Types, may be distinguished, and these, with the two extremes of brown coal or lignite and anthracite, form a perfectly continuous series.
Brown coal, or lignite, occurs principally in Victoria.
French lignite comes for the most part from the department of BOuches-du-Rhne (near Fuveau).
The other minerals found are silver, lead, copper, magnesium and lignite coal.
The development of French coal and lignite mining in the i9th century, together with records of prices, which rose considerably at the end of the period, is set forth in the table below:
Italy has only unimportant lignite and anthracite mines, but water power is abundant and has been largely applied to industry, especially in generating electricity.
Roumanite, or Rumanian amber, a dark reddish resin, occurring with lignite in Tertiary deposits.
Schraufite is a reddish resin from the Carpathian sandstone, and it occurs with jet in the cretaceous rocks of the Lebanon; ambrite is a resin found in many of the coals of New Zealand; retinite occurs in the lignite of Bovey Tracey in Devonshire and elsewhere; whilst copaline has been found in the London clay of Highgate in North London.
A sub-bituminous lignite is mined in Esmeralda county (800 tons in 1906; 330 tons in 1907).
It has a royal shell factory, calico-printing mills, lignite mines, stone quarries and pottery and tobacco factories.
Recent experiments lead to the conclusion that iron, lead, manganese, lignite and sulphur exist in considerable abundance.
A law enacted in 1896 required the use of lignite in all state buildings and institutions.
The most productive are those of iron and zinc. Lignite is found in the department of Algiers and petroleum in that of Oran.
Potatoes and hemp. Copper and lignite are mined, and turf is dug.
The presence of a bed of lignite in the neighbourhood has encouraged the industrial development of Teplitz, which carries on manufactures of machinery and metal goods, cotton and woollen goods, chemicals, hardware, sugar, dyeing and calicoprinting.
Thus the lower Eocene has some lignite in the eastern Gulf region, while in Teias lignite and saliferous and gypsiferous sediments are found, though most of the system is marine and of shallow water origin.
Coal exists in the United States in large quantity in each of its important varieties: anthracite, or hard coal; bituminous, or soft coal; and lignite; and in various intermediate and c al special grades.
M., of which 250,531 are credited to anthracite and bituminous, 97,636 to sub-bituminous and 148,609 to lignite; (2) total original coal supply of the country, 3,076,204,000,000 short tons, including 21,000,000,000 tons of anthracite in Pennsylvania, and small amounts elsewhere (semi-anthracite and semi-bituminous), 650,157,000,000 tons of sub-bituminous and 743,590,000,000 tons of lignite; (3) easily accessible coal still available, 1,992,979,000,000 tons; (4) available coal accessible with difficulty, f,153,225,000,000 tons.
Finally, of true lignite beds, or of lignite mix d with sub-bituminous qualities, the states of North Dakota, Montana, Texas and South Dakota are credited with deposits of 500,000; 279,500; 23,000; and 10,000 millions of tons respectively.
But it is to be remembered that the amount and the fuel value of both the lignite and, to a lesser degree, the sub-bituminjus coals, is uncertain to a high degree.
Coal, chiefly bituminous, occurs in large quantities in Nova Scotia, British Columbia and in various parts of the north-west (lignite), though most of the anthracite is imported from the United States, as is the greater part of the bituminous coal used in Ontario.
Euboea at the present time produces a large amount of grain, and its mineral wealth is also considerable, great quantities of magnesia and lignite being exported.
The Harz Mountains are rich in silver, lead, iron and copper; coal is found around Osnabruck, on the Deister, at Osterwald, &c., lignite in various places; salt-springs of great richness exist at Egestorf shall and Neuhall near Hanover, and at Luneburg; and petroleum may be obtained south of Celle.
ANTHRACOTHERIUM ("coal-animal," so called from the fact of the remains first described having been obtained from the Tertiary lignite-beds of Europe), a genus of extinct artiodactyle ungulate mammals, characterized by having 44 teeth, with five semi-crescentic cusps on the crowns of the upper molars.
There are mines of silver, copper, lignite and salt, and many hot springs, including some of great repute medicinally.
The oldest, bordering the Lower Carboniferous, is the Tuscaloosa formation of clays and sands arranged as follows: dark clays, thin lignite seams, lignitic clays, sands and chert, and light clays; this formation is 5-15 m.
Overlying the Tuscaloosa are the Eutaw sands, characterized by sandy laminated clays, and yellow, orange, red and blue sands, containing lignite and fossil resin.
It is marked by grey clays and sands, lignitic fossiliferous clays, beds of lignite or brown coal, sometimes 8 ft.
The state contains deposits of iron, gypsum, marl, phosphate, lignite, ochre, glass-sand, tripoli, fuller's earth, limestones and sandstones; and there are small gas flows in the Yazoo Delta.
In the vicinity of the towns are extensive lignite mines.
Other minerals that have been discovered but have not been industrially developed are gypsum, lignite and cement rock.
Coals are extracted at Neudorf, Lesitz, Ratiskowitz and Ceic; lignite at Rossitz, Oslavan and Mahrisch-Ostrau.
Iron ore, lignite, copper, mercury, molybdenite, nickel, platinum and other minerals have been found, but the quantity of each is too small, or the quality too poor, for them to be of commercial value.
The modern town is best known for its lignite coal-mines, from which Constantinople receives a good part of its supply.
Bituminous products of every grade, from clear translucent oils resembling petroleum and refined naphtha, to lignite-like substances, occur in all parts of the island.
Both these series contain numerous plant remains, evergreen oaks, magnolias, aralias, &c., and seams of lignite (coal), which is burnt; but in neither occur the marine beds of the United States.
Other important products are lignite, gypsum and a variety of valuable stones and clays.
That might be depended upon for the supply of coal, which is of all characters from lignite to anthracite.
There are lignite mines in the vicinity.
The mineral wealth of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha is insignificant, small quantities of coal, lignite, ironstone and millstone being annually raised.
Lebanon has thick deposits of lignite coal, but of inferior quality owing to the presence of iron pyrites.
It has important iron and steel works and iron foundries, at which armour-plates, guns and projectiles are made for the Italian navy, also steel castings, machinery and rails, a royal arms factory, and lignite mining.
In the neighbourhood there are considerable deposits of lignite, and mineral-oil works.
On the continent of Europe it is customary to consider coal as divisible into two great classes, depending upon differences of colour, namely, brown coal, corresponding to the term "lignite" used in England and France, and black or stone coal, which is equivalent to coal as understood in England.
Lignite and cannel are usually dull and earthy, and of an irregular fracture, the latter being much tougher than the black coal.
Lignite or brown coal includes all varieties which are intermediate in properties between wood and coals of the older.
A coal of this kind is generally to be Lignite distinguished by its brown colour, either in mass or in the blacker varieties in the streak.
The proportion of carbon is comparatively low, usually not exceeding 70%, while the from this circumstance that the term lignite is derived.
In this coal, as well as in the lignite of Tasmania, known as white coal or Tasmanite, the sulphur occurs in organic combination, but is so firmly held that it can only be very partially expelled, even by exposure to a very high and continued heating out of contact with the air.
Both in Germany and in Austria-Hungary the production of lignite is large - in the first-named especially in the districts about Halle and Cologne; in the second in northwestern Bohemia, Styria and Carniola.
In Arkansas, Oklahoma and Texas, and along the line of the Rocky Mountains, extensive fields occur, producing lignite and bituminous coal.
Australia possesses fields of great value, principally in the south-east (New South Wales and Victoria), and in New Zealand considerable quantities of coal and lignite are raised, chiefly in South Island.
In the working of thick seams inclined at a high angle, such as those in the south of France, and in the lignite mines of Styria and Bohemia, the method of working in horizontal slices, about i 2 or r 5 ft.
Salt is also found in large quantities; but mining and quarrying are not practised on a large scale; only lead, lignite and asphalt being worked.
Lead, copper, sulphur, orpiment, also lignite, have been found within the confines of the province; also a kind of beautiful, variegated, translucent marble, which takes a high polish, is used in the construction of palatial buildings, tanks, baths, &c., and is known as Maragha, or Tabriz marble.
Velvet, cloth, machinery, bricks and candles are manufactured, and there are flour-mills, breweries, distilleries and lignite mines.
Brown coal or lignite is found chiefly in the north and north-west, but not in sufficiently large quantities to be exported; the total value of the output in 1907 was nearly £3,500,000.
High winds and seams of burning lignite coal have aided the rains in giving the Bad Lands their peculiar configuration.
The lignite in this region also warms the ranchman's cabin, being easily mined where a seam is exposed in the walls of a ravine or on the side of a hill.
The abundant lignite coal in the region was to operate pumps for raising water from the river into canals crossing the valley.
With the exception of lignite, which underlies a large portion of the western half of the state, North Dakota has few mineral deposits of commercial value.
The coal is all in the form of brown lignite and is not very valuable as a fuel, as it soon crumbles into a fine powder on being exposed to air.
Lignite is also mined at Bacu Abis, near Gonnesa, and Anthracite in small quantities near Seui.
It chiefly consists of stratified volcanic tuffs rich in coal, lignite, fossilized plants and an invertebrate fauna.