You might say to all the world, This is our Yankee Englishman; such limbs we make in Yankee land!
When trying to move, we could see his limbs twist.
Anterior limbs extremely reduced.
The cuts on the limbs were definitely fresh.
Similarly the ring-canal runs round the edge of the lobe as the so-called festoon-canal, and then runs upwards under the peronium to the base of the tentacle as one of a pair of peronial canals, the limbs of the V-like figure already mentioned.
The kangaroo and most of its congeners show an extraordinary disproportion of the hind limbs to the fore part of the body.
Among other characteristics of these animals may be noticed the great length of the neck and limbs, the complete absence of lateral toes and the long and tufted tail.
Notwithstanding the shortness of their limbs they run with rapidity.
Bill said one of the limbs of the tree had gone through the roof over Carmen's bedroom – all the way down and punctured her mattress.
With the door closed, she ran to the window to gaze in horror as the trees tossed their limbs in protest of the wind.
FLYING - SQUIRREL, properly the name of such members of the squirrel-group of rodent mammals as have a parachute-like expansion of the skin of the flanks, with attachments to the limbs, by means of which they are able to take long flying-leaps from tree to tree.
A specimen in the Zoological Gardens of London had the back and tail dark grey, the tail tipped with black, and a rufous wash on the cheeks, shoulders, flanks and outer surface of the limbs, with the under surface white.
The angle between two objects, such as stars or the opposite limbs of the sun, was measured by directing an arm furnished with fine " sights " (in the sense of the " sights " of a rifle) first upon one of the objects and then upon the other (q.v.), or by employing an instrument having two arms, each furnished with a pair of sights, and directing one pair of sights upon one object and the second pair upon the other.
In the royal Siamese breed the head is rather long and pointed, the body also elongated with relatively slender limbs, the coat glossy and close, the eyes blue, and the general colour some shade of cream or pink, with the face, ears, feet, under-parts, and tail chocolate or seal-brown.
In the case of the great grey kangaroo, for instance, the period of gestation is less than forty days, and the newly-born embryo, which is blind, naked, and unable to use its bud-like limbs, is little more than an inch in length.
Nearly allied is the jumping Antechinomys laniger, of East Central Australia, an elegant mouse-like creature, with large oval ears, elongated limbs, a long and tufted tail and no first hind toe.
The difference of pressure between the outside air and the smoke-box gases may be measured by the difference of the water levels in the limbs of a U tube, one limb being in communication with the smokebox, the other with the atmosphere.
In the embryo, however, what have been regarded as remnants of limbs may be seen.
Its course down the cliff was marked by the cracking of limbs.
If on the other hand he was short, he was placed on the long bedstead and his limbs pulled out until he died from exhaustion.
Thus in the Sandwich Islands the god Oro gave his oracles through a priest who "ceased to act or speak as a voluntary agent, but with his limbs convulsed, his features distorted and terrific, his eyes wild and strained, he would roll on the ground roaming at the mouth, and reveal the will of the god in shrill cries and sounds violent and indistinct, which the attending priests duly interpreted to the people."
Earlier, I've walked the perimeter of the property and noted multiple places of easy access, via trees, with low hanging limbs.
In spite of the lateness of the hour, he turned and stretched the stiffness from his limbs.
Limbs very slender; posterior nearly twice the length of the anterior.
The limbs are five-toed, with the third and fourth toes of the front pair armed with enormous digging claws; FIG.
As a sub-order, the Paucituberculata are characterized by the presence of four pairs of upper and three of lower incisor teeth; the enlargement and forward inclination of the first pair of lower incisors, and the presence of four or five sharp cusps on the cheek-teeth, coupled with the absence of "syndactylism" in the hind limbs.
And the body, indeed, is subject to the powerful influence of death; but a shadow of vitality is still left alive, and this alone is of divine origin; while our limbs are in activity it sleeps; but, when we sleep, it discloses to the mind in many dreams the future judgment with regard to happiness and misery."
The adult stage of this form is the Filaria loa found in the subcutaneous tissues of the limbs.
From the rough comparison of the skeleton of a bird with that of a man by Pierre Delon, in the 16th century (to go no further back), down to the theory of the limbs and the theory of the skull at the present day; or, from the first demonstration of the homologies of the parts of a flower by C. F.
A tadpole is the larva of a tailless Batrachian after the loss of the external gills and before the egress of the fore limbs (except in the aberrant Xenopus) and the resorption of the tail.
The hind limbs appear as buds at the base of the tail, and gradually attain their full development during the tadpole life.
The fore limbs grow simultaneously, and even more rapidly, but remain concealed within a diverticulum of the branchial chambers until fully formed, when they burst through the skin (unless the left spiraculum be utilized for the egress of the corresponding limb).
The interest with which we regard the latter no longer turns upon the details of the structuie of its trunk, limbs and roots, to which the living substance of the more superficial parts was subordinated.
If the continuous, unbroken, horizontal extent of land in a continent is termed its trunk,' and the portions cut up by inlets or channels of the sea into islands and peninsulas the limbs, it is possible to compare the continents in an instructive manner.
The muscles of the limbs show a great amount of specialization, away from the fundamental reptilian and mammalian conditions.
The muscles of the fore limbs are most aberrant, but at the same time more uniformly developed than those of the hinder extremities.
Thus it has come to pass that the muscles of the hind limbs are, like their framework, more easily compared with those of reptiles and mammals than are the wings, whilst within the class of birds they show an enormous amount of variation in direct correlation with their manifold requirements.
Pine stumps and waste limbs are utilized, notably at Hattiesburg, for the manufacture of charcoal, tar, creosote, turpentine, &c. Fisheries Fishing is a minor industry, confined for the most part to the Mississippi Sound and neighbouring waters and to the Mississippi and Yazoo rivers.
Schweinfurth declares them the best-looking of the Nile nomads, and the men are types of physical beauty, with fine heads, erect athletic bodies and sinewy limbs.
Linnaeus in his Systema naturae (1735) grouped under the class Insecta all segmented animals with firm exoskeleton and jointed limbs - that is to say, the insects, centipedes, millipedes, crustaceans, spiders, scorpions and their allies.
With very few exceptions the abdomen is without locomotor limbs.
They never bear segmented limbs (palps) and only exceptionally (as in the chafers) is the skeleton composed of more than one sclerite.
The air-tubes, like the food-canal, are formed by invaginations of the ectoderm, which arise close to the developing appendages, the rudimentary spiracles appearing soon after the budding limbs.
But, though apparently without such a knowledge of the anatomy of birds as would enable him to apply it to the formation of that natural system which he was fully aware had yet to be sought, he seems to have been an excellent judge of the characters afforded by the bill and limbs, and the use he made of them, coupled with the extraordinary reputation he acquired on other grounds, procured for his system the adhesion for many years of the majority of ornithologists.'
proportion of the limbs and the disposition of the toes - even as had been the practice of most ornithologists before him!
A large proportion of the fossil remains, the determination and description of which was his object, were what are very commonly called the " long bones," that is to say, those of the limbs.
His figure was crooked, his limbs shrunken; his hair hung in dishevelled locks over his haggard countenance.
The extreme length of the limbs and the absence of a tail are other features of these small apes, which are thoroughly arboreal in their habits, and make the woods resound with their unearthly cries at night.
These monkeys are the African representatives of the Indo-Malay langurs (Semnopithecus), with which they agree in their slender build, long limbs and tail, and complex stomachs, although differing by the rudimentary thumb.
Until maturity is reached the spider has the power to repair lost or damaged limbs.
If a limb be lost at an early stage it may be re-grown in perfection; but at later stages it is only imperfectly reproduced and is shorter and thinner than the other limbs.
The typical Phenacodus primaevus, of the Lower or Wasatch Eocene of North America, was a relatively small ungulate, of slight build, with straight limbs each terminating in five complete toes, and walking in the digitigrade fashion of the modern tapir.
All the bones of the limbs are separate, and those of the carpus and tarsus do not alternate; that is to say, each one in the upper row is placed immediately above the corresponding one in the row below.
In the Puerco, or Lowest Eocene of North America the place of the above species was taken by Euprotogonia puercensis, an animal only half the size of Phenacodus primaevus, with the terminal joints of the limbs intermediate between hoofs and claws, and the first and fifth toes taking their full share in the support of the weight of the body.
Again, the adult Pentastomum shows no trace of appendages, unless the two pairs of chitinous hooks are to be regarded as the vestiges of jaws or ambulatory limbs.
These larvae are minute oval creatures with a comparatively short apically fringed caudal prolongation and furnished with two pairs of short two-clawed processes, which may represent the limbs of anthropods and possibly the two pairs of legs found in Acari of the family Eriophyidae.
It is rather a heavilybuilt animal, with a broad head, no distinct neck, and short limbs, the eyes are small, and the ears project very little beyond the fur.
The fore-limbs have four toes and a rudimentary thumb, all with claws; the hind limbs are larger, with five distinct toes, united by short webs at their bases.
All the mole-rats of the genus Spalax are characterized by the want of distinct necks, small or rudimentary ears and eyes, and short limbs provided with powerful digging claws.
Although loss of flight (correlated with more or less reduction of the wings and the sternal keel, and often compensated by stronger hind limbs) has occurred, and is still taking place in various groups of birds, it is quite impossible that a new Ratite can still come into existence, because the necessary primitive substratum, whence arose the true Ratitae, is no longer available.
The head is rather short and rounded; the fore limbs or paddles are small and broad compared with those of most dolphins; and (as in the beluga) a dorsal fin, found in nearly all other members of the group, is wanting.
These are characterized by slight build, small ears falling at the tips, elongated limbs and tails and long narrow muzzles.
The muzzle is short, the ears large and pendent, the limbs relatively short and heavy, and the coat thick and frequently long.
These are large dogs, hunting by smell, with massive structure, large drooping ears, and usually smooth coats, without fringes of hair on the ears, limbs or tail.
Beagles are small foxhounds with long bodies and short limbs.
The Great Dane is somewhat similar in general character, but is still more gracefully built, with slender limbs and more pointed muzzle.
The limbs are stout and short, terminating in unsymmetrical hoofs, the external being rounded, the internal pointed, and the sole partially covered with hair.
Limbs short and stout.
There are only three front toes, and the limbs are long and adapted for running.
7 210r0 00r1 loco loco Limbs stout, and of moderate length.
To delay him and obtain escape, Medea dismembered her young brother Absyrtus, whom she had taken with her, and cast his limbs about in the sea for his father to pick up. Her plan succeeded, and while Aeetes was burying the remains of his son at Tomi, Jason and Medea escaped.
Their hinder limbs are shorter than in the true kangaroos, and their fore limbs are longer and more robust, and have very strong curved and pointed claws.
In the following season additional shoots are sent forth; and the process is repeated till eight or ten principal limbs or mother branches are obtained, forming, as it were, the frame-work of the future tree.
of the tree begins with the inferior limbs and proceeds towards the centre, the branches being lowered from time to time as the tree acquires strength.
The crucible and the channel form the two limbs of an inverted siphon.
high at the shoulder; the general hue is brown deepening with age to black; chest, belly and inner sides of limbs pure white, as are the muzzle and chin, and an area round the eyes.
One was to use a heliometer to measure the distance between the limbs of Venus and the sun during the whole time that the planet was seen projected on the solar disk, and the other was to take photographs of the sun during the period of the transit and subsequently measure the negatives.
A notable feature in both classes of curves is that, owing to hysteresis, the ascending and descending limbs do not coincide, but follow very different courses.
It is not desirable to occupy the limited space of this article by a full description of the limbs and segments of Limulus and Scorpio.
This region corresponds in both cases to six somites, as indicated by the presence of six pairs of limbs.
The exact mode in which the in-sinking of superficial outstanding limbs, carrying gill-lamellae, has historically taken place has been a matter of much speculation.
49), would throw light on this matter; but the specimen recently carefully studied by the writer and Pocock reveals neither gill-bearing limbs nor stigmata.
The soft integument and limbs of the mesosoma have been removed as well as all the viscera and muscles, so that the inner surface of the terga of these somites with their entopophyses are seen.
The second has for its pair of appendages the small pair of limbs which in all living Arachnids is either chelate or retrovert (as in spiders), and is known as the chelicerae.
Palamnaeus indus, de Geer, to show the arrangement of the coxae of the limbs, the sternal elements, genital plate and pectens.
VIIgo, The genital somite or first somite of the mesosoma with the genital operculum (a fused pair of limbs).
In all the embryonic or permanent opening is on the coxa of the fifth pair of prosomatic limbs.
The latter open at the base of the fifth pair of limbs of the Crustacean, just as the coxal glands open on the coxal joint of the fifth pair of limbs of the Arachnid.
(After Kingsley.) to it from the bases of the surrounding limbs and from the dorsal carapace and from the pharynx.
The coxae of the five pairs of limbs following the chelicerae were arranged in a series on each side between the mouth, M, and the metasternites, mets.
I to VI, Rudiments of the six limbs of the prosoma.
I to 6, The bases of the six prosomatic limbs.
a 2 to a 5, Posterior borders of the chitinous bases of the coxae of the second, third, fourth and fifth prosomatic limbs.
The figure B also shows the peculiar neural investiture formed by the cerebral arteries in Limulus and the derivation from this of the arteries to the limbs, III, IV, VI, whereas in Scorpio the latter have a separate origin from the anterior aorta.
The bi-ramose structure of the post-oral limbs, demonstrated by Beecher in the trilobite Triarthrus, is no more inconsistent with its claim to be a primitive Arachnid than is the foliaceous modification of the limbs in Phyllopods inconsistent with their relationship to the Arthrostracous Crustaceans such as Gammarus and Oniscus.
a, Restored thoracic limbs in transverse section of the animal; b, section across a posterior somite; c, section across one of the sub-terminal somites.
form limbs [Pantopoda], would thus consist of eight somites), but to have been gradually reduced.
The genital pores are situate at the base of the 7th pair of limbs, and may be repeated From Parker and Haswell's Text-book after Hoek.
The first pair of limbs is often chelate or prehensile, rarely antenniform; whilst the second, third and fourth may also be chelate, or may be simple palps or walking legs.
[Observe the powerful gnathobases of the sixth pair of prosomatic limbs and the median plates behind m.
The meeting of the coxae of all the prosomatic limbs in front of the pentagonal sternum; the space for a genital operculum; the pair of pectens, and the absence of any evidence of pulmonary stigmata are noticeable in this specimen.
Between the bases of the prosomatic limbs an anterior III and a posterior sternal plate (black) are seen.
In front of it the narrow waist is formed by the soft sternal area of the praegenital somite; 2, the sternite of the 2 second opisthosomatic somite covering the posterior pair of lung-sacs; and 4, the spinning appendages (limbs) of the opisthosoma; a, inner, b, outer ramus of the appendage; I I, sternite of the eleventh --
I to VI, The six prosomatic limbs carrying appendage VI.
Foxes are likewise distinguished by their slighter build, longer and bushy tail, which always exceeds half the length of the head and body, sharper muzzle, and relatively longer body and shorter limbs.
The custom of clothing images is well known in the ancient world, and at the restoration of an Egyptian temple care was taken to anoint the divine limbs and to prepare the royal linen for the god.
The bed-sores which follow paralysis of the limbs are often quoted as proof of the direct trophic action of the nerve-supply upon the tissues, yet even here the evidence is somewhat contradictory.
The eastern phase is generally rusty red above, with the inner sides of the limbs white; while the predominant hue in the western form is usually yellowish brown.
Except, indeed, for its relatively shorter limbs Megatherium americanum rivalled an elephant in bulk, the total length of the skeleton being 18 feet, five of which are taken up by the tail.
The lower parts, inner surface of the limbs, throat, chin and upper lip are dirty white; the outside of the ears, particularly at their base, and a patch on each side of the muzzle black; the end of the tail dusky.
The second type is characterized by a lighter skin, sometimes of a reddish-yellow, longer, less woolly hair, body taller with better-proportioned limbs, and head broader.
A very different animal is the Patagonian cavy, or mara (Dolichotis patachonica), the typical representative of a genus characterized by long limbs, comparatively large ears, and a short tail.
Apart from these characteristics, the most distinctive feature of earwigs is the presence at the end of the abdomen of a pair of pincers which are in reality modified appendages, known as cercopods, and represent the similar limbs of Japyx and the caudal feelers of Campodea and some other insects.
A, Dorsal view showing the nervous system and digestive system; a, mouth; b, pharynx; c, d, e, gut; E, post-genital union of two limbs of gut; f, excretory pore; g, vaginal pore; h, j, k, brain and nerves; 1, dorsal nerves; m, ventral nerves; n, adoral sucker; o, posterior sucker; p, hooks on posterior sucker; r, vitello-intestinal duct.
The limbs are strong and short, each with five well-developed toes provided with strong claws.
With these may be named the demon lantern-bearers, so perfect in the grotesque treatment of the diabolical heads and the accurate anatomical forms of the sturdy body and limbs; the colossal temple guardians of the great gate of Tdai-ji, by Unkei and Kwaikei (11th century), somewhat conventionalized, but still bearing evidence of direct study from nature, and inspired with intense energy of action; and the smaller but more accurately modelled temple guardians in the Saikondo, Nara, which almost compare with the fighting gladiator in their realization of menacing strength.
They may be characterized as very elongated reptiles without limbs (unless with tiny vestiges of posterior limbs), without eyelids and external ear openings, with the teeth anchylosed to the supporting bones, a bifid slender tongue which is telescoped into its basal half, and with a transverse vent.
The limbs are cold and the skin is blanched.
Cope (Proc. Ac. Philad., 1864, p. 230) resorted to the modifications of the squamosal, ectoand endopterygoid bones, the condition of the vestigial limbs, and the teeth:- Scolecophidia (Typhlopidae), Catodonta (Glauconiidae), Tortricina (Ilysiidae and' Uropeltidae), Asinea, Proteroglypha and Solenoglypha.
No vestiges of limbs.
There are no vestiges of limbs or of their girdles.
The vestiges of the pelvis are reduced to a single bone on each side, and there are no traces of limbs.
AMBLYPODA, a suborder of primitive ungulate mammals, taking its name from the short and stumpy feet, which were furnished with five toes each, and supported massive pillar-like limbs.
In one, applicable only to liquids which do not mix, the two liquids are poured into the limbs of a U tube.
The small interval between the adjacent limbs was then measured with a wire micrometer.
&prtos, even, and &Lktvxos, a finger or toe, "even-toed"), the suborder of ungulate mammals in which the central (and in some cases the only) pair of toes in each foot are arranged symmetrically on each side of a vertical line running through the axes of the limbs.
As regards the limbs.
They are both reddish yellow and brownish black (according to individual variation) in skin colour, with head hair often tending to russet, and body hair of two kinds - black and bristly on the upper lip, chin, chest, axillae and pubes; and yellowish and fleecy on the cheeks, back and limbs.
No organs of circulation or respiration are known; but the nervous system is well developed, and consists of a pair of ganglia corresponding with the limbs and connected by longitudinal commissural chords.
These last characteristics also separate them essentially from the Pycnogonida, some members of which resemble them to a certain extent in having only four pairs of limbs, no gnathites, no respiratory organs, a ganglionated ventral nervous system, and the abdomen reduced to a mere rudiment projecting between the last pair of legs.
In his family tree of HomoAmericanus Keane follows out such a plan, placing the chief linguistic family names on the main limbs, North American on one side, and South American on the other.
The East African gerenuk, or Waller's gazelle (Lithocranius walleri), of which two races have been named, is a very remarkable ruminant, distinguished not only by its exceedingly elongated neck and limbs, but also by the peculiar hooked form of the very massive horns of the bucks, the dense structure and straight profile of the skull, and the extreme slenderness of the lower jaw.
5), often with black markings on the face and limbs.
Tapirs are massively built, with short stout limbs, elongated head, and the nose and upper lip produced to form a short flexible trunk.
indicus, the largest of the genus, from the Malay Peninsula (as far north as Tavoy and Mergui), Sumatra and Borneo, distinguished by its peculiar coloration, the head, neck, fore and hind limbs being glossy black, and the intermediate part of the body white, the height at the shoulder from 3 ft.
The ceremonies of his worship were of the most bloodthirsty character, and hundreds of human beings were murdered annually before his shrine, their limbs being eaten by his worshippers.
LAMPREY, a fish belonging to the family Petromyzontidae (from r rpos and Ww, literally, stone-suckers), which with the hag-fishes or Myxinidae forms a distinct subclass of fishes, the Cyclostomata, distinguished by the low organization of their skeleton, which is cartilaginous, without vertebral segmentation, without ribs or real jaws, and without limbs.
The shrimps and their allies are distinguished from the larger Macrura, such as the lobsters and crayfishes, by greater development of the paddle-like limbs of the abdomen or tail, which are used in swimming.
Asymmetry of the folds is a marked characteristic in the zones of closer folding, the anticlines having long gently inclined easterly limbs, and short, steep and even overturned limbs upon the west.
BEAR, properly the name of the European brown bear (Ursus arctus), but extended to include all the members of the Ursidae, the typical family of Arctoid carnivora, distinguished by their massive bodies, short limbs, and almost rudimentary tails.
The weasel is an elegant little animal, with elongated slender body, back much arched, head small and flattened, ears short and rounded, neck long and flexible, limbs short, five toes on each foot, all with sharp, com - pressed, curved claws, tail rather short, slender, cylindrical, and pointed at the tip, and fur short and close.
The upper-parts, out - side of limbs and tail, are uniform reddish brown, the under-parts white.
The U-shaped electrolytic vessel and the electrodes are made of an alloy of platinum-iridium, the limbs of the tube being closed by stoppers made of fluor-spar, and fitted with two lateral exit tubes for carrying off the gases evolved.
But these are only surmises, based upon the fact that in various dry caves limbs still surrounded by the mummified flesh and skin, feathers, and even eggs with the inner membrane, have been found.
The hind limbs are very strong; the massive femur has a large pneumatic foramen; the tibia has a bony bridge on the anterior surface of the lower portion, a character in which the moas agree only with Apteryx amongst the other Ratitae.
maculosa, which lives in plains or at low altitudes (up to 3000 ft.), deposits her young, ten to fifty in number, in the water, in springs or cool rivulets, and these young at birth are of small size, provided with external gills and four limbs, in every way similar to advanced newt larvae.
nothing so much as a hideous scramble of ravening beasts and obscene fowls for the dismembered limbs of a headless carcase,.
The Copepoda have normally a segmented body, not enclosed in a bivalved shell-covering, the segments not exceeding eleven, the limbs not branchial.
In the outward appearance of the adults there is great want of uniformity, one set having their limbs sheltered by no carapace, another having a broad shield over most of them, and a third having a bivalved shell-cover within which the whole body can be enclosed.
The " abdomen," behind the limbs, is usually very short, occasionally very long.
The limbs, including antennae and mouth organs, never exceed seven definite pairs.
- The body is not encased in a bivalved shell; its articulated segments are at most eleven, those behind the genital segment being without trace of limbs, but the last almost always carrying a furca.
The next, the copepodid or cyclopid, stage is characterized by a cylindrical segmented body, with foreand hind-body distinct, and by having at most six cephalic limbs and two pairs of swimming feet.
In the latter case the middle segment almost always carries with it to the hind-body a pair of rudimentary limbs, whence the term Podoplea, meaning species that have a pleon with feet.
- First segment of hind-body footless, bearing the orifices of the genital organs (in the male unsymmetrically placed); last foot of the fore-body in the male a copulatory organ; neither, or only one, of the first pair of antennae in the male geniculating; cephalic limbs abundantly articulated and provided with many plumose setae; heart generally present.
- The first segment of the hind-body almost always with rudimentary pair of feet; orifices of the genital organs (symmetrically placed in both sexes) in the following segment; neither the last foot of the fore-body nor the rudimentary feet just mentioned acting as a copulatory organ in the male; both or neither of the first pair of antennae in the male geniculating; cephalic limbs less abundantly articulated and with fewer plumose setae or none, but with hooks and clasping setae.
The majority are distinguished from snakes by the possession of two pairs of limbs, of external ear-openings and movable eyelids, but since in not a few of the burrowing, snake-shaped lizards these characters give way entirely, it is well-nigh impossible to find a diagnosis which should be absolutely sufficient for the distinction between lizards and snakes.
Most of these modifications are restricted to the skin, limbs, tail or tongue.
With the exception of the chameleon, all drag their body over the ground, the limbs being wide apart, turned outwards and relatively to the bulk of the body generally weak.
But the limbs show with regard to development great variation, and an uninterrupted transition from the most perfect condition of two pairs with five separate clawed toes to their total disappearance; yet even limbless lizards retain bony vestiges beneath the skin.
Pleurodont lizards with well-developed limbs; without temporal bony arches; postthoracic ribs united across the abdomen.
Acrodont, Old World lizards, with laterally compressed body, prehensile tail and well developed limbs with the digits arranged in opposing, grasping bundles of two and three respectively.
Presumably the presence of osteoderms and of complete cranial arches are more archaic than their absence, just as we conclude that limbless forms have been evolved from various groups possessed of fully developed limbs.
The agamas have always two pairs of well-developed limbs.
All have well-developed limbs.
Celestus of Mexico, the Antilles and Central America, with well-developed limbs, but with a lateral fold.
Pseudopus, the glass-snake, from Morocco and the Balkan peninsula to Burma and Fokien; also in the U.S.A., with the limbs reduced to a pair of tiny spikes near the vent, and a lateral fold along the snake-like body.
Anguis, with its sole species fragilis, the slow-worm or blind-worm, is devoid of a lateral fold, and the limbs are entirely absent.
Limbs well developed.
The eyes and ears are concealed, the limbs are entirely absent, body and tail covered with soft, imbricating scales.
The other genera live in southern and in tropical Africa: Pseudocordylus, Platysaurus and Chamaesaura; the latter closely approaches the Anguidae by its snake-shaped body, very long tail and much reduced limbs, which in C. macrolepis are altogether absent.
- Pleurodont; tongue very short and scaly; no osteoderms; supratemporal fossa roofed over by the cranial bones; eyes devoid of movable lids; tympanum exposed; femoral pores present; limbs and tail well developed.
- Teeth solid, almost acrodont; tongue long and narrow, deeply bifid, beset with papillae; no osteoderms; scales of the back very small or quite granular; limbs sometimes reduced.
Cophias and Scolecosaurus have very much reduced limbs.
Wormshaped, without limbs, except Chirotes which has short, clawed forelimbs.
Limbs often reduced.
This partly subterranean life is correlated with the frequent reduction of the limbs which, in closely allied forms, show every stage from fully developed, five-clawed limbs to complete absence.
Seps, of the Mediterranean countries and south-western Asia, has a transparent disk on the lower eyelid which is movable; limbs very short or reduced to mere vestiges.
Tiliqua of Australia, Tasmania and Malay Islands, has stout lateral teeth with rounded-off crowns; C. gigas of the Moluccas and of New Guinea is the largest member of the family, reaching a length of nearly 2 ft.; the limbs are well developed, as in Trachysaurus rugosus of Australia, which is easily recognized by the large and rough scales and the short, broad, stump-like tail.
The vermiform body is covered with cycloid imbricating scales, devoid of osteoderms. Limbs and even their arches are absent, excepting a pair of flaps which represent the hind-limbs in the males.
Limbs sometimes reduced to small stumps.
Gerrhosaurus, with lateral fold and complete limbs; Tetradactylus also with a fold, but with very variable limbs; Condylosaurus; all in Africa.
Limbs always well developed.
Most of the European lizards with four well developed limbs belong to the genus Lacerta.
Towards the head and on the limbs the spots tend to become solid, but there is great local variation in regard to their form and arrangement.
The groundcolour of the fur varies from a pale fawn to a rufous buff, graduating in the Indian race into pure white on the under-parts and inside of the limbs.
Generally speaking, the spots on the under parts and limbs are simple and blacker than those on the other parts of the body.
- Neohipparion, a plains-living horse with very slender limbs and lateral digits small and well raised from the ground, adapted to a dry, hard soil.
For example, among the land vertebrates the feet (associated with the structure of the limbs and trunk) may take one of many lines of adaptation to different media or habitat, either aquatic, terrestrial, arboreal or aerial; while the teeth (associated with the structure of the skull and jaws) also may take one of many lines of adaptation to different kinds of food, whether herbivorous, insectivorous or carnivorous.
As instances of such combinations, some of the (probably herbivorous) Eocene monkeys with arboreal limbs have teeth so difficult to distinguish from those of the herbivorous ground-living Eocene horses with cursorial limbs that at first in France and also in America they were both classed with the hoofed animals.
- Diagram demonstrating that there are an indefinite number of combinations of various adaptive types of limbs and feet with various adaptive types of teeth, and that there is no fixed law of correlation between the two series of adaptations.
Comparatively recently, however, specimens have been obtained with the ventral surface exposed, revealing the number and structure of the limbs.
A pair of the latter was articulated to the sides of a moderately wide dorsal plate on each segment of the body, and similar limbs were attached to the ventral surface of the head-shield behind the mouth.
Each of these limbs was twobranched, the external branch consisting of a slender fringed flagellum possibly respiratory in function, and the inner of a normal jointed ambulatory leg.
Under the pygidium or caudal shield the appendages were much shortened, and their main branch consisted of broader and flatter segments than those of the preceding limbs.
Such was the structure of the appendages in Trilobites belonging to the genus Triarthrus; but considering the great structural differences that obtain between Triarthrus and many other genera, it would be rash to assume that there were not corresponding differences in the structure of the limbs.
It is probable that no satisfactory classification of the Trilobites will be proposed until the limbs of most of the genera have been examined.
The long neck and limbs, coupled with peculiarities in the structure of the skull, entitle the gerenuk, which is a large species, to represent a genus.
The patient is quite unconscious, the eyes are motionless, the pupils dilated, the skin cold and moist, the limbs relaxed, the pulse is slow and barely perceptible, the respirations very slow and convulsive.
In size they may be compared with cats; the long slender limbs are connected by a broad fold of skin extending outwards from the sides of the neck and body, the fingers and toes are webbed, and the hind-limbs joined by an outer membrane as in bats.
Their habits are nocturnal, and during the daytime they cling to the trunks or limbs of trees head downwards in a state of repose.
2) showed that one at least of the fundamental myths of Mani was borrowed from the Avesta, namely, that which recounts how through the manifestation of the virgin of light and of the messenger of salvation to the libidinous princes of darkness the vital substance or light held captive in their limbs was liberated and recovered for the realm of light.
thy limbs are burning I Through the vest which seems to hide them" - "limbs" is supported against "lips" (ed.
Its limbs, especially the hinder pair, are long; and the feet remarkable for the great development of the lateral pair of hoofs and for the freedom of motion The Musk-deer (Moschus moschiferus).
CAPYBARA, or Carpincho (Hydrochaerus capybara), the largest living rodent mammal, characterized by its moderately long limbs, partially-webbed toes, of which there are four in front and three behind, hoof-like nails, sparse hair, short ears, cleft upper lip and the absence of a tail.
The build is stout and heavy, the limbs and tail are short, the ears moderate, the eyes minute and the feet five-toed and plantigrade.
The first of these, or Geomyinae, is characterized as follows: Incisors broad; mastoid not appearing on the top of the skull; eyes small; ears rudimentary; limbs short, subequal.
They are small rat-like rodents, with one pair of upper premolars, which are mere pins, as is the last molar, and the two pairs of limbs of normal length, with the metatarsals separate; the infra-orbital opening in the skull being triangular and widest below, while the incisive foramina in the palate are elongated.
Australia is the home of the group of jumping species, known as jerboa-rats, characterized by the elongation of the hind limbs, arranged under the genera Notomys, Dipodillus, Ammomys and Conilurus, distinguished from one another by the structure of the molars and the number of teats and foot-pads, the second being further characterized by its long ears.
They have long hind limbs, large eyes and ears; and in correlation with the latter an enlarged auditory bulla to the skull, which is hollow and divided into a tympanic and a mastoid portion.
The Old World porcupines, constituting the family Hystricidae, are terrestrial, stoutly built rodents, with limbs of subequal length in front and behind, and the skin covered with strong spines.
Many of them, like ungulates, are specialized for swift running, and have unusually long limbs, with ridges developed on the articular surfaces of the lower bones; the clavicles are more or less reduced; the thorax is more compressed than usual, with a narrower breast-bone; and there is a marked tendency to the reduction or loss of the lateral toes, more especially in the hind limb.
The maras (Dolichotis) have the limbs and ears long and the tail very short.
Although the brain is relatively larger, the bones of the limbs, especially the short, five-toed feet, approximate to those of the Amblypoda and Proboscidea; but in the articulation of the astragalus with both the navicular and cuboid Arsinoitherium is nearer the former than the latter group. It is probable, however, that these resemblances are mainly due to parallelism in development, and are in all three cases adaptations necessary to support the enormous weight of the body.
The Rev. William Ellis, an early English missionary, described the natives as follows: " The inhabitants of these islands are, considered physically, amongst the finest races in the Pacific, bearing the strongest resemblance to the New Zealanders in stature, and in their well-developed muscular limbs.
In these animals the eyeball and the fur of the body are unpigmented, but the tips of the ear pinnae and extremities of the fore and hind limbs, together with the tail, are marked by more or less well defined colour.
They possess stout limbs, with which they kick in front, and have the inner toe armed with a long powerful claw.
The mother branches or limbs should not be numerous, but well marked, equal in strength and regularly disposed.
In the later Carboniferous rocks the earliest amphibians make their appearance in considerable numbers; they were all Stegocephalians (Labyrinthodonts) with long bodies, a head covered with bony plates and weak or undeveloped limbs.
It is found that in densely wooded districts furs are darker in colour than in exposed regions, and that the quality of wool and hair is softer and more silky than those from bare tracts of country, where nature exacts from its creatures greater efforts to secure food, thereby developing stronger limbs and a consequently coarser body covering.
OKAPI, the native name of an African ruminant mammal (Ocapia johnstoni), belonging to the Giraffidae, or giraffe-family, but distinguished from giraffes by its shorter limbs and neck, the absence of horns in the females, and its very remarkable type of colouring.
In colour the sides of the face are puce, and the neck and most of the body purplish, but the buttocks and upper part of both fore and hind limbs are transversely barred with black and white, while their lower portion is mainly white with black fetlock-rings, and in the front pair a vertical black stripe on the anterior surface.
In general form, so far as can be judged from the disarticulated skeleton, the okapi was more like an antelope than a giraffe, the fore and hind cannon-bones, and consequently the entire limbs, being of approximately equal length.
On the other hand, the thick layer of fallen leaves on the ground, and the bulk of the stems of the forest trees are bluish brown and russet, thus closely resembling the decaying leaves in an European forest after heavy rain; while the whole effect is precisely similar to that produced by the russet head and body and the striped thighs and limbs of the okapi.
The coat is long and soft, pale silvery grey or light buff in hue, marked with black on the chest and upper parts of the limbs, with transverse stripes on the loins and rings on the tail of the same hue.
The limbs of the U are further twisted together in a looser or tighter coil, the axis of which may be traversed by a "spindle" muscle arising from the posterior end of the body.
A pit or depression, known as "the cerebral organ," opens into the brain just above the mouth; this usually divides into two limbs, which are deeply pigmented and have been called eyes.
Without being very plentiful anywhere, it is generally distributed in suitable localities throughout its range - those localities being such as afford it a sufficient supply of food, consisting during the greater part of the year of insects, which it diligently seeks on the boles and larger limbs of old trees; but in autumn and winter it feeds on nuts, beech-mast, the stones of yew-berries and hard seeds.
As to the women, from the age of about fourteen to that of eighteen or twenty, they are generally models of beauty in body and limbs; and in countenance most of them are pleasing, and many exceedingly lovely; but soon after they have attained their perfect growth, they rapidly decline.
Except that splints are sometimes found on the limbs of bodies of all periods, at present nothing is known, from texts or otherwise, of the existence of Egyptian surgery or dentistry.
But Isis collected the fragments, and wherever one was id, buried it with due honor; or, according to a different iunt, she joined the limbs together by virtue of her magical ers, and the slain Osiris, thus resurrected, henceforth reigned :ing of the dead in the nether world.
Prehistoric.The earliest civilized population of Egypt was highly skilled in mechanical accuracy and regularity, but had little sense of organic forms. They kept the unfinished treatment of the limbs and extremities which is so characteristic of most barbaric art; and the action was more considered than the form.
- The taryings 011, slate palettes appear to begin with work crudely accurate and forceful, the heavy limbs being ridged with tendons and muscles (Plate II.
The tactual organs of the soles, and the muscular sense organs of limbs and trunk, are originating perceptions that indicate that the self is standing on the solid earth, yet the eyes are at the same time originating perceptions that indicate that the solid earth is far away below the standing self.
Akin to this condition is that in which the power of maintaining muscular effort is increased; the individual may lie stiff with merely head and feet supported on two chairs; the limbs can be held outstretched for hours at a time.
In form these animals are somewhat pig-like; the body is stout, with arched back; the limbs are short and stout, armed with strong, blunt claws; the ears disproportionately long; and the tail very thick at the base and tapering gradually.
Their beards are sometimes thick; their limbs are muscular; the colour of their skins is cinnamon brown.
The copy, together with the many careful and highly finished preparatory studies for the heads, limbs and draperies which have been preserved, shows that this must have been the one of DUrer's pictures in which he best combined the broader vision and simpler habits of design which had impressed him in the works of Italian art with his own inherited and ingrained love of unflinchingly grasped fact and rugged, accentuated character.
They have very small eyes, blunt snouts, inconspicuous ears and short limbs and tails, in all of which points they are markedly contrasted with true rats and mice.
The okapi (Ocapia), which is also African but restricted to the tropical forest-region, in place of being an inhabitant of more or less open country, represents a second genus, characterized by the shorter neck and limbs, the totally different type of colouring, and the restriction of the horns to the male sex, in which they form a pair on the forehead; these horns being more compressed than FIG.
The coat is remarkable for its density and compactness; the general colour of the head and upper parts being clove-brown, with more or less white or whitish grey on the under parts and inner surfaces of the limbs, while there is also some white above the hoofs and on the muzzle, and there may be whitish rings round the eyes; there is a white area in the region of the tail, which includes the sides but not the upper surface of the latter; and the tarsal tuft is generally white.
His head was set on a spike and his quartered limbs were exposed in various places.
The simplest of such repeated elements are the cells of the tissues, more complex are cell-aggregates, from hairs, scales, teeth and the like, up to limbs or metameres in animals, or the .00 '00 leaves and their homologues in plants.
Beri-beri is a dietetic deficiency disease which manifests itself by cardiac weakness with shortness of breath, swelling of the legs and peripheral neuritis with numbness of the limbs and weakness.
The limbs are long, but with only two digits (the third and fourth) developed on each, no traces of any of the others being present.
In Protolabis of the Middle Miocene, while no cannon-bone is formed, the first and second pairs of incisor teeth are retained, and the limbs and feet are short and disproportionately small.
In addition to the above there is an extraordinary North American Miocene giraffe-necked camel (Alticamelus), a creature of the size of a giraffe, with similarly elongated neck and limbs, and evidently adapted for browsing on trees.
Unlike the giraffe, the length of the limbs is due to the elongation of their upper segments, and that of the neck to the lengthening of only the hinder vertebrae.
It has the same moderately long, plump body, with a low dorsal crest, the continuation of the membrane bordering the strongly compressed tail; a large thick head with small eyes without lids and with a large pendent upper lip; two pairs of well-developed limbs, with free digits; and above all, as the most characteristic feature, three large appendages on each side of the back of the head, fringed with filaments which, in their fullest development, remind one of black ostrich feathers.
Some of them are as light-skinned as Europeans, tall, robust, thin-lipped, straight-nosed, with straight black hair; others are shorter and darker in complexion, with round heads, long noses, thick lips, and scraggy limbs, indicating perhaps the commingling of more than one Semitic people.
Its limbs are long, its hair rough, and its claws blunt and only partially retractile.
In addition to their long hind and short fore limbs, jerboas are mostly characterized by their silky coats - of a fawn colour to harmonize with their desert surroundings - their large eyes, and long tails and ears.
The five-toed front limbs are extremely short, while the hind pair are six times as long.
During the procession a chant (also called eiresione) was sung, the text of which has been preserved in Plutarch (Theseus, '22) "Eiresione carries figs and rich cakes; Honey and oil in a jar to anoint the limbs; And pure wine, that she may be drunken and go to sleep."
At this stage collapse may set in, the patient become faint, the limbs twitch, the radical pulse become imperceptible, and unconsciousness supervene.
These monkeys are characterized by their lank bodies, long slender limbs and tail, welldeveloped thumbs, absence of cheek-pouches, and complex stomachs.
We must bisect as far as may be, but the division is after all to be into limbs, not parts.
The limbs are equal, stout and short.
It is of medium size, with long limbs, short tail, and tawny fur spotted with black; the head and body may measure 40 in.
In the family Homolidae stands the strange genus Latreillia, Roux, with long slender limbs and triangular carapace after the fashion of oxyrhynch spider-crabs.
Willemoes Suhm, which makes up for its vanished eyes by its extraordinarily elongate and dentated claws; in Psalidopus huxleyi, Wood-Mason and Alcock (1892), bristling with spikes from head to tail; in the Nematocarcinidae, with their long thread-like limbs and longer antennae; in species of Aristaeopsis reported by Chun from deep water off the east coast of Africa, bright red prawns nearly a foot long, with antennae about five times the length of the body.
The first tribe, called Chelifera, from the usually chelate or claw-bearing first limbs, may be regarded as Isopoda anomala, of whieh some authors would form a separate order, Tanaidea.
They differ in certain respects, as in the proportion of the limbs, in the bony development of the eyebrow ridges, and in the opposable great toe, which fits the foot to be a climbing and grasping organ.
Those of the plains find the temperature chilly, and are stricken down with influenza and pains in the limbs.
The groundcolour of the upper and outer parts of the head, body, limbs and tail is bright rufous fawn; and these parts are beautifully marked with transverse stripes of a dark, almost black colour.
The under-parts of the body, the inside of the limbs, the cheeks and a large spot over each eye are nearly white.
The general groundcolour of the body is pale yellowish brown, the limbs nearly white, the stripes dark brown or black.
In the typical form the stripes do not extend on to the limbs or tail; but there is a great variation in this respect, and as we proceed north the striping increases, till in the north-eastern E.
When this gland becomes enlarged, and its secretion consequently increases, the vessels dilate, the heart beats more rapidly, the skin becomes too hot, the nervous system becomes irritable, and tremors occur in the limbs.
It is in most instances traceable to exposure to cold or damp, to overuse of the limbs in walking, &c. Any source of pressure upon the nerve within the pelvis, such as may be produced by a tumour or even by constipation of the bowels, may excite an attack of sciatica.
Although intimately connected with the cuscuses and phalangers by means of the musk-kangaroo, the kangaroos and wallabies, together with the rat-kangaroos, are easily distinguishable from other diprotodont marsupials by their general conformation, and by peculiarities in the structure of their limbs, teeth and other organs.
lumholtzi, the reduction in the length of the hind-limbs is carried to a still further degree, so that the proportions of the fore and hind limbs are almost normal.
Henry appears to have been the first to adopt insulated or silkcovered wire for the magnetic coil; and also the first to employ what may be called the "spool" winding for the limbs of the magnet.
It will be sufficient here to define them as Arthropoda for the most part of aquatic habits, having typically two pairs of antenniform appendages in front of the mouth and at least three pairs of post-oral limbs acting as jaws.
Besides the sedentary Cirripedia, numbers of the smaller forms, especially among the Entomostraca, subsist on floating particles of organic matter swept within reach of the jaws by the movements of the other limbs.
The three pairs of appendages present in the " nauplius " larva show certain peculiarities of structure and development which seem to place them in a different category from the other limbs, and there is some ground for regarding the three corresponding somites as constituting a " primary cephalon."
It may assume the form of a bivalve shell entirely enclosing the body and limbs, as in many 6, maxilla (second maxilla).
Thus, in the thoracic limbs of the Malacostraca, the endopodite generally forms a walking-leg while the exopodite becomes a swimmingbranch or may disappear altogether.
In a Phyllopod such as Apus the limbs of the trunk consist of a flattened, unsegmented or obscurely segmented axis or corm having a series of lobes or processes known as endites and exites on its inner and outer margins respectively.
The view is commonly held that these eye-stalks are really limbs, homologous with the other appendages.
The evidence of embryology is decidedly against the view that the eye-stalks are limbs.
In the Malacostraca, the antennules are often biramous, but there is considerable doubt as to whether the two branches represent the endopodite and exopodite of the other limbs, and three branches are found in the Stomatopoda and in some Caridea.
The mandibles, like the antennae, have, in the nauplius, the form of biramous swimming limbs, with a masticatory process originating from the proximal part of the protopodite.
These limbs undergo great modification in the different groups.
The limbs of the post-cephalic series show little differentiation among themselves in many Entomostraca.
In the Cirripedia (Thyrostraca) the six pairs of biramous cirriform limbs differ only slightly from each other, and in many Copepoda this is also the case.
The thoracic limbs have the endopodites converted, as a rule, into more or less efficient walking-legs, and the exopodites are often lost, while the abdominal limbs more generally preserve the biramous form and are, in the more primitive types, natatory.
4) the abdominal appendages are constantly divided into an anterior group of three natatory " swimmerets " and a posterior group of three limbs used chiefly in jumping or in burrowing.
In many of the smaller Entomostraca (Copepoda and most Ostracoda) no special gills are present, and respiration is carried on by the general surface of the body and limbs.
In the primitive Malacostraca the gills were probably, as in the Phyllopoda and in Nebalia, the modified epipodites of the thoracic limbs, and this is the condition found in some Schizopoda.
The gills are inserted at the base of the thoracic limbs, and lie within a pair of branchial chambers covered by the carapace.
The podobranchiae are clearly epipodites, or, more correctly, parts of the epipodites, and it is probable that the arthroand pleuro-branchiae are also epipodial in origin and have migrated from the proximal segment of the limbs on to the adjacent body-wall.
In many Entomostraca the heart is absent, and it is impossible to speak of a " circulation " in the proper sense of the term, the blood being merely driven hither and thither by the movements of the body and limbs and of the alimentary canal.
The most important of these belong to the category of dermal glands, and may be scattered over the surface of the body and limbs, or grouped at certain points for the discharge of special functions.
In some Amphipoda the secretion of glands on the body and limbs is used in the construction of tubular cases in which the animals live.
In other cases in the last two groups, however, the light-producing organs found on the body and limbs have a complex and remarkable structure, and were formerly described as accessory eyes.
These may be formed by the modification of almost any of the appendages, often the antennules or antennae or some of the thoracic limbs, or even the mandibular palps (some Ostracoda).
In addition, some of the appendages in the neighbourhood of the genital apertures may be modified for the purpose of transferring the genital products to the female, as, for instance, the first and second abdominal limbs in the Decapoda.
12) has an oval unsegmented body and three pairs of limbs corresponding to the antennules, antennae and mandibles of the adult.
of the somites, and, for the most part,' of the limbs.
This is partly due to the fact that many important forms must have escaped fossilization altogether owing to their small size and delicate structure, while very many of those actually preserved are known only from the carapace or shell, the limbs being absent or represented only by indecipherable fragments.
In Palaeozoic formations, from the Upper Devonian onwards, numbers of shrimp-like forms are found which have been referred to the Schizopoda and the Decapoda, but here again the scanty information which may be gleaned as to the structure of the limbs rarely permits of definite conclusions as to their affinities.
In other respects, however, such as the absence of paired eyes and of a shell-fold, as well as in the characters of the post-oral limbs, the Copepoda are undoubtedly specialized.
While little importance is to be given to such characters as the unsegmented body, the small number of limbs and the absence of a shell-fold and of paired eyes, it has, on the other hand, preserved archaic features in the form of the limbs and the masticatory function of the antenna.
Lynxes are found in the northern and temperate regions of both the Old and New World; they are smaller than leopards, and larger than true wild cats, with long limbs, short stumpy tail, ears tufted at the tip, and pupil of the eye linear when contracted.
It may be seen how the arrangement of limbs suited for going on all-fours belongs rather to the apes than to man, and walking on the soles of the feet rather to man than the apes.
On the whole, man's locomotive limbs are not so much specialized to particular purposes, as generalized into adaptation to many ends.
In the general proportions of the body and limbs there is a marked difference between the gorilla and man.
The gorilla's brain-case is smaller, its trunk larger, its lower limbs shorter, its upper limbs longer in proportion than those of man.
This is Huxley's argument, some prominent points of which are the following: As regards the proportion of limbs, the hylobates or gibbon is as much longer in the arms than the gorilla as the gorilla is than the man, while on the other hand, it is as much longer in the legs than the man as the man is than the gorilla.
Proportions of the limbs, compared in length with the trunk, have been claimed as constituting peculiarities of African and American races; and other anatomical points, such as the conformation of the pelvis, have speciality.
The limbs are very strong, and the feet short and broad, resembling externally those of an elephant or tortois Glyptodonts constitute a family, the Glyptodontidae, whose position is next to the armadillos (Dasypodidae); the group being represented by a number of generic types.
The child was brought up secretly, watched over by Curetes; but the jealous Hera discovered where he was, and sent Titans to the spot, who, finding him at play, tore him to pieces, and cooked and ate his limbs, while Hera gave his heart to Zeus.
The group is typified by Chalicotherium, of which the original species was discovered in the Lower Pliocene strata of Eppelsheim, Hesse-Darmstadt, in 1825, and named on the evidence of the teeth, the limbs being subsequently described as Macrotherium.
The irregularities incidental to use of the spots are escaped by comparing the relative Doppler displacements of the same spectral line as given by the receding and advancing limbs of the sun.
J anssen from the summit of Mont Blanc, but the only unquestionable test is to find those lines which are not touched by Doppler effect when the receding and advancing limbs of the sun are compared (Cornu); by this method H.
In the 6th century, his statues of stone were naked, stiff and rigid in attitude, shoulders square, limbs strong and broad, hair falling down the back.
The cells forming the limbs of the ectodermic folds secrete nodules of calcite, and these, fusing together, give rise to six (or twelve) vertical radial plates or septa.
coast of Africa two distinct breeds of hairy sheep are indigenous, the one characterized by its large size, long limbs and smooth coat, and the other by its inferior stature, lower build and heavily maned neck and throat.
In addition to its long limbs, it is characterized by its Roman nose, large (but not drooping) ears, and the presence of a dewlap on the throat and chest.
The limbs, woolled to the knees and hocks, are clean below.
In describing rock-folds special terms have been assigned to certain portions of the fold; thus, the sloping sides of an anticline or syncline are known as the "limbs," "slopes," "flanks" or "members" of the fold; in an anticline, the part X, fig.
In the majority of mammals both pairs of limbs are well developed and adapted for walking or running.
Special adaptations for climbing are exhibited by both pairs of limbs in opossums, and for hanging to boughs in sloths.
As already indicated, the limbs of different mammals are specially modified for various modes of life; and in many cases analogous modifications occur, in greater or less degree, throughout the entire body.
In this case, as might be expected, the greatest modifications occur in the limbs, but correlated with this is also an elongation of the head and neck in long-legged types.
Brief reference may also be made to the morphological importance of extraordinary length or shortness in the skulls of mammals - dolichocephalism and brachycephalism; both these features being apparently characteristic of specialized types, the former condition being (as in the horse) often, although not invariably, connected with length of limb and neck, and adaptation to speed, while brachycephalism may be correlated with short limbs and an abbreviated neck.
Remarkable differences in the direction or slope of the hair are noticeable on different parts'of the body and limbs of many mammals, especially in certain apes, where the hair of the fore-limbs is inclined towards the elbow from above and from below.
Callosities, or bare patches covered with hardened and thickened epidermis, are found on the buttocks of many apes, the breast of camels, the inner side of the limbs of Equidae, the grasping under-surface of the tail of prehensile-tailed monkeys, opossums; &c. The greater part of the skin of the onehorned Asiatic rhinoceros is immensely thickened and stiffened by an increase of the tissue of both the skin and epidermis, constituting the well-known jointed " armour-plated " hide of those animals.
With few exceptions, the terminal extremities of the digits of both limbs of mammals are more or less protected or armed by epidermic plates or sheaths, constituting the various forms of nails, claws or hoofs.
It has been suggested that the above-mentioned callosities or " chestnuts " on the limbs of horses are vestigial scent-glands; and it is noteworthy that scrapings or shavings from their surface have a powerful attraction for other horses, and are also used by poachers and burglars to keep dogs silent.
The position of such glands on the lower portions of the limbs is plainly favourable to a recognitiontaint being left in the tracks of terrestrial animals; and antelopes have been observed deliberately to rub the secretion from their face-glands on tree-trunks.
Although mouse-like in general appearance, these rodents are distinguished by their elongated hind limbs, and, typically, by the presence of four pairs of cheek-teeth in each jaw.
Another famous statue is one from Gabii, in which she is finishing her toilet and fastening the chlamys over her tunic. In older times her figure is fuller and stronger, and the clothing more complete; certain statues discovered at Delos, imitated from wooden models (oava), are supposed to represent Artemis; they are described as stiff and rigid, the limbs as it were glued to the body without life or movement, garments closely fitting, the folds of which fall in symmetrical parallel lines.
Thomas Bagley was accused of declaring that if in the sacrament a priest made bread into God, he made a God that can be eaten by rats and mice; that the pharisees of the day, the monks, and the nuns, and the friars and all other privileged persons recognized by the church were limbs of Satan; and that auricular confession to the priest was the will not of God but of the devil.
ARTHROPODA, a name, denoting the possession by certain animals of jointed limbs, now applied to one of the three sub-phyla into which one of the great phyla (or primary branches) of coelomocoelous animals - the Appendiculata - is divided; the other two being respectively the Chaetopoda and the Rotifera.
The names Condylopoda and Gnathopoda have been subsequently proposed for the same group. The word refers to the jointing of the chitinized exo-skeleton of the limbs or lateral appendages of the animals included, which are, roughly speaking, the Crustacea, Arachnida, Hexapoda (so-called " true insects "), Centipedes and Millipedes.
It has taken some time to obtain any general acceptance of the view that the parapodia of the Chaetopoda and the limbs of Arthropoda are genetically identi cal structures; yet if we compare the para podium of Tomopteris or of Phyllodoce with one of the foliaceous limbs of Branchipus or __; Apus, the correspond ences of the two are striking.
An erroneous view of the fundamental morphology of the Crustacean limb, and consequently of that of other Arthropoda, came into favour owing to the acceptance of the highly modified limbs of Astacus as typical.
The range of modification of which the rami or limb-branches of the limbs of Arthropoda are capable is very large, and in allied orders or even families or genera we often find d z what is certainly the palp of the same appendage (as determined by numerical position of the segments) - in one case antenniform, in another chelate, in another pediform, and in another reduced to a mere stump or absent altogether.
The principal forms assumed by the Arthropod parapodium and its rami may be thus enumerated: (1) Axial corm well developed, unsegmented or with two to four segments; lateral endites and exites (rami) numerous and of various lengths (certain 8 limbs of lower After Lankester, Q.
In connexion with the discussion of the limbs of Arthropods, a few words should be devoted to the gill-processes.
In all cases the appendages primarily develop rami or branches which form the limbs, the primitive axis or corm being reduced and of insignificant size.
With rare exceptions, branchial plates are developed either by modification of a ramus of the limbs or as processes on a ramus, or upon the sides of the body.
They have large cheek-pouches, large naked callosities, often brightly coloured, on the buttocks, and short thick limbs, adapted rather to walking than to climbing.
It is also used in making artificial limbs, for lining entomological cases, for pommels in leather-dressing, and as a medium for making architectural models.
The instants of contact between the limbs of the sun and planet defied precise determination.
C. Vogel's observations on the 9th of June 1871, of differences due to the sun's rotation in the refrangibility of Fraunhofer lines derived respectively from the east and west limbs.
He rides on the Garuda, half man and half bird, having the head, wings, beak and talons of an eagle, and human body and limbs, its face being white, its wings red and its body golden.
The hair is not woolly, the general build is rather stout, and the limbs are of moderate length and slenderness.
All Boidae possess vestiges of pelvis and hind limbs, appearing externally as claw-like spurs on each side of the vent, but they are so small that they are practically without function in climbing.
They occupy the extreme east limits of Papuan territory and are usually classified as Melanesians; but they are physically superior to the pure examples of that race, combining their dark colour, harsh hirsute skin, crisp hair, which is bleached with lime and worn in an elaborately trained mop, and muscular limbs, with the handsome features and well proportioned bodies of the Polynesians.
Khnum is said to have reconstructed the limbs of the dismembered Osiris.
The " Purusha Sukta," the 90th hymn of the tenth book of the Rig Veda, gives us the Indian version of the theory that all things were made out of the mangled limbs of Purusha, a magnified non-natural man, who was sacrificed by the gods.
In such cases the acute collapse occurs in company with both superficial and deep anaesthesia of the limbs, and is soon followed by coma terminating in death.
As regards general characteristics, all muntjacs are small compared with the majority of deer, and have long bodies and rather short limbs and neck.
Saturn, taking in Greek astrology the place at the head of the planets which among the Babylonians was accorded to JupiterMarduk, was given a place in the brain, which in later times was looked upon as the centre of soul-life; Venus, as the planet of the passion of love, was supposed to reign supreme over the genital organs, the belly and the lower limbs; Mars, as the violent planet, is associated with the bile, as well as with the blood and kidneys.
Between these two extremes the other parts and organs of the body were distributed among the remaining signs of the zodiac, the neck being assigned to the Bull, the shoulders and arms to the Gemini (or twins), the breast to Cancer, the flanks to Leo, the bladder to Virgo, the buttocks to the Balance, the pubis to the Scorpion, the thighs to Sagittarius, the knees to Capricorn, and the limbs to Aquarius.
The mane is also longer and more flowing, and the ears are shorter, the limbs longer, and the head smaller.
burchelli), the ground-colour is white, and the stripes cover the body and upper part of the limbs.
In some instances, however, the feet of such polydactyle horses bear little resemblance to those of the extinct Hipparion or Anchitherium, but look rather as if due to that tendency to reduplication of parts which occurs so frequently as a monstrous condition, especially among domesticated animals, and which, whatever its origin, certainly cannot in many instances, as the cases of entire limbs superadded, or of six digits in man, be attributed to reversion.
The muscles of the limbs are modified from those of the ordinary mammalian type in accordance with the reduced condition of the bones and the simple requirements of flexion and extension of the joints, no such actions as pronation and supination, or opposition of digits, being possible or needed.
Below the carpal and tarsal joints, the fore and hind limbs correspond almost exactly in structure as well as function.
The points of chief importance are a fine, clean, lean head, set on free from collar heaviness; a long and strongly muscular neck, shoulders oblique and covered with muscle; high, long withers, chest of good depth and narrow but not extremely so; body round in type; back rib well down; depth at withers a little under half the height; length equal to the height at withers and croup; loins level and muscular; croup long, rather level; tail set on high and carried gracefully; the hind quarters long, strongly developed, and full of muscle and driving power; the limbs clean-cut and sinewy, possessing abundance of good bone, especially desired in the cannons, which are short, broad and flat; comparatively little space between the fore legs; pastern joints smooth and true; pasterns strong, clean and springy, sloping when at rest at an angle of 45°; feet medium size, wide and high at the heels, concave below and set on straight.
They stand on short stout legs, with a plentiful covering - sometimes too abundant - of long hair extending chiefly down the back but also round the front of the limbs from knees and hocks, and when in full feather obscuring nearly the whole of the hoofs.
Its body looks too heavy for its limbs, which are free from the " feather " so much admired in the two other heavy breeds; it possesses a characteristic chestnut colour.
The horse becomes low in condition and moves about quietly, and the frost tends to brace up the limbs.
In Newton's method, two angles of constant magnitude are caused to revolve about their vertices which are fixed in position, in such a manner that the intersection of two limbs moves along a fixed straight line; then the two remaining limbs envelop a conic. Maclaurin's method, published in his Geometria organica (1719), is based on the proposition that the locus of the vertex of a triangle, the sides of which pass through three fixed points, and the base angles move along two fixed lines, is a conic section.
When attacked it seeks to escape either by rolling itself into a ball, its erect spines proving a formidable barrier to its capture, or by burrowing into the sand, which its powerful limbs enable it to do with great celerity.
Among these may be mentioned the hairy frog of West Africa, Trichobatrachus robustus, some specimens of which have the sides of the body and of the hind limbs covered with long villosities, the function of which is unknown, and its ally Gampsosteonyx batesi, in which the last phalanx of the fingers and toes is sharp, claw-like and perforates the skin.
This cat, often called the clouded tiger, is beautifully marked, and has an elongated head and body, long tail and rather short limbs.
Its six pairs of limbs are not like the bare and simple feet of the Laura, but two-branched and setose as in the ordinary cypris-stage of the cirripede.
which in structure resembles the vegetative stem in its primary condition, bears numerous verticils of bracts, those of each verticil being coherent in their lower part, so as to form a disc or cup, from the margin of which the free limbs of the bracts arise.
- No limbs.
If the absence of limbs and the reduction of the tail were the only characteristic of the group, there would be, of course, no objection to unite the Caecilians with the Urodeles; but, to say nothing of the scales, present in many genera of Apodals and absent in all Caudates, which have been shown by H.
Four limbs and no tail.
In others, which represent the perichordal type, the greater share of the formation of the whole vertebra falls to the (paired) dorsal cartilage, but there is in addition a narrow ventral or hypochordal cartilage which fuses with the dorsal or becomes connected with it by calcified tissue; the notochord is thus completely surrounded by a thick sheath in tadpoles with imperfectly developed limbs.
The long bones of the limbs consist of an axis of cartilage; the extremities of the cartilages frequently undergo calcification and are thus converted into epiphyses.
One of the interesting recent discoveries is that of the "hairy" frog (Trichobatrachus), in which the sides of the body and limbs are covered with long villosities, the function of which is still unknown (36).
Other newts, and many salamanders, whether terrestrial or aquatic, pair, the male embracing the female about the fore limbs or in the pelvic region, and the males of such forms are invariably devoid of ornamental secondary sexual characters; but in spite of this amplexation the same mode of fecundation by means of a spermatophore is resorted to, although it may happen that the contents of the spermatophore are absorbed direct from the cloaca of the male.
These asperities usually form brush-like patches on the inner side of one or more of the digits, but may extend over the inner surface of the limbs and on the breast and chin; the use of them on these parts is sufficiently obvious, but they are sometimes also present, without apparent function, on various parts of the foot, as in Discoglossus, Bombinator, and Pelodytes.
In most of the Caudata, the eggs are deposited singly in the axils of water plants or on leaves which the female folds over the egg with her hind limbs.
The otter has an elongated, low body, short limbs, short broad feet, with five toes on each, connected together by webs, and all with short, moderately strong, compressed, curved, pointed claws.
After 1802, finding himself attacked with a weakness in the limbs attended with frequent fits of falling, he mitigated the Spartan severity of his life, and consented to receive medical advice.
The limbs, especially the cannon-bones, are relatively short, and the splint-bones large.
A cold gust of wind ripped brittle brown leaves from the limbs of old oak tree, tossing them carelessly in front of the headstone below.
You've become a vital part of me - more vital than my limbs.
He worked the ATV down a steep rocky slope and through overhanging brush that kept her busy dodging limbs and combing cobwebs from her hair.
The vampire struggled to break free, a blur of flailing limbs.
Bill said one of the limbs of the tree had gone through the roof over Carmen's bedroom â€“ all the way down and punctured her mattress.
ache, fever, aching limbs.
The process may enable doctors to give amputees fully functioning bionic limbs which are linked to the patient's nervous system within five years.
bandagebandaging limbs, the foot should be included or it may swell up.
beartients with the condition are born with limb defects, in some cases without any upper limbs.
The patient was concious but had received serious injuries to his lower limbs including bi lateral fractured femurs.
bionic limbs which are linked to the patient's nervous system within five years.
Old trees with heavy limbs may be propped with boards to prevent breakage under heavy snow or ice.
Her baby was born miraculously from her right side, his limbs shining like the sun with dazzling brilliance.
chewed off their own limbs to escape snares.
Symptoms fall into three categories: Physical symptoms include chorea (involuntary movements of the limbs, face and body ).
cursorial limbs, long limbs adapted for running.
The models usually last around three scenes before ingrained dirt and cracked limbs make them rather unphotogenic.
Occlusive dressings Paste bandages are useful for treating lichenified limbs or stubborn areas of eczema.
For example, research into the way genes control limb development in the fertilized chicken egg provides insight into how human limbs develop.
Unfortunately, with tragic results, the other mirror image enantiomer causes genetic damage in the fetus resulting in physical deformities of the limbs.
The objective of the exercise program for Class I muscles or limbs is to increase muscle strength and cardiovascular endurance.
Other symptoms of distant metastases are sciatica, lymph node enlargement, swelling in the lower limbs.
feel self conscious whilst flailing limbs at people.
flailing simian limbs.
Action Men with wildly flailing limbs, thrown helplessly about at terrifying velocity.
flailing away with all four unrestrained limbs.
The abnormal postures that occur with spasticity can include excessive flexion or extension of the limbs.
Seals either use no limbs for moving on land or solely their front flippers, using their hind limbs for swimming.
Its limbs are decorated with pellets imitating precious gems.
My limbs became glassy, the bones and arteries faded, vanished, and the little white nerves went last.
glistened with oily sweat like the limbs of a straining athlete.
grope cedar's limbs flailed, a ghost's groping hands.
During treatment, patients commonly experience a heaviness in the limbs or a pleasant feeling of relaxation.
heaviness in the limbs or a pleasant feeling of relaxation.
hind limbs enable them to leap about 50cm.
hitch a ride, firmly grasping her with his limbs.
hypertrophy of the skin, skin folds and swelling of the limbs is often referred to as elephantitis.
Athetoid CP is characterized by involuntary writhing movements of the limbs and is usually caused by hypoxia of a shorter but more profound duration.
His limbs were nailed to a cross and made impotent.
jerks of the limbs or trunk.
jointed limbs tucked away under my transparent carapace.
Not strictly true, we aren't going to send you a cardboard box of severed limbs.
To shuffle on with aching limbs Each burning step repeating " Who dares wins " !
There were people walking around with dismembered limbs and blood- covered faces.
Some people cannot see or have paralyzed limbs, yet maintain that they are not disabled in any way.
They have physiotherapy, often have prosthetic limbs fitted & learn how to use them.
In fact, its strong hind limbs suggest it normally walked on two legs with its tail held aloft.
Their fore limbs are short but strong with nimble fingers.
mangled limbs, even without brains.
The limbs are not muscular enough to be used for standing upright; bats instead rest hanging upside down.
They can include: headache fever tiredness aching limbs loss of appetite nausea and vomiting abdominal pain These symptoms last for around a week.