ions, known from the concentration of the solution, the charge carried by each of them, and the velocity with which, on the average, they move through the liquid.
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  • Hence the absolute velocities of the two ions can be determined, and we can calculate the actual speed with which a certain ion moves through a given liquid under the action of a given potential gradient or electromotive force.
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  • The verification of Kohlrausch's theory of ionic velocity verifies also the view of electrolysis which regards the electric current as due to streams of ions moving in opposite directions through the liquid and carrying their opposite electric charges with them.
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  • In neutral, and still more in acid solutions, the dissociation of the indicator is practically nothing, and the liquid is colourless.
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  • The influence of temperature on the conductivity of solutions depends on (I) the ionization, and (2) the frictional resistance of the liquid to the passage of the ions, the reciprocal of which is called the ionic fluidity.
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  • We can calculate the heat of formation from its ions for any substance dissolved in a given liquid, from a knowledge of the temperature coefficient of ionization, by means of an application of the well-known thermodynamical process, which also gives the latent heat of evaporation of a liquid when the temperature coefficient of its vapour pressure is known.
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  • Thus as long as a moderate current flows, the only variation in the cell is the appearance of zinc sulphate in the liquid on the copper side of the porous wall.
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  • But when zinc dissolves, the zinc ions carry their electric charges with them, and the liquid tends to become positively electrified.
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  • Thus silver, at one end of the cell in contact with many silver ions of the silver nitrate solution, at the other end is in contact with a liquid in which the concentration of those ions is very small indeed.
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  • Only when the applied electromotive force exceeds this reverse force of polarization, will a permanent steady current pass through the liquid, and visible chemical decomposition proceed.
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  • Many experiments have been made with a view of separating the two potential-differences which must exist in any cell made of two metals and a liquid, and of determining each one individually.
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  • According to the molecular theory, diffusion is due to the motion of the molecules of the dissolved substance through the liquid.
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  • But the ions of an electrolytic solution can move independently through the liquid, even when no current flows, as the consequences of Ohm's law indicate.
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  • In contact with a solvent a metal is supposed to possess a definite solution pressure, analogous to the vapour pressure of a liquid.
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  • This character is the base of the plan of adding glucose to wine and beer wort before fermenting, the alcohol content of the liquid after fermentation being increased.
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  • The liquid is now run into neutralizing tanks containing sodium carbonate, and, after settling, the supernatant liquid, termed "light liquor," is run through bag filters and then on to bone-char filters, which have been previously used for the "heavy liquor."
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  • This is filtered through fresh bone-char filters, from which it is discharged as a practically colourless liquid.
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  • This liquid is concentrated in vacuum pans to a specific gravity of 40° to 44° B., a small quantity of sodium bisulphite solution being added to bleach it, to prevent fermentation, and to inhibit browning.
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  • The globules in the latex are liquid, and the phenomenon of coagulation would seem to consist in the passage of this liquid into solid caoutchouc through the kind of change known as polymerization or condensation, in which a liquid passes into solid without alteration of composition or by condensation with the elimination of the elements of water.
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  • It is then coagulated by the addition of an acid liquid, acetic acid or lime juice being generally employed, and the mixture allowed to stand.
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  • The coagulum is next flattened out by a wooden or iron roller to get rid of the cavities containing watery liquid, and the sheets are then hung up for fourteen days to dry, when they weigh about 2 lb, the sheets being usually z to a in.
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  • The Funtumia latex can also be coagulated by the astringent infusion of Bauhinia leaves or by exposing it in shallow dishes, when the liquid " creams."
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  • The globules in the latex, however, consist more probably of a distinct liquid substance which readily changes into the solid caoutchouc. The coagulation of the latex often originates with the " curding " of the proteids present, and this alteration in the proteid leads to the solidification of the globules into caoutchouc. The latter, however, is probably a distinct effect.
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  • Under certain conditions, as when latex is allowed to stand or is centrifugalized, a cream is obtained consisting of the liquid globules, which may be washed free from proteid without change, but, either by mechanical agitation or by the addition of acid or other chemical agent, the liquid gradually solidifies to a mass of solid caoutchouc. The phenomenon therefore resembles the change known to the chemist as polymerization, by which through molecular aggregation a liquid may pass into a solid without change in its empirical composition.
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  • So far the chemical nature of the liquid globules of the latex is unknown, and the exact character of the change into solid caoutchouc remains to be determined.
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  • The watery liquid known as rubber milk or latex is an emulsion consisting chiefly of a weak watery solution of proteids, carbohydrates and salts holding the liquid globules in suspension.
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  • When solid caoutchouc is strongly heated it breaks down, without change in its ultimate composition, into a number of simpler liquid hydrocarbons of the terpene class (dipentene, di-isoprene, isoprene, &c.), of which one, isoprene (C5H8), is of simpler structure than oil of turpentine (C 10 H 16), from which it can also be obtained by the action of an intense heat.
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  • When this volatile liquid hydrocarbon (isoprene) is allowed ro stand for some time in a closed bottle, it gradually passes into a substance having the principal properties of natural caoutchouc. The same change of isoprene into caoutchouc may also be effected by the action of certain chemical agents.
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  • At present the change of isoprene into caoutchouc is mainly of scientific interest in indicating possibilities with regard to the conversion of the liquid globules of the latex into rubber and to the formation of rubber by plants.
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  • At about 150 0 -200° C. caoutchouc melts, forming a viscous liquid which does not solidify on cooling.
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  • This viscous liquid is present in small proportion in some commercial rubbers owing to overheating during their preparation.
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  • Vulcanization takes place in this instance without the action of heat; but it is usual to subject the goods for a short time to a temperature of 40° C. after their removal from the solution, in order to drive off the liquid which has been absorbed, and to ensure a sufficient action of the chloride of sulphur.
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  • The action depends upon the difference of the pressure on the liquid at the extremities of the tube, the flow being towards the lower level and ceasing when the levels coincide.
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  • The tube is made of glass, indiarubber, copper or lead, according to the liquid which is to be transferred.
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  • The simple siphon is used by filling it with the liquid to be decanted, closing the longer limb with the finger and plunging the shorter into the liquid; and it must be filled for each time of using.
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  • The same is done with the kettle one-third filled with liquid lead, and so on until the first kettle contains market lead, the last cupelling lead.
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  • As soon as two-thirds of the lead has separated in the form of crystals, the steam is shut off and the liquid lead drained off through the two spouts into the moulds.
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  • Water when absolutely pure has no action on lead, but in the presence of air the lead is quickly attacked, with formation of the hydrate, Pb(OH) 2, which is appreciably soluble in water forming an alkaline liquid.
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  • The liquid litharge when allowed to cool solidifies into a hard stone-like mass, which, however, when left to itself, soon crumbles up into a heap of resplendent dark yellow scales known as "flake litharge."
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  • If a suspension of lead dichloride in hydrochloric acid be treated with chlorine gas, a solution of lead tetrachloride is obtained; by adding ammonium chloride ammonium plumbichloride, (NH 4) 2 PbC1 6, is precipitated, which on treatment with strong sulphuric acid yields lead tetrachloride, PbC1 4, as a translucent, yellow, highly refractive liquid.
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  • Those substances which are attracted, or rather which tend, like iron, to move from weaker to stronger parts of the magnetic field, are termed paramagnetic; those which are repelled, or tend to move from stronger to weaker parts of the field, are termed diamagnetic. Between the ferromagnetics and the paramagnetics there is an enormous gap. The maximum magnetic susceptibility of iron is half a million times greater than that of liquid oxygen, one of the strongest paramagnetic substances known.
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  • Bismuth, the strongest of the diamagnetics, has a negative susceptibility which is numerically 20 times less than that of liquid oxygen.
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  • Shimizu 3 indicate that Steinmetz's formula holds for nickel and annealed cobalt up to B =3000, for cast cobalt and tungsten steel up to B =8000, and for Swedish iron up to B =18,000, the range being in all cases extended at the temperature of liquid air.
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  • For soft iron, tungsten-steel and nickel little difference appeared to result from lowering the temperature down to - 186° C. (the temperature of liquid air); at sufficiently high temperatures, 600 to 1000° or more, it was remarked that the changes of length in iron, steel and cobalt tended in every case to become proportional to the magnetic force, the curves being nearly straight lines entirely above the axis.
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  • Induction curves of an annealed soft-iron ring were taken first at a temperature of 15° C., and afterwards when the ring was immersed in liquid air, the magnetizing force ranging from about o'8 to 22.
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  • Honda and Shimizu have made similar experiments at the temperature of liquid air, employing a much wider range of magnetizing forces (up to about 700 C.G.S.) and testing a greater variety of metals.
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  • The first immersion into liquid air generally produced a permanent decrease of magnetic moment, and there was sometimes a further decrease when the metal was warmed up again; but after a few alternations of temperature the changes of moment.
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  • It is suggested that a permanent magnet might conveniently be " aged " (or brought into a constant condition) by dipping it several times into liquid air.
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  • They found that the hysteresis-loss, which at ordinary temperatures is very small, was increased in liquid air, the increase for the alloys containing less than 30% of nickel being enormous.
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  • Steinmetz's formula applies only for very weak inductions when the alloys are at the ordinary temperature, but at the temperature of liquid air it becomes applicable through a wide range of inductions.
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  • Guillaume' the temperature at which the magnetic susceptibility of nickel-steel is recovered is lowered by the presence of chromium; a certain alloy containing chromium was not rendered magnetic even by immersion in liquid air.
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  • The critical temperature (if there is one) was not reached in Faraday's experiment; possibly even the temperature of -250 C., which by the use of liquid hydrogen has now become accessible, might still be too high.
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  • At the temperature of liquid air (-185°) the application of a field of 21,800 multiplied the resistance of the bismuth no less than 150 times.
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  • When the two electrodes are ferro-magnetic, the direction of the current through the liquid is from the unmagnetized to the magnetized electrode, the latter being least attacked; with diamagnetic electrodes the reverse is the case.
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  • In the first experiments it was calculated from observations of the mutual induction of two conducting circuits in air and in the liquid; the results for oxygen at-182° C. were I 00287, 228 X IO-6.
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  • In the second series, to which greater importance is attached, measurements were made of the force exerted in a divergent field upon small balls of copper, silver and other substances, first when the balls were in air and afterwards when they were immersed in liquid oxygen.
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  • If V is the volume of a ball, H the strength of the field at its centre, and re its apparent susceptibility, the force in the direction x is f= K'VH X dH/dx; and if K',, and are the apparent susceptibilities of the same ball in air and in liquid oxygen, K' Q -K'o is equal to the difference between the susceptibilities of the two media.
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  • The susceptibility of air being known - practically it was negligible in these experiments - that of liquid oxygen can at once be found.
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  • It appears, therefore, that liquid oxygen is by far the most strongly paramagnetic liquid known, its susceptibility being more than four times greater than that of a saturated solution of ferric chloride.
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  • By his mode of regarding a liquid as a material system characterized by the unshackled mobility of its minutest parts, the separation between the mechanics of matter in different forms of aggregation finally disappeared, and the fundamental equation of forces was for the first time extended to hydrostatics and hydrodynamics.'
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  • It is prepared by oxidizing ethyl alcohol with dilute sulphuric acid and potassium bichromate, and is a colourless liquid of boiling point 20�8° C., possessing a peculiar characteristic smell.
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  • It is readily polymerized, small quantities of hydrochloric acid, zinc chloride, carbonyl chloride, &c. converting it, at ordinary temperatures, into paraldehyde, (C 2 H 4 0) 3, a liquid boiling at 124° C. and of specific gravity o�998 (15° C.).
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  • It is a colourless liquid, with a very pungent smell, and attacks the mucous membrane very rapidly.
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  • It is a liquid, boiling at 235° C., and has a specific gravity of 0.973.
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  • Salicylic aldehyde (ortho-hydroxybenzaldehyde), HO(I)� C 6 H 4 �CHO(2), an aromatic oxyaldehyde, is a colourless liquid of boiling point 196° C. and specific gravity.
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  • It is a colourless aromatic-smelling oily liquid, which boils at 247° C. and readily oxidizes on exposure.
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  • One species was a liquid, which was apt to be adulterated; but when pure it had the property of blackening when added to pomegranate juice.
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  • Tetranitromethane, C(N02)4, obtained by adding nitroform to a hot mixture of nitric and sulphuric acids, is a crystalline solid which melts at 13° C. Chlorpicrin, CC1 3 NO 2, is a liquid of suffocating odour obtained by the action of nitric acid and chloride of lime on many organic compounds.
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  • It is a colourless oily liquid which boils at 225°-227° C., is somewhat soluble in water, and does not give a coloration with ferric chloride.
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  • They exhibit an intense blue colour when in the liquid condition or dissolved in alkali and possess a very sharp smell.
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  • It is a colourless solid which melts at 54° C. to a deep blue liquid.
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  • In physical chemistry he carried out many researches on the nature and process of solution, investigating in particular the thermal effects produced by the dilution of saline solutions, the variation of the specific heat of saline solutions with temperature and concentration, and the phenomena of liquid diffusion.
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  • It is a white solid, fusing at 250° C. to an oily liquid which boils at 606°, and volatilizing at a red heat in nitrogen, a vacuum or hydrochloric acid, without decomposition.
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  • Stannic Chloride, SnC1 4, named by Andreas Libavius in 1605 Spiritus argenti vivi sublimate from its preparation by distilling tin or its amalgam with corrosive sublimate, and afterwards termed Spiritus fumans Libavii, is obtained by passing dry chlorine over granulated tin contained in a retort; the tetrachloride distils over as a heavy liquid, from which the excess of chlorine is easily removed by shaking with a small quantity of tin filings and re-distilling.
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  • It is a colourless fuming liquid of specific gravity 2.269 at o°; it freezes at - 33° C., and boils at I13.9°.
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  • If the amount of liquid contained in the tissue be small in quantity the part mummifies, giving rise to what is known as " dry gangrene."
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  • This is accomplished by a twofold agency, for while numbers of them are seized upon by the granulation phagocytes, others are broken up and dissolved by the liquid filling the granulation interspaces (Afanassieff).
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  • Dropsy During conditions of health a certain quantity of lymphy liquid is constantly being effused into the tissues and serous cavities of the body, but in the case of the tissues it never accumulates to excess, and in that of the serous cavities it is never more than sufficient to keep them moist.
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  • A "transudate" is a liquid having a composition resembling that of blood-serum, while the term "exudate" is applied to an effused liquid whose composition approaches that of the blood-plasma in the relationship of its solid and liquid parts, besides in most cases containing numbers of colourless blood-corpuscles.
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  • The addition of some of the liquid squeezed out from a blood-clot, of the squeezed blood-clot itself, or of a little blood-serum, is sufficient to throw down a fibrinous coagulum (Buchanan), evidently by these substances supplying the fibrin-ferment.
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  • The liquid of ascites sometimes contains chyle in abundance (hydrops lacteus), the escape having taken place from a ruptured receptaculum chyli.
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  • In a given case of anasarca due to a cause acting generally, it will be found that the liquid of the pleural cavity always contains the highest percentage of proteid, that of the peritoneal cavity comes next, that of the cerebral ventricles follows this, and the liquid of the subcutaneous areolar tissue contains the lowest.
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  • The reason of this is apparently that the negative pressure of the pleural, and partly of the peritoneal, cavity tends to aspirate a liquid relatively thicker, so to speak, than that effused where no such extraneous mechanism is at work (James).
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  • Thus Ludwig was of opinion that the lymph-flow is dependent upon two factors, first, difference in pressure of the blood in the capillaries and the liquid in the plasma spaces outside; and, secondly, chemical interchanges setting up osmotic currents through the vessel-walls.
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  • He traces various local dropsies to the starvation from which the tissues are suffering, the liquid accumulating in excess in accordance with the demand for more nourishment.
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  • The liquid when soaked into a porous combustible substance like blotting-paper burns rapidly and quietly, and when struck with a hammer on a hard surface violently detonates; when a little of the liquid is spread on an anvil and struck, the portion immediately under the hammer only will, as a rule, detonate, the remainder being scattered.
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  • Balsam of Tolu, produced by Myroxylon toluiferum, a native of Venezuela and New Granada; balsam of Peru, derived from Myroxylon Pereirae, a native of San Salvador in Central America; Mexican and Brazilian elemi, produced by various species of Icica or "incense trees," and the liquid exudation of an American species of Liquidambar, are all used as incense in America.
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  • In course of an investigation in 1822-1823 on the effects of heat and pressure on certain liquids he found that for each there was a certain temperature above which it refused to remain liquid but passedintothegaseous state, no matter what the amount of pressure to which it was subjected, and in the case of water he determined this critical temperature, with a remarkable approach to accuracy, to be 362° C. He also studied the nature of yeast and the influence of extreme cold upon its life.
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  • On reversing the motion the valve E closes and the liquid is forced through the valve F to the upper part of the cylinder.
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  • On again raising the piston, more liquid enters the lower part of the cylinder, whilst the previously raised liquid is ejected from the delivery pipe.
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  • On raising the piston the liquid rises in the cylinder, the valve E opening and F remaining shut.
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  • On again F J J raising the piston the valve E opens ?g G admitting more liquid whilst F re- mains closed.
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  • It is seen that the action is intermittent, liquid only being discharged during a down stroke, but since the driving force is that which is supplied to the piston rod, the lift is only con ditioned by the power available and by the strength of the pump. A continuous supply can be obtained by leading the delivery pipe into the base of an air chamber H, which is fitted with a discharge pipe J of such a diameter that the liquid cannot escape from it as fast as it is pumped in during a down stroke.
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  • For the production of high vacua, see Vacuum Tube; Liquid Gases.
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  • The glass is first dipped in this protective liquid, and when the paint has set the pattern is scratched through it with a sharp point.
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  • These are passed through a vessel surrounded by a freezing mixture and on fractionating the product the hydride distils over as a colourless liquid which boils at 52° C. It is also obtained by the decomposition of lithium silicide with concentrated hydrochloric acid.
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  • Ruff and Curt Albert (Ber., 1905, 38, p. 53) by decomposing titanium fluoride with silicon chloroform in sealed vessels at 100 -120° C. It is a colourless gas which may be condensed to a liquid boiling at -80 2° C. On solidification it melts at about -110° C. The gas is very unstable, decomposing slowly, even at ordinary temperatures, into hydrogen,, silicon fluoride and silicon: 4SiHF 3 =2H 2 +3SiF 4 +Si.
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  • It is a very stable colourless liquid which boils at 58° C. Oxygen only attacks it at very high temperatures.
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  • It is a colourless fuming liquid which boils at 146-148° C. It is decomposed by water, and also when heated between 350° and 1000° C., but it is stable both below and above these temperatures.
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  • It is a colourless liquid which boils at 210° C. Water decomposes it with the formation of silico-mesoxalic acid, HOOSi Si(OH) 2 SiOOH.
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  • It is a colourless liquid which boils at 33° C. It fumes in air and burns with a green flame.
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  • It is a colourless, strongly refracting liquid, which boils at about 220° C., slight decomposition setting in above 150° C. Water decomposes it with production of leucone.
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  • The latter reacts with chlorine to give silicon nonyl-chloride Si(C2H5)3 C2H4C1, which condenses with potassium acetate to give the acetic ester of silicon nonyl alcohol from which the alcohol (a camphor-smelling liquid) may be obtained by hydrolysis.
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  • Dimethylcarbonate, CO(OCH 3) 2, is a colourless liquid, which boils at 90.6° C., and is prepared by heating the methyl ester of chlorcarbonic acid with lead oxide.
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  • It is an etherealsmelling liquid, which boils at 158-159° C., and has a specific gravity of 0.925.
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  • It is a pungent-smelling liquid, which fumes strongly on exposure to air.
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  • The liquid metals, when cooled down sufficiently, some at lower, others at higher, temperatures freeze into compact solids, endowed with the (relative) non-transparency and the lustre of their liquids.
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  • Very thin films of liquid mercury, according to Melsens, transmit light with a violet-blue colour; also thin films of copper are said to be translucent.
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  • By an hydraulic press a pressure of 100,000 kilos was made to act upon the disks, when the metal was seen to "flow" out of the hole like a viscid liquid.
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  • Parallel experiments with layers of dough or sand plus some connecting material proved that the particles in all cases moved along the same tracks as would be followed by a flowing cylinder of liquid.
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  • As liquidity might be looked upon as the ne plus ultra of softness, this is the right place for stating that, while most metals, when heated up to their melting points, pass pretty abruptly from the solid to the liquid state, platinum and iron first assume, and throughout a long range of temperatures retain, a condition of viscous semi-solidity which enables two pieces of them to be "welded" together by pressure into one continuous mass.
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  • The metals grouped together above, under 1 and 2, act on steam pretty much as they do on liquid water.
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  • Of metals not decomposing liquid pure water, only a few dissolve in aqueous caustic potash or soda, with evolution of hydrogen.
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  • The chlorides AsC1 3, SbC1 3, BiC1 3, are at once decomposed by (liquid) water, with formation of oxide (As203) or oxychlorides (SbOC1, BiOCI) and hydrochloric acid.
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  • Benzene is a colourless, limpid, highly refracting liquid, having a pleasing and characteristic odour.
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  • Fluids again are divided into two classes, termed a liquid and a gas, of which water and air are the chief examples.
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  • A liquid is a fluid which is incompressible or practically so, i.e.
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  • A liquid has size but not shape.
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  • By a change of temperature and pressure combined, a substance can in general be made to pass from one state into another; thus by gradually increasing the temperature a solid piece of ice can be melted into the liquid state of water, and the water again can be boiled off into the gaseous state as steam.
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  • Conversely, a combination of increased pressure and lowering of temperature will, if carried far enough, reduce a gas to a liquid, and afterwards to the solid state; and nearly every gaseous substance has now undergone this operation.
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  • Every solid substance is found to be plastic more or less, as exemplified by punching, shearing and cutting; but the plastic solid is distinguished from the viscous fluid in that a plastic solid requires a certain magnitude of stress to be exceeded to make it flow, whereas the viscous liquid will yield to the slightest stress, but requires a certain length of time for the effect to be appreciable.
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  • Maxwell illustrates the difference between a soft solid and a hard liquid by a jelly and a block of pitch; also by the experiment of supporting a candle and a stick of sealingwax; after a considerable time the sealing-wax will be found bent and so is a fluid, but the candle remains straight as a solid.
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  • Any additional pressure applied to the fluid will be y transmitted equally to every point in the case of a liquid; this principle of the transmissibility of 1 1 pressure was enunciated by Pascal, 1653, and FIG.
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  • This is proved by taking any two points A and B at the same level, and considering the equilibrium of a thin prism of liquid AB, bounded by planes at A and B perpendicular to AB.
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  • If the fluid is a liquid, it can have a free surface without diffusing itself, as a gas would; and this free surface, being a surface of zero pressure, or more generally of uniform atmospheric pressure, will also be a surface of equal pressure, and therefore a horizontal plane.
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  • This is the characteristic distinguishing between a solid and a liquid; as, for instance, between land and water.
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  • In this case the thrust at the lower end B must exceed the thrust at A, the upper end, by the weight of the prism of liquid; so that, denoting the cross section of the prism by a ft.
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  • For if the liquid of density a rises to the height h and of density p to the height k, and po denotes the atmospheric pressure, the pressure in the liquid at the level of the surface of separation will be ah+Po and pk +po, and these being equal we have Uh = pk.
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  • When the body is floating freely like a ship, the equilibrium of this liquid thrust with the weight of the ship requires that the weight of water displaced is equal to the weight of the ship and the two centres of gravity are in the same vertical line.
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  • It is used to determine the density of a body experimentally; for if W is the weight of a body weighed in a balance in air (strictly in vacuo), and if W' is the weight required to balance when the body is suspended in water, then the upward thrust of the liquid (I) (2) "F r an Minim ' 'i n or weight of liquid displaced is W-W, so that the specific gravity (S.G.), defined as the ratio of the weight of a body to the weight of an equal volume of water, is W/(W-W').
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  • Then dp/dz=kdp/dz = P, = Poe ik, p - po= kpo(ez Ik -1); (16) and if the liquid was incompressible, the depth at pressure p would be (p - po) 1po, so that the lowering of the surface due to compression is ke h I k -k -z= 1z 2 /k, when k is large.
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  • For a homogeneous liquid at rest under gravity, p is proportional to the depth below the surface, i.e.
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  • The conditions of equilibrium of a body, floating like a ship on the surface of a liquid, are therefore: (i.) the weight of the body must be less than the weight of the total volume of liquid it can displace; or else the body will sink to the bottom of the liquid; the difference of the weights is called the " reserve of buoyancy."
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  • If homogeneous liquid is drawn off from a vessel so large that the motion at the free surface at a distance may be neglected, then Bernoulli's equation may be written H = PIP--z - F4 2 / 2g = P/ p +h, (8) where P denotes the atmospheric pressure and h the height of the free surface, a fundamental equation in hydraulics; a return has been made here to the gravitation unit of hydrostatics, and Oz is taken vertically upward.
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  • When the liquid is bounded by a cylindrical surface, the motion of a vortex inside may be determined as due to a series of vorteximages, so arranged as to make the flow zero across the boundary.
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  • Uniplanar Motion of a Liquid due to the Passage of a Cylinder through it.-A stream-function 4, must be determined to satisfy the conditions v24 =o, throughout the liquid; (I) I =constant, over any fixed boundary; (2) d,t/ds = normal velocity reversed over a solid boundary, (3) so that, if the solid is moving with velocity U in the direction Ox, d4y1ds=-Udy/ds, or 0 +Uy =constant over the moving cylinder; and 4,+Uy=41' is the stream function of the relative motion of the liquid past the cylinder, and similarly 4,-Vx for the component velocity V along Oy; and generally 1,1'= +Uy -Vx (4) is the relative stream-function, constant over a solid boundary moving with components U and V of velocity.
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  • If the liquid is stirred up by the rotation R of a cylindrical body, d4lds = normal velocity reversed dy = - Rx- Ry ds (5) ds 4' + 2 R (x2 + y2) = Y, (6) a constant over the boundary; and 4,' is the current-function of the relative motion past the cylinder, but now V 2 4,'+2R =o, (7) throughout the liquid.
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  • Over a concentric cylinder, external or internal, of radius r=b, 4,'=4,+ Uly =[U I - + Ui]y, (4) and 4" is zero if U 1 /U = (a 2 - b2)/b 2; (5) so that the cylinder may swim for an instant in the liquid without distortion, with this velocity Ui; and w in (I) will give the liquid motion in the interspace between the fixed cylinder r =a and the concentric cylinder r=b, moving with velocity U1.
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  • If the liquid is reduced to rest at infinity by the superposition of an opposite stream given by w = - Uz, we are left with w = Ua2/z, (6) =U(a 2 /r) cos 0= Ua2x/(x2+y2), (7) 4, = -U(a 2 /r) sin 0= -Ua2y/( x2+y2), (8) giving the motion due to the passage of the cylinder r=a with velocity U through the origin 0 in the direction Ox.
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  • Consequently the inertia to overcome in moving the cylinder r=b, solid or liquid, is its own inertia, increased by the inertia of liquid (a2+b2)/(a2,..b2) times the volume of the cylinder r=b; this total inertia is called the effective inertia of the cylinder r =b, at the instant the two cylinders are concentric.
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  • When the cylinder r =a is moved with velocity U and r =b with velocity U 1 along Ox, = U b e - a,1 r +0 cos 0 - U ib2 - 2 a, (r +Q 2 ') cos 0, = - U be a2 a2 (b 2 - r) sin 0 - Uib2 b1)a, (r - ¢2 sin 0; b and similarly, with velocity components V and V 1 along Oy a 2 b2 ?= Vb,_a,(r+r) sin g -Vi b, b2 a, (r+ 2) sin 0, (17) = V b, a2 a, (b2 r) cos 0+Vi b, b, a, (r- ¢ 2) cos h; (18) and then for the resultant motion z 2zz w= (U 2 + V2)b2a a2U+Vi +b a b a2 U z Vi -(U12+V12) b2 z a2b2 Ui +VIi b 2 - a 2 U1 +Vii b 2 - a 2 z The resultant impulse of the liquid on the cylinder is given by the component, over r=a (§ 36), X =f p4 cos 0.ad0 =7rpa 2 (U b z 2 + a 2 Uib.2bz a2); (20) and over r =b Xi= fp?
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  • The expression for w in (i) § 29 may be increased by the addition of the term im log z =-m0 + im log r, (1) representing vortex motion circulating round the annulus of liquid.
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  • Another explanation may be given of the sidelong force, arising from the velocity of liquid past a cylinder, which is encircled by a vortex.
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  • Taking two planes x = =b, and considering the increase of momentum in the liquid between them, due to the entry and exit of liquid momentum, the increase across dy in the direction Oy, due to elements at P and P' at opposite ends of the diameter PP', is pdy (U - Ua 2 r2 cos 20 +mr i sin 0) (Ua 2 r 2 sin 2 0+mr 1 cos 0) + pdy (- U+Ua 2 r 2 cos 2 0 +mr1 sin 0) (Ua 2 r 2 sin 2 0 -mr 1 cos 0) =2pdymUr '(cos 0 -a 2 r 2 cos 30), (8) and with b tan r =b sec this is 2pmUdo(i -a 2 b2 cos 30 cos 0), (9) and integrating between the limits 0 = 27r, the resultant, as before, is 27rpmU.
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  • The resultant hydrostatic thrust across any diametral plane of the cylinder will be modified, but the only term in the loss of head which exerts a resultant thrust on the whole cylinder is 2mU sin Olga, and its thrust is 27rpmU absolute units in the direction Cy, to be counteracted by a support at the centre C; the liquid is streaming past r=a with velocity U reversed, and the cylinder is surrounded by a vortex.
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  • For the liquid filling the interior of a rotating elliptic cylinder of cross section x2/a2+y2/b2 = 1, /(4) = m l (x 2 / a2 - - y2 /b 2) (5) with V21G1' =-2R =-2 m 1 (I / a2 + 21b2), 214 = m l (x2 / a2 + y2 / b2) - IR(x2+y2) = I R (x2 - y2) (a 2 - b2)/(a2+b2), cp 1 = Rxy (a 2 - b2)/(a2 +b2), w1 = cb1 +% Pli = - IiR(x +yi)2(a2b2)/(a2+b2).
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  • The velocity of a liquid particle is thus (a 2 - b 2)/(a 2 +b 2) of what it would be if the liquid was frozen and rotating bodily with the ellipse; and so the effective angular inertia of the liquid is (a 2 -b 2) 2 /(a 2 +b 2) 2 of the solid; and the effective radius of gyration, solid and liquid, is given by k 2 = 4 (a 2 2), and 4 (a 2 For the liquid in the interspace between a and n, m ch 2(0-a) sin 2E 4) 1 4Rc 2 sh 2n sin 2E (a2_ b2)I(a2+ b2) = I/th 2 (na)th 2n; (8) and the effective k 2 of the liquid is reduced to 4c 2 /th 2 (n-a)sh 2n, (9) which becomes 4c 2 /sh 2n = s (a 2 - b 2)/ab, when a =00, and the liquid surrounds the ellipse n to infinity.
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  • Example 3.-Analysing in this way the rotation of a rectangle filled with liquid into the two components of shear, the stream function 1//1 is to be made to satisfy the conditions v 2 /1 =0, 111+IRx 2 = IRa 2, or /11 =o when x= = a, +b1+IRx 2 = I Ra2, y ' 1 = IR(a 2 -x 2), when y = b Expanded in a Fourier series, 2 232 2 cos(2n+ I)Z?rx/a a -x 7r3 a Lim (2n+I) 3 ' (1) so that '?"
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  • The polar equation of the cross-section being rI cos 19 =al, or r + x = 2a, (3) the conditions are satisfied by = Ur sin g -2Uairi sin IB = 2Uri sin 10(14 cos 18a'), (4) 1J/ =2Uairi sin IO = -U1/ [2a(r-x)], (5) w =-2Uaiz1, (6) and the resistance of the liquid is 2lrpaV2/2g.
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  • Motion symmetrical about an Axis.-When the motion of a liquid is the same for any plane passing through Ox, and lies in the plane, a function ' can be found analogous to that employed in plane motion, such that the flux across the surface generated by the revolution of any curve AP from A to P is the same, and represented by 2s-4 -11'o); and, as before, if d is the increase in due to a displacement of P to P', then k the component of velocity normal to the surface swept out by PP' is such that 274=2.7ryk.PP'; and taking PP' parallel to Oy and Ox, u= -d/ydy, v=dl,t'/ydx, (I) and 1P is called after the inventor, " Stokes's stream or current function," as it is constant along a stream line (Trans.
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  • Irrotational Motion in General.-Liquid originally at rest in a singly-connected space cannot be set in motion by a field of force due to a single-valued potential function; any motion set up in the liquid must be due to a movement of the boundary, and the motion will be irrotational; for any small spherical element of the liquid may be considered a smooth solid sphere for a moment, and the normal pressure of the surrounding liquid cannot impart to it any rotation.
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  • Employing the equation of continuity when the liquid is homogeneous, 2 (cly - d z)?
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  • Hill's spherical vortex, advancing through the surrounding liquid with uniform velocity.
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  • As an application of moving axes, consider the motion of liquid filling the ellipsoidal case 2 y 2 z2 Ti + b1 +- 2 = I; (1) and first suppose the liquid be frozen, and the ellipsoid l3 (4) (I) (6) (9) (I o) (II) (12) (14) = 2 U ¢ 2, (15) rotating about the centre with components of angular velocity, 7 7, f'; then u= - y i +z'i, v = w = -x7 7 +y (2) Now suppose the liquid to be melted, and additional components of angular velocity S21, 522, S23 communicated to the ellipsoidal case; the additional velocity communicated to the liquid will be due to a velocity-function 2224_ - S2 b c 6 a 5 x b2xy, as may be verified by considering one term at a time.
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  • An experiment was devised by Lord Kelvin for demonstrating this, in which the difference of steadiness was shown of a copper shell filled with liquid and spun gyroscopically, according as the shell was slightly oblate or prolate.
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  • To determine the motion of a jet which issues from a vessel with plane walls, the vector I must be constructed so as to have a constant (to) (II) the liquid (15) 2, integrals;, (29) (30) (I) direction 0 along a plane boundary, and to give a constant skin velocity over the surface of a jet, where the pressure is constant.
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  • To determine x i the angular velocity P alone is introduced, and the conditions to be satisfied are (i.) 0 2 x1 = o, throughout the liquid; y l =mz - ny, at the surface of the moving body, but zero over a fixed surface, and at :infinity; the same for x 2 and x3.
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  • For a cavity filled with liquid in the interior of the body, since the liquid inside moves bodily for a motion of translation only, 41 = - x, 42 = -, 43 = - z; (2) but a rotation will stir up the liquid in the cavity, so that the'x's depend on the shape of the surface.
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  • The continuity is secured if the liquid between two ellipsoids X and X 11 moving with the velocity U and 15 1 of equation (II), is squeezed out or sucked in across the plane x=o at a rate equal to the integral flow of the velocity I across the annular area a l.
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  • When the liquid is bounded externally by the fixed ellipsoid A = A I, a slight extension will give the velocity function 4 of the liquid in the interspace as the ellipsoid A=o is passing with velocity U through the confocal position; 4 must now take the formx(1'+N), and will satisfy the conditions in the shape CM abcdX ¢ = Ux - Ux a b x 2+X)P Bo+CoB I - C 1 (A 1 abcdX, I a1b1cl - J o (a2+ A)P and any'confocal ellipsoid defined by A, internal or external to A=A 1, may be supposed to swim with the liquid for an instant, without distortion or rotation, with velocity along Ox BA+CA-B 1 -C1 W'.
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  • The extension to the case where the liquid is bounded externally by a fixed ellipsoid X= X is made in a similar manner, by putting 4 = x y (x+ 11), (io) and the ratio of the effective angular inertia in (9) is changed to 2 (B0-A0) (B 1A1) +.a12 - a 2 +b 2 a b1c1 a -b -b12 abc (Bo-Ao)+(B1-A1) a 2 + b 2 a1 2 + b1 2 alblcl Make c= CO for confocal elliptic cylinders; and then _, 2 A? ?
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  • These theorems, which hold for the motion of a single rigid body, are true generally for a flexible system, such as considered here for a liquid, with one or more rigid bodies swimming in it; and they express the statement that the work done by an impulse is the product of the impulse and the arithmetic mean of the initial and final velocity; so that the kinetic energy is the work done by the impulse in starting the motion from rest.
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  • Bryan, in which the analytical equations of motion are deduced of a perforated solid in liquid, from considerations purely hydrodynamical.
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  • The components of force, X, Y, and N, acting on the liquid at 0, and reacting on the body, are then X=It.
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  • The branch of hydrodynamics which discusses wave motion in a liquid or gas is given now in the articles Sound and Wave; while the influence of viscosity is considered under Hydraulics.
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  • Also Marchlewski (in 1899) synthesized cane sugar from potassium fructosate and acetochloroglucose; and after Fischer discovered that acetochlorohexoses readily resulted from the interaction of the hexose penta-acetates and liquid hydrogen chloride, several others have been obtained.
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  • Milk sugar, lactose, lactobiose, C12H22011, found in the milk of mammals, in the amniotic liquid of cows, and as a pathological secretion, is prepared by evaporating whey and purifying the sugar which separates by crystallization.
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  • It is a clear, strongly refractive liquid, which has a pleasant odour; it boils at 144° and has a specific gravity of o 925 at o°.
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  • It is a liquid, boiling at 139° and having a pleasant odour.
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  • Pure cultures may be made and after dilution in water or other liquid can be mixed with soil to be ultimately spread over the land which is to be infected.
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  • The method of using them most frequently adopted consists in applying them to the seeds of leguminous plants before sowing, the seed being dipped for a time in a liquid containing the bacteria.
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  • The liquid is filtered and then crystallized.
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  • The zinc vapour produced descends through the pipe and condenses into liquid zinc, which is collected in a ladle held under the outlet end of the pipe.
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  • Both are easily removed by passing chlorine through the cold solution, to produce ferric and manganic salt, and then digesting the liquid with a washed precipitate of basic carbonate, produced from a small portion of the solution by means of sodium carbonate.
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  • In many of these the application of heat is necessary to bring the substances used into the liquid state for the purpose of electrolysis, aqueous solutions being unsuitable.
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  • The action was started in the cold, the alkali being slightly moistened to render it a conductor; then, as the current passed, heat was produced and the alkali fused, the metal being deposited in the liquid condition.
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  • When used for ore smelting, the reduced metal and the accompanying slag were to be caught, after leaving the arc and while still liquid, in a hearth fired with ordinary fuel.
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  • Liquid metal coming in contact with such a surface forms a crust of solidified metal over it, and this crust thickens up to a certain point, namely, until the heat from within the furnace just overbalances that lost by conduction through the solidified crust and the cathode material to the flowing water.
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  • Titanium ch oride, TiC1 4, is obtained as a colourless filming liquid of 1.7604 sp. gr.
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  • It forms addition compounds similar to those formed by stannic chloride, and combines with ammonia to form TiCl 4.8NH 3 and TiC1 4.6NH 3, both of which with liquid ammonia give titanamide, Ti(NH2)4.
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  • The aqueous solution of the amines is now shaken up with diethyl oxalate, when the primary amine forms a crystalline dialkyl oxamide and the secondary amine an insoluble liquid, which is an ethyl dialkyl oxamate, the tertiary amine not reacting: (C02C2H5)2+ 2NH 2 R = (CO�NHR) 2 -{- 2C 2 H S OH; (CO 2 C 2 H 5) 2 -}- NHR 2 = C 2 H S O 2 C�Conr 2 -1-C 2 H S Oh.
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  • At ordinary temperatures it is a gas, but may be condensed to a liquid which boils at - 6° C. It has a strong ammoniacal smell, burns readily and is exceedingly soluble in water.
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  • It is a heavy vapour which condenses at 7° C. to a liquid, having a pronounced fish-like smell.
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  • Trimethylamine, (CH3)3N, is very similar to dimethylamine, and condenses to a liquid which boils at 3.2-3.8° C. It is usually obtained from "vinasses," the residue obtained from the distillation of beet sugar alcohol, and is used in the manufacture of potassium bicarbonate by the Solvay process, since its hydrochloride is much more soluble than potassium carbonate.
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  • It is an alkaline liquid, which when anhydrous boils at 116.5° C. Nitrous acid converts it into ethylene oxide.
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  • It is a liquid which boils at 135-136° C., and is readily soluble in alcohol, ether, chloroform and benzene.
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  • It is a liquid, which boils at 183° C., and is miscible in all proportions with water, alcohol and ether.
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  • Dittmar showed that this may be avoided by leading a fine, steady stream of dry gas - air, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, &c., according to the substance operated upon - through the liquid by means of a fine capillary tube, the lower end of which reaches to nearly the bottom of the flask.
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  • It may be diminished by introducing clippings of platinum foil, pieces of porcelain, glass beads or garnets into the liquid.
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  • In boiling liquids its formation may be prevented by adding paraffin wax; the wax melts and forms a ring on the surface of the liquid, which boils tranquilly in the centre.
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  • Three types of columns are employed: (I) the elongation is simply a straight or bulb tube; (2) the column, properly termed a "dephlegmator," is so constructed that the vapours have to traverse a column of previously condensed vapour; (3) the column is encircled by a jacket through which a liquid circulates at the same temperature as the boiling-point of the most volatile component.
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  • In the Le Bel-Henninger form a series of bulbs are connected consecutively by means of syphon tubes (b) and having platinum gauzes (a) at the constrictions, so that when a certain amount of liquid collects in any one bulb it syphons over into the next lower bulb.
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  • Of the third type is the Warren column consisting of a spiral kept at a constant temperature by a liquid bath.
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  • The main objection to the Hempel is the retention of liquid in the beads, and the consequent inapplicability to the distillation of small quantities.
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  • A liquid boils when its vapor pressure equals the superincumbent pressure; consequently any process which diminishes the external pressure must also lower the boiling-point.
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  • The theory of fractional distillation, or the behaviour of liquid mixtures when heated to their boiling-points, is more complex.
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  • Although, as is generally the case, one liquid (say A) is more volatile than the other (say B), i.e.
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  • P 1 greater than P2, if the molecular weight of A be much less than that of B, then it is obvious that the ratio M 1 P 1 /M 2 P 2 need not be very great, and hence the less volatile liquid B would come over in fair amount.
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  • It consists of a vertical column divided into a number of sections by horizontal plates, which are perforated so that the ascending vapours have to traverse a layer of liquid.
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  • By electrolysing an aqueous solution of the chloride with a mercury cathode, a liquid and a solid amalgam, SrHgn, are obtained; the latter on heating gives a mixture of Sr 2 Hg 5 and SrHg 5, and on distillation an amalgam passes over, and not the metal.
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  • In the course of his inquiries he also noticed that different bodies in equal masses require different amounts of heat to raise them to the same temperature, and so founded the doctrine of specific heats; he also showed that equal additions or abstractions of heat produced equal variations of bulk in the liquid of his thermometers.
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  • Many electrolytic methods have been proposed for the purification of sugar; in some of them soluble anodes are used for a few minutes in weak alkaline solutions, so that the caustic alkali from the cathode reaction may precipitate chemically the hydroxide of the anode metal dissolved in the liquid, the precipitate carrying with it mechanically some of the impurities present, and thus clarifying the solution.
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  • An impure oxalyl chloride, a liquid boiling at 70° C:, has been obtained by the action of phosphorus pentachloride on ethyl oxalate.
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  • Let us suppose that a molten mixture of two substances A and B, which at a sufficiently high temperature form a uniform liquid, and which do not combine to form definite compounds, is slowly cooled until it becomes wholly solid.
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  • This halt in the cooling, due to the heat evolved in the solidification of the first crystals that form in the liquid, is called the freezingpoint of the mixture; the freezing-point can generally be observed with considerable accuracy.
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  • This process goes on until the state of the remaining liquid is represented by the point C. Now crystals of B begin to form, simultaneously with the A crystals, and the composition of the remaining liquid does not alter as the solidification progresses.
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  • All mixtures whose temperature lies above the line ACB are wholly liquid, hence this line is often called the "liquidus "; all mixtures at temperatures below that of the horizontal line through C are wholly solid, hence this line is sometimes called the " solidus," but in more complex cases the solidus is often curved.
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  • At temperatures between the solidus and the liquidus a mixture is partly solid and partly liquid.
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  • In the case of this pair of metals, or indeed of any metallic alloy, we cannot see the crystals forming, nor can we easily filter them off and examine them apart from the liquid, although this has been done in a few cases.
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  • The lighter part surrounding them was liquid before the chill; it is rich in tin.
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  • These uniform solid solutions must not be mistaken for chemical compounds; they can, within limits, vary in composition like an ordinary liquid solution.
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  • The point B is at - 60° C., the lowest temperature at which any metallic substance is known to exist in the liquid state.
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  • We thus learn that the bronzes referred to above, although chemically uniform when solid, are not so when they begin to solidify, but that the liquid deposits crystals richer in copper than itself, and therefore that the residual liquid becomes richer in tin.
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  • For example, the compound Cu3Sn is not indicated in the freezing-point curve, and indeed a liquid alloy of this percentage does not begin to solidify by the formation of crystals of Cu 3 Sn; the liquid solidifies completely to a uniform solid solution, and only at a lower temperature does this change into crystals of the compound, the transformation being accompanied by a considerable evolution of heat.
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  • We can then draw a continuous surface through the summits of all these ordinates, and so obtain a freezing-point surface, or liquidus; points above this surface will correspond to wholly liquid alloys.
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  • The underground stems (rhizomes or tubers) are rich in starch; from that of Arum maculatum Portland arrowroot was formerly extensively prepared by pounding with water and then straining; the starch was deposited from the strained liquid.
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  • Other names have been in use among the earlier chemists for this same liquid.
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  • Pure ethyl alcohol is a colourless, mobile liquid of an agreeable odour.
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  • It boils at 78.3° C. (760 mm.); at - 90° C. it is a thick liquid, and at - 130° it solidifies to a white mass.
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  • Fleming and James Dewar on dielectric constants at low temperatures: " On the Dielectric Constant of Liquid Oxygen and Liquid Air," Proc. Roy.
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  • An exactly similar expression holds good in hydrokinetics, provided that for the electric potential we substitute velocity potential, and for the electric force the velocity of the liquid.
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  • The isothermals are approximately equilateral hyperbolas (pv= constant), with the axes of p and v for asymptotes, for a gas or unsaturated vapour, but coincide with the isopiestics for a saturated vapour in presence of its liquid.
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  • The same equations apply to the case of fusion of a solid, if L is the latest heat of fusion, and v', s', v", s" the specific volumes and specific heats of the solid and liquid respectively.
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  • Many complicated expressions have been suggested by subsequent writers in the attempt to represent the continuity of the gaseous and liquid states in a single formula, but these are of a highly empirical nature, and beyond the scope of the present inquiry.
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  • It appears to be a quantity of the same order as the volume of the liquid, or as the limiting volume of the gas at very high pressures.
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  • In the case of a solid or a liquid, the latent heat of isothermal expansion may often be neglected, and if the specific heat, s, be also taken as constant, we have simply 0-00 =s log e0/00.
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  • The simplest case to consider is that of equilibrium between solid and liquid, or liquid and vapour.
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  • The values of the corresponding functions for the liquid or solid cannot be accurately expressed, as the theoretical variation of the specific heat is unknown, but if we take the specific heat at constant pressure s to be approximately constant, and observe the small residual variation dh of the total heat, we may write F'=s'D+dh+B'.
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  • The supernatant liquid is led into settling tanks, where a further amount of "gold is deposited, r and is then filtered through sawdust or sand, the sawdust being afterwards burnt and the gold separated from the ashes and the sand treated in the chloridizing vat.
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  • It melts to a reddish-brown liquid, which solidifies to a yellow crystalline mass on cooling.
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  • He determined the "elastic curve," which is formed by an elastic plate or rod fixed at one end and bent by a weight applied to the other, and which he showed to be the same as the curvature of an impervious sail filled with a liquid (lintearia).
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  • At the same time, any excessive local rainfall is productive of difficulty and danger from the floods of liquid mud and loose boulders which sweep like an avalanche down the hill sides.
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  • The crop is followed by a proventriculus which, in the higher Hymenoptera, forms the so-called " honey stomach," by the contraction of whose walls the solid and liquid food can be separated, passed on into the digestive stomach, or held in the crop ready for regurgitation into the mouth.
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  • The " tongue," for example, is short and obtuse or emarginate in Colletes and Prosopis, while in all other bees it is pointed at the tip. But in Andrena and its allies it is comparatively short, while in the higher genera, such as A pis and Bombus, it is elongate and flexible, forming a most elaborate and perfect organ for taking liquid food.
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  • It consists in weighing a glass vessel (I) empty, (2) filled with the liquid, (3) filled with the standard substance.
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  • Calling the weight of the empty vessel w, when filled with the liquid W, and when filled with the standard substance W l, it is obvious that W - w, and W1 - w, are the weights of equal volumes of the liquid and standard, and hence the relative density is (W - w)/(Wi - w).
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  • The bottle is again cleaned and dried, and the operations repeated with the liquid under examination instead of water.
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