Liebig sentence example
In 1857 Pasteur decisively proved that fermentation was a physiological process, for he showed that the yeast which produced fermentation was no dead mass, as assumed by Liebig, but consisted of living organisms capable of growth and multiplication.
Liebig and Pasteur were in agreement on the point that fermentation is intimately connected with the presence of yeast in the fermenting liquid, but their explanations concerning the mechanism of fermentation were quite opposed.
The researches of Liebig (1823), Liebig and Gay-Lussac (1824), and of Liebig again in 1838 showed the acid to be isomeric with cyanic acid, and probably (Hcno) 2, since it gave mixed and acid salts.
The cattle are destined chiefly for the saladero establishments for the preparation of tasajo, or jerked beef, for the Brazilian and Cuban markets, and for the Liebig factory, where large quantities of extract of meat are prepared for the European trade.
After working under Leopold Gmelin at Heidelberg, and Liebig at Giessen, he spent three years in Paris studying the higher mathematics under Comte.Advertisement
Explanations had indeed been put forward by men as eminent as Berzelius and Liebig, but they lacked experimental foundation.
In 1840 the appearance of Chemistry in its Application to Agriculture and Physiology by Justus von Liebig set on foot a movement in favour of scientific husbandry, the most notable outcome of which was the establishment by Sir John Bennet Lawes in 1843 of the experimental station of Rothamsted.
He was a most prolific writer, 364 papers appearing under his name in the Royal Society's Catalogue, and he carried on a large correspondence with other men of science, such as Berzelius, Faraday, Liebig and Wohler.
Alchemy in this sense is merely an early phase of the development of systematic chemistry; in Liebig's words, it was " never at any time anything different from chemistry."
But the real founder of systematic instruction in our science was Justus von Liebig, who, having accepted the professorship at Giessen in 1824, made his chemical laboratory and course of instruction the model of all others.Advertisement
The Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft, published by the Berlin Chemical Society, the Chemisches Centralblatt, which is confined to abstracts of papers appearing in other journals, the Zeitschrift fur Chemie, and Liebig's Annalen der Chemie are the most important of the general magazines.
This view was modified by Liebig, who regarded ether as ethyl oxide, and alcohol as the hydrate of ethyl oxide; here, however, he was in error, for he attributed to alcohol a molecular weight double its true value.
Notwithstanding these errors, the value of the " ethyl theory " was perceived; other radicals - formyl, methyl, amyl, acetyl, &c. - were characterized; Dumas, in 1837, admitted the failure of the etherin theory; and, in company with Liebig, he defined organic chemistry as the " chemistry of compound radicals."
Vigorous opposition was made by Liebig and Berzelius, the latter directing his attack against Dumas, whom he erroneously believed to be the author of what was, in his opinion, a pernicious theory.
At the same time, however, the conception of radicals could not be entirely displaced, for the researches of Liebig and Welder, and those made subsequently by Bunsen, demonstrated beyond all doubt the advantages which would accrue from their correct recognition.Advertisement
Similarly he represented the reactions investigated by Liebig and Wehler on benzoyl compounds as double decompositions.
Liebig; and certain others based on a different procedure have been suggested.
In 1839 on Liebig's recommendation he was appointed to the chair of chemistry in the polytechnic at Stuttgart, and held it till within three years of his death, which happened at Stuttgart on the 1st of July 1885.
He was a contributor to the Handworterbuch of Liebig, Willer and Poggendorff, and to the Graham-Otto Textbook of Chemistry, and for many years was a member of the committee of revision of the Pharmacopoeia Germanica.
This is Liebig's " law of the minimum."Advertisement
Liebig (Annalen, 18 35, 14, p. 1 33).
Then, after a short time in Liebig's laboratory at Giessen, and in the Sevres porcelain factory, he became in 1841 professor of chemistry in the academy of Geneva.
It was the concepts derived from the experimental methods of Harvey, Lavoisier, Liebig, Claude Bernard, Helmholtz, Darwin, Pasteur, Lister and others which, directly or indirectly, trained the eyes of clinicians to observe more closely and accurately; and not of clinicians only, but also of pathologists, such as Matthew Baillie, Cruveilhier, Rokitansky, Bright, Virchowto name but a few of those who, with (as must be admitted) new facilities for necropsies, began to pile upon us discoveries in morbid anatomy and histology.
From 1847 to 1851 he was engaged at Brunswick in editing the Dictionary of Chemistry started by Liebig, but in the latter year he went to Marburg as successor to Bunsen in the chair of chemistry.
No laboratories were accessible to ordinary students, who had to content themselves with what the universities could give in the lectureroom and the library, and though both at Bonn and Erlangen Liebig endeavoured to make up for the deficiencies of the official instruction by founding a students' physical and chemical society for the discussion of new discoveries and speculations, he felt that he could never become a chemist in his own country.Advertisement
This laboratory, unique of its kind at the time, in conjunction with Liebig's unrivalled gifts as a teacher, soon rendered Giessen the most famous chemical school in the world; men flocked from every country to enjoy its advantages, and many of the most accomplished chemists of the 19th century had to thank it for their early training.
Apart from Liebig's labours for the improvement of chemical teaching, the influence of his experimental researches and of his contributions to chemical thought was felt in every branch of the science.
A continuation of their work on bitter almond oil by Liebig and Wohler, who remained firm friends for the rest of their lives, resulted in the elucidation of the mode of formation of that substance and in the discovery of the ferment emulsin as well as the recognition of the first glucoside, amygdalin, while another and not less important and far-reaching inquiry in 'which they collaborated was that on uric acid, published in 1837.
Liebig also did much to further the hydrogen theory of acids.
Liebig's literary activity was very great.Advertisement
For less volatile liquids the Liebig condenser is most frequently used.
Prior to 1830, little was known of the process other than that organic compounds generally yielded tarry and solid matters, but the discoveries of Liebig and Dumas (of acetone from acetates), of Mitscherlich (of benzene from benzoates) and of Persoz (of methane from acetates and lime) brought the operation into common laboratory practice.
After attending the gymnasium of his native town, he studied at Marburg and Heidelberg, and then, attracted by the fame of Liebig, went in 1839 to Giessen, where he became a privatdozent in 1841, and professor of chemistry twelve years later.
In addition he wrote (1863) on theoretical and physical chemistry for the Graham-Otto Lehrbuch der Chemie, and for many years assisted Liebig in editing the Annalen der Chemie and the Jahresbericht.
Liebig promoted his doctrine of polybasic acids.Advertisement
Graham's work was developed by Liebig, who called into service many organic acids - citric, tartaric, cyanuric, comenic and meconic - and showed that these resembled phosphoric acid; and he established as the criterion of polybasicity the existence of compound salts with different metallic oxides.
In formulating these facts Liebig at first retained the dualistic conception of the structure of acids; but he shortly afterwards perceived that this view lacked generality since the halogen acids, which contained no oxygen but yet formed salts exactly similar in properties to those containing oxygen, could not be so regarded.
The hydrogen theory and the doctrine of polybasicity as enunciated by Liebig is the fundamental characteristic of the modern theory.
Not intending originally to devote himself to physical science, he first took up the study of law and philology at GÃ¶ttingen, and the general culture he thus gained stood him in good stead when he turned to chemistry, the study of which he began under Liebig.
His first research, carried out in Liebig's laboratory at Giessen, was on coal-tar, and his investigation of the organic bases in coal-gas naphtha established the nature of aniline.Advertisement
Dutrochet towards the middle of the century, and Liebig's application of chemistry to agriculture and physiology put beyond question the parts played by the atmosphere and the soil in the nutrition of plants.
According to Liebig, potassium is the essential alkali of the animal body; and it may be noted that sheep excrete most of the potassium which they take from the land as sweat, one-third of the weight of raw merino consisting of potassium compounds.
Liebig, Ann., 1832, r, p. 199), by heating chloral with alkalis (Liebig), CC1 3 CHO + NaHO = CHC1 3 + NaHCO 2, or by heating trichloracetic acid with ammonia (J.
Wohler had made the acquaintance of Liebig, his junior by three years, in 1825, and the two men remained close friends and allies for the rest of their lives.
When Wohler, in 1825, analysed his cyanic acid, and Liebig his quite different fulminic acid in 1824, the composition of both compounds proved to be absolutely the same, containing each in round numbers 28% of carbon, 33% of nitrogen, 37% of oxygen and 2% of hydrogen.Advertisement
While studying architecture at Giessen he came under the influence of Liebig and was induced to take up chemistry.
Liebig (Ann., 18 53, 8 5, p. 289) precipitates dilute solutions of urea with a dilute standard solution of mercuric nitrate, using alkaline carbonate as indicator.
Among his research work of this period may be mentioned the improvements in organic analysis and the investigation of fulminic acid made with the help of Liebig, who, gained the privilege of admission to his private laboratory in 1823-1824.
The most complete list of Gay-Lussac's papers is contained in the Royal Society's Catalogue of Scientific Papers, which enumerates 148, exclusive of others written jointly with Humboldt, Thenard, Welter and Liebig.
The chemist, Justus von Liebig, was born in Darmstadt in 1803.Advertisement
To this the true answer seems to be that Bacon owes his position not only to the general spirit of his philosophy, but to the manner in which he worked into a con- (1860); Liebig, Ober Francis Bacon von Verulam, &c. (1863).
Although Liebig points out how little science proceeds according to Bacon's rules, yet his other criticisms seem of extremely little value.
In 1841 he went to Giessen in Germany to work at chemistry with Liebig.
Ladenburg (see various papers in the Berichte for the years 1881, 1884, 1885, 1886, 1889, 1893, 1894, 1895, and Liebig's Annalen for 1888, 1894).
Boussingault (1802-1887), he treated the chemistry of life, both plant and animal; this book brought him into conflict with Liebig, who conceived that some of his prior work had been appropriated without due acknowledgment.
It is clear from Liebig's publications that he first regarded yeast as a lifeless, albuminoid mass; but, although later he considered they were living cells, he would never admit that fermentation was a physiological process, the chemical aspect being paramount in the mind of this distinguished investigator.
The remarkable discoveries of Fischer and Buchner to a great extent confirm Traube's views, and reconcile Liebig's and Pasteur's theories.
Of the earlier encyclopaedias we may notice the famous HandwOrterbuch der reinen and angewandten Chemie, edited by Liebig; Fremy's Encyclopedie de chimie, Wurtz's Dictionnaire de chimie pure et applique'e, Watts' Dictionary of Chemistry, and Ladenburg's HandwOrterbuch der Chemie.
But he fought in a futile cause; to explain the facts put forward by Dumas he had to invent intricate and involved hypotheses, which, it must be said, did not meet with general acceptance; Liebig seceded from him, and invited Wohler to endeavour to correct him.
The recognition of the polybasicity of acids, which followed from the researches of Thomas Graham and Liebig, had caused Williamson to suggest that dibasic acids could be referred to a double water type, the acid radical replacing an atom of hydrogen in each water molecule; while his discovery of tribasic formic ether, CH(OC 2 H 5) 3, in 1854 suggested a triple water type.
Further, it gave a great impetus to the progress of chemical education throughout Germany, for the continued admonitions of Liebig combined with the influence of his pupils induced many other universities to build laboratories modelled on the same plan.
Not intending originally to devote himself to physical science, he first took up the study of law and philology at GÃƒ¶ttingen, and the general culture he thus gained stood him in good stead when he turned to chemistry, the study of which he began under Liebig.
He assisted Liebig and Poggendorff in the Handworterbuch der reinen and angewandten Chemie, and was jointeditor with Liebig of the Annalen der Chemie and Pharmacie.
Liebig, Ann., 1838, 26, p. 298), by warming caffuric acid with lead acetate solution (E.
According to Liebig, man's body is a stove, and food the fuel which keeps up the internal combustion in the lungs.