In Spain and Portugal, and also in Belgium, a Liberalism inimical to the Church was in power.
The quarrel between Liberalism and Clericalism was, however, not ended.
His extreme liberalism prevented his opposing the spread of Socialist doctrines preached far and wide by Benjamin Constant.
The liberty of the press not unfrequently degenerated into licence, and sane liberalism was often replaced by socialistic dreaming.
His parliamentary career was marked by the same wide and candid liberalism as his private life.
The consistent firmness with which he adhered to the cause of constitutional liberalism during the many changes of his times gained him the highest respect of his countrymen, by whom he was styled the Aristides of the French tribune.
For years he and his friends educated public opinion by issuing innumerable pamphlets in which the new Liberalism was eloquently expounded.
Liberalism In Piedmont, in spite of the governments reactionary and methods, a large part of the population were genuinely ~ attached to the Savoy dynasty, and the idea of a regenera- meat tion of Italy under its auspices began to gain ground.
He had little sympathy with Liberalism and abhorred revolution, but his hatred of Austria and his resentment at the galling tutelage to which she subjected him had gained strength year by year.
(1881-94), who had never sympathized with liberalism 1881-94.
He was, moreover, an Imperialist and a Colonial Federationist at a time when Liberalism was tied and bound to the Manchester traditions; and, to the consternation of, the official wire-pullers, he vigorously supported Disraeli's foreign policy, and in 1881 opposed the Gladstonian settlement with the Boers.
Governor Miguel de la Torre, who ruled the island with vice-regal powers during the second period of Ferdinand's absolutism, sternly repressed all attempts at liberalism, and made the island the resort for loyal refugees from the Spanish mainland.
He had outgrown his early Liberalism and become the chief panegyrist of the house of Hohenzollern.
During his years of imprisonment he, like many others of his countrymen, was converted to liberalism on the French model.
The programme required the support of a Christian-Conservative tendency; it was to defend positive and historical law against Liberalism, and the rights of the individual states against the central power.
A Liberal Unionist, however, could only be elected by Conservative votes, and he had made himself objectionable to a large section of the party by his independent attitude on various questions, on which his Liberalism outweighed his party loyalty.
The Liberalism which he displayed as a member of Parliament and developed greatly in a crowded after-life was unlike the conventional Radicalism of the period.
It flattered his vanity to pose before the world as the dispenser of benefits; but his theoretical liberalism was mated with an autocratic will which brooked no contradiction.
But Ancillon's reputed liberalism was of too invertebrate a type to survive the trial of actual contact with affairs.
Population.-Up to the War of Independence the population was not only American, but it was in its ideas and standards essentially Puritan; modern liberalism, however, has introduced new standards of social life.
Under Charles Augustus Weimar became a centre of Liberalism as well as of art.
The procession of the Host on Corpus Christi day became, as it were, a public demonstration of Catholic orthodoxy against Protestantism and later against religious Liberalism.
Nicholas was a blunt soldier incapable of comprehending his brother's sentimental sympathy with liberalism.
He could not, of course, undo the great reforms of his predecessor, but he amended them in such a way as to counteract what he considered the exaggerations of liberalism.
Created secular prelate, he was sent as apostolic delegate to Viterbo, where he early manifested his reactionary tendencies in an attempt to stamp out Liberalism.
But the powers of the Grand Alliance had been watching the growth of Liberalism in France with increasing anxiety.
The Revue nationale was the champion of Liberalism, and came to an end in 1847.
His first task was to set his house in order; he reorganized the finances, created the army, and started Piedmont on a path which if not liberalism was at least progress.
Devout and mystical to an almost morbid degree, hating revolution and distrusting Liberalism, he was a confirmed pessimist, yet he had many noble qualities: he was brave to the verge of foolhardiness, devoted to his country, and ready to risk his crown to free Italy from the foreigner.
European Liberalism, too, gagged and fettered under Metternich's "system," recognized in the Greeks the champions of its own cause; while even conservative statesmen, schooled in the memories of ancient Hellas, saw in the struggle a fight of civilization against barbarism.
This adherence was, and still is, often only nominal, for the statistics take no note of the great mass of indifferentism and liberalism which prevails in the ranks of the Church.
Europe was not ready for the recognition of nationality and liberalism.
Hirsch exercised a profound influence on the Synagogue and undoubtedly stemmed the tide of liberalism.
Until the end of his life he remained a protagonist in theological controversy and a keen fighter against latitudinarianism and liberalism; but the sharpest religious or political differences never broke his personal friendships and his Christian charity.
Yet his liberalism was of the most cautious and moderate character, as the Opposition, shortly after his accession (March 8th, 1844), discovered to their great chagrin.
His ability and vigour were now generally recognized; but the strength of the socialist party, and the practical activity of its leader, still had to reckon with the equally practical and vigorous liberalism of M.
To many minds the papacy thus came to represent a unifying principle, as opposed to the disruptive tendencies of Liberalism and Nationalism, and the papal monarchy came to be surrounded with a new halo, as in some sort realizing that ideal of a " federation of the world " after which the age was dimly feeling.
By the German public, to whom Ancillon was known only through his earlier writings and some isolated protests against the "demagogue-hunting" in fashion at Berlin, his advent to power was hailed as a triumph of liberalism.
On the 26th of June the diet was dissolved, nothing having been done but to reveal the widening gulf between the principle of monarchy and the growing forces of German Liberalism.
The nickname cartridge-prince (Kartdtschenprinz) bestowed upon him during the troubles of 48 was undeserved; but he was notoriously opposed to Liberalism and, had he followed his own instincts, he would have modified the constitution in a reactionary sense.
It is noticeable that in 1894 when this motion was introduced it was lost; a striking instance of the decay of Liberalism.
This reunion of the Conservatives became the nucleus of a great reaction against Liberalism.
In 1884 a new development took place: u,nder the influence of Miquel a meeting was held at Heidelberg of the South German members of the party, who accepted the commercial and social policy of the government, including the Socialist law; their programme received Bismarcks approval, and was accepted by the rest of the patty, so that they henceforward were taken into favor by the government; but they had wpn the position by sacrificing almost all the characteristics of the older Liberalism the hope of a reunion for all the different sections which had hitherto kept the name of Liberal was at an end.
A similar movement began among the Protestants after the commercial crisis of 1873, which forms an epoch in German thought, since it was from that year that men first began to question the economic doctrines of Liberalism, and drew attention to the demoralization which seemed to arise from the freedom of speculation and the influence of the stock exchangea movement which in later years led to some remarkable attempts to remedy the evil by legislation.
A minister, Rudolph Todt, and Rudolph Meyer criticized the moral and economic doctrines of Liberalism; his writings led to the foundation of the ChristlichSoziale-Arbeilerverein, which for a few years attained considerable notoriety under the leadership of Adolph Stocker.
He had no sympathy with political liberalism, but throughout his long reign of forty-two years, with a constant interchange of ministries and many ministerial crises, he never had a serious conflict with the states-general, and his ministers could always count upon his fair-mindedness and an earnest desire to help them to further the national welfare.
He was himself a strange incarnation at once of " doctrinaire liberalism and the old Habsburg autocracy.
On the 3rd of March, Kossuth, in the diet at Pressburg, delivered the famous speech which was the declaration of war of Hungarian Liberalism against the Austrian system.
The proclamation on the 26th of February 1861 of the new constitution for the whole monarchy, elaborated by Anton von Schmerling, though far from satisfying the national aspirations of the races within the empire, at least gave Austria a temporary popularity in Germany; the liberalism of the Habsburg monarchy was favourably contrasted with the " reactionary " policy of Prussia, where Bismarck was defying the majority of the diet in his determination to build up the military power of Prussia.
Both the new Clerical Club and the remainder of the Conservatives were much affected by the reaction against the doctrines of economic Liberalism.
The old party of the Right was, however, also broken up; side by side with forty-one Clericals there were twenty-eight Christian Socialists led by Dr Lueger, a man of great oratorical power, who had won a predominant influence in Vienna, so long the centre of Liberalism, and had quite eclipsed the more modest efforts of Prince Liechtenstein.
In 1860 he was summoned to the remodelled Reichsrat by the emperor, who next year nominated him a life member of the Austrian upper house (Herrenhaus), where, while remaining a keen upholder of the German centralized empire, as against the federalism of Sla y s and Magyars, he greatly distinguished himself as one of the most intrepid and influential supporters of the cause of liberalism, in both political and religious matters, until his death at Graz on the 12th of September 1876.
But Auersperg's fame rests almost exclusively on his political poetry; two collections entitled Spaziergdnge eines Wiener Poeten (1831) and Schutt (1835) created a sensation in Germany by their originality and bold liberalism.
A revolutionary conspiracy among the officers of the guard, and a foolish plot to kidnap him on his way to the congress of Aix-la-Chapelle, are said to have shaken the foundations of his Liberalism.
Miquel had entirely given up his Liberalism, and aimed at practical measures for improving the condition of the people irrespective of the party programmes; yet some of his measures - such as that for taxing "Waarenhauser" (stores) - were of a very injudicious nature.
Added to this there was still in the background the veteran statesman to whom Liberalism owed an unequalled obligation.
At this time he composed his Notes on Virginia, a semistatistical work full of humanitarian liberalism.
He had been brought up in the strictest principles of the Evangelical school, but at Rugby he fell under the influence of Arnold and Tait, and his acquaintance with Maurice and Kingsley finally gave his opinions a direction towards Liberalism.
Ruge was a leader in religious and political liberalism, but did not produce any work of enduring importance.
As a politician he was one of the leaders of modern Liberalism, and though always loyal when appeals were made to patriotism, such as government demands for the army, he remained obdurate on constitutional questions; and he resolutely opposed the reactionary policy of the Prussian Conservatives.
From that date forward two parties wrestled for supremacy in Europe, to which may be given the familiar names of Liberalism and Conservatism, the party of progress and the party of established institutions.
He worked with might and main for the continuation of the old theocracy, but before he died it had given way before an increasing Liberalism - even Yale was infected with the Episcopalianism that he hated.
Neither from official Liberalism nor from the press did he receive support; even the Republican National was opposed to him because of his championship of labour.
He is remembered chiefly as an energetic opponent of Polish national aspirations, of extreme Liberalism, of the system of public instruction based on natural science, and of German political influence.
- The I 9th century witnessed a general revival of letters, beginning with the Romantic movement, of which the chief exponents were Garrett (q.v.) and Herculano (q.v.), both of whom had to leave Portugal on account of their political liberalism, and it was inaugurated in the xxii.
"There is no such thing as political experience," wrote Wellington, certainly no friend of Liberalism; "with the warning of James II.
A despotism of mere power and liberalism, which naturally produces socialism, are equally objectionable.
But Floridablanca was not content with suppressing liberalism in Spain; he was eager to avenge his disappointment by crushing the Revolution in France.
the flimsy structure of Spanish Liberalism.
These allies were said to be the dynastic and monarchical ballast, and in some sort the dynastic guarantees of liberalism in the eyes of the court.
2 The peril from the independent growth of Liberalism within was guarded against by a rigid supervision of the press and the re-establishment of clerical control over education.
The 16th of June had been fatal to the idea of an independent Bohemia, fatal also to Pan-Slav dreams. To the Czechs the most immediate peril now seemed that from the German parliament, and in the interests of their nationality they were willing to join the Austrian government in the struggle against German liberalism.
This is generally regarded as the beginning of the reaction against economic liberalism by which he and his party were to be deprived of their influence.
While still a young man he had been affected by the wave of liberalism then spreading all over Italy, and soon after his marriage he began to conspire mildly against the Bourbon government.
The historical bent thus given to the drama was continued by the versatile Mendes Leal, by Gomes da Amorim and by Pinheiro Chagas, who all however succumbed more or less to the atmosphere and machinery of ultra-Romanticism, while the plays of Antonio Ennes deal with questions of the day in a spirit of combative liberalism.
At least it made their traditional religion possible for those many French Catholics who clung passionately to the benefits the Revolution had brought them; and had it prevailed, it might have spared France and the world that fatal gulf between Liberalism and Catholicism which Pius IX.'s Syllabus of 1864 sought to make impassable.
Doctrinally they stood not so much for a theology as for a refusal of theology, and, rejecting the practical liberalism of Paul, became the natural heirs of those early Judaizers who had caused the apostle so much annoyance and trouble.
In the "United Debating Society," which afterwards developed into the "Union," he distinguished himself as a zealous advocate of liberalism.
The result has been the development within the Established Church of a most startling diversity of doctrine and ritual practice, varying from what closely resembles that of the Church of Rome to the broadest Liberalism and the extremest evangelical Protestantism.
He took a leading part in ventilating the Bulgarian and Armenian "atrocities," and his combative personality was constantly to the fore in support of the campaigns of Gladstonian Liberalism.
The emperor Alexander I., however, was apt to keep the direction of affairs in his own hands and so long as Alexander inclined to Liberalism Capo d'Istria was the interpreter of.
In the interval there had been other questions on which he found himself at variance with Gladstonian Liberalism, for instance, as regards the Sudan and the Transvaal, nor was he inclined to stomach the claims of the Caucus or the Birmingham programme.
In opposition to the destructive liberalism of the Revolution he insisted on the necessity of a new and positive reorganization of society.
Then came a reaction against liberalism, and in1821-1822Cousin was deprived of his offices alike in the faculty of letters and in the Normal School.
But though a sincere Roman Catholic, his whole spirit as a historian was hostile to ultramontane pretensions, and his independence of thought and liberalism of view speedily brought him into conflict with the Roman Catholic hierarchy.
He continued, however, to contribute articles to the North British Review, which, previously a Scottish Free Church organ, had been acquired by friends in sympathy with him, and which for some years (until 1872, when it ceased to appear) actively promoted the interests of a high-class Liberalism in both temporal and ecclesiastical matters; he also did a good deal of lecturing on historical subjects.
He was grossly attacked by the Opposition in parliament and by irresponsible critics, of the type of Byron, outside; historians, bred in the atmosphere of mid-Victorian Liberalism, have re-echoed the cry against him and the government of which he was the most distinguished member; but history has largely justified his attitude.
when he took the Ultra prince de Polignac as his minister and entered on the conflict with Liberalism in France which ended in his overthrow.
Mr Gladstone's budgets, made possible by this prosperity, were so many triumphs for Liberalism.
If he did not always find it easy in his later years to follow the new developments, he preserved to his death the idealism of his youth, the hatred both of Liberalism and of State Socialism; and though he was to some extent overshadowed by Bebel's greater oratorical power, he was the chief support of the orthodox Marxian tradition.
He did not wish to stake the interests of the Church on a cause which could only revive against her the old animosities of Spanish liberalism and democracy, so roughly displayed in the years 1836 and 1868.
The increasing violence of the Conservative press and opposition, the divisions developing in the ranks of liberalism, and the restlessness of the agricultural protectionists led by Seor Gamazo, did not weigh so much in the balance at court against Sagasta as the aggressive attitude of the military politicians.
The growing disposition of the bourgeois and artisan classes, not in the large towns only, to imitate the intellectuals in desiring to live in closer touch with the rest of Europe as regards social, economic, scientific and political progress, embittered the struggle between the forces of Liberalism and those of Catholicism, powerfully entrenched in the affections of the women and the illiterate masses of the peasantry.
The "creation" took place on 12th May, with the title of St George in Velabro, Newman taking occasion while in Rome to insist on the lifelong consistency of his opposition to "liberalism in religion."
While his temper had become less aristocratic, his Liberalism had grown more tolerant.
Downfall of liberalism The ascendancy of Classical Liberalism throughout Europe in 1850 proved to be illusory.
communitarian critique is an appropriation of two pre-existing critiques of liberalism.
communitarian critics of Liberalism " Philosophy and Public Affairs Vol.
What cannot be denied is that they have carried forward the debate beyond the implausible alternatives to liberalism offered by 1980s communitarian thinkers.
decadence of scientific liberalism.
In denying the depravity of the human heart, liberalism also ruled out the need for our spiritual regeneration.
implys may reflect a greater liberalism than the compulsion implied by the attitude statement.
And that is doctrinal indifferentism which, if left unchecked, will become liberalism as sure as night follows day.
He also firmly rejected liberalism, including liberty of cult and expression, and rejected any unqualified belief in progress (77-80 ).
All of us wish to see liberalism re-united in a single party as soon as possible - and the larger that party the better!
This work also argues that liberalism - in practice an eminently flexible approach - cannot on its own explain policy.
What more would be worthwhile than a call to promote classical liberalism in Ghana and Africa?
We don't want more conservatism in British politics; what we need is the third alternative called liberalism.
The views he rejected can be seen as simply an all embracing liberalism, including both the classical and revisionist variants.
liberalism in an absolute sense is merely a direction.
Disputes about public policy toward the poor provide the clearest demonstration of the incompatibility between sectional anti-racism and egalitarian liberalism.
The author dresses his bourgeois liberalism in a coat cut according to the latest fashion.
Yet the journal has always retained an evident strand of classical liberalism.
From questioning creeds, theological liberalism moved on to question ethical norms.
They have fostered a sense of moral disgust at the very ideas of secular American liberalism.
In short, the American version of economic liberalism with its culture industry.
liberalism Government cannot afford to take sides in this battle.
Neo liberalism is also a label that means nothing.
The first, ' Anglo-American capitalism ', comes closer to the requirements of laissez-faire liberalism.
I am currently exploring these in a graduate course entitled ' From social democracy to market liberalism ' .
From then on for two centuries liberalism held sway over conservatism.
Impacts of agricultural trade liberalism in the Bolivian lowlands.
Under neo- liberalism, individuals are only allowed to exercise their own autonomy in deal-making rather than through making things.
multiculturalism as threats to liberalism.
Liberalism means a freer Britain, one in which people and communities are able to exercise real political power on their own behalf.
even professed libertarians, for the most part, keep hating liberalism closer to the heart of their beliefs than they keep libertarianism itself.
puritanical liberalism encourages people to improve themselves to remove themselves from poverty.
refracted through the prism of bourgeois liberalism and is thus timid in its methods and aims.
Personal liberalism Liberal Democrats reject ' nanny statism ' .
theological liberalism moved on to question ethical norms.
triumph of liberalism and free inquiry over entrenched authority and permit religious dogma to go unchallenged.
In November he again showed his liberalism in the lit de justice, which Brienne had made the king hold, and was again exiled to Villers-Cotterets.
On the other hand, the attitude of the Vatican towards Liberalism within the Church was one of uncompromising reaction, and under the new pope the doctrines of Christian Democracy and Modernism were condemned in no uncertain tone.
1805), author of Shire Tiphe'reth, a long poem on the Exodus, Diblue Shalom, a plea for liberalism, Sepher ha-middoth, on ethics, besides philological works and commentaries.
In addition to these great and beneficent changes, means were taken for developing more rapidly the vast natural resources of the country, public instruction received an unprecedented impetus, a considerable amount of liberty was accorded to the press, a strong spirit of liberalism pervaded rapidly all sections of the educated classes, a new imaginative and critical literature dealing with economic, philosophical and political questions sprang into existence, and for a time the young generation fondly imagined that Russia, awakening from her traditional lethargy, was about to overtake, and soon to surpass, on the path of national progress, the older nations of western Europe.
His liberalism in politics having brought him into conflict with the university authorities of Giessen, he exchanged that university for GÃƒ¶ttingen in 1816, and three years later received a chair at the new university of Bonn, where he established the art museum and the library, of which he became the first librarian.
From the beginning he was determined never to allow himself to be misled, in his search for truth, by those theories and prejudices by which nearly every other historian was influenced - Hegelianism, Liberalism, Romanticism, religious and patriotic prejudice; but his superiority to the ordinary passions of the historian could only be attained by those who shared his elevation of character.
there was some improvement in the commerce of the island, but politically it displayed all the evils of an obsolete system of administration disturbed by a premature liberalism.
Hungarian society, not unaffected by western Liberalism, but without any direct help from abroad, was preparing for the future emancipation.
Augustin Theiner, the librarian at the Vatican, then in disgrace with the pope for his outspoken Liberalism, kept his German friends well informed of the course of the discussions.
Once committed to the Russian alliance, however, he became the faithful henchman of the emperor Alexander, whose fascinating personality exercised over him to the last a singular power, and began that influence of Russia at the court of Berlin which was to last till Frederick William IV.'s supposed Liberalism was to shatter the cordiality of the entente.
Bamberger and Lasker, were of Jewish origin; the doctrines of Liberalism were supported by papers owned and edited by Jews; hence the wish to restore more fully the avowedly Christian character of the state, coinciding with the attack on the influence of finance, which owed so much to the Liberal economic doctrines,easily degenerated into attacks on the Jews.
(See Ferdinand Iv., king of Naples.) Ferdinand died in 1825, and his son and successor, Francis I., an unbridled libertine, at once threw off the mask of Liberalism; the corruption of the administration under Medici assumed unheard-of proportions, and every office was openly sold.
So puritanical liberalism encourages people to improve themselves to remove themselves from poverty.
However, it is usually refracted through the prism of bourgeois liberalism and is thus timid in its methods and aims.
Personal liberalism Liberal Democrats reject ' nanny statism '.
It will reverse the triumph of liberalism and free inquiry over entrenched authority and permit religious dogma to go unchallenged.
Charles Louis, the opera Douffe duke of Lucca, who had coquetted with Liberalism in the past, now refused to make any concessions to his subjects, and in Ferdinand III.
During the first years of the French Revolution Catherine's sympathy with philosophic liberalism rapidly evaporated, and the European sovereigns to the democratic movement; but she carefully abstained from joining the Coalition, and waited patiently for the moment when the complications in western Europe would give her an opportunity of solving independently the Eastern Question in accordance with Russian interests.
When Nicholas an influential deputation from the province of Tver, which had long enjoyed a reputation for liberalism, ventured to hint in a loyal address that the time had come for changes in the existing autocratic regime, they received a reply which showed that the emperor had no intention of making any such changes.
with the outside world cut off; until at last the government was forced to yield, and on the 17/30th of tionstitu- October 1 05 the tsar issued the famous manifesto tional 9 manifesto promising to Russia a constitution based on the of October main principles of modern Liberalism: national re 1 9 /5.
The congress of zemstvos, hitherto the focus of Liberalism, had petitioned the government, before the opening of the third Duma, to take measures for the restoration of order.
His liberalism in politics having brought him into conflict with the university authorities of Giessen, he exchanged that university for GÃ¶ttingen in 1816, and three years later received a chair at the new university of Bonn, where he established the art museum and the library, of which he became the first librarian.
Ranke, contemptuous in politics, as in history, of the men who warped facts to support some abstract theory, especially disliked the doctrinaire liberalism so fashionable at the time.
Though he was always an enemy to liberalism, his natural independence of character prevented him from acquiescing in the reactionary measures of the king.
Cuba is overwhelmingly Roman Catholic in religion, but under the new Republic there is a complete separation of church and state, and liberalism and indifference are increasing.
A university, founded in 1825, three colleges, one of them dating from colonial times, a medical school, and a public library, founded in 1821, are distinguishing features of the city, which has always taken high rank in Peru for its learning and liberalism, as well as for its political restlessness.
Lassalle, a democrat of the most advanced type, saw that an opportunity had come for asserting a third great cause - that of the working men - which would outflank the liberalism of the middle classes, and might even command the sympathy of the government.
From his first tutor, Johann Delbriick, he imbibed a love of culture and art, and possibly also the dash of Liberalism which formed an element of his complex habit of mind.
Unfortunately, however, the brilliant epoch of the alliance of Liberalism and Catholicism, represented on its literary side by Chateaubriand and by Lamartine, to whose poetic school Herculano had belonged, was past, and fanatical attacks and the progress of events drove this former champion of the Church into conflict with the ecclesiastical authorities.
The ancient constitution, often suspended and modified, based upon this charter, was reformed under the influence of Western Liberalism in 1848, the supremacy of the Magyar race, however, being secured by a somewhat narrow franchise.
It was his whim, as part of his general liberalism, to depreciate the education he received; but it seems to have been a very sound and good education, which formed the basis of his extraordinarily wide, though never extraordinarily accurate, collection of knowledge subsequently, and (a more important thing) disciplined and exercised his literary faculty and judgment.
But the Liberalism of his early years was gone for ever, and he had become reconciled to Metternich's view that, in an age of decay, the sole function of a statesman was to "prop up mouldering institutions."
refused him the cardinal's hat, and rebuked him for his liberalism in a letter which was probably not intended for publication.
His opposition to the extreme democratic and revolutionary party made him unpopular with the mob, who broke his windows, as his liberalism made him suspected at court.
His Liberalism found expression in the extension of press freedom, the repeal of imprisonment for debt, and the abolition of ecclesiastical tithes.
The influence of Liberalism, which served the government so well in this work of construction, brought about also the conflict K l~ with the Roman Catholic Church which distracted ksmpf.
But it gave cohesion and voice to philosophic radicalism; it was the manifesto of a school without which liberalism of the present day had not been.
The new pope, who while bishop of Imole had evinced a certain interest in Liberalism, was a kindly man, of inferior intelligence, who thought that all difficulties could be settled with a little good-will, some reforms and a political amnesty.
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