How to use Liquid in a sentence
There was a tall glass of clear liquid in her hand.
He sipped the hot liquid and winced.
The liquid was a light amber color and had bubbles in it.
The cool liquid entered her mouth.
She drank the caramel liquid too fast and was soon too dizzy to stand.Advertisement
She slammed the coffee cup in the sink and the hot liquid splashed against the window.
Of liquid collectors the representative is Lord Kelvin's water-dropping electrograph; while Benndorf's is the form of radium collector that has been most used.
Some consider blue "to be the color of pure water, whether liquid or solid."
He sipped the hot liquid and grimaced.
It is found in the allantoic liquid of the cow, and in the urine of sucking calves.Advertisement
Lisa stared at the bowl, the liquid frozen half way up her throat.
She poured herself amber liquid and took a long swallow.
Taking a sip of the wine colored liquid, he sat the glass in a coaster on the smooth mahogany desk and dropped the letter beside it.
If this course is inconvenient, some liquid of low freezing-point, such as glycerine, may be mixed with the water.
He sliced his wrist, and her attention turned immediately to thick liquid bubbling against his olive skin.Advertisement
His liquid eyes were assessing but not flared, his large frame still imposing.
When a few lumps of sugar are added to a glass of water and stirred, the sugar soon disappears and we are left with a uniform liquid resembling water, except that it is sweet.
All remaining impurities, including the excess of oxygen, can then be taken out of the gas by Sir James Dewar's ingenious method of absorption with charcoal cooled in liquid air.
The same type of calorimeter is used in determining the heat of solution of a solid or liquid in water.
If they were permanently congealed, and small enough to be clutched, they would, perchance, be carried off by slaves, like precious stones, to adorn the heads of emperors; but being liquid, and ample, and secured to us and our successors forever, we disregard them, and run after the diamond of Kohinoor.Advertisement
And without linking up the events of the day or drawing a conclusion from them, Pierre closed his eyes, seeing a vision of the country in summertime mingled with memories of bathing and of the liquid, vibrating globe, and he sank into water so that it closed over his head.
Deidre tipped the vial to tap the last of the liquid out and glanced up at Wynn.
Cynthia's cheeks were quick to color as she sipped the liquid, making a face with each gulp.
If 127 parts of iodine, which is an almost black solid, and loo parts of mercury, which is a white liquid metal, be intimately mixed by rubbing them together in a mortar, the two substances wholly disappear, and we obtain instead a brilliant red powder quite unlike the iodine or the mercury; almost the only property that is unchanged is the weight.
Liebig and Pasteur were in agreement on the point that fermentation is intimately connected with the presence of yeast in the fermenting liquid, but their explanations concerning the mechanism of fermentation were quite opposed.Advertisement
Hansen counted the number of yeast cells suspended in a drop of liquid diluted with sterilized water.
After being well shaken, the liquid was poured into a sterile glass Petrie dish and covered with a moist and sterile bell-jar.
It is a colourless, oily, fuming liquid which is decomposed by water into sulphuric and hydrochloric acids.
Buchu leaves contain a volatile oil, which is of a dark yellow colour, and deposits a form of camphor on exposure to air, a liquid hydro-carbon being the solvent of the camphor within the oil-glands.
The liquid is then evaporated under a vacuum of 27 to 28 in.
In 1890, at Plymouth, competitions took place of light portable engines (a) using solid fuel, (b) using liquid or gaseous fuel, grist mills for use on a farm, disintegrators, and cider-making plant for use on a farm.
In 1899, at Maidstone, special prizes were offered for machines for washing hops with liquid insecticides, cream separators (power and hand), machines for the evaporation of fruit and vegetables, and packages for the carriage of (a) soft fruit, (b) hard fruit.
When a current is passed through the wire, continuous or alternating, it creates heat, which expands the air in the bulb and forces the liquid up one side of the U-tube to a certain position in which the rate of loss of heat by the air is equal to the rate at which it is gaining heat.
The only possible consonantal nexus in purely Malay words is that of a nasal and mute, a liquid and mute and vice versa, and a liquid and nasal.
In the manufacture of stearin for candles, &c., the fatty matter is decomposed, and the liquid olein, separated from the solid fatty acids, is employed as an ingredient in soapmaking.
Thus the operator had to remove from ordinary mercury, earth or an earthy principle or quality, and water or a liquid principle, and to fix it by taking away air or a volatile principle.
The crude product is very impure and possesses an offensive smell; it may be purified by forcing a fine spray of lime water through the liquid until the escaping water is quite clear, the washed bisulphide being then mixed with a little colourless oil and distilled at a low temperature.
Compounds were denoted by joining the symbols of the components, and by varying the manner of joining compounds of the same elements were distinguished The symbol V was used to denote a liquid, and a vertical line to denote a gas.
As an example of the complexity of this system we may note the five oxides of nitrogen, which were symbolized as the first three representing the gaseous oxides, and the last two the liquid oxides.
All the metals are solids at ordinary temperatures with the exception of mercury, which is liquid.
In the formation of gaseous hydrobromic acid from liquid bromine and gaseous hydrogen H2+Br2=HBr+HBr, in addition to the energy expended in decomposing the hydrogen and bromine molecules, energy is also expended in converting the liquid bromine into the gaseous condition, and probably less heat is developed by the combination of bromine and hydrogen than by the combination of chlorine and hydrogen, so that the amount of heat finally developed is much less than is developed in the formation of hydrochloric acid.
If, however, the precipitate refuses to settle, it is directly transferred to the filter paper, the last traces being removed by washing and rubbing the sides of the vessel with a piece of rubber, and the liquid is allowed to drain through.
It is washed by ejecting a jet of water, ammonia or other prescribed liquid on to the side of the filter paper until the paper is nearly full.
This subject is treated in the article Solution; for the properties of liquid mixtures reference should also be made to the article Distillation.
Recent researches have shown that the law originally proposed by Kopp - " That the specific volume of a liquid compound (molecular volume) at its boiling-point is equal to the sum of the specific volumes of its constituents (atomic volumes), and that every element has a definite atomic value in its compounds " - is by no means exact, for isomers have different specific volumes, and the volume for an increment of CH 2 in different homologous series is by no means constant; for example, the difference among the esters of the fatty acids is about 57, whereas for the aliphatic aldehydes it is 49.
At the critical point liquid and vapour become identical, and, consequently, as was pointed out by Frankenheim in 1841, the surface tension is zero at the critical temperature.
This tube was placed in an outer tube containing the liquid to be experimented with; the liquid is raised to its boiling-point, and then hermetically sealed.
The whole is enclosed in a jacket connected with a boiler containing a liquid, the vapour of which serves to keep the inner tube at any desired temperature.
From B the curve of equilibrium (BD) between rhombic and liquid sulphur proceeds; and from C (along CE) the curve of equilibrium between liquid sulphur and sulphur vapour.
Saturated steam is steam in contact with liquid water at a temperature which is the boiling point of the water and condensing point of the steam; superheated steam is steam out of contact with water heated above this temperature.
To preserve from insects, the plants, after mounting, are often brushed over with a liquid formed by the solution of lb.
He then tried the direct combination of nitric oxide with liquid nitrogen peroxide.
A dark blue liquid is produced, and the first portions of gas boiling off from the mixture correspond fairly closely in composition with nitrogen trioxide.
It forms a mass of deep blue crystals at the temperature of liquid air.
Geisel (Ber., 1904, 37, p. 1 573; 1905, 38, p. 2659), who also obtained it by dissolving sulphur in liquid ammonia.
An effect of the greater tide-generating force will also be instability of the liquid magmas underlying volcanic areas, leading to violent eruptions and earthquakes.
He also found that the liquid round the anode became acid, and that round the cathode alkaline.
Thus, as long as every ion of the solution is present in the layer of liquid next the electrode, the one which responds to the least electromotive force will alone be set free.
The obvious phenomena to be explained by any theory of electrolysis are the liberation of the products of chemical decomposition at the two electrodes while the intervening liquid is unaltered.
Interchanges must be supposed to go on whether a current passes or not, the function of the electric forces in electrolysis being merely to determine in what direction the parts of the molecules shall work their way through the liquid and to effect actual separation of these parts (or their secondary products) at the electrodes.
Hence there can be no reverse forces of polarization inside the liquid itself, such forces being confined to the surface of the electrodes.
The opposite parts of an electrolyte, which work their way through the liquid under the action of the electric forces, were named by Faraday the ions - the travellers.
But if one ion, say the anion, travels faster through the liquid than the other, the end of the solution from which it comes will be more exhausted of salt than the end towards which it goes.
If either ion carried with it some of the unaltered salt or some of the solvent, concentration or dilution of the liquid would be produced where the ion was liberated.
In some cases porous diaphragms have been employed; but such diaphragms introduce a new complication, for the liquid as a whole is pushed through them by the action of the current, the phenomenon being known as electric endosmose.
In 1887 Svante Arrhenius, professor of physics at Stockholm, put forward a new theory which supposed that the freedom of the opposite ions from each other was not a mere momentary freedom at the instants of molecular collision, but a more or less permanent freedom, the ions moving independently of each other through the liquid.
Kohlrausch formulated a theory of electrolytic conduction based on the idea that, under the action of the electric forces, the oppositely charged ions moved in opposite directions through the liquid, carrying their charges with them.
On the view of the process of conduction described above, the amount of electricity conveyed per second is measured by the product of the number of ions, known from the concentration of the solution, the charge carried by each of them, and the velocity with which, on the average, they move through the liquid.
Hence the absolute velocities of the two ions can be determined, and we can calculate the actual speed with which a certain ion moves through a given liquid under the action of a given potential gradient or electromotive force.
The verification of Kohlrausch's theory of ionic velocity verifies also the view of electrolysis which regards the electric current as due to streams of ions moving in opposite directions through the liquid and carrying their opposite electric charges with them.
In neutral, and still more in acid solutions, the dissociation of the indicator is practically nothing, and the liquid is colourless.
The influence of temperature on the conductivity of solutions depends on (I) the ionization, and (2) the frictional resistance of the liquid to the passage of the ions, the reciprocal of which is called the ionic fluidity.
We can calculate the heat of formation from its ions for any substance dissolved in a given liquid, from a knowledge of the temperature coefficient of ionization, by means of an application of the well-known thermodynamical process, which also gives the latent heat of evaporation of a liquid when the temperature coefficient of its vapour pressure is known.
Thus as long as a moderate current flows, the only variation in the cell is the appearance of zinc sulphate in the liquid on the copper side of the porous wall.
But when zinc dissolves, the zinc ions carry their electric charges with them, and the liquid tends to become positively electrified.
Thus silver, at one end of the cell in contact with many silver ions of the silver nitrate solution, at the other end is in contact with a liquid in which the concentration of those ions is very small indeed.
Only when the applied electromotive force exceeds this reverse force of polarization, will a permanent steady current pass through the liquid, and visible chemical decomposition proceed.
Many experiments have been made with a view of separating the two potential-differences which must exist in any cell made of two metals and a liquid, and of determining each one individually.
According to the molecular theory, diffusion is due to the motion of the molecules of the dissolved substance through the liquid.
But the ions of an electrolytic solution can move independently through the liquid, even when no current flows, as the consequences of Ohm's law indicate.
In contact with a solvent a metal is supposed to possess a definite solution pressure, analogous to the vapour pressure of a liquid.
This character is the base of the plan of adding glucose to wine and beer wort before fermenting, the alcohol content of the liquid after fermentation being increased.
The liquid is now run into neutralizing tanks containing sodium carbonate, and, after settling, the supernatant liquid, termed "light liquor," is run through bag filters and then on to bone-char filters, which have been previously used for the "heavy liquor."
This is filtered through fresh bone-char filters, from which it is discharged as a practically colourless liquid.
The globules in the latex are liquid, and the phenomenon of coagulation would seem to consist in the passage of this liquid into solid caoutchouc through the kind of change known as polymerization or condensation, in which a liquid passes into solid without alteration of composition or by condensation with the elimination of the elements of water.
It is then coagulated by the addition of an acid liquid, acetic acid or lime juice being generally employed, and the mixture allowed to stand.
The coagulum is next flattened out by a wooden or iron roller to get rid of the cavities containing watery liquid, and the sheets are then hung up for fourteen days to dry, when they weigh about 2 lb, the sheets being usually z to a in.
The Funtumia latex can also be coagulated by the astringent infusion of Bauhinia leaves or by exposing it in shallow dishes, when the liquid " creams."
The globules in the latex, however, consist more probably of a distinct liquid substance which readily changes into the solid caoutchouc. The coagulation of the latex often originates with the " curding " of the proteids present, and this alteration in the proteid leads to the solidification of the globules into caoutchouc. The latter, however, is probably a distinct effect.
Under certain conditions, as when latex is allowed to stand or is centrifugalized, a cream is obtained consisting of the liquid globules, which may be washed free from proteid without change, but, either by mechanical agitation or by the addition of acid or other chemical agent, the liquid gradually solidifies to a mass of solid caoutchouc. The phenomenon therefore resembles the change known to the chemist as polymerization, by which through molecular aggregation a liquid may pass into a solid without change in its empirical composition.
So far the chemical nature of the liquid globules of the latex is unknown, and the exact character of the change into solid caoutchouc remains to be determined.
The watery liquid known as rubber milk or latex is an emulsion consisting chiefly of a weak watery solution of proteids, carbohydrates and salts holding the liquid globules in suspension.
When solid caoutchouc is strongly heated it breaks down, without change in its ultimate composition, into a number of simpler liquid hydrocarbons of the terpene class (dipentene, di-isoprene, isoprene, &c.), of which one, isoprene (C5H8), is of simpler structure than oil of turpentine (C 10 H 16), from which it can also be obtained by the action of an intense heat.
When this volatile liquid hydrocarbon (isoprene) is allowed ro stand for some time in a closed bottle, it gradually passes into a substance having the principal properties of natural caoutchouc. The same change of isoprene into caoutchouc may also be effected by the action of certain chemical agents.
At present the change of isoprene into caoutchouc is mainly of scientific interest in indicating possibilities with regard to the conversion of the liquid globules of the latex into rubber and to the formation of rubber by plants.
This viscous liquid is present in small proportion in some commercial rubbers owing to overheating during their preparation.
The action depends upon the difference of the pressure on the liquid at the extremities of the tube, the flow being towards the lower level and ceasing when the levels coincide.
The tube is made of glass, indiarubber, copper or lead, according to the liquid which is to be transferred.
The simple siphon is used by filling it with the liquid to be decanted, closing the longer limb with the finger and plunging the shorter into the liquid; and it must be filled for each time of using.
The same is done with the kettle one-third filled with liquid lead, and so on until the first kettle contains market lead, the last cupelling lead.
As soon as two-thirds of the lead has separated in the form of crystals, the steam is shut off and the liquid lead drained off through the two spouts into the moulds.
Water when absolutely pure has no action on lead, but in the presence of air the lead is quickly attacked, with formation of the hydrate, Pb(OH) 2, which is appreciably soluble in water forming an alkaline liquid.
The liquid litharge when allowed to cool solidifies into a hard stone-like mass, which, however, when left to itself, soon crumbles up into a heap of resplendent dark yellow scales known as "flake litharge."
If a suspension of lead dichloride in hydrochloric acid be treated with chlorine gas, a solution of lead tetrachloride is obtained; by adding ammonium chloride ammonium plumbichloride, (NH 4) 2 PbC1 6, is precipitated, which on treatment with strong sulphuric acid yields lead tetrachloride, PbC1 4, as a translucent, yellow, highly refractive liquid.
Those substances which are attracted, or rather which tend, like iron, to move from weaker to stronger parts of the magnetic field, are termed paramagnetic; those which are repelled, or tend to move from stronger to weaker parts of the field, are termed diamagnetic. Between the ferromagnetics and the paramagnetics there is an enormous gap. The maximum magnetic susceptibility of iron is half a million times greater than that of liquid oxygen, one of the strongest paramagnetic substances known.
Bismuth, the strongest of the diamagnetics, has a negative susceptibility which is numerically 20 times less than that of liquid oxygen.
Shimizu 3 indicate that Steinmetz's formula holds for nickel and annealed cobalt up to B =3000, for cast cobalt and tungsten steel up to B =8000, and for Swedish iron up to B =18,000, the range being in all cases extended at the temperature of liquid air.
Honda and Shimizu have made similar experiments at the temperature of liquid air, employing a much wider range of magnetizing forces (up to about 700 C.G.S.) and testing a greater variety of metals.
The first immersion into liquid air generally produced a permanent decrease of magnetic moment, and there was sometimes a further decrease when the metal was warmed up again; but after a few alternations of temperature the changes of moment.
It is suggested that a permanent magnet might conveniently be " aged " (or brought into a constant condition) by dipping it several times into liquid air.
Steinmetz's formula applies only for very weak inductions when the alloys are at the ordinary temperature, but at the temperature of liquid air it becomes applicable through a wide range of inductions.
Guillaume' the temperature at which the magnetic susceptibility of nickel-steel is recovered is lowered by the presence of chromium; a certain alloy containing chromium was not rendered magnetic even by immersion in liquid air.
The critical temperature (if there is one) was not reached in Faraday's experiment; possibly even the temperature of -250 C., which by the use of liquid hydrogen has now become accessible, might still be too high.
When the two electrodes are ferro-magnetic, the direction of the current through the liquid is from the unmagnetized to the magnetized electrode, the latter being least attacked; with diamagnetic electrodes the reverse is the case.
In the second series, to which greater importance is attached, measurements were made of the force exerted in a divergent field upon small balls of copper, silver and other substances, first when the balls were in air and afterwards when they were immersed in liquid oxygen.
If V is the volume of a ball, H the strength of the field at its centre, and re its apparent susceptibility, the force in the direction x is f= K'VH X dH/dx; and if K',, and are the apparent susceptibilities of the same ball in air and in liquid oxygen, K' Q -K'o is equal to the difference between the susceptibilities of the two media.
The susceptibility of air being known - practically it was negligible in these experiments - that of liquid oxygen can at once be found.
It appears, therefore, that liquid oxygen is by far the most strongly paramagnetic liquid known, its susceptibility being more than four times greater than that of a saturated solution of ferric chloride.
By his mode of regarding a liquid as a material system characterized by the unshackled mobility of its minutest parts, the separation between the mechanics of matter in different forms of aggregation finally disappeared, and the fundamental equation of forces was for the first time extended to hydrostatics and hydrodynamics.'
It is a colourless liquid, with a very pungent smell, and attacks the mucous membrane very rapidly.
One species was a liquid, which was apt to be adulterated; but when pure it had the property of blackening when added to pomegranate juice.
They exhibit an intense blue colour when in the liquid condition or dissolved in alkali and possess a very sharp smell.
In physical chemistry he carried out many researches on the nature and process of solution, investigating in particular the thermal effects produced by the dilution of saline solutions, the variation of the specific heat of saline solutions with temperature and concentration, and the phenomena of liquid diffusion.
Stannic Chloride, SnC1 4, named by Andreas Libavius in 1605 Spiritus argenti vivi sublimate from its preparation by distilling tin or its amalgam with corrosive sublimate, and afterwards termed Spiritus fumans Libavii, is obtained by passing dry chlorine over granulated tin contained in a retort; the tetrachloride distils over as a heavy liquid, from which the excess of chlorine is easily removed by shaking with a small quantity of tin filings and re-distilling.
If the amount of liquid contained in the tissue be small in quantity the part mummifies, giving rise to what is known as " dry gangrene."
This is accomplished by a twofold agency, for while numbers of them are seized upon by the granulation phagocytes, others are broken up and dissolved by the liquid filling the granulation interspaces (Afanassieff).
Dropsy During conditions of health a certain quantity of lymphy liquid is constantly being effused into the tissues and serous cavities of the body, but in the case of the tissues it never accumulates to excess, and in that of the serous cavities it is never more than sufficient to keep them moist.
A "transudate" is a liquid having a composition resembling that of blood-serum, while the term "exudate" is applied to an effused liquid whose composition approaches that of the blood-plasma in the relationship of its solid and liquid parts, besides in most cases containing numbers of colourless blood-corpuscles.
The addition of some of the liquid squeezed out from a blood-clot, of the squeezed blood-clot itself, or of a little blood-serum, is sufficient to throw down a fibrinous coagulum (Buchanan), evidently by these substances supplying the fibrin-ferment.
The liquid of ascites sometimes contains chyle in abundance (hydrops lacteus), the escape having taken place from a ruptured receptaculum chyli.
In a given case of anasarca due to a cause acting generally, it will be found that the liquid of the pleural cavity always contains the highest percentage of proteid, that of the peritoneal cavity comes next, that of the cerebral ventricles follows this, and the liquid of the subcutaneous areolar tissue contains the lowest.
The reason of this is apparently that the negative pressure of the pleural, and partly of the peritoneal, cavity tends to aspirate a liquid relatively thicker, so to speak, than that effused where no such extraneous mechanism is at work (James).
Thus Ludwig was of opinion that the lymph-flow is dependent upon two factors, first, difference in pressure of the blood in the capillaries and the liquid in the plasma spaces outside; and, secondly, chemical interchanges setting up osmotic currents through the vessel-walls.
He traces various local dropsies to the starvation from which the tissues are suffering, the liquid accumulating in excess in accordance with the demand for more nourishment.
The liquid when soaked into a porous combustible substance like blotting-paper burns rapidly and quietly, and when struck with a hammer on a hard surface violently detonates; when a little of the liquid is spread on an anvil and struck, the portion immediately under the hammer only will, as a rule, detonate, the remainder being scattered.
Balsam of Tolu, produced by Myroxylon toluiferum, a native of Venezuela and New Granada; balsam of Peru, derived from Myroxylon Pereirae, a native of San Salvador in Central America; Mexican and Brazilian elemi, produced by various species of Icica or "incense trees," and the liquid exudation of an American species of Liquidambar, are all used as incense in America.
On reversing the motion the valve E closes and the liquid is forced through the valve F to the upper part of the cylinder.
On again raising the piston, more liquid enters the lower part of the cylinder, whilst the previously raised liquid is ejected from the delivery pipe.
On raising the piston the liquid rises in the cylinder, the valve E opening and F remaining shut.
On again F J J raising the piston the valve E opens ?g G admitting more liquid whilst F re- mains closed.
It is seen that the action is intermittent, liquid only being discharged during a down stroke, but since the driving force is that which is supplied to the piston rod, the lift is only con ditioned by the power available and by the strength of the pump. A continuous supply can be obtained by leading the delivery pipe into the base of an air chamber H, which is fitted with a discharge pipe J of such a diameter that the liquid cannot escape from it as fast as it is pumped in during a down stroke.
For the production of high vacua, see Vacuum Tube; Liquid Gases.
The glass is first dipped in this protective liquid, and when the paint has set the pattern is scratched through it with a sharp point.
The latter reacts with chlorine to give silicon nonyl-chloride Si(C2H5)3 C2H4C1, which condenses with potassium acetate to give the acetic ester of silicon nonyl alcohol from which the alcohol (a camphor-smelling liquid) may be obtained by hydrolysis.
It is a pungent-smelling liquid, which fumes strongly on exposure to air.
The liquid metals, when cooled down sufficiently, some at lower, others at higher, temperatures freeze into compact solids, endowed with the (relative) non-transparency and the lustre of their liquids.
Very thin films of liquid mercury, according to Melsens, transmit light with a violet-blue colour; also thin films of copper are said to be translucent.
By an hydraulic press a pressure of 100,000 kilos was made to act upon the disks, when the metal was seen to "flow" out of the hole like a viscid liquid.
Parallel experiments with layers of dough or sand plus some connecting material proved that the particles in all cases moved along the same tracks as would be followed by a flowing cylinder of liquid.
As liquidity might be looked upon as the ne plus ultra of softness, this is the right place for stating that, while most metals, when heated up to their melting points, pass pretty abruptly from the solid to the liquid state, platinum and iron first assume, and throughout a long range of temperatures retain, a condition of viscous semi-solidity which enables two pieces of them to be "welded" together by pressure into one continuous mass.
The metals grouped together above, under 1 and 2, act on steam pretty much as they do on liquid water.
Of metals not decomposing liquid pure water, only a few dissolve in aqueous caustic potash or soda, with evolution of hydrogen.
The chlorides AsC1 3, SbC1 3, BiC1 3, are at once decomposed by (liquid) water, with formation of oxide (As203) or oxychlorides (SbOC1, BiOCI) and hydrochloric acid.
Benzene is a colourless, limpid, highly refracting liquid, having a pleasing and characteristic odour.
Fluids again are divided into two classes, termed a liquid and a gas, of which water and air are the chief examples.
A liquid is a fluid which is incompressible or practically so, i.e.
A liquid has size but not shape.
By a change of temperature and pressure combined, a substance can in general be made to pass from one state into another; thus by gradually increasing the temperature a solid piece of ice can be melted into the liquid state of water, and the water again can be boiled off into the gaseous state as steam.
Conversely, a combination of increased pressure and lowering of temperature will, if carried far enough, reduce a gas to a liquid, and afterwards to the solid state; and nearly every gaseous substance has now undergone this operation.
Every solid substance is found to be plastic more or less, as exemplified by punching, shearing and cutting; but the plastic solid is distinguished from the viscous fluid in that a plastic solid requires a certain magnitude of stress to be exceeded to make it flow, whereas the viscous liquid will yield to the slightest stress, but requires a certain length of time for the effect to be appreciable.
Maxwell illustrates the difference between a soft solid and a hard liquid by a jelly and a block of pitch; also by the experiment of supporting a candle and a stick of sealingwax; after a considerable time the sealing-wax will be found bent and so is a fluid, but the candle remains straight as a solid.
Any additional pressure applied to the fluid will be y transmitted equally to every point in the case of a liquid; this principle of the transmissibility of 1 1 pressure was enunciated by Pascal, 1653, and FIG.
This is proved by taking any two points A and B at the same level, and considering the equilibrium of a thin prism of liquid AB, bounded by planes at A and B perpendicular to AB.
If the fluid is a liquid, it can have a free surface without diffusing itself, as a gas would; and this free surface, being a surface of zero pressure, or more generally of uniform atmospheric pressure, will also be a surface of equal pressure, and therefore a horizontal plane.
This is the characteristic distinguishing between a solid and a liquid; as, for instance, between land and water.
In this case the thrust at the lower end B must exceed the thrust at A, the upper end, by the weight of the prism of liquid; so that, denoting the cross section of the prism by a ft.
For if the liquid of density a rises to the height h and of density p to the height k, and po denotes the atmospheric pressure, the pressure in the liquid at the level of the surface of separation will be ah+Po and pk +po, and these being equal we have Uh = pk.
When the body is floating freely like a ship, the equilibrium of this liquid thrust with the weight of the ship requires that the weight of water displaced is equal to the weight of the ship and the two centres of gravity are in the same vertical line.
It is used to determine the density of a body experimentally; for if W is the weight of a body weighed in a balance in air (strictly in vacuo), and if W' is the weight required to balance when the body is suspended in water, then the upward thrust of the liquid (I) (2) "F r an Minim ' 'i n or weight of liquid displaced is W-W, so that the specific gravity (S.G.), defined as the ratio of the weight of a body to the weight of an equal volume of water, is W/(W-W').
Then dp/dz=kdp/dz = P, = Poe ik, p - po= kpo(ez Ik -1); (16) and if the liquid was incompressible, the depth at pressure p would be (p - po) 1po, so that the lowering of the surface due to compression is ke h I k -k -z= 1z 2 /k, when k is large.
For a homogeneous liquid at rest under gravity, p is proportional to the depth below the surface, i.e.
If homogeneous liquid is drawn off from a vessel so large that the motion at the free surface at a distance may be neglected, then Bernoulli's equation may be written H = PIP--z - F4 2 / 2g = P/ p +h, (8) where P denotes the atmospheric pressure and h the height of the free surface, a fundamental equation in hydraulics; a return has been made here to the gravitation unit of hydrostatics, and Oz is taken vertically upward.
When the liquid is bounded by a cylindrical surface, the motion of a vortex inside may be determined as due to a series of vorteximages, so arranged as to make the flow zero across the boundary.
Uniplanar Motion of a Liquid due to the Passage of a Cylinder through it.-A stream-function 4, must be determined to satisfy the conditions v24 =o, throughout the liquid; (I) I =constant, over any fixed boundary; (2) d,t/ds = normal velocity reversed over a solid boundary, (3) so that, if the solid is moving with velocity U in the direction Ox, d4y1ds=-Udy/ds, or 0 +Uy =constant over the moving cylinder; and 4,+Uy=41' is the stream function of the relative motion of the liquid past the cylinder, and similarly 4,-Vx for the component velocity V along Oy; and generally 1,1'= +Uy -Vx (4) is the relative stream-function, constant over a solid boundary moving with components U and V of velocity.
If the liquid is stirred up by the rotation R of a cylindrical body, d4lds = normal velocity reversed dy = - Rx- Ry ds (5) ds 4' + 2 R (x2 + y2) = Y, (6) a constant over the boundary; and 4,' is the current-function of the relative motion past the cylinder, but now V 2 4,'+2R =o, (7) throughout the liquid.
Over a concentric cylinder, external or internal, of radius r=b, 4,'=4,+ Uly =[U I - + Ui]y, (4) and 4" is zero if U 1 /U = (a 2 - b2)/b 2; (5) so that the cylinder may swim for an instant in the liquid without distortion, with this velocity Ui; and w in (I) will give the liquid motion in the interspace between the fixed cylinder r =a and the concentric cylinder r=b, moving with velocity U1.
If the liquid is reduced to rest at infinity by the superposition of an opposite stream given by w = - Uz, we are left with w = Ua2/z, (6) =U(a 2 /r) cos 0= Ua2x/(x2+y2), (7) 4, = -U(a 2 /r) sin 0= -Ua2y/( x2+y2), (8) giving the motion due to the passage of the cylinder r=a with velocity U through the origin 0 in the direction Ox.
Consequently the inertia to overcome in moving the cylinder r=b, solid or liquid, is its own inertia, increased by the inertia of liquid (a2+b2)/(a2,..b2) times the volume of the cylinder r=b; this total inertia is called the effective inertia of the cylinder r =b, at the instant the two cylinders are concentric.
When the cylinder r =a is moved with velocity U and r =b with velocity U 1 along Ox, = U b e - a,1 r +0 cos 0 - U ib2 - 2 a, (r +Q 2 ') cos 0, = - U be a2 a2 (b 2 - r) sin 0 - Uib2 b1)a, (r - ¢2 sin 0; b and similarly, with velocity components V and V 1 along Oy a 2 b2 ?= Vb,_a,(r+r) sin g -Vi b, b2 a, (r+ 2) sin 0, (17) = V b, a2 a, (b2 r) cos 0+Vi b, b, a, (r- ¢ 2) cos h; (18) and then for the resultant motion z 2zz w= (U 2 + V2)b2a a2U+Vi +b a b a2 U z Vi -(U12+V12) b2 z a2b2 Ui +VIi b 2 - a 2 U1 +Vii b 2 - a 2 z The resultant impulse of the liquid on the cylinder is given by the component, over r=a (§ 36), X =f p4 cos 0.ad0 =7rpa 2 (U b z 2 + a 2 Uib.2bz a2); (20) and over r =b Xi= fp?
The expression for w in (i) § 29 may be increased by the addition of the term im log z =-m0 + im log r, (1) representing vortex motion circulating round the annulus of liquid.
Another explanation may be given of the sidelong force, arising from the velocity of liquid past a cylinder, which is encircled by a vortex.
Taking two planes x = =b, and considering the increase of momentum in the liquid between them, due to the entry and exit of liquid momentum, the increase across dy in the direction Oy, due to elements at P and P' at opposite ends of the diameter PP', is pdy (U - Ua 2 r2 cos 20 +mr i sin 0) (Ua 2 r 2 sin 2 0+mr 1 cos 0) + pdy (- U+Ua 2 r 2 cos 2 0 +mr1 sin 0) (Ua 2 r 2 sin 2 0 -mr 1 cos 0) =2pdymUr '(cos 0 -a 2 r 2 cos 30), (8) and with b tan r =b sec this is 2pmUdo(i -a 2 b2 cos 30 cos 0), (9) and integrating between the limits 0 = 27r, the resultant, as before, is 27rpmU.
The resultant hydrostatic thrust across any diametral plane of the cylinder will be modified, but the only term in the loss of head which exerts a resultant thrust on the whole cylinder is 2mU sin Olga, and its thrust is 27rpmU absolute units in the direction Cy, to be counteracted by a support at the centre C; the liquid is streaming past r=a with velocity U reversed, and the cylinder is surrounded by a vortex.
For the liquid filling the interior of a rotating elliptic cylinder of cross section x2/a2+y2/b2 = 1, /(4) = m l (x 2 / a2 - - y2 /b 2) (5) with V21G1' =-2R =-2 m 1 (I / a2 + 21b2), 214 = m l (x2 / a2 + y2 / b2) - IR(x2+y2) = I R (x2 - y2) (a 2 - b2)/(a2+b2), cp 1 = Rxy (a 2 - b2)/(a2 +b2), w1 = cb1 +% Pli = - IiR(x +yi)2(a2b2)/(a2+b2).
The velocity of a liquid particle is thus (a 2 - b 2)/(a 2 +b 2) of what it would be if the liquid was frozen and rotating bodily with the ellipse; and so the effective angular inertia of the liquid is (a 2 -b 2) 2 /(a 2 +b 2) 2 of the solid; and the effective radius of gyration, solid and liquid, is given by k 2 = 4 (a 2 2), and 4 (a 2 For the liquid in the interspace between a and n, m ch 2(0-a) sin 2E 4) 1 4Rc 2 sh 2n sin 2E (a2_ b2)I(a2+ b2) = I/th 2 (na)th 2n; (8) and the effective k 2 of the liquid is reduced to 4c 2 /th 2 (n-a)sh 2n, (9) which becomes 4c 2 /sh 2n = s (a 2 - b 2)/ab, when a =00, and the liquid surrounds the ellipse n to infinity.
Example 3.-Analysing in this way the rotation of a rectangle filled with liquid into the two components of shear, the stream function 1//1 is to be made to satisfy the conditions v 2 /1 =0, 111+IRx 2 = IRa 2, or /11 =o when x= = a, +b1+IRx 2 = I Ra2, y ' 1 = IR(a 2 -x 2), when y = b Expanded in a Fourier series, 2 232 2 cos(2n+ I)Z?rx/a a -x 7r3 a Lim (2n+I) 3 ' (1) so that '?"
The polar equation of the cross-section being rI cos 19 =al, or r + x = 2a, (3) the conditions are satisfied by = Ur sin g -2Uairi sin IB = 2Uri sin 10(14 cos 18a'), (4) 1J/ =2Uairi sin IO = -U1/ [2a(r-x)], (5) w =-2Uaiz1, (6) and the resistance of the liquid is 2lrpaV2/2g.
Motion symmetrical about an Axis.-When the motion of a liquid is the same for any plane passing through Ox, and lies in the plane, a function ' can be found analogous to that employed in plane motion, such that the flux across the surface generated by the revolution of any curve AP from A to P is the same, and represented by 2s-4 -11'o); and, as before, if d is the increase in due to a displacement of P to P', then k the component of velocity normal to the surface swept out by PP' is such that 274=2.7ryk.PP'; and taking PP' parallel to Oy and Ox, u= -d/ydy, v=dl,t'/ydx, (I) and 1P is called after the inventor, " Stokes's stream or current function," as it is constant along a stream line (Trans.
Irrotational Motion in General.-Liquid originally at rest in a singly-connected space cannot be set in motion by a field of force due to a single-valued potential function; any motion set up in the liquid must be due to a movement of the boundary, and the motion will be irrotational; for any small spherical element of the liquid may be considered a smooth solid sphere for a moment, and the normal pressure of the surrounding liquid cannot impart to it any rotation.
Employing the equation of continuity when the liquid is homogeneous, 2 (cly - d z)?
Hill's spherical vortex, advancing through the surrounding liquid with uniform velocity.
As an application of moving axes, consider the motion of liquid filling the ellipsoidal case 2 y 2 z2 Ti + b1 +- 2 = I; (1) and first suppose the liquid be frozen, and the ellipsoid l3 (4) (I) (6) (9) (I o) (II) (12) (14) = 2 U ¢ 2, (15) rotating about the centre with components of angular velocity, 7 7, f'; then u= - y i +z'i, v = w = -x7 7 +y (2) Now suppose the liquid to be melted, and additional components of angular velocity S21, 522, S23 communicated to the ellipsoidal case; the additional velocity communicated to the liquid will be due to a velocity-function 2224_ - S2 b c 6 a 5 x b2xy, as may be verified by considering one term at a time.
An experiment was devised by Lord Kelvin for demonstrating this, in which the difference of steadiness was shown of a copper shell filled with liquid and spun gyroscopically, according as the shell was slightly oblate or prolate.
To determine the motion of a jet which issues from a vessel with plane walls, the vector I must be constructed so as to have a constant (to) (II) the liquid (15) 2, integrals;, (29) (30) (I) direction 0 along a plane boundary, and to give a constant skin velocity over the surface of a jet, where the pressure is constant.
For a cavity filled with liquid in the interior of the body, since the liquid inside moves bodily for a motion of translation only, 41 = - x, 42 = -, 43 = - z; (2) but a rotation will stir up the liquid in the cavity, so that the'x's depend on the shape of the surface.
The continuity is secured if the liquid between two ellipsoids X and X 11 moving with the velocity U and 15 1 of equation (II), is squeezed out or sucked in across the plane x=o at a rate equal to the integral flow of the velocity I across the annular area a l.
When the liquid is bounded externally by the fixed ellipsoid A = A I, a slight extension will give the velocity function 4 of the liquid in the interspace as the ellipsoid A=o is passing with velocity U through the confocal position; 4 must now take the formx(1'+N), and will satisfy the conditions in the shape CM abcdX ¢ = Ux - Ux a b x 2+X)P Bo+CoB I - C 1 (A 1 abcdX, I a1b1cl - J o (a2+ A)P and any'confocal ellipsoid defined by A, internal or external to A=A 1, may be supposed to swim with the liquid for an instant, without distortion or rotation, with velocity along Ox BA+CA-B 1 -C1 W'.
The extension to the case where the liquid is bounded externally by a fixed ellipsoid X= X is made in a similar manner, by putting 4 = x y (x+ 11), (io) and the ratio of the effective angular inertia in (9) is changed to 2 (B0-A0) (B 1A1) +.a12 - a 2 +b 2 a b1c1 a -b -b12 abc (Bo-Ao)+(B1-A1) a 2 + b 2 a1 2 + b1 2 alblcl Make c= CO for confocal elliptic cylinders; and then _, 2 A? ?
These theorems, which hold for the motion of a single rigid body, are true generally for a flexible system, such as considered here for a liquid, with one or more rigid bodies swimming in it; and they express the statement that the work done by an impulse is the product of the impulse and the arithmetic mean of the initial and final velocity; so that the kinetic energy is the work done by the impulse in starting the motion from rest.
Bryan, in which the analytical equations of motion are deduced of a perforated solid in liquid, from considerations purely hydrodynamical.
The components of force, X, Y, and N, acting on the liquid at 0, and reacting on the body, are then X=It.
The branch of hydrodynamics which discusses wave motion in a liquid or gas is given now in the articles Sound and Wave; while the influence of viscosity is considered under Hydraulics.
Also Marchlewski (in 1899) synthesized cane sugar from potassium fructosate and acetochloroglucose; and after Fischer discovered that acetochlorohexoses readily resulted from the interaction of the hexose penta-acetates and liquid hydrogen chloride, several others have been obtained.
Milk sugar, lactose, lactobiose, C12H22011, found in the milk of mammals, in the amniotic liquid of cows, and as a pathological secretion, is prepared by evaporating whey and purifying the sugar which separates by crystallization.
Pure cultures may be made and after dilution in water or other liquid can be mixed with soil to be ultimately spread over the land which is to be infected.
The method of using them most frequently adopted consists in applying them to the seeds of leguminous plants before sowing, the seed being dipped for a time in a liquid containing the bacteria.
The liquid is filtered and then crystallized.
The zinc vapour produced descends through the pipe and condenses into liquid zinc, which is collected in a ladle held under the outlet end of the pipe.
Both are easily removed by passing chlorine through the cold solution, to produce ferric and manganic salt, and then digesting the liquid with a washed precipitate of basic carbonate, produced from a small portion of the solution by means of sodium carbonate.
In many of these the application of heat is necessary to bring the substances used into the liquid state for the purpose of electrolysis, aqueous solutions being unsuitable.
The action was started in the cold, the alkali being slightly moistened to render it a conductor; then, as the current passed, heat was produced and the alkali fused, the metal being deposited in the liquid condition.
When used for ore smelting, the reduced metal and the accompanying slag were to be caught, after leaving the arc and while still liquid, in a hearth fired with ordinary fuel.
Liquid metal coming in contact with such a surface forms a crust of solidified metal over it, and this crust thickens up to a certain point, namely, until the heat from within the furnace just overbalances that lost by conduction through the solidified crust and the cathode material to the flowing water.
Titanium ch oride, TiC1 4, is obtained as a colourless filming liquid of 1.7604 sp. gr.
It forms addition compounds similar to those formed by stannic chloride, and combines with ammonia to form TiCl 4.8NH 3 and TiC1 4.6NH 3, both of which with liquid ammonia give titanamide, Ti(NH2)4.
Dittmar showed that this may be avoided by leading a fine, steady stream of dry gas - air, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, &c., according to the substance operated upon - through the liquid by means of a fine capillary tube, the lower end of which reaches to nearly the bottom of the flask.
It may be diminished by introducing clippings of platinum foil, pieces of porcelain, glass beads or garnets into the liquid.
In boiling liquids its formation may be prevented by adding paraffin wax; the wax melts and forms a ring on the surface of the liquid, which boils tranquilly in the centre.
In the Le Bel-Henninger form a series of bulbs are connected consecutively by means of syphon tubes (b) and having platinum gauzes (a) at the constrictions, so that when a certain amount of liquid collects in any one bulb it syphons over into the next lower bulb.
Of the third type is the Warren column consisting of a spiral kept at a constant temperature by a liquid bath.
The main objection to the Hempel is the retention of liquid in the beads, and the consequent inapplicability to the distillation of small quantities.
A liquid boils when its vapor pressure equals the superincumbent pressure; consequently any process which diminishes the external pressure must also lower the boiling-point.
The theory of fractional distillation, or the behaviour of liquid mixtures when heated to their boiling-points, is more complex.
Although, as is generally the case, one liquid (say A) is more volatile than the other (say B), i.e.
P 1 greater than P2, if the molecular weight of A be much less than that of B, then it is obvious that the ratio M 1 P 1 /M 2 P 2 need not be very great, and hence the less volatile liquid B would come over in fair amount.
It consists of a vertical column divided into a number of sections by horizontal plates, which are perforated so that the ascending vapours have to traverse a layer of liquid.
By electrolysing an aqueous solution of the chloride with a mercury cathode, a liquid and a solid amalgam, SrHgn, are obtained; the latter on heating gives a mixture of Sr 2 Hg 5 and SrHg 5, and on distillation an amalgam passes over, and not the metal.
In the course of his inquiries he also noticed that different bodies in equal masses require different amounts of heat to raise them to the same temperature, and so founded the doctrine of specific heats; he also showed that equal additions or abstractions of heat produced equal variations of bulk in the liquid of his thermometers.
Many electrolytic methods have been proposed for the purification of sugar; in some of them soluble anodes are used for a few minutes in weak alkaline solutions, so that the caustic alkali from the cathode reaction may precipitate chemically the hydroxide of the anode metal dissolved in the liquid, the precipitate carrying with it mechanically some of the impurities present, and thus clarifying the solution.
Let us suppose that a molten mixture of two substances A and B, which at a sufficiently high temperature form a uniform liquid, and which do not combine to form definite compounds, is slowly cooled until it becomes wholly solid.
This halt in the cooling, due to the heat evolved in the solidification of the first crystals that form in the liquid, is called the freezingpoint of the mixture; the freezing-point can generally be observed with considerable accuracy.
This process goes on until the state of the remaining liquid is represented by the point C. Now crystals of B begin to form, simultaneously with the A crystals, and the composition of the remaining liquid does not alter as the solidification progresses.
All mixtures whose temperature lies above the line ACB are wholly liquid, hence this line is often called the "liquidus "; all mixtures at temperatures below that of the horizontal line through C are wholly solid, hence this line is sometimes called the " solidus," but in more complex cases the solidus is often curved.
At temperatures between the solidus and the liquidus a mixture is partly solid and partly liquid.
In the case of this pair of metals, or indeed of any metallic alloy, we cannot see the crystals forming, nor can we easily filter them off and examine them apart from the liquid, although this has been done in a few cases.
The lighter part surrounding them was liquid before the chill; it is rich in tin.
These uniform solid solutions must not be mistaken for chemical compounds; they can, within limits, vary in composition like an ordinary liquid solution.
We thus learn that the bronzes referred to above, although chemically uniform when solid, are not so when they begin to solidify, but that the liquid deposits crystals richer in copper than itself, and therefore that the residual liquid becomes richer in tin.
For example, the compound Cu3Sn is not indicated in the freezing-point curve, and indeed a liquid alloy of this percentage does not begin to solidify by the formation of crystals of Cu 3 Sn; the liquid solidifies completely to a uniform solid solution, and only at a lower temperature does this change into crystals of the compound, the transformation being accompanied by a considerable evolution of heat.
We can then draw a continuous surface through the summits of all these ordinates, and so obtain a freezing-point surface, or liquidus; points above this surface will correspond to wholly liquid alloys.
The underground stems (rhizomes or tubers) are rich in starch; from that of Arum maculatum Portland arrowroot was formerly extensively prepared by pounding with water and then straining; the starch was deposited from the strained liquid.
Other names have been in use among the earlier chemists for this same liquid.
Pure ethyl alcohol is a colourless, mobile liquid of an agreeable odour.
An exactly similar expression holds good in hydrokinetics, provided that for the electric potential we substitute velocity potential, and for the electric force the velocity of the liquid.
The isothermals are approximately equilateral hyperbolas (pv= constant), with the axes of p and v for asymptotes, for a gas or unsaturated vapour, but coincide with the isopiestics for a saturated vapour in presence of its liquid.
The same equations apply to the case of fusion of a solid, if L is the latest heat of fusion, and v', s', v", s" the specific volumes and specific heats of the solid and liquid respectively.
Many complicated expressions have been suggested by subsequent writers in the attempt to represent the continuity of the gaseous and liquid states in a single formula, but these are of a highly empirical nature, and beyond the scope of the present inquiry.
It appears to be a quantity of the same order as the volume of the liquid, or as the limiting volume of the gas at very high pressures.
In the case of a solid or a liquid, the latent heat of isothermal expansion may often be neglected, and if the specific heat, s, be also taken as constant, we have simply 0-00 =s log e0/00.
The simplest case to consider is that of equilibrium between solid and liquid, or liquid and vapour.
The values of the corresponding functions for the liquid or solid cannot be accurately expressed, as the theoretical variation of the specific heat is unknown, but if we take the specific heat at constant pressure s to be approximately constant, and observe the small residual variation dh of the total heat, we may write F'=s'D+dh+B'.
The supernatant liquid is led into settling tanks, where a further amount of "gold is deposited, r and is then filtered through sawdust or sand, the sawdust being afterwards burnt and the gold separated from the ashes and the sand treated in the chloridizing vat.
It melts to a reddish-brown liquid, which solidifies to a yellow crystalline mass on cooling.
He determined the "elastic curve," which is formed by an elastic plate or rod fixed at one end and bent by a weight applied to the other, and which he showed to be the same as the curvature of an impervious sail filled with a liquid (lintearia).
At the same time, any excessive local rainfall is productive of difficulty and danger from the floods of liquid mud and loose boulders which sweep like an avalanche down the hill sides.
The crop is followed by a proventriculus which, in the higher Hymenoptera, forms the so-called " honey stomach," by the contraction of whose walls the solid and liquid food can be separated, passed on into the digestive stomach, or held in the crop ready for regurgitation into the mouth.
The " tongue," for example, is short and obtuse or emarginate in Colletes and Prosopis, while in all other bees it is pointed at the tip. But in Andrena and its allies it is comparatively short, while in the higher genera, such as A pis and Bombus, it is elongate and flexible, forming a most elaborate and perfect organ for taking liquid food.
Calling the weight of the empty vessel w, when filled with the liquid W, and when filled with the standard substance W l, it is obvious that W - w, and W1 - w, are the weights of equal volumes of the liquid and standard, and hence the relative density is (W - w)/(Wi - w).
The bottle is again cleaned and dried, and the operations repeated with the liquid under examination instead of water.
The bringing of the liquid to the mark is effected by removing the excess by means of a capillary.
The liquid is adjusted to the mark by withdrawing any excess from the capillary end by a strip of bibulous paper or by a capillary tube.
The specific gravity bottle may be used to determine the relative density of a solid which is available in small fragments, and is insoluble in the standard liquid.
It is readily seen that W+W i - W 2 is the weight of the liquid displaced by the solid, and therefore is the weight of an equal volume of liquid; hence the relative density is W/(W+Wi - W2).
To use the apparatus, a liquid of suitable boiling-point is placed in the jacket and brought to the boiling-point.
To complete the apparatus there is a glass jar which serves to hold the liquid experimented with.
To determine the density of any liquid it is only necessary to suspend the plummet in the liquid, and to bring the beam to its normal position by means of the riders; the relative density is read off directly from the riders.
Methods depending on the free suspension of the solid in a liquid of the same density have been especially studied by Retgers and Gossner in view of their applicability to density determinations of crystals.
Two typical forms are in use; in one a liquid is prepared in which the crystal freely swims, the density of the liquid being ascertained by the pycnometer or other methods; in the other a liquid of variable density, the so-called "diffusion column," is prepared, and observation is made of the level at which the particle comes to rest.
Its advantages rest on its high density and mobility; its main disadvantages are its liability to decomposition, the originally colourless liquid becoming dark owing to the separation of iodine, and its high coefficient of expansion.
In the "diffusion column" method, a liquid column uniformly varying in density from about 3.3 to I is prepared by pouring a little methylene iodide into a long test tube and adding five times as much benzene.
It is a colourless crystalline solid which readily fuses to a yellow liquid.
The water of the ocean, like any other liquid, absorbs a certain amount of the gases with which it is in contact, and thus sea-water contains dissolved oxygen, nitrogen and carbonic acid absorbed from the atmosphere.
The amount of carbonic acid in solution may also be increased by submarine exhalations in regions of volcanic disturbance, but it must be remembered that the critical pressure for this gas is 73 atmospheres, which is reached at a depth of 400 fathoms, so that carbonic acid produced at the bottom of the ocean must be in liquid form.
Experiments have also been made with a device in which the air-supply is obtained by the evaporation of liquid air absorbed in asbestos.
A great future was expected from its use in the liquid state, since a cylinder fitted with the necessary reducing valves would supply the gas to light a house for a considerable period, the liquid occupying about T h.
They found that if liquid acetylene in a steel bottle be heated at one point by a platinum wire raised to a red heat, the whole mass decomposes and gives rise to such tremendous pressures that no cylinder would be able to withstand them.
The solubility of the gas in various liquids, as given by different observers, is zoo Volumes of Brine Water Alcohol Paraffin Carbon disulphide Fusel oil Benzene Chloroform Acetic acid Acetone It will be seen from this table that where it is desired to collect and keep acetylene over a liquid, brine, i.e.
The chief trouble was that acetone expands a small percentage of its own volume while it is absorbing acetylene; therefore it is impossible to fill a cylinder with acetone and then force in acetylene, and still more impracticable only partly to fill the cylinder with acetone, as in that case the space above the liquid would be filled with acetylene under high pressure, and would have all the disadvantages of a cylinder containing compressed acetylene only.
Frank of Charlottenburg, who finds that a concentrated solution of cuprous chloride in an acid, the liquid being made into a paste with kieselgiihr, is the most effective.
The names of the species, both English and scientific, have been bestowed from its capacity of successfully imitating the cry of many other birds, to say nothing of other sounds, in addition to uttering notes of its own which possess a varied range and liquid fullness of tone that are unequalled, according to its admirers, even by those of the nightingale.
Thomson (Lord Kelvin) to form a theory of vortex atoms in a homogeneous, incompressible and frictionless liquid."
Roughly speaking, it is found that there are three main types of molecular motion corresponding to the three states of matter - solid, liquid and gaseous.
The substance attains to a perfectly liquid state as soon as the energy of motion of the molecules is such that there is a constant rearrangement of position among them.
The average energy of the molecules of the liquid is accordingly lowered by evaporation.
When a liquid undergoing evaporation is contained in a closed vessel, a molecule which has left the liquid will, after a certain 1 Other processes also help in the conduction of heat, especially in substances which are conductors of electricity.
When a stage is reached such that the number of molecules lost to the liquid by evaporation is exactly equal to that regained by condensation, we have a liquid in equilibrium with its own vapour.
If the whole liquid becomes vaporized before this stage is attained, a state will exist in which the vessel is occupied solely by free molecules, describing paths which are disturbed only by encounters with other free molecules or the sides of the vessel.
At normal temperature and pressure the density of a substance in the gaseous state is of the order of one-thousandth of the density of the same substance in the solid or liquid state.
It follows that the average distance apart of the molecules in the gaseous state is roughly ten times as great as in the solid or liquid state, and hence that in the gaseous state the molecules are at distances apart which are large compared with their linear dimensions.
It would appear, however, that the production of power alcohol within the British Empire from waste materials, which can be collected and treated at low cost, offers the best chance of the solution of the problem of the supply to the United Kingdom of an alternative liquid fuel for internal-combustion engines.
It was provided with a yard scale calculated with reference to height of site, and elevation was read by the intersection of the edge of the liquid with the graduation for the particular range.
In some cases the operation of filtration is performed for the sake of removing impurities from the filtrate or liquid filtered, as in the purification of water for drinking purposes; in others the aim is to recover and collect the solid matter, as when the chemist filters off a precipitate from the liquid in which it is suspended.
The liquid to be filtered is poured into the cone, preferably down a glass rod upon the sides of the funnel to prevent splashing and to preserve the apex of the filter-paper, and passes through the paper, upon which the solid matter is retained.
To accelerate the rate of filtration various devices are resorted to, such as lengthening the tube below the filtering material, increasing the pressure on the liquid being filtered, or decreasing it in the receiver of the filtrate.
The crucible is then removed from the rubber support, weighed and replaced; the liquid is filtered through in the ordinary way; and the crucible with its contents is again removed, dried, ignited and weighed.
A crude method consists of straining the liquid through cotton or other cloth, either stretched on wooden frames or formed into long narrow bags ("bag-filters").
Occasionally filtration into a vacuum is practised, but more often, as in filterpresses, the liquid is forced under pressure, either hydrostatic or obtained from a force-pump or compressed air, into a series of chambers partitioned off by cloth, which arrests the solids, but permits the passage of the liquid portions.
The material is placed in a perforated cage or "basket," which is enclosed in an outer casing, and when the cage is rapidly rotated by suitable gearing, the liquid portions are forced out into the external casing.
After fusion, the mass is finely powdered and treated with cold dilute hydrochloric acid; and when action has finished, nitric and sulphuric acids are added, the precipitated barium sulphate removed, the liquid distilled and the osmium precipitated as sulphide.
The tetroxide, 0s04, can be easily reduced to the metal by dissolving it in hydrochloric acid and adding zinc, mercury, or an alkaline formate to the liquid, or by passing its vapour, mixed with carbon dioxide and monoxide, through a red-hot porcelain tube.
The iodide combines with liquid ammonia to form ZrI 4.8NH 3 i and with ether to give Zr14.4(C2H5)20.
The chief exception is in the use of liquid measure; this is of importance from the educational point of view (§ 12).
The failure seems (§ 2) to be due to difficulty in realizing the numerical expression of an area or a solid in terms of a specified unit, while the same difficulty does not arise in the case of linear measure or liquid measure, where the number of units can be ascertained by direct counting.
We may easily realise its transmission through a solid by putting the ear against a table and scratching the wood at some distance, and through a liquid by keeping both ears under water in a bath and tapping the side of the bath.
But the waves on the surface of a liquid, which are not of the sound kind, are both longitudinal and transverse, the compound nature being easily seen in watching the motion of a floating particle.
It consists of a cylindrical chest of brass, the base of which is pierced at its centre with an opening in which is fixed a brass tube projecting outwards, and Siren of intended for supplying the cavity of the cylinder with Cagniard de compressed air or other gas, or even liquid.
About 15% of a volatile oil is obtained by distilling cubebs with water; after rectification with water, or on keeping, this deposits rhombic crystals of camphor of cubebs, C 15 H 26 O; cubebene, the liquid portion, has the formula C15HV4.
According to Skeat, the origin is to be found in the name for a cask or liquid measure appearing in various forms in several Teutonic languages, in Dutch oxhooft (modern okshoofd), Dan.
As the current flows it decomposes the liquid and liberates oxygen and hydrogen gases, which escape.
The quantity of electricity which is passed is estimated by the diminution in the volume of the liquid.
As soon as the plate has lost a certain amount of weight corresponding to the value of the electric energy represented by the coin, the plate rises out of the liquid and cuts off the current.
It is obtained as rhombic plates by mixing dilute solutions of calcium chloride and sodium phosphate, and passing carbon dioxide into the liquid.
Liquid ammonia possesses strong ionizing powers, and solutions of salts in liquid ammonia have been much studied.
By the addition of sodium amalgam to a concentrated solution of ammonium chloride, the so-called ammonium amalgam is obtained as a spongy mass which floats on the surface of the liquid; it decomposes readily at ordinary temperatures into ammonia and hydrogen; it does not reduce silver and gold salts, a behaviour which distinguishes it from the amalgams of the alkali metals, and for this reason it is regarded by some chemists as being merely mercury inflated by gaseous ammonia and hydrogen.
The problem is whether we can represent the facts more simply by supposing the intervening space to be occupied by a medium which transmits physical actions, after the manner that a continuous material medium, solid or liquid, transmits mechanical disturbance.
The other course is to consider matter as formed of ultimate atoms, each the nucleus or core of an intrinsic modification impressed on the surrounding region of the aether; this might conceivably be of the nature of vortical motion of a liquid round a ring-core, thus giving a vortex atom, or of an intrinsic strain of some sort radiating from a core, which would give an electric atom.
It may be obtained crystallized in the quadratic system by melting in a sealed tube containing hydrogen, allowed to cool partially, and then pouring off the still liquid portion by inverting the tube.
Sodium trioxide, Na 2 O 31 is said to be formed from an excess of oxygen and a solution of sodammonium in liquid ammonia.
It is a colourless transparent glass mass, which dissolves in boiling water to form a thick liquid.
When kept for some time in sealed tubes it changes to a yellowish liquid, from which a yellow flocculent substance gradually separates, and finally it suddenly solidifies to a dark red mass, which appears to be a polymeric form.
A pellet of potassium when thrown on water at once bursts out into a violet flame and the burning metal fizzes about on the surface, its extremely high temperature precluding absolute contact with the liquid, exce p t at the very end, when the last remnant, through loss of temperature, is wetted by the water and bursts with explosive violence.
When the oxide-free metal is heated gently in dry ammonia it is gradually transformed into a blue liquid, which on cooling freezes into a yellowish-brown or flesh-coloured solid, potassamide, KNH 2.
The residual oily liquid is then poured out into a polished iron tray, or into an iron mould to produce the customary form of "sticks," and allowed to cool.
It is a dark yellow powder, which fuses at a high temperature, the liquid on cooling depositing shining tabular crystals; at a white heat it loses oxygen and yields the monoxide.
Iodine dissolves in an aqueous solution of the salt to form a dark brown liquid, which on evaporation over sulphuric acid gives black acicular crystals of the tri-iodide, K1 3.
The carbonate, being insoluble in strong alcohol (and many other liquid organic compounds), is much used for dehydration of the corresponding aqueous preparations.
It forms a yellowishwhite deliquescent mass, which melts on heating, and at a sufficiently high temperature it yields a dark red liquid.
The last constitutes a valuable article of commerce in the form of copra, from which palm oil is expressed; the natives make use of this oil in made dishes, and also of the soft half-green kernel and the coco-nut " milk," the clear liquid within the nut.
The junction of the edges of the silver and copper-blend was treated with a flux of borax and the whole was submitted to the heat of a furnace until the silver was seen to be melting, when it was instantly removed, care being taken to avoid pressing upon the upper or lower surfaces, as the liquid silver in that case would have been squeezed out from between the two enclosing plates and the operation ruined.