Linnaeus sentence example

linnaeus
  • Of those travellers then the first to be here especially named is Marsigli, the fifth volume of whose Danubius Pannonico-Mysicus is devoted to the birds he met with in the valley of the Danube, and appeared at the Hague in 1725, followed by a French translation in 1744.8 Most of the many pupils whom Linnaeus sent to foreign countries submitted their discoveries to him, but Kalm, Hasselqvist and Osbeck published separately their respective travels in North America, the Levant and China.
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  • Aristotle seems to recognize eight principal groups: (1) Gampsonyches, approximately equivalent to the Accipitres of Linnaeus; (2) Scolecophaga, containing most of what would now be called Oscines, excepting indeed the (3) Acanthophaga, composed of the goldfinch, siskin and a few others; (4) Scnipophaga, the woodpeckers; (5) Peristeroide, or pigeons; (6) Schizopoda, (7) Steganopoda, and (8) Barea, nearly the same respectively as the Linnaean Grallae, Anseres and Gallinae.
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  • The purely artificial character of the System of Linnaeus and his successors had been perceived, and men were at a loss to find a substitute for it.
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  • 2 The names of the genera are, he tells us, for the most part those of Linnaeus, as being the best-known, though not the best.
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  • He also split his Grallatores and Natatores (practically identical with the Grallae and Anseres of Linnaeus) each into four sections; but he failed to see - as on his own principles he ought to have seen - that each of these sections was at least equivalent to almost any one of his other " Ordres."
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  • The minute insects included in it, which haunt blossoms and leaves, are fairly well known to gardeners by the name Thrips, a generic term used by Linnaeus for the four species of the group which he had examined and relegated to the order Hemiptera.
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  • Considering that this book was written before the time of Haller, or Bonnet, or Linnaeus, or Hutton, it surely deserves more respectful consideration than it usually receives.
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  • Aristotle's term was adopted by Linnaeus (1758), and has been universally used by zoologists.
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  • But greater value lies in his generic or sub-generic divisions, which, taken as a whole, are far more natural than those of Linnaeus, and consequently capable of better diagnosis.
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  • He proclaimed the variability of species in opposition to the views of Linnaeus as to their fixity, and moreover supposed that this variability arose in part by degradation.
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  • This was his General Synopsis of Birds, and, though formed generally on the model of Linnaeus, greatly diverged in some respects therefrom.
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  • Indeed it is, as the latter says, that of Linnaeus, improved by Cuvier, with an additional modification of Illiger'sall these three authors having totally ignored any but external characters.
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  • Herein the author first assigned anatomical reasons for rearranging the order Anseres of Linnaeus and Natatores of Illiger, who, so long before as 1811, had proposed a new distribution of it into six families, the definitions of which, as was his wont, he had drawn from external characters only.
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  • Ray was the first to formulate that definite conception of the species which was adopted by Linnaeus and emphasized by his binominal nomenclature.
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  • In 1735 appeared the first edition of the Systema naturae of Linnaeus, in which the "Insecta" form a group equivalent to the Arthropoda of modern zoologists, and are divided into seven orders, whose names - Coleoptera, Diptera, Lepidoptera, &c., founded on the nature of the wings - have become firmly established.
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  • Linnaeus described five or six species, de C an doll e thirteen.
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  • The original herbarium of Linnaeus is in the possession of the Linnaean Society of London.
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  • The Insecta of Linnaeus was a group exactly equivalent to the Arthropoda founded a hundred years later by Siebold and Stannius.
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  • The genus Pelecanus as instituted by Linnaeus included the 1 This caution was not neglected by the prudent, even so long ago as Sir Thomas Browne's days; for he, recording the occurrence of a pelican in Norfolk, was careful to notice that about the same time one of the pelicans kept by the king (Charles II.) in St James's Park, had been lost.
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  • - The work of the collector and systematist: exemplified by Linnaeus and his predecessors, by Cuvier, Agassiz, Haeckel.
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  • The most prominent name between that of Gesner and Linnaeus in the history of systematic zoology is that of John Ray (1628-1705).
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  • Two years after Ray's death Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778) was born.
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  • Linnaeus taught zoology and botany as branches of knowledge to be studied for their own intrinsic interest.
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  • Apart from his special discoveries in the anatomy of plants and animals, and his descriptions of new species, the great merit of Linnaeus was his introduction of a method of enumeration and classification which may be said to have created systematic zoology and botany in their present form, and establishes his name for ever as the great organizer, the man who recognized a great practical want in the use of language and supplied it.
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  • The subject was practically dormant for nearly a century and a half, largely owing to the dominance of classificatory botany under the in.fluen.ce of Linnaeus.
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  • Consequently the modern order Aptera comprises only a very small proportion of Linnaeus's " Aptera " - the spring-tails and bristle-tails, wingless Hexapoda that stand evidently at a lower grade of development than the bulk of the class.
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  • The great advance in modern zoology as regards the classification of the Hexapoda lies in the treatment of a heterogeneous assembly which formed Linnaeus's order Neuroptera.
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  • The chief merit of the latter work lies in its forty plates, whereon the heads and feet of many birds are indifferently figured .2 But, while the successive editions of Linnaeus's great work were revolutionizing natural history, and his example of precision in language producing excellent effect on scientific writers, several other authors were advancing the study of ornithology in a very different way - a way that pleased the eye even more than his labours were pleasing the mind.
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  • Unfortunately he was too soon in the field to avail himself, even had he been so minded, of the convenient mode of nomenclature brought into use by Linnaeus.
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  • He took many liberties with the details of Linnaeus's work, but left the classification, at least of the birds, as it was - a few new genera excepted.'
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  • The " Accipitres " are divided into two groups, Diurnal and Nocturnal; but the first of these divisions is separated into three sections: (1) the Vultures of the New World, (2) those of the Old World, and (3) the genus Falco of Linnaeus.
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  • Lamarck at the same time founded the class Crustacea for the lobsters, crabs and water-fleas, also until then included in the order Aptera of Linnaeus.
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  • In the Tableau Elementaire, published in 1795, Cuvier adopts Linnaeus's term in its earlier sense, but uses the French word "Reptiles," already brought into use by Brisson, as the equivalent of Amphibia.
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  • Previously to Linnaeus long many-worded names had been used, sometimes with one additional adjective, sometimes with another, so that no true names were fixed and accepted.
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  • Linnaeus by his binomial system made it possible to write and speak with accuracy of any given species of plant or animal.
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  • Between Linnaeus and Cuvier there are no very great names; but under the stimulus given by the admirable method and system of Linnaeus observation and description of new forms from all parts of the world, both recent and fossil, accumulated.
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  • The species of Linnaeus were supposed to represent a series of steps in a scale of ascending complexity, and it was thought possible thus to arrange the animal kingdom in a single series - the orders within the classes succeeding one another in regular gradation, and the classes succeeding one another in a similar rectilinear progression.
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  • The characters of the six classes Cor biloculare, biauritum; Sanguine calido, rubro: Cor uniloculare, uniauritum; 1 Sanguine frigido, rubro: S Cor uniloculare, inauritum; Sanie frigida, albida: are thus given by Linnaeus: - viviparis, Mammalibus; oviparis, Avibus.
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  • 1 The anatomical error in reference to the auricles of Reptiles and Batrachians on the part of Linnaeus is extremely interesting, since it shows to what an extent the most patent facts may escape the observation of even the greatest observers, and what an amount of repeated dissection and unprejudiced attention has been necessary before the structure of the commonest animals has become known.
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  • The enumeration of orders above given will enable the reader to form some conception of the progress of knowledge relating to the lower forms of life during the fifty odd years which intervened between Linnaeus and Lamarck.
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  • The number of genera recognized by Lamarck is more than ten times as great as that recorded by Linnaeus.
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  • We have mentioned Lamarck before his great contemporary Cuvier because, in spite of his valuable philosophical doctrine of development, he was, as compared with Cuvier and estimated as a systematic zoologist, a mere enlargement and logical outcome of Linnaeus.
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  • It is not easy to exaggerate the service rendered by Owen to the study of zoology by the introduction of this apparently small piece of verbal mechanism; it takes place with the classificatory terms of Linnaeus.
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  • But the increase of size which constitutes growth is the result of a process of molecular intussusception, and therefore differs altogether from the process of growth by accretion, which may be observed in crystals and is effected purely by the external addition of new matter - so that, in the well-known aphorism of Linnaeus, the word "grow" as applied to stones signifies a totally different process from what is called "growth" in plants and animals.
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  • The Smaland Museum has antiquarian and numismatic collections, a library and a bust of Linnaeus.
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  • The leaf, however, corresponded with the description given of the true cinnamon by Linnaeus.
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  • This word, applied in the form of KaKros by the ancient Greeks to some prickly plant, was adopted by Linnaeus as the name of a group of curious succulent or fleshy-stemmed plants, most of them prickly and leafless, some of which produce beautiful flowers, and are now so popular in our gardens that the name has become familiar.
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  • As applied by Linnaeus, the name Cactus is almost conterminous with what is now regarded as the natural order Cactaceae, which embraces several modern genera.
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  • Peireskia Aculeata, or Barbadoes gooseberry, the Cactus peireskia of Linnaeus, differs from the rest in having woody stems and leaf-bearing branches, the leaves being somewhat fleshy, but otherwise of the ordinary laminate character.
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  • The order was founded by Linnaeus (Systema Naturae, 1 735), and is still recognized by Terzi.._.
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  • Linnaeus divided the Hymenoptera into two sections - the Terebrantia, whose females possess a cutting or piercing ovipositor, and the Aculeata, in which the female organ is modified into a sting.
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  • The four succeeding sections, in which the ovipositor is modified into a sting (always exserted from the tip of the abdomen) and the trochanters are with few exceptions simple, form the Aculeata of Linnaeus.
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  • The name was first used by Linnaeus (1735), who derived it from the half-coriaceous and half-membranous condition of the forewing in many members of the order.
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  • In many respects this species, the Tringa pugnax of Linnaeus and the Machetes pugnax of modern ornithologists, is one of the most singular in existence.
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  • Such stories obtained credence from the fact that so late as the year 1760, when Linnaeus named the principal species apoda, or "footless," no perfect specimen had been seen in Europe, the natives who sold the skins to coast traders invariably depriving them of feet and wings.
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  • One of the earliest attempts at a methodical arrangement of plants was made in Florence by Andreas Caesalpinus (1519-1603), who is called by Linnaeus Primus verus systematicus.
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  • The system of Tournefort was for a long time adopted on the continent, but was ultimately displaced by that of Carl von Linne, or Linnaeus (q.v.; 1707-1778).
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  • The system of Linnaeus was founded on characters derived from the stamens and pistils, the so-called sexual organs of the flower, and hence it is often called the sexual system.
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  • Linnaeus himself claimed nothing higher for it.
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  • His uncle, Bernard de Jussieu, had adopted the principles of Linnaeus's Fragmenta in his arrangement of the plants in the royal garden at the Trianon.
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  • Linnaeus took up the subject in the inauguration of his sexual system.
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  • Soon after the promulgation of Linnaeus's method of classification, the attention of botanists was directed to the study of Cryptogamic plants, and the valuable work of Johann Hedwig (1730-1799) on the reproductive organs of mosses made its appearance in 1782.
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  • Linnaeus also studied the periodical movements of flowers and leaves, and referred to the assumption of the night-position as the sleep-movement.
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  • In botany the custom followed by John Ray (1627-1705) in his Historia Plantarum and in other works was continued in 1760 by Linnaeus in his Systema Naturae.
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  • Linnaeus, even in his latest publication, placed it in the genus Hirundo; but the interleaved and annotated copies of his Systema naturae in the Linnean Society's library show the species marked for separation and insertion in the Order Grallae - Pratincola trachelia being the name by which he had meant to designate it in any future edition.
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  • The wood of the fly honeysuckle is extremely hard, and the clear portions between the joints of the stems, when their pith has been removed, were stated by Linnaeus to be utilized in Sweden for making tobacco-pipes.
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  • Willughby in 1676 it was the name given by Yorkshiremen to the bird popularly known in England as the " Summer-Snipe," - the Tringa hypoleucos of Linnaeus and the Totanus hypoleucos of later writers, - but probably even in Willughby's time the name was of much wider signification.
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  • In the present article, for the sake of convenience, all the insects which have been regarded by Linnaeus and others as "Neuroptera " are included, but they are distributed into the orders agreed upon by the majority of modern observers, and short characters of these orders and their principal families are given.
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  • The shell-bearing forms belonging to this group which were known to Linnaeus were placed by him (in 1748) in the third order of his class Vermes under the name " Testacea," whilst the Echinoderms, Hydroids and Annelids, with the naked Mollusca, formed his second order termed " Zoophyta."
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  • This office he relinquished in 1765, and travelled in Denmark and Sweden, where he studied the methods of working the mines, and made the acquaintance of Linnaeus at Upsala.
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  • But even Linnaeus could not clear himself of the confusion, and unhappily misapplied the name Meleagris, undeniably belonging to the guinea-fowl, as the generic term for what we now know as the turkey, adding thereto as its specific designation the word gallopavo, taken from the Gallopava of C. Gesner, who, though not wholly free from error, was less mistakep than some of his contemporaries and even successors.'
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  • It is the Scolopax gallinago of Linnaeus, but by later writers it has been separated from that genus, the type of which is the Woodcock, and has been named Gallinago caelestis.
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  • C. Taylor remarked (Ibis, 18 59, p. 51), that the buff-backed heron, Ardea bubulcus, was made by the tourists' dragomans to do duty for the "sacred ibis," and this seems to be no novel practice, since by it, or something like it, Hasselqvist was misled, and through him Linnaeus.
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  • Linnaeus seems to have been under a misapprehension when he applied to it FIG.
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  • Working on these lines, and attaching special importance to common descent, naturalists applied the term with more and more precision, until Linnaeus, in his Philosophia botanica, gave the aphorism, "species tot sunt diversae, quot diversae formae ab initio sunt creatae" - "just so many species are to be reckoned as there were forms created at the beginning."
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  • Linnaeus' invention of binomial nomenclature for designating species served systematic biology admirably, but at the same time, by attaching preponderating importance to a particular grade in classification, crystallized the doctrine of fixity.
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  • Thus "Canis vulpes Linnaeus" is the specific designation of the common fox, Canis being the generic term common to dogs, wolves and so forth, and vulpes indicating the particular species, whilst the attached author's name indicates that Linnaeus first named the species in question.
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  • The lion belongs to the genus Fells of Linnaeus (for the characters and position of which see Carnivora), and differs from the tiger and leopard in its uniform colouring, and from all the other Felidae in the hair of the top of the head, chin and neck, as far back as the shoulder, being not only much longer, but also differently disposed from the hair elsewhere, being erect or directed forwards, and so constituting the characteristic ornament called the mane.
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  • The wings are short and rounded, and in some forms the feathers ' Brisson and after him Linnaeus confounded this bird, which they had never seen, with the Trumpeter.
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  • The plant was originally described by Linnaeus as one species, Thea sinensis.
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  • Later Linnaeus established two species, viz.
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  • This bird was long thought to be the Sitta europaea of Linnaeus; but that is now admitted to be the northern form, with the lower parts white, and its buff-breasted representative in central, southern and western Europe, including England, is known as Sitta caesia.
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  • Though best known for his artificial (or sexual) system, Linnaeus was impressed with the importance of elaborating a natural system of arrangement in which plants should be arranged according to their true affinities.
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  • In his Philosophia Botanica (1751) Linnaeus grouped the genera then known into sixty-seven orders (fragmenta), all except five of which are Angiosperms. He gave names to these but did not characterize them or attempt to arrange them in larger groups.
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  • The absence of differentiation into root, stem and leaf which prevails among seaweeds, seems, for example, to have led Linnaeus to employ the term in the Genera Plantarum for a sub-class of Cryptogamia, the members of which presented this character in a greater or less degree.
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  • Of the fifteen genera included by Linnaeus among algae, not more than six - viz.
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  • The excluded genera are distributed among the liverworts, lichens and fungi; but notwithstanding the great advance in knowledge since the time of Linnaeus, the difficulty of deciding what limits to assign to the group to be designated Algae still remains.
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  • To Turner's name, repeated by Gesner and other authors, we owe the introduction by Linnaeus of Sterna into scientific nomenclature.
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  • 2 Linnaeus's diagnosis of his Sterna hirundo points to his having had an " arctic " tern before him; but it is certain that he did not suspect that specific appellation (already used by other writers for the " common " tern) to cover a second species.
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  • In 1717 Louis Lemery exhibited to the Paris Academy of Sciences a stone from Ceylon which attracted light bodies; and Linnaeus in mentioning his experiments gives the stone the name of lapis electricus.
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  • The library stands in the beautiful park of Humlegard (hop-garden), in which is also a statue of Linnaeus.
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  • Among the scientific and literary societies are to be noted the Swedish Academy, consisting of 18 members, which was instituted in 1786 by Gustavus III., after the pattern of the Academie Frangaise, for the cultivation of the Swedish language and literature; and the Academy of Science, founded in 1739 by Linnaeus and others for the promotion of the natural sciences.
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  • In science Linnaeus, or Karl von Linne (1707-1778), was the name of greatest genius in the whole century; but he wrote almost entirely in Latin.
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  • Botanists are agreed that the only species in general cultivation in Great Britain is the one which Bauhin, in his Phytopinax, p. 89 (1596), called Solanum tuberosum esculentum, a name adopted by Linnaeus (omitting the last epithet), and employed by all botanical writers.
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  • The name Thuja, which was adopted by Linnaeus from the Thuya of Tournefort, seems to be derived from the Greek word Obos, signifying sacrifice, probably because the resin procured from the plant was used as incense.
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  • There are numerous varieties of this plant in cultivation, one of the most remarkable of which is the variety pendula, with long, flexible, hanging, cord-like branches; it was discovered in Japan about 1776 by Carl Peter Thunberg, a pupil of Linnaeus, who made valuable collections at the Cape of Good Hope, in the Dutch East Indies and in Japan.
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  • The general name Tilia europaea, the name given by Linnaeus to the European lime, includes several well-marked sub-species, often regarded as distinct species.
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  • Another very curious property of this bird, which was observed by Jacquin, who brought it to the notice of Linnaeus, 2 is its emphysematous condition - there being a layer of air-cells between the skin and the muscles, so that on any part of the body being pressed a crackling sound is heard.
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  • Latham's name for this species is " Faithful Jacana "- he supposing it to belong to the genus in which Linnaeus placed it.
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  • The acknowledgment of man's structural similarity with the anthropomorphous species nearest approaching him, viz.: the higher or anthropoid apes, had long before Prichard's day been made by Linnaeus, who in his Systema Naturae (1735) grouped them together as the highest order of Mammalia, to which he gave the name of Primates.
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  • To Linnaeus, however, they represented normal .anthropomorpha or man-like creatures, vouched for by visitors to remote parts of the world.
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  • He had not heard of the tailed men till he met with them in the work of Linnaeus, with whom he entered into correspondence, with the result that he enlarged his range of mankind with races of sub-human type.
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  • Linnaeus's primarily zoological classification of man did not, however, suit the philosophical opinion of the time, which responded more readily to the systems represented by Buffon, and later by Cuvier, in which the human mind and soul formed an impassable wall of partition between him and other mammalia, so that the definition of man's position in the animal world was treated as not belonging to zoology, but to metaphysics and theology.
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  • It has to be borne in mind that Linnaeus, plainly as he recognized the likeness of the higher simian and the human types, does not seem to have entertained the thought of accounting for this similarity by common descent.
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  • The present drawing, which under the authority of Linnaeus shows an anthropomorphic series from which the normal type of man, the Homo sapiens, is conspicuously absent, brings zoological similarity into view without suggesting kinship to account for it.
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  • Singularly enough, the sexual system of Linnaeus (1735) served to mark off more distinctly the true grasses from these allies, since very nearly all of the former then known fell under his Triandria Digynia, whilst the latter found themselves under his other classes and orders.
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  • In 1712 Kaempfer published a drawing of a Japanese tree, which he described under the name Ginkgo; this term was adopted in 1771 by Linnaeus, who spoke of Kaempfer's plant as Ginkgo biloba.
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  • Linnaeus included them in his group of false fossils (Graptolithus = written stone).
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  • The Teal is the Anas crecca of Linnaeus, Nettion crecca of modern ornithology, and the smallest of the European Anatidae, as well as one of the most abundant and highly esteemed for the table.
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  • The class Insecta of Linnaeus (1758) was coextensive with the Arthropoda of modern zoologists.
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  • In the name Diomedea, assigned to them by Linnaeus, there is a reference to the mythical metamorphosis of the companions of the Greek warrior Diomedes into birds.
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  • But the word " Insect " had become limited since the days of Linnaeus to the Hexapod Pterygote forms, to the exclusion of his Aptera.
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  • Lamarck's penetrating genius is chiefly responsible for the shrinkage of the word Insecta, since it was he who, forty years after Linnaeus's death, set up and named the two great classes Crustacea and Arachnida (included by Linnaeus under Insecta as the order " Aptera "), assigning to them equal rank with the remaining Insecta of Linnaeus, for which he proposed the very appropriate class-name " Hexapoda."
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  • The Oyster-catcher of Europe is the Haematopus 2 ostralegus or Linnaeus, belonging to the group now called Limicolae, and is generally included in the family Charadriidae; though some writers have placed it in one of its own, Haematopodidae, chiefly on account of its peculiar bill - a long thin wedge, ending in a vertical edge.
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  • The older literature on the Lapps received a notable addition by the discovery in 1896, among the letters of Linnaeus preserved in the British Museum, of a MS. diary of a journey made in 1695 to the north of Swedish Lappmark by Olof Rudbeck the younger.
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  • Linnaeus applied the Latin term Vermes to the modern zoological divisions Mollusca, Coelentera, Protozoa, Tunicata, Echinoderma (qq.v.), as well as to those forms which more modern zoologists have recognized as worms. As a matter of convenience the term Vermes or Vermidea is still employed, for instance in the International Catalogue of Zoological Literature and the Zoological Record, to cover a number of wormlike animals.
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  • Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus.
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  • Linnaeus recognized only one species of earthworm and named it Lumbricus terrestris.
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  • Linnaeus's copy of the book evinces the great assiduity with which he studied it; he laboured throughout to remedy the defect of the want of synonyms, sub-joined his own generic names to nearly every species, and particularly indicated the two remarkable passages where the germination of plants and their sexual distinctions are explained.
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  • The third, John, became chaplain at Gibraltar, where he accumulated much material for a work on the natural history of the rock and its neighbourhood, and carried on a scientific correspondence, not only with his eldest brother, but with Linnaeus.
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  • The encyclopaedic interest in nature, although in White's day culminating in the monumental synthesis of Buffon, was also disappearing before the analytic specialism inaugurated by Linnaeus; yet the catholic interests of the simple naturalist of Selborne fully reappear a century later in the greater naturalist of Down, Charles Darwin.
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  • The pie belongs to the same family of birds as the crow, and is the Corvus pica of Linnaeus, the Pica caudata, P. melanoleuca, or P. rustica of modern ornithologists, who have recognized it as forming a distinct genus, but the number of species thereto belonging has been a fruitful source of discussion.
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  • As shown by Burmeister in his historical review (1834), these animals, comprised by Linnaeus in the genus Lepas, first received a more comprehensive title from Cuvier, who called them Cirrhopoda, a word strictly meaning tawnyfooted.
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  • The cacao tree was named by the 17th century Swedish naturalist, Linnaeus.
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  • The impulse given to the study of natural history by the example of Linnaeus; the results brought back by Sir Joseph Banks, Dr Solander and the two Forsters, who accompanied Cook in his voyages of discovery; the studies of De Saussure in the Alps, and the lists of desiderata in physical geography drawn up by that investigator, combined to ' Printed in Schriften zur physischen Geographie, vol.
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  • It is the Tringa interpres 2 of Linnaeus and Strepsilas interpres of most later writers, and is remarkable as being perhaps the most cosmopolitan of birds; for, though properly belonging to the northern hemisphere, there is scarcely a sea-coast in the world on which it may not occur: it has been obtained from Spitzbergen to the Strait of Magellan and from Point Barrow to the Cape of Good Hope and New Zealand - examples from the southern hemisphere being, however, almost invariably in a state of plumage that shows, if not immaturity, yet an ineptitude for reproduction.
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  • Linnaeus's Neuroptera exhibit great diversity in these respects, and the insects included in it are now therefore distributed into a number of distinct orders.
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  • In thus acting he proved himself a true follower of his great countryman Linnaeus; but, without disparagement of his efforts in this respect, it must be said that when internal and external characters appeared to be in conflict he gave, perhaps with unconscious bias, a preference to the latter, for he belonged to a school of zoologists whose natural instinct was to believe that such a.
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  • The Mayflies belong to the Ephemeridae, a remarkable family of winged insects, included by Linnaeus in his order Neuroptera, which derive their scientific name from E4n cpos, in allusion to their very short lives.
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  • Whilst the race of collectors and systematizers culminated in the latter part of the 18th century in Linnaeus, a new type of student made its appearance in such men as John Hunter and other anatomists, who, not satisfied with the superficial observations of the popular " zoologists," set themselves to work to examine anatomically the whole animal kingdom, and to classify its members by aid of the results of such profound study.
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  • Linnaeus himself recognized the purely subjective character of his larger groups; for him species were, however, objective: " there are, " he said, " just so many species as in the beginning the Infinite Being created."
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  • 3 This fanciful trivial name was given by Linnaeus on the supposition (which later observations do not entirely confirm) that in Sweden the hens of the species migrated southward in autumn, leaving the cocks to lead a celibate life till spring.
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  • The term and its antonym were maintained by Linnaeus with the same sense, but with restricted application, in the names of the orders of his class Didynamia.
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  • Closely related to this bird is another first described by Linnaeus as a species of Parra (see Jacana), to which group it certainly does not belong, but separated therefrom by Illiger to form the genus Chauna, and now known as C. chavaria, very generally in English as the " Crested Screamer," a name which was first bestowed on the Seriema.
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  • Stannius renovated the group Vermes of Linnaeus, and placed in it the Chaetopods and the parasitic worms of Cuvier, besides the Rotifers and Turbellarian worms.1 The result of the knowledge gained in the last quarter of the 19th century has been to discredit altogether the group Vermes (see Worm), thus set up and so largely accepted by German writers even at the present day.
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  • As it was to a cat of the latter kind that Linnaeus gave the name of Felis catus, Pocock urges that this title is not available for the European wild cat, which he would call Felis sylvestris.
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  • During the rapid development of physical geography many branches of the study of nature, which had been included in the cosmography of the early writers, the physiography of Linnaeus and even the Erdkunde of Ritter, had been as so much advanced by the labours of specialists that their connexion was apt to be forgotten.
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  • The inner part of the bark of the hornbeam is stated by Linnaeus to afford a yellow dye.
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  • Linnaeus in his Systema naturae (1735) grouped under the class Insecta all segmented animals with firm exoskeleton and jointed limbs - that is to say, the insects, centipedes, millipedes, crustaceans, spiders, scorpions and their allies.
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  • As regards the vast majority of insects, the orders proposed by Linnaeus are acknowledged by modern zoologists.
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  • The earwigs, cockroaches and locusts, which Linnaeus included among the Coleoptera, were early grouped into a distinct order, the Orthoptera.
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  • Two years after Ray's death, Linnaeus, the great reformer of natural history, was born, and in 1735 appeared the first.
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  • In his classification of birds Linnaeus for the most part followed Ray, and where he departed from his model he seldom improved upon it.
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  • His attempt at classification was certainly better than that of Linnaeus; and it is rather curious that the researches of the latest ornithologists point to results in some degree comparable with Brisson's systematic arrangement, for they refuse to keep the birds-of-prey at the head of the Class A y es, and they require the establishment of a much larger number of " Orders " than for a long while was thought advisable.
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  • 5 Though he made a perceptible advance on the classification of Linnaeus, at that time predominant, it is now easy to see in how many ways - want of sufficient material being no doubt one of the chief - Cuvier failed to produce a really natural arrangement.
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  • In 1746 the great Linnaeus had produced a Fauna Svecica, of which a second edition appeared in 1761, and a third, revised by Retzius, in 1800.
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  • Linete and Linet-wige, whence seems to have been corrupted the old Scottish "Lintquhit," and the modern northern English "Lintwhite" - originally a somewhat generalized bird's name, but latterly specialized for the Fringilla cannabina of Linnaeus, the Linota cannabina of recent ornithologists.
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  • Linnaeus adopted Ray's conception of species, but he made species a practical reality by insisting that every species shall have a double Latin name - the first half to be the name of the genus common to several species, and the second half to be the specific name.
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  • (Florence, 1583), was not only the source from which various subsequent writers, and especially Robert Morison (1620-1683) derived their ideas of botanical arrangement but it was a mine of science to which Linnaeus himself gratefully avowed his obligations.
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  • The garden Rhubarbs worth growing are R. australe, R. compactum, R. rugosum, R. hybridum, Victoria Rhubarb (with very large leaves and long red stalks), Myatts Linnaeus, Prince Albert, and Scotts Monarch.
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  • When Linnaeus saw the tree growing in the Middle East, he assumed it was the biblical willow of Babylon and named it accordingly.
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  • It is certain that the first four volumes were written if not printed before that method was promulgated, and when the fame of Linnaeus as a zoologist rested on little more than the very meagre sixth edition of the Systema Naturae and the first edition of his Fauna Suecica.
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