Lines Sentence Examples
He grinned, the expression creating little lines around his sparkling blue eyes.
Are the phone lines compromised?
The lines of that mouth were remarkably finely curved.
Yet, one backward glance at the hard lines of the face over hers reminded her that there was more than the gentle side to him.
Releasing the break, she slapped the lines on the back of the mules and clicked her tongue against the roof of her mouth.Advertisement
I was thinking more along the lines of you going in there and claiming her.
I'm under surveillance and my secure lines might not be so secure anymore.
How are the other people who answer the tip lines taking it?
From what I read between the lines, the stepfather has no use for Howie, so Howie's presence isn't giving him any comfort.
I didn't have any lines but I got a mess of laughs.Advertisement
Joseph had grumbled something along the same lines to Fred earlier.
The lines of communication had been hacked in two.
She traced the lines of his face, openly admiring.
The three great rivers that form the La Plata system - the Paraguay, Parana and Uruguay - have their sources in the highlands of Brazil and flow southward through a great continental depression, two of them forming eastern boundary lines, and one of them, the Parana, flowing across the eastern part of the republic. The northern part of Argentina, therefore, drains eastward from the mountains to these rivers, except where some great inland depression gives rise to a drainage having no outlet to the sea, and except, also, in the " mesopotamia " region, where small streams flow westward into the Parana and eastward into the Uruguay.
After the rejection in 1838 of the governments proposals for the construction of seven trunk lines to be worked by the state, he obtained a concession for that piece of line on the terms that the French treasury would advance one-third of the capital at 3% if he would raise the remaining two-thirds, half in France and half in England.Advertisement
I made the first row of vertical lines and let her feel it and notice that there were several rows of little holes.
This should include alternative lines through various parts of the rapid in case of steering errors.
She turned around and picked up the lines.
Tips were conveyed to a dedicated site on guaranteed secure lines.
The telephone lines between New Jersey and Colorado continued to burn about the confirmed August wedding date.Advertisement
He saw only the Present, like fractured scenes of a movie where the actors continually changed their lines and settings.
Kris asked, the worry lines on his forehead deepening.
True to his word, they drove less than two blocks before he entered a public parking garage and drove to the bottommost floor and parked in a dark corner with yellow no- parking lines.
I.ve crossed all the lines.
Lines had been drawn on the grass, large squares like those used for wrestling, with a circle in the center.Advertisement
Her words died on her lips as she took in the deep worry lines and gaunt features of the man before her.
None was longer than a page and each asked after Annie's health and wellbeing and then added a few lines that mentioned that all was well in Boston.
She had pulled her long auburn hair high on her head, making her appear taller and almost regal in spite of the simple lines of the garment, and the plainness of her features.
Dean looked up at his wife after reading the strange lines.
Mrs. Rinaldi questions me and tries to read these lines, but all for naught.
Had the boy deciphered and shared the lines of this far different Annie?
I tremble to write these following lines.
Janet was backing away toward a stage-right exit now that her lines had been delivered.
Tiny lines materialized around the dark eyes as his smile broadened into a grin.
His bronze features were smooth except for the laugh lines at the corners of his eyes.
Only the two gran it will take to put the lines down this way, and cell phone reception is unreliable.
She, however, saw the lines of pain and exhaustion under his eyes.
The geospatial depiction of the country was crisscrossed with glowing colors and lines.
A breeze picked up at the shoreline, wrinkling the water as the waves slowly rolled toward him in silver lines.
Says the veterinarian who envisioned steak lines on the buffalo.
Let's always keep the lines of communication open between us.
But you said we should always keep the lines of communication open.
All signs of the palace were swept away, replaced by neat lines of apple trees that ran all the way to the beach beyond.
Lines of tents were tucked between the outer wall of the city and the edge of the cliff.
Dotted lines separated the boundaries of each of the kingdoms.
She did not remember when the lines at his eyes and forehead became deep creases or when his red-blond hair went grey.
Evidently remembering his lines wasn't near as difficult as keeping his face straight.
Being petite helped, but she still had the smooth lines of a young girl.
Gerry's been keeping an eye on you to make sure Xander doesn't cross any lines.
Nor would it seem as if it could be the intention of the author to do much more than point out the lines on which the further treatment of the subject should advance.
Delaware is served by the Pennsylvania, the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis (New York Central system), and the Hocking Valley railways, and by two interurban lines.
When the convention met and the balloting began, the contest along these factional lines started in earnest.
The words were constantly altered and added to during the Terror and later; thus the well-known lines, "Madame Veto avait promis De faire egorger tout Paris On lui coupa la tete," &c., were added after the execution of Marie Antoinette.
The third line gives the range of the regular diurnal inequality, the next four lines the amplitudes of the first four Fourier waves into which the regular diurnal inequality has been analysed.
In particular the remarkable frontier lines which bounded the Roman provinces of Upper (southern) Germany and Raetia, and which at their greatest development stretched from near Bonn on the Rhine to near Regensburg on the Danube, are often called the Limes Germanicus.
The history of these lines is the subject of the following paragraphs.
The Palice of Honour, his earliest work, is a piece of the later type of dream-allegory, extending to over 2000 lines in ninelined stanzas.
The poem runs to over goo lines and is written in eight-lined stanzas.
Colon has a deep, though poorly sheltered harbour, and is either the terminus or a place of call for seven lines of steamships.
It is served by the Grand Trunk railway and by two electric lines to Detroit.
It is served by the Missouri Pacific, the St Louis & San Francisco, the Missouri, Kansas & Texas, and the Kansas City Southern railways, and by interurban electric lines.
It is bounded on the north-west by Ohio, from which it is separated by the Ohio river, on the north by Pennsylvania and Maryland, the Potomac river dividing it from the latter state; on the east and south-east by Pennsylvania, Maryland and Virginia, the boundary lines in the first two cases being meridians, in the last case a very irregular line following the crest of mountain ridges in places; and on the south-west by Virginia and Kentucky, the Big Sandy river separating it from the latter state.
The poems of Propertius, as they have come down to us, consist of four books containing 4046 lines of elegiac verse.
It may be assigned to 25 B.C. The dates of the publication of the rest are uncertain, but none of them was published before 24 B.C., and the, last not before 16 B.C. The unusual length of the second one (1402 lines) has led Lachmann and other critics to suppose that it originally consisted of two books, and they have placed the beginning of the third book at ii.
The knights strengthened Valletta and its harbour by bastions, curtain-walls, lines and forts, towards the sea, towards the land and on every available point, taking advantage in every particular of the natural rock and of the marvellous advantages of situation, rendering it then almost impregnable.
It is served by the Atlantic Coast Line, the Seaboard Air line, the Southern, the New York, Philadelphia & Norfolk, the Chesapeake & Ohio, the Norfolk & Western, the Norfolk & Southern and the Virginian railways, by many steamship lines, by ferry to Portsmouth (immediately opposite), Newport News, Old Point Comfort and Hampton, and by electric lines to several neighbouring towns.
The Norfolk and Portsmouth Belt Line encircles the two cities, and connects the various trunk lines.
In the negotiations which followed, it was arranged that the bay and the land on both sides of the entrance within certain defined lines should be leased to Germany for 99 years.
A faint light being thrown on the outside of the silvered plate, there appear bright lines in the field of view.
Their absolute freedom from diffraction, the perfect control of the illumination and thickness of the lines, and the accuracy with which it will be possible to construct scales for zone observations will be important features of the new method.
The application of photography to exact astronomy has created the necessity for new forms of apparatus to measure the relative positions of stellar and planetary images on photographic plates, and the relative positions of lines in photographic spectra.
On this film is ruled a system of lines 5 mm.
If the errors of the rectangular co-ordinates of these lines are known, the problem of determining the co-ordinates of any star-image on the plate becomes reduced to the comparatively simple one of interpolating the co-ordinates of the star relative to the sides of the 5 mm.
The image of the star is set updn the intersections of the lines of the central cross, and the positions of the reseau-lines are read off by estimation to - of a division on the glass scale.
Hartmann overcame these and many other difficulties by directly superposing the image of the spectrogram of a star, having iron comparison lines, upon the image of a spectrogram of the sun taken also with iron comparison lines.
Then if the prism P4 is cemented to P3, a sharp image of such lines of the solar spectrograph as are visible in the field of view will be seen in the eyepiece.
If then the screw-value in kilometres per second is known for the neighbourhood of each of the comparison lines employed, the radial velocity of the star can be independently derived directly from coincidences made in above manner in the neighbourhood of each comparison line.
Between 1283 and 1290, a Bavarian disciple of Wolfram's 2 adopted the story and developed it into an epic poem of nearly 8000 lines, incorporating episodes of Lohengrin's prowess in tournament, his wars with Henry I.
In 1742, after the extinction of the two senior lines of this family, the Sulzbach branch became the senior line, and its head, the elector Charles Theodore, inherited Bavaria in 1777.
The trains are few and the speed on all these lines is moderate, but the gradients are often very heavy.
All these lines (and also the minor lines from Golfo degli Aranci to La Maddalena and from Carloforte to Porto Vesme and Calasetta) are in the hands of the Navigazione Generale Italiana, there being no Sardinian steamship companies.
Perceiving further, that in order to understand these relations I should sometimes have to consider them one by one, and sometimes only to bear them in mind or embrace them in the aggregate, I thought that, in order the better to consider them individually, I should view them as subsisting between straight lines, than which I could find no objects more simple, or capable of being more distinctly represented to my imagination and senses; and on the other hand that, in order to retain them in the memory or embrace an aggregate of many, I should express them by certain characters, the briefest possible."
The problem of the curves is solved by their reduction to a problem of straight lines; and the locus of any point is determined by its distance from two given straight lines - the axes of co-ordinates.
Descartes laid down the lines on which modern philosophy and science were to build.
Extended body has no limits to its extent, though the power of God has divided it in lines discriminating its parts in endless ways.
There are regular lines of steamers running between Vancouver and Alaska and the points of connexion with the Yukon territory, as well as lines to Puget Sound and San Francisco in the United States.
Three points are given to the bowl that trails the jack over both lines into the semicircle and goes over them itself.
If a bowl trail the jack over both lines, but only itself cross the first; or if it pass both lines, but the jack cross only the first, two points are awarded.
Two lines of steamers, an English and a Turkish, furnish an inadequate service between Basra and Bagdad, but there is no steam navigation on the river above the latter city.
Its most important industrial establishments are the mirror manufactory of St Gobain and the chemical works at Chauny, and the workshops and foundries of Guise, the property of an association of workpeople organized on socialistic lines and producing iron goods of various kinds.
The department is served chiefly by the lines of the Northern railway; in addition, the main line of the Eastern railway to Strassburg traverses the extreme south.
It was, however, the need to ensure command of the sea and free all lines of communication behind him that determined Alexander's plan for the next campaign.
The earliest known French romance of Alexander, by Alberic of Besancon (or more properly Briancon), was, until the discovery of a fragment of ioq lines at Florence in 1852, known only through the German adaptation by Lamprecht the preacher, who wrote towards the end of the 12th century, and by the version made by a Poitevin poet named Simon in decasyllabic lines.
It is divided between some twenty firms. The premises of Bass's brewery extend over Soo acres, while Allsopp's stand next; upwards of 5000 hands are employed in all, and many miles of railways owned by the firms cross the streets in all directions on the level, and connect with the lines of the railway companies.
Several railway lines have been projected, but there is no great probability of their construction under existing political conditions.
So far as the organization of the Anglican Church is concerned, the most important outcome of the conference was the reconstruction of the Central Consultative Body on representative lines (54-56); this body to consist of the archbishop of Canterbury and seventeen bishops appointed by the various Churches of the Anglican Communion throughout the world.
Immediately on the‘ formation of the Canadian Pacific railway company branch lines were begun at Winnipeg and there are eight radial lines running from this centre to all parts of the country.
This railway has six radiating lines leaving the city of Winnipeg, and its main line connects Port Arthur on Lake Superior with Edmonton in the west.
The Great Northern railway has also three branch lines in Manitoba and one of these has Winnipeg as its terminus.
The Falls of Princes alone comprises 7000 stanzas; and his authentic compositions reach the enormous total of 150,000 lines.
Official corruption and speculation have led to some unsound ventures, but in the great majority of cases the lines constructed have been beneficial and productive.
The principal centres of the system are Buenos Aires, Rosario and Bahia Blanca, with La Plata as a secondary centre to the former, and from these the lines radiate westward and northward.
Some of these lines resulted disastrously.
Tramway lines, which date from 1870, are to be found in all important towns.
The telegraph lines of Argentina are subject to the national telegraph law of 1875, the international telegraph conventions, and special conventions with Brazil and Uruguay.
The national lines extend from Buenos Aires north to La Quiaca on the Bolivian frontier (1180 m.), and south to Cape Virgenes (1926 m.), at the entrance to the Straits of Magellan.
Telegraphic communication with Europe is effected by cables laid along the Uruguayan and Brazilian coasts, and by the Brazilian land lines to connect with transatlantic cables from Pernambuco.
Communication with the United States is effected by land lines to Valparaiso, and thence by a cable along the west coast.
Under it the cost of the necessary land was to be found as to one-third by the state and as to the residue locally, but this arrangement proved unworkable and was abandoned in 1845, when it was settled that the state should provide the land and construct the earthworks and stations, the various companies which obtained concessions being left to make the permanent way, provide rolling stock and work the lines for certain periods.
This measure proved successful and the projected lines were completed.
But demands for more lines were constantly arising, and the existing companies, in view of their financial position, were disinclined to undertake their construction.
The result came to be that many small lines were begun by companies that had not the means to complete them, and again the state had to come to the rescue.
In 1878 it agreed to spend 20,000,000 in purchasing and completing a number of these lines, some of which were handed over to the great companies, while others were retained in the hands of the government, forming the system known as the Chemins de Fer de lEtat.
By the 1859 conventions the state railway system obtained an entry into Paris by means of running powers over the Ouest from Chartres, and its position was further improved by the exchange of certain lines with the Orleans company.
Its main lines run from Paris to Calais, via Creil, Amiens and Boulogne, from Paris to Lille, via Creil and Arras, and from Paris to Maubeuge via Creil, Tergnier and St Quentin.
The state railways served a large portion of western France, their chief lines being from Nantes via La Rochelle to Bordeaux, and from Bordeauxvia Saintes, Niort and Saumur to Chartres.
The Midi (Southern) has lines radiating from Toulouse to Bordeaux via Agen, to Bayonne via Tarbes and Pau, and to Cette via Carcassonne, Narbonne and Bziers.
Tsaritsyn is the terminus of a railway which begins at Riga and, running south-eastwards, intersects all the main lines which radiate from Moscow to the south.
The city is generously provided with all the modern public services, including two street car lines, local and long distance telephone lines, electric power and light, and waterworks.
It is clear from his account that the lines of fortifications included both the eastern and western hills.
Lauenburg, or Saxe-Lauenburg, as it is generally called, became a separate duchy ruled by his son John, and had its own lines of dukes for over 400 years, one of them, Magnus I.
On the other hand, complete indentity of regulations and observance in Babylonia and Israel at one period need not show more than development on the same lines.
The Upper Devonian was a period of marine retreat; the crustal disturbances of the Lower Devonian were renewed and great quartz-pebble beaches were formed on the rising shore lines, producing the West Coast Range conglomerates of Tasmania, and the similar rocks to the south-east of Mansfield in Victoria.
The temperature, however, has a daily range less than that of other countries under the same isothermal lines.
The contour lines showing the heights above sea-level are the directions along which species spread to form zones.
Lines of steamers connect Australia with London and other British ports, with Germany, Belgium, France, Italy, Japan, China, India, San Francisco, Vancouver, New York and Montevideo, several important lines being subsidized by the countries to which they belong, notably Germany, France and Japan.
Almost the whole of the railway lines in Australia are the property of the state governments, and have been constructed and equipped wholly by borrowed capital.
The earnings per train-mile vary greatly; but for all the lines the average is 7s.
Excluding coal lines and other lines not open to general traffic, the length of railways in private hands is only 382 m.
The divergence of policy of that state from that pursued by the other states was caused by the inability of the government to construct lines, when the extension of the railway system was urgently needed in the interests of settlement.
The length of telegraph lines in use is 46,300 m., and the length of wire nearly three times that distance.
It is served by the Maine Central railway, by several electric lines, and by steamboat lines to Portland, Boston and several other ports.
All these lines were destroyed by the Bukharians in 1918 but could presumably be easily repaired.
Railway transportation is supplied to Vermont by parallel lines crossing diagonally every part of the state at about equal intervals and running in general in a N.W.
The rivers of the province belong to the basins of the Indian Ocean and the Java Sea respectively, the water-parting being formed by the western and eastern ends respectively of the northern and southern lines of mountain peaks.
The rue de la Marine follows the lines of a Roman street.
Benevento is a station on the railway from Naples to Foggia, and has branch lines to Campobasso and to Avellino.
It is served by the New York, New Haven & Hartford railway, and is primarily a residential suburb of Boston, with which it is connected by electric lines.
The settlement here was made on more moderate lines than in Ireland.
This distribution is most marked at about 300 fathoms, and disappears at soo fathoms, beyond which depth the lines tend to become parallel and to run east and west, the gradient slowly diminishing.
There is direct steamship communication between Togoland and Hamburg, and the steamers of three French and two English lines call at Togoland ports.
The greater richness of tone of the modern pianoforte is a better compensation for any bareness that may be imputed to pure two-part or three-part writing than a filling out which deprives the listener of the power to follow the essential lines of the music. The same holds good, though in a lesser degree, of the resources of the harpsichord in respect of octavestrings.
These processes stretch across the body cavity to be inserted in the dorsal and ventral middle lines.
The number of cells is not large (some 2 to 8), and as a rule they lie along the lateral lines.
A nervous system has been shown to exist in many species, and consists of a perioesophageal ring giving off usually six nerves which run forwards and backwards along the lateral and median lines; these are connected by numerous fine, circular threads in the sub-cuticle.
The lines include the Chatham, the Royal Marine, the Brompton, the Hut, St Mary's and naval barracks; the garrison hospital, Melville hospital for sailors and marines, the arsenal, gymnasium, various military schools, convict prison, and finally the extensive dockyard system for which the town is famous.
House, of Vermont, U.S., and was very successfully worked on some of the American telegraph lines till 1860, after which it was gradually displaced by other forms. Various modifications of the instrument are still employed for stock telegraph purposes.
The lines are carried on poles, at a sufficient height above the ground, by means of insulators.
The form in general use on the British postal lines is the " Cordeaux screw," but the " Varley double cup " is still employed, especially by the railway companies.
Gutta-percha-covered copper wires were formerly largely used for the purpose of underground lines, the copper conductor weighing 40 lb per statute mile, and the gutta-percha covering 50 lb (90 lb total).
In order to maintain a system of telegraph lines in good working condition, daily tests are essential.
If the looped lines are both in good condition and free from leakage, the current sent out on line r will be exactly equal to the current received back on line 2; and as these currents will have equal but opposite effects on the galvanometer needle, no deflection of the latter will be produced.
In the earlier forms of instrument the record was made by embossing lines on a ribbon of paper by means of a sharp style fixed to one end of a lever, which carried at the other end the armature of an electromagnet.
It was found impossible to make the Morse ink writer so sensitive that it could record signals sent over land lines of several hundred miles in length, if the speed of transmission was very much faster than that which could be effected by hand, and this led to the adoption of automatic methods of transmission.
Per forating machines equipped with typewriter keyboards are used for the preparation of the messages, two or three keyboard perforators being employed at each end of the telegraph lines on which the Murray system is used.
The Murray automatic system was designed specially for dealing with heavy traffic on long lines.
The Murray automatic system is not regarded as suitable for short telegraph lines or moderate traffic, printing telegraphs on the multiplex principle being considered preferable in such circumstances.
For working long submarine cables the apparatus ordinarily employed on land lines cannot be used, as the retarding effect of the electrostatic capacity of the cable is so marked that signals fail to be recorded except at a very slow speed of working.
Owing to the difficulty of maintaining perfect balance on duplexed cables, curb sending is not now used, but the signals are transmitted by means of an apparatus similar to the Wheatstone automatic transmitter used on land lines and differing from the latter only in regard to the alphabet employed; the signals from the transmitter actuate a relay having heavy armatures which in turn transmit the signals to the cable; this arrangement gives very firm signals, a point of great importance for good working.
The Belgian state telegraphs were started in 1850 and were at first very profitable, but for the years 1866-9 they yielded an average profit of only 2.8 per cent., and subsequently failed to earn operating expenses, the reasons for the steady decline of the profits being the opening of relatively unprofitable lines and offices, increases in wages, and a diminution in growth of the foreign and transit messages which had constituted the most profitable part of the whole business.
In 1868 the length of electric telegraph lines belonging to the companies was 16,643 m., and of those belonging to the railway companies 4872 m., or a total of 21,515.
A further cause has been competition offered by the telephone service, but against this the Post Office has received royalties from telephone companies and revenue from trunk telephone lines.
The submarine telegraphs are mainly controlled by companies, the amount of issued capital of the existing British telegraph companies (twenty-four in number) being £3 0, 447, 1 9 1, but a certain number of lines are in government hands.
The total lengths of the land lines of the telegraphs throughout the world in 1907 were 1,015,894 m.
Canal system of flow lines of current through the sea, and these might be detected by any other ships furnished with two plates dipping into the sea at stem and stern, and connected by a wire having a telephone in its circuit, provided that the two plates were not placed on the same equipotential surface of the original current flow lines.
The average perpendicular distance between the two lines, which are roughly parallel, is 2.8 m.
Before the spark happens lines of electrostatic force stretch from one to the other in curved lines.
When the discharge takes place the ends of the lines of electric force abutting on the wire run down it and are detached in the form of semiloops of electric force which move outwards with their ends on the surface of the earth.
If we consider the lines of magnetic force in the neighbourhood of the receiving antenna wire we shall see that they move across it, and thus create in it an electromotive force which acts upon the coherer or other sensitive device associated with it.
The antenna has at one moment a static electrical charge distributed upon it, and lines of electric force stretch from it to the surrounding earth.
At the next instant it is the seat of an electric current and is surrounded by closed lines of magnetic force.
These static and kinetic conditions succeed each other rapidly, and the result is to detach or throw off from the antenna semi-loops of electric force, which move outwards in all directions and are accompanied by expanding circular lines of magnetic force.
It is probable that further research will amend this classification in detail, but its main lines are generally accepted.
These inter-area or long-distance lines, called trunk circuits in England, terminate at one exchange in each local area, and between that exchange and the various district exchanges junction circuits are provided for the purpose of connecting subscribers to the trunk lines.
It was soon found that it could only be used to advantage in this way when the total resistance of the circuit, exclusive of the microphone, was small compared with the resistance of the microphone - that is, on very short lines worked with FIG.
The transmitter on long and high resistance lines worked better by joining, in the manner shown in fig.
In the earliest telephone switchboards the lines were connected to vertical conducting strips, across which were placed a series of similar horizontal strips in such a manner that any horizontal could be connected to any line strip by the insertion of a plug into holes provided in the strips for the purpose.
Any two lines could be connected together by connecting both to the same horizontal strip.
This board was equipped with spring-jacks and annunciators (calling-drops) for the subscribers' lines, and with flexible cords terminating in plugs for connecting purposes.
All the subscribers' lines are connected in order to jacks on the first two or three or four operators' positions, and these connexions are repeated or " multipled " upon each succeeding similar group of positions.
The impedance coils shown connected between the battery and the lines and between the latter and the transmitters are joined up non-inductively as regards the transmitter circuits, but inductively as regards the secondary circuits.
At the outgoing end the circuits are multipled on the subscribers' switchboard, while at the incoming end they terminate in plugs on a special incoming junction switchboard upon which the subscribers' lines are multipled in the usual way.
Meanwhile the ticket is conveyed to the position where the lines to the town wanted are terminated.
Particulars of calls are now passed between trunk centres to a great extent over telegraph circuits superposed upon the trunk lines.
This arrangement permits particulars of calls to be passed over lines while conversations are in progress.
The subscribers' lines in an exchange are arranged in groups of moo, which are divided in turn into sub-groups of 100 each.
As subscribers' lines are invariably short, the smallest gauge of wire possessing the mechanical strength necessary to withstand the stresses to which it may be subjected can be employed, and bronze wire weighing 40 lb per mile is commonly used.
Doolittle was of the greatest importance in rendering the use of long lines practicable, and it is universally employed for such service.
Speech has been habitually transmitted for business purposes over a distance of 1542.3 m., viz., over the lines of the American Telegraph and Telephone Company from Omaha to Boston.
Open aerial longdistance lines have also been loaded, but not to the same extent.
The licensee was precluded from opening public call offices and from laying trunk lines from one town to another.
The effect of the unsettled policy of the Post Office until 1905 and of the difficulties created by the local authorities was that the National Telephone Company was never able to do its best to develop the enterprise on the most efficient lines.
The removal in 1884 of the prohibition against the erection of trunk lines at once enabled considerable expansion to take place.
As the cost of the service varies in proportion to the amount of use, the toll rate is more scientific, and it has the further advantage of discouraging the unnecessary use of the instrument, which causes congestion of traffic at busy hours and also results in lines being " engaged " when serious business calls are made.
The Glasgow system included 11,103 subscribers' lines with 12,964 telephones, and the Brighton system contained 1542 subscribers lines with 1884 telephones.
Giacomo, which runs nearly north and south from the pass of the SplÃ¼gen, thus affording one of the most direct lines of communication across the Alps.
In July 1905 all the principal lines, which had been constructed by the state, but had been since 1885 let out to three companies (Mediterranean, Adriatic, Sicilian), were taken over by the state; their length amounted in 1901 to 6147 m., and in f 907 to 8422 m.
The minor lines (many of them narrow gauge) remain in the hands of private companies.
The state, in taking over the Failways, did not exercise sufficient care to see that the lines and the rolling stock were kept up to a proper state of efficiency and adequacy for the work they had t,o perform; while the step itself was taken somewhat hastily.
A capital expenditure of 1/24,000,000 annually was decided on to bring the lines up to the necessary state of efficiency to be able to cope with the rapidly increasing traffic. It was estimated in 1906 that this would have to be maintained for a period of ten years, with a further total expenditure of 1/21 4,000,000 on new lines.
The taking over of the main lines by the state has of course produced a considerable change in the financial situation of the railways.
The capital value of the whole of the lines, rolling stock, &c., for 1 9081909 was calculated approximately at 1/2244,f 61,400, and the profits at 1/25,295,019, or 22%.
The insufficiency of rolling stock, and especially of goods wagons, is mainly caused by delays in handling traffic consequent on this or other causes, among which may be mentioned the great length ofthe single lines south of Rome.
Between 1875, when the first lila was opened, and 1901, the length of the lines grew to 1890 m.
These lines exist principally in Lombardy (especially in the province of Milan), in Piedmont, especially in the province of Turin, and in other regions of northern and central Italy.
Senators and deputies receive no salary but have free passes on railways throughout Italy and on certain lines of steamers.
Her former rival, Genoa, bad also been compelled, in June 1797, to bow before the young conqueror, and had undergone at his hands a remodelling on the lines already followed at Milan.
Notwithstanding this prospective loss of revenue, parliament showed great reluctance to vote any new impost, although hardly a year previously it had sanctioned (3oth June 1879) Depretiss scheme for spending during the next eighteen years 43,200,000 in building 5000 kilometres of railway, an expenditure not wholly justified by the importance of the lines, and useful principally as a source of electoral sops for the constituents of ministerial deputies.
Depretis and his colleague Genala, minister of public works, experienced great difficulty in securing parliamentary sanction for the conventions, not so much on account of their defective character, as from the opposition of local interests anxious tc extort new lines from the government.
In fact, the conventionf were only voted by a majority of twenty-three votes after the government had undertaken to increase the length of new statebuilt lines from 1500 to 2500 kilometres.
An effort to encourage the development of the mercantile marine was made in the same year, and a convention was concluded with the chief lines of passenger steamers to retain their fastest vessels as auxiliaries to the fleet in case of war.
Early in 1905 there was a fresh agitation among the railway servants, who were dissatisfied with the clauses concerning the personnel in the bill for the purchase of the lines Unrest of.
The campaign was conducted on the lines of the anti-militarist movement in France identified with the name of Herv.
If there were such a thing as a triangle contained by absolutely straight lines, its three angles would no doubt measure what Euclid says; but straight lines and true triangles nowhere exist in reruns natura.
If we answer " Yes " to that question, we pass on from intuitionalism to idealism - an idealism not on the lines of Berkeley (matter does not exist) but of Plato (things A obey an ascertainable rational necessity).
Descartes's preliminary statement of the argument in somewhat popular form brings it very near the lines of the cosmological proof.
But such lines of thought might carry us outside the limits of traditional theism.
In the north it is deeply cut by men with pig-arrows in lines across the body.
The notion that all the kinds of animals and plants may have come into existence by the growth and modification of primordial germs is as old as speculative thought; but the modern scientific form of the doctrine can be traced historically to the influence of several converging lines of philosophical speculation and of physical observation, none of which go further back than the 17th century.
The full implications of the group of ideas require, and are likely to receive, much attention in the immediate future of biological investigation, but it is enough at present to point out that until the more obvious lines of inquiry have been opened out much more fully, we cannot be in a position to guess at the existence of a residuum, for which such a metaphysical conception as bathmism would serve even as a convenient disguise for ignorance.
Both monarchs proceeded on the same lines; but Francis I.
The Lombardy poplar is valuable chiefly as an ornamental tree, its timber being of very inferior quality; its tall, erect growth renders it useful to the landscape-gardener as a relief to the rounded forms of other trees, or in contrast to the horizontal lines of the lake or river-bank where it delights to grow.
The district is watered by four branches of the Ganges canal, and traversed by two lines of railway.
In addition to these lines, all tadpoles show more or less distinctly a small whitish gland in the middle of the head between the eyes, the so-called frontal gland or pineal gland, which in early stages is connected with the brain.
Westboro is served by the Boston & Albany railway and by interurban electric lines.
Such a vascular cylinder is called a haplostele, and the axis containing it is said to be haplostelic. In the stele of the root the strands of tracheids along the lines where the xylem touches the pericycle are spiral or annular, and are the xylem elements first formed when the cylinder is developing.
The so-called anomalous cambiums in roots follow the same lines as those of the stem.
In the progress of the last three decades, since the publication of De Barys great work, five or six main lines of advance can be distinguished.
A very considerable body of knowledge relating to this subject already exists, but further work on experimental lines is urgently required to enable us to understand the actual economy of plants growing under different conditions of life and the true relation of the hereditary anatomical characters which form the subject matter of systematic anatomy to those which vary according to the conditions in which the individual plant is placed.
But even when inside it does not follow that the Fungus can kill the cell, and many cases are known where the Fungus can break throtigh the cells first lines of defence (cell-wall and protoplasmic lining); but the struggle goes on at close quarters, and various degrees of hypertrophy, accumulation of plastic bodies or secretions, discolorations, &c.,, indicate the suffering of the still living cell.
Hartog has endeavoured to show that it can only he formed by a dual force, analagous to that of magnetism, the spindle-fibi es being comparable to the lines of force in a magnetic field and possibly due to electrical differences in the cell.
Actual or projected routes for telegraph cables across the deep sea have also been sounded with extreme accuracy in many cases; but beyond these lines of sounding the vast spaces of the ocean remain unplumbed save for the rare researches of scientific expeditions, such as those of the " Challenger," the " Valdivia," the " Albatross " and the " Scotia."
The geographical distribution of mountains is intimately associated with the great structural lines of the continents of which they form the culminating region.
Lofty lines of fold mountains form the " backbones " of North America in the Rocky of Mountains and the west coast systems, of South America in the Cordillera of the Andes, of Europe in the Pyrenees, Alps, Carpathians and Caucasus, and of Asia in the mountains of Asia Minor, converging on the Pamirs and diverging thence in the Himalaya and the vast mountain systems of central and eastern Asia.
More mobile and more searching than ice or rock rubbish, the trickling drops are guided by the deepest lines of the hillside in their incipient flow, and as these lines converge, the stream, gaining strength, proceeds in River its torrential course to carve its channel deeper and en- t trench itself in permanent occupation.
Many of the great historic movements of peoples were doubtless due to the gradual change of geographical or climatic conditions; and the slow desiccation of Central Asia has been plausibly suggested as the real cause of the peopling of modern Europe and of the medieval wars of the Old World, the theatres of which were critical points on the great natural lines of communication between east and west.
Rivers do not form effective international boundaries, although between dependent self-governing communities they are convenient lines of demarcation.
In later times, towns have been more often founded in proximity to valuable mineral resources, and at critical points or nodes on lines of communication.
The economy and success of most lines of communication depend on following as far as possible existing natural lines and utilizing existing natural sources of power.'
It is served by the Chicago & North-Western railway, by interurban electric lines connecting with Chicago and Milwaukee, and by freight and passenger steamship lines on Lake Michigan.
Louis, the Pittsburg, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis (Pennsylvania system), the Baltimore & Ohio, the Ohio Central, the Norfolk & Western, the Hocking Valley, and the Cleveland, Akron & Columbus (Pennsylvania system) railways, and by nine interurban electric lines.
After being almost entirely wrecked by Norman raiders it was rebuilt, on the original lines, in 983, by the emperor Otto III.
Portland is served by the Maine Central, the Boston & Maine, and the Grand Trunk railways; by steamboat lines to New York, Boston, Bar Harbor, Saint John, N.B., and other coast ports, and, during the winter season, by the Allan and Dominion transatlantic lines.
Its head, the duke of Norfolk, is the first of the dukes and the hereditary earl marshal of England, while the earls of Suffolk, Carlisle and Effingham and the Lord Howard of Glossop represent in the peerage its younger lines.
Migne's texts are not always satisfactory, but since the completion of his great undertaking two important collections have been begun on critical lines - the Vienna edition of the Latin Church writers,' and the Berlin edition of the Greek writers of the ante-Nicene period .8 For English readers there are three series of translations from the fathers, which cover much of the ground; the Oxford Library of the Fathers, the Ante Nicene Christian Library and the Select Library of Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers.
Ranges of these chapadas form the boundary lines with three states - the Serras dos Irmaos and Vermelha with Piauhy, the Serra do Araripe with Ceara., and the Serra dos Cariris Velhos with Parahyba.
All these lines concentrate at the port of Recife.
Asher ben Jehiel, a pupil of Me'ir of Rothenburg, was the author of the popular Talmudic compendium, generally quoted as Rabbenu Asher, on the lines of Alfasi, besides other halakhic works.
Along this part of its course the river is apt to be choked with reeds and, except where bordered by lines of palm trees, the channel loses itself in lakes and swamps.
But, if the Saracen gave the lines of the building, the Greek gave the mosaic decorations of its walls.
In addition to the natural lines of communication provided by the rivers bordering on or belonging to the republic, there are about 2240 m.
It was reformed on the above lines in 1907.
Part of the shore is skirted by the West Highland railway, opened in 1894, which has stations on the loch at Tarbet and Ardlui, and Balloch is the terminus of the lines from Dumbarton and from Stirling via Buchlyvie.
The lines of its walls can still be traced, enclosing an area of 170 acres, and parts of the town hall and baths have been uncovered.
Such is the teaching, along different lines, alike of St Anselm and of Abelard.
The Baltic, with the Gulfs of Bothnia and Finland, limits it on the N.W.; and two sinuous lines of land frontier separate it respectively from Sweden and Norway on the N.W.
But since 1894 all extraordinary items of expenditure, with the exception of those for the construction of new lines of railway, have been defrayed out of ordinary revenue.
At the same time the chief lines of railway which had been built by public companies with a state guarantee, and which represented a loss to the empire of £3,171,250 per annum, as well as a growing indebtedness, were bought by the state.
At the same time several secondary lines were built in connexion with the Siberian line.
Her reign (1730-40) was a regime of methodical German despotism on the lines laid down by her uncle, Peter the Great, and as she was naturally indolent and much addicted to frivolous amusements, the administration was directed by her favourite Biren (q.v.) and other men of German origin.
In most parts of England the plate-rail was preferred, and it was used on the Surrey iron railway, from Wandsworth to Croydon, which, sanctioned by parliament in 1801, was finished in 1803, and was the first railway available to the public on payment of tolls, previous lines having all been private and reserved exclusively for the use of their owners.
As used by George Stephenson on the Stockton & Darlington and Whitstable & Canterbury lines they weighed 28 lb per yard.
The next important development in rail design originated in America, which, for the few lines that had been laid up to 1830, remained content with wooden bars faced with iron.
The example of the Stockton & Darlington line was followed by the Monklands railway in Scotland, opened in 1826, and several other small lines - including the Canterbury & Whitstable, worked partly by fixed engines and partly by locomotives - quickly adopted steam traction.
Thus it may fairly be said that the railway system of the United States was reconstructed between 1896 and 1905, so far as concerns rails, sleepers, ballast and the general capacity of a given group of lines to perform work.
Within the boundaries of the United States the northernmost of the transcontinental lines was the Great Northern railway, extending from a point opposite Vancouver, B.C., and from Seattle, Wash., to Duluth, on Lake Superior, and to St Paul and Minneapolis, Minn., where connexion through to Chicago was made over an allied line,.
In 1903 the Gould lines determined to enter this Pacific territory.
In Mexico the national government is carrying out a consistent policy of developing its railway lines.
Development of these lines has been primarily an extension from the large cities in the East to the agricultural districts in the West, but a change of great importance was brought about in 1910 by the completion of the last tunnel on the Argentine Transandine Railway, which serves to connect Santiago, Valparaiso and the other great cities of the west coast with Buenos Ayres, Montevideo, Bahia, Rio de Janeiro and the other great cities of the east coast.
The United States of America, with a capital of £3,059,800,000 invested in its railways on the 30th of June 1906, was easily ahead of every other country, and in 1908 the figure was increased to £ 3,443, 02 7, 68 5, of which £2,636,569,089 was in the hands of the public. On a route-mileage basis, however, the capital cost of the British railway system is far greater than that of any other country in the world, partly because a vast proportion of the lines are double, treble or even quadruple, partly because the safety requirements of the Board of Trade and the high standards of the original builders made actual construction very costly.
But there are long stretches of pine loam in the South where branch lines can be, and are, built and equipped for £2400 or less per mile, while the construction of new main line in the prairie region of the West ought not to cost more than £4000 per single-track-mile, under present conditions.
But as traffic becomes more dense, year by year, the rebuilding process is constant, and American railway lines are gradually becoming safer.
It is equally impossible for the majority of shippers to enjoy the competition of parallel lines.
If parallel lines compete at all points, they cause ruin to the investors.
So marked are these evils that such partial competition is avoided by agreements between the competing lines with regard to rates, and by divisions of traffic, or pools, which shall take away the temptation to violate such rate agreements.
Besides the system of charges thus prescribed in the classification and rate-sheet, each tariff provides for a certain number of special rates or charges made for particular lines of trade in certain localities, independently of their relation to the general system.
While the superficial appearance of the railway tariff is different for different countries, and sometimes for different parts of the same country, the general principles laid down are followed in rate-making by all well-managed lines, whether state or private.
It was believed by its advocates that this system of prescribing the conditions of construction and operation of lines could promote public safety, prevent waste of capital and secure passengers and shippers against extortionate rates.
In this respect the lines of the United Kingdom are far ahead of those of any other country, and a diminution of accidents, particularly of collisions, has resulted therefrom.
America is now following the lead thus set, and all the most important lines in the United States have adopted block working and interlocking, but a great deal still remains to be done.
As railway building increased in response to traffic needs, and as the consolidation of short lines into continuous systems proceeded, legislation applicable to railways became somewhat broader in scope and more intelligent.
Consolidation and leasing were commonly permitted in the case of continuous lines, but were regularly prohibited in the case of parallel and competing lines.
It increased the jurisdiction of the Commission by placing under the act express companies, sleeping-car companies and pipe lines for the transportation of oil.
Trains coming in contact with projections from other trains or vehicles on parallel lines 7.
In any comparison between British and American records the first point to be borne in mind is the difference in mileage and traffic. The American railways aggregate approximately ten times the length of the British lines; but in train miles the difference is far less.
The growth of railways has been accompanied by a world-wide tendency toward the consolidation of small independent ventures into large groups of lines able to aid one another in the exchange of traffic and to effect economies in administration and in tl-_e purchase of supplies.
On such lines the beginning of a rack section is provided with a piece of rack mounted on springs, so that the pinions of the engine engage smoothly with the teeth.
On some of the earlierEnglish main lines no curves were constructed of a less radius than a mile (80 chains), except at places where the speed was likely to be low, but in later practice the radius is sometimes reduced to 40 or 30 chains, even on high-speed passenger lines.
Two lines may be drawn from this point, one to each of the two rails, in a plane normal to the rails, and the ends of these lines, where they meet the rails, may be joined to complete a triangle, which may conveniently be regarded as a rigid frame resting on the rails.
In North America, except for small industrial railways and some short lines for local traffic, chiefly in mountainous country, it has become almost universal; the long lines of 3 ft.
A considerable number of lines still use 4 ft.
In France and other European countries there is also an important mileage of metre gauge, and even narrower, on lines of local or secondary importance.
The gauge may be regarded as reduced to its narrowest possible dimensions in mono-rail lines, where the weight of the trains is carried on a single rail.
They are nearly always placed transversely, across the direction of the lines, the longitudinal position such as was adopted in connexion with the broad gauge on the Great Western in England having been abandoned except in special cases.
The chairs on the British system weigh about 45 or 50 lb each on important lines, though they may be less where the traffic is light, and are fixed to the sleepers each by two, three or four fastenings, either screw spikes, or round drift bolts entered in holes previously bored, or fang bolts or wooden trenails.
Preferably, they are so arranged that those in both lines of rails come opposite each other and are placed between the same pair of sleepers.
The same arrangement is employed at junctions where different running lines converge.
In Great Britain the Board of Trade requires facing points to be avoided as far as possible; but, of course, they are a necessity at junctions where running lines diverge and at the crossing places which must be provided to enable trains to pass each other on single-track lines.
At stations the points that give access to sidings are generally arranged as trailing points with respect to the direction of traffic on the main lines; that is, trains cannot pass direct into sidings, but have to stop and then run backwards into them.
The position of the main buildings - ticket offices, waiting and refreshment-rooms, parcels offices, &c. - relative to the direction of the lines of rails may be used as a means of classifying terminal stations.
The lines through them should be, if possible, straight and on the level; the British Board of Trade forbids them being placed on a gradient steeper than i in 260, unless it is unavoidable.
When the railway lies below the surface level the bulk of the offices are often placed on a bridge spanning the lines, access being given to the platforms by staircases or lifts, and similarly when the railway is at a high level the offices may be arranged under the lines.
This may be rectangular in shape (" straight " shed), containing a series of parallel tracks on which the engines stand and which are reached by means of points and crossings diverging from a main track outside; or it may take a polygonal or circular form (round house or rotunda), the lines for the engines radiating from a turn-table which occupies the centre and can be rotated so as to serve any of the radiating lines.
Such troughs were first employed on the London & North-Western railway in 1857 by John Ramsbottom, and have since been adopted on many other lines.
The increased loading space required in the sheds is obtained by multiplying the number and the length of lines and platforms; sometimes also there are short sidings, cut into the platforms at right angles to the lines, in which wagons are placed by the aid of wagon turn-tables, and sometimes the wagons are dealt with on two floors, being raised or lowered bodily from the ground level by lifts.
At this point trains of wagons similarly destined for different places will be arriving from other lines, and hence the necessity will arise of collecting together from all the trains all the wagons which are travelling to the same place.
Hence at A the trucks from a, b, c and d must not only be sorted according as they have to travel along A B, A C, or A D, but also must be marshalled into trains in the order of the stations along those lines.
Here, at the highest level, there are a number of " upper reception lines " converging to a single line which leads to a group of " sorting sidings " at a lower level.
These in turn converge to a pair of single lines which lead to two groups of marshalling sidings, called " gridirons " from their shape, and these again converge to single lines leading to " lower reception and departure lines " at the bottom of the slope.
The heavy sparks are projected from the tubes in straight lines and are caught by the louvres L, L, L, and by them deflected downwards to the bottom of the smoke-box, where they collect in a heap in the space D round a tube which is essentially an ejector.
Lines representing efficiency ratios of o 6, 0.5 and 0.4 are plotted on the diagram, so that the efficiency ratios corresponding to the various experiments plotted may be readily read off.
In America it is still the standard engine for passenger traffic, but for goods service it is now employed only on branch lines.
Used on several English lines for fast passenger traffic, and also on many European railways.
Ramsbottom on the London & North-Western railway in 1859, have been laid in the tracks of the leading main lines of Great Britain.
For local services where stoppages are frequent the demand is for engines capable of quickly ' At the beginning of 1908 the Great Western's loading gauge on its main lines was widened to 9 ft.
But though by an act of 1844 the railways were obliged to run at least one train a day over their lines, by which the fares did not exceed the " Parliamentary " rate of id.
Such cars in the United States are largely owned, not by the railway companies over whose lines they run, but by the Pullman Car Company, which receives the extra fees paid by passengers for their use.
In the great continental basin there are long lines with easy gradients and curves, while in the Allegheny and Rocky Mountains the gradients are stiff, and the curves numerous and of short radius.
Such l i nes are primarily intended to supply quick means of passenger communication within the limits of cities, and are to be distinguished on the one hand from surface tramways, and on the other from those portions of trunk or other lines which lie within city boundaries, although the latter may incidentally do a local or intra-urban business.
It was found that there was not sufficient traffic to support them as purely intra-urban lines, and they have since been extended into the outskirts of London to reach the suburban traffic.
Wherever possible the lines were constructed in open cutting, to ensure adequate ventilation; and where this was not possible they were built by a method suggestively named " cut and cover."
A trench was first excavated to the proper depth, then the side walls and arched roof of brick were put in place, earth was filled in behind and over the arch, and the surface of the ground restored, either by paving where streets were followed, or by actually being built over with houses where the lines passed under private property.
By the year 1878 there were four parallel lines in the city of New York, and constructions of the same character had already been projected in Brooklyn and Chicago and, with certain modifications of details, in Berlin.
These elevated railways as a rule follow the lines of streets, and are of two general types.
Its promoters recognized the unsuitability of ordinary steam locomotives for underground railways, and intended to work it by means of a moving cable; but before it was completed, electric traction had developed so far as to be available for use on such lines.
The cable is slow; and unless development along new lines of com p ressed air or some sort of chemical engine takes place, electricity will monopolize the field.
On steam-worked lines the speed of trains is about i r to 15 m.
The cost of intra-urban railways depends not only on the type of construction, but more especially upon local conditions, such as the nature of the soil, the presence of subsurface structures, like sewers, water and gas mains, electric conduits, &c.; the necessity of permanent underpinning or temporary supporting of house foundations, the cost of acquiring land passed under or over when street lines are not followed, and, in the case of elevated railways, the cost of acquiring easements of light, air and access, which the courts have held are vested in the abutting property.
Since the passing of the Light Railways Act of 1896, which did not apply to Ireland, it is possible to give a formal definition by saying that a light railway is one constructed under the provisions of that act; but it must be noted that the commissioners appointed under that act have authorized many lines which in their physical characteristics are indistinguishable from street tramways constructed under the Tramways Act, and to these the term light railways would certainly not be applied in ordinary parlance.
On the lines actually authorized by the Board of Trade under the 1896 act the normal minimum radius of the curves has been fixed at about 600 ft.; when a still smaller radius has been necessary, the speed has been reduced to 10 m.
Many lines, indeed, have been designed on the normal 4 ft.
In 1904 the president of the Board of Trade brought in a bill on practically the same lines as the amending bill of 1903.