Lori's past was a little too liberal for such a conservative family.
Lori's past was a little too liberal for such a conservative family.
The waitress topped off our pasta dishes with a liberal amount of parmesan cheese.
But the circumstances of the country at his accession were ill adapted for liberal developments.
People with liberal views will welcome changes in policy that do not follow traditional standards.
It was evident that the cadet was liberal with his tips and that it paid to serve him.
She decided to take a liberal educational path so that she would be well-rounded and prepared for multiple careers.
Then came General Sir Richard Bourke, whose wise and liberal administration proved most beneficial.
Then came General Sir Richard Bourke, whose wise and liberal administration proved most beneficial.
Cannot students be boarded here and get a liberal education under the skies of Concord?
Pierre pushed his way into the middle of the group, listened, and convinced himself that the man was indeed a liberal, but of views quite different from his own.
By birth and breeding an Italian, highly gifted and widely cultivated, liberal in his opinions, a patron.
The States General met in December; the edict of Orleans (January 1561) followed, and finally, after the colloquy of Poissy, the edict of January 1562, the most liberal, except that of Nantes, ever obtained by the Protestants of France.
Delaware is the seat of the Ohio Wesleyan University (co-educational), founded by the Ohio Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church in 1841, and opened as a college in 1844; it includes a college of liberal arts (1844), an academic department (1841), a school of music (1877), a school of fine arts (1877), a school of oratory (1894), a business school (1895), and a college of medicine (the Cleveland College of Physicians and Surgeons, at Cleveland, Ohio; founded as the Charity Hospital Medical College in 1863, and the medical department of the university of Wooster until 1896, when, under its present name, it became a part of Ohio Wesleyan University).
Meanwhile he had, in 1862, founded the Atheneium as the organ of Liberal Catholicism.
His whole tendency was as conservative as that of Maimonides was liberal, and like all conservatives he may be said to represent a lost though not necessarily a less desirable cause.
He was liberal to the papacy, and was greatly influenced by the eminent clerics with whom he eagerly associated.
In 1814 he attached himself to the Bourbons, and under the Restoration was appointed prefect of Somme, deputy for Seine-Inferieure and finally deputy for Seine-et-Oise, in which capacity he was a leader of the Liberal opposition.
1832), a liberal, and editor of the Pentateuch and Mahzor; N.
1891), was a poet and moderate liberal; L.
1892), poet and prose-writer in Hebrew and Russian, of liberal views; A.
The question of the use of the vernacular or of Hebrew is bound up with the differences between the orthodox and the liberal or reform parties, complicated by the many problems involved.
He entered the House of Commons as Liberal member for Berwick-on-Tweed in 1885, but he was best known as a country gentleman with a taste for sport, and as amateur champion tennis-player.
Though outside foreign affairs he played but a small part in the period of Liberal opposition between 1895 and 1905, he retained public confidence as one who was indispensable to a Liberal administration.
His younger daughter married a subaltern in a line regiment, belonging to the lesser nobility; as ennobled by marriage (according to the liberal rule of this particular court), she was duly "presented."
We should note, however, that even a liberal orthodoxy, while saying nothing about infallibility, is pledged to the essential authority of the Bible; it cannot e.g.
He was a moderate liberal in politics and a supporter of the ideal of German unity.
8 In spite of these restrictions and of an electoral system which tended to make these assemblies as strait-laced and reactionary as any government bureau, the zemstvos did good work, notably educational, in those provinces where the proprietors were inspired with a more liberal spirit.
Thus, in spite of his academic sympathy with liberal ideas, he became, together with Metternich, a champion of political stagnation, and co-operated willingly in the reactionary measures against the revolutionary movements in Germany, Italy and Spain.
In the affairs of his own country he refrained from developing and extending the liberal institutions which he had created immediately after his accession, and he finally adopted in all departments of administration a strongly reactionary policy.
This naturally caused profound disappointment and dissatisfaction in the liberal section of the educated classes and especially among the young officers of the regiments which had spent some years in western Europe.
The expectation entertained in many III.; ac- quarters that great legislative changes would at once of be made in a liberal sense was not realized.
The old Liberal movement and the terrorist organizations which had been suppressed by Alexander III.
In order to explain the course of the revolution which came to a head in 1905 it is necessary to say a few words about constitutional plans and liberal experiments, initiated from above, which had preceded it.
The opportunity thus given for debate naturally stimulated the movement in favour of constitutional government, which received new impulses from the sympathetic attitude of the emperor Alexander II., his grant in 1879 of a constitution to the liberated principality of Bulgaria, and the multiplication of Nihilist outrages which pointed to the necessity of conciliating Liberal opinion in order to present a united front against revolutionary agitation.
1, 1907), compiled from the Liberal standpoint.
The Federalists were charged by the Republicans with being aristocrats and monarchists, and it is certain that their leaders 1 Even the Democratic party has generally been liberal; although less so in theory (hardly less so in practice) than its opponents.
He was a vehement opponent of Liberal Catholicism.
He at once became the recognized leader of the Liberal opposition to the reactionary government, but must be distinguished from Count Bennigsen, a member of the same family, and son of the distinguished Russian general, who was also one of the parliamentary leaders at the time.
Rhetorical accomplishments were considered to be the chief object of a liberal education, and to this end every kind of learning was made subservient.
He was also of a most humane disposition and a friend of Liberal institutions.
1901) he once more became leader of the constitutional opposition, and in the autumn of the year founded a daily organ, Il Giornale d'Italia, the better to propagate moderate Liberal ideas.
In order to meet the universal discontent and the financial difficulties constitutional government was introduced; a parliament was established in which all races of the empire were represented, and in place of centralized despotism was established Liberal centralization under Schmerling and the German Liberals.
Holdheim (q.v.) and Geiger (q.v.) led the reform movement in Germany and at the present day the effects of the movement are widely felt in America on the Liberal side and on the opposite side in the work of the neo-orthodox school founded by S.
As time went on, a more progressive policy intervened, the special form of Jewish oath was abolished in 1846, and in 1848, as a result of the revolutionary movement in which Jews played an active part, legislation took a more liberal turn.
In Spain there has been of late a more liberal attitude towards the Jews, and there is a small congregation (without a public synagogue) in Madrid.
Denmark has for long been distinguished for its liberal policy towards the Jews.
In more modern usage in the Roman Catholic Church prelates, properly so-called, are those who have jurisdiction in foro externo, but a liberal interpretation has given the title a more general significance.
He employed his great influence to promote both art and science and Liberal views in his native country.
Emile 0111vier himself in his L'Empire liberal (tome xii., 1909, passim).
A further point of difference is the more liberal payment of public functionaries in Crete.
Liberal support was given to the Confederacy, both in men and supplies, but Governor Vance, one of the ablest of the Southern war governors, engaged in acrimonious controversies with President Jefferson Davis, contending that the general government of the Confederacy was encroaching upon the prerogatives of the separate states.
He had come to the front as a champion of the liberal party in the Union controversy within the Free Church, and in combating Dean Stanley's Broad Church views in the interests of Scotch evangelicism; and about 1875 he became the undisputed leader of the Free Church.
1847), a prominent Liberal politician, who was lord-lieutenant of Ireland in 1886, governorgeneral of Canada 1893-1898, and again the lord-lieutenant of Ireland when Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman formed his ministry at the close of 1905.
At Oxford William Chillingworth was then busy with his great work, The Religion of Protestants, and it is possible that by intercourse with him Taylor's mind may have been turned towards the liberal movement of his age.
Other essential conditions of success will commonly include the liberal application of potash and phosphatic manures, and sometimes chalking or liming for the leguminous crop. As to how long the leguminous crop should occupy the land, the extent to which it should be consumed on the land, or the manure from its consumption be returned, and under what conditions the whole or part of it should be ploughed in - these are points which must be decided as they arise in practice.
Amongst other princes whose liberal presents enabled him to combat his pecuniary difficulties, was one Rustam, son of Fakhr Addaula, the Dailamite, who sent him a thousand gold pieces in acknowledgment of a copy of the episode of Rustam and Isfendiar which Firdousi had sent him, and promised him a gracious reception if he should ever come to his court.
His generosity to poor students was well known; but he could afford to be liberal, as his share of spoliated Church property had made him one of the wealthiest men in Denmark.
The words rang hollow, as was seen when, on the 3rd of June, the deputies chose, as president of their chamber, Lanjuinais, the staunch liberal who had so often opposed the emperor.
The chief authority for the bishop's life is William de Chambre (printed in Wharton's Anglia Sacra, 1691, and in Historiae Dunelmensis scriptores tres, Surtees Soc. 1839), who describes him as an amiable and excellent man, charitable in his diocese, and the liberal patron of many learned men, among these being Thomas Bradwardine, afterwards archbishop of Canterbury, Richard Fitzralph, afterwards archbishop of Armagh, the enemy of the mendicant orders, Walter Burley, who translated Aristotle, John Mauduit the astronomer, Robert Holkot and Richard de Kilvington.
It is deeper and more fertile, however, in the basins of the Great Miami and Little Miami rivers, where there is a liberal mixture of decomposed limestone and where extensive areas with a clay subsoil are covered with alluvial deposits.
After the withdrawal of Dalwigk from public life at this time a more liberal policy was adopted in Hesse.
He began life as an engineer, and from his college days he displayed very advanced Liberal inclinations.
Barely eight months after the restoration of the Bourbons in the autumn of 1875, Sagasta accepted the new state of things, and organized the Liberal dynastic party that confronted Canovas and the Conservatives for five years in the Cortes, until the Liberal leader used the influence of his military allies, Jovellar, Campos and others, to induce the king to ask him to form a Cabinet in 1881.
The Liberal party and Sagasta paid the penalty of their lack of success, and directly the Cortes met in March 1899, after the peace treaty of the 1 oth of December 1898 with the United States, they were defeated in the senate.
He pursued his policy of playing into the hands of the sovereign whilst keeping up the appearances of a Liberal, almost democratic, leader, skilful in debate, a trimmer par excellence, and abler in opposition than in office.
He sat in these bodies as a member of the Progressive party (Fortschrittspartei), and in Bavaria was one of the leaders of the Liberal (Freisinnige) party.
His distinctive characteristics are his claim for absolute freedom in the study of church history and the New Testament; his distrust of speculative theology, whether orthodox or liberal; his interest in practical Christianity as a religious life and not a system of theology.
Poggio, like Aeneas Sylvius Piccolomini (Pius II.), was a great traveller, and wherever he went he brought enlightened powers of observation trained in liberal studies to bear upon the manners of the countries he visited.
In 1854 he was chosen M.P. for Coventry, which he continued to represent in the Liberal interest till his death at Sydenham on the 8th of June 1865.
An ardent Liberal, he took an active part in party struggles under the Restoration, while throwing himself with equal vigour into the great work of historical regeneration which was going on at that period.
He belonged to what was called the Great German party, and opposed the project of reconstituting Germany under the leadership of Prussia; he defended the government against the liberal and democratic opposition; at this time he began the struggle against the secularization of schools, which continued throughout his life.
In 1818 he returned to Paris as deputy for Finistere, and sat in the Chamber till 1824, becoming one of the recognized liberal leaders.
He maintained his liberal and independent attitude in the Conseil des Anciens, the Senate and the Chamber of Peers, being president of the upper house during the Hundred Days.
He was an ardent Liberal in politics, and in 1880 he was elected to parliament for the Tower Hamlets division of London; in 1885 he was returned for South Aberdeen, where he was reelected on succeeding occasions.
His intellectual distinction and political industry made him a valuable member of the Liberal party.
His great work The American Commonwealth, which appeared in 1888, was the first in which the institutions of the United States had been thoroughly discussed from the point of view of a historian and a constitutional lawyer, and it at once became a classic. His Studies in History and Jurisprudence (1901) and Studies in Contemporary Biography (1903) were republications of essays, and in 1897, after a visit to South Africa, he published a volume of Impressions of that country, which had considerable weight in Liberal circles when the Boer War was being discussed.
By the union of great moral qualities with high, though not the highest, intellectual faculties, he carried the Indian empire safely through the stress of the storm, and, what was perhaps a harder task still, he dealt wisely with the enormous difficulties arising at the close of such a war, established a more liberal policy and a sounder financial system, and left the people more contented than they were before.
He had received from his father the smatterings of a liberal education, but until the outbreak of the Revolution he was a domestic servant, and from 1785 occupied the invidious office of cornmissaire a terrier, his function being to assist the nobles and priests in the assertion of their feudal rights as against the unfortunate peasants.
Vespasian could be liberal to impoverished senators and knights, to cities and towns desolated by natural calamity, and especially to men of letters and of the professor class, several of whom he pensioned with salaries of as much as £boo a year.
Robert Barclay (q.v.), a descendant of an ancient Scottish family, who had received a liberal education, principally in Paris, at the Scots College, of which his uncle was rector, joined the Quakers about 1666, and William Penn (q.v.) came to them about two years later.
A friend describes Wesley at this time as "a young fellow of the finest classical taste, and the most liberal and manly sentiments."
Vindiciae Gallicae was the verdict of a philosophic Liberal on the development of the French Revolution up to the spring of 1791, and though the excesses of the revolutionists compelled him a few years after to express his entire agreement with the opinions of Burke, its defence of the "rights of man" is a valuable statement of the cultured Whig's point of view at the time.
This second manufacture, however, is thought to have been detrimental to the papyrus, as it would then have been in a dried condition requiring artificial aids, such as a more liberal use of gum or paste, in the process.
From 1817 till 1849 he was uninterruptedly a member of the chamber of deputies, and he acted consistently with the liberal opposition, of which at more than one crisis he was the virtual leader.
In 1885 he abandoned journalism, and became Liberal candidate for the Harrow division of Middlesex at the general election, but was defeated.
He was regarded as one of the clearest-headed and most judicious officials in the British service, and his position as a man of moderate Liberal views, who had been so closely associated with Goschen at the Treasury, Cromer in Egypt and Hicks-Beach (Lord St Aldwyn) and Sir W.
He was liberal and enlightened in his general rule.
The judicial system was much improved, a better grade of officials became the rule, many French Creoles were appointed to office, intermarriages of French and Spanish and even English were encouraged by the highest officials, and in general a liberal and conciliatory policy was followed, which made Louisiana under Spanish rule quiet and prosperous.
Bernardo de Galvez (1756-1794), a brilliant young officer of twentyone, when he became the governor of the colony, was one of the most liberal of the Spanish rulers and of all the most popular.
But a quarrel broke out among the Republicans (1872), the result of which was the installation of two governors and legislatures, one supported by the Democrats and Liberal Republicans and the other by the radical Republicans, the former being certainly elected by the people.
Under a succession of liberal governors (especially Luis de las Casas, 1790-1796, and the marques de Someruelos, 1799-1813), at the end of the 18th century and the first part of the 19th, when the wars in Europe cut off Spain almost entirely from the colony, Cuba was practically independent.
The Liberal party was of growing radicalism, the Union Constitutional party of growing conservatism; and after 1893 a Reformist party was launched that drew the compromisers and the waverers.
1856), the leader of the Miguelista faction of the Liberal party, as president, and Alfredo Zayas, the leader of the Zayista faction of the same party, as vice-president.
But while Struve, and to a less degree Plekhanov, were induced by this admission to seek an affiance with Liberal intellectuals in their struggle against Tsarism, Lenin (as he had taken to calling himself), together with Martov, Axelrod and other fiery spirits, forsook the Liberal platform and strove for a violent outbreak of a downright class war.
But it soon became apparent that the time was scarcely come for liberal measures; and fanatical outbreaks at Jidda (1858) and in Syria (r860) gave proof that the various sections of the population were not yet prepared to act together in harmony.
the last days of 1876 was startled by the salvo of artillery which heralded the promulgation of a liberal constitution, not for the European provinces only, but for the whole empire, and the institution of a Turkish parliament.
Turkey's severity in repressing the Bulgarian insurrection had raised up in England a storm of public opinion against her, of which the Liberal opposition had taken the fullest advantage; moreover the suspension of payments on the Ottoman debt had dealt Turkey's popularity a blow from which it had never recovered.
Otherwise the revolution was effected almost without bloodshed; for a time the insurgent bands disappeared in Macedonia, and the rival " nationalities " - Greek, Albanian, Turk, Armenian, Servian, Bulgarian and Jew - worked harmoniously together for the furtherance of common constitutional aims. On the 6th of August Kiamil Pasha, an advanced Liberal, became grand vizier, and a new cabinet was formed, including a Greek, Prince Mavrocordato, an Armenian, Noradounghian, and the Sheikh-ul-Islam.
Strife then arose between the committee and the Liberal Union, a body which mainly represented the Christian electorate, and on the 5th of April Hassan Fehmi Effendi, who edited the Serbesti, the official organ of the union, was assassinated.
Mutinous troops seized the parliament house and the telegraph offices; the grand vizier resigned and was succeeded by Tewfik Pasha (April 14); and delegates were sent by the Liberal Union, the association of Ulema and other bodies to discuss terms with the committee.
In 1793, however, she made a visit of some length to England, and established herself at Mickleham in Surrey as the centre of the Moderate Liberal emigrants - Talleyrand, Narbonne, Jaucourt and others.
It is the seat of Blinn Memorial College (German Methodist Episcopal), opened as "Mission Institute" in 1883, and renamed in 1889 in honour of the Rev. Christian Blinn, of New York, a liberal benefactor; of Brenham Evangelical Lutheran College, and of a German-American institute (1898).
Other higher educational institutions in Minnesota are Hamline University (Methodist Episcopal), with a college of liberal arts at St Paul, and a college of medicine at Minneapolis; Macalester College (Presbyterian) at St Paul; Augsburg Seminary (Lutheran) at Minneapolis; Carleton College (non-sectarian, founded in 1866) and St Olaf College (Lutheran, founded in 1874) at Northfield; Gustavus Adolphus College (Lutheran) at St Peter; Parker College (Free Baptist, 1888) at Winnebago City; St John's University (Roman Catholic) at Collegeville, Stearns county; and Albert Lea College for women (Presbyterian, founded 1884) at Albert Lea.
The constitutional conventions of 1845 and 1875, and the state convention which issued the call for the National Liberal Republican convention at Cincinnati in 1872, met here, and so for some of its sessions did the state convention of 1861-1863.
His friendship with Radicati, a man of liberal opinions, occasioned Frisi's removal by his clerical superiors to Novara, where he was compelled to do duty as a preacher.
A cry now arose in Holland for a revision of the fundamental law and for more liberal institutions; ministerial responsibility was introduced, and the royal control over finance diminished.
In 1898 he unsuccessfully contested Gravesend in the Liberal interest, but was elected for Oldham in 1899, although he only held the seat for a year.
They came principally from the provincial intendants, or from the tours des aides, which were animated by a liberal spirit.
From the outset of his career he was known to be a most Liberal Conservative, and in 1855 Lord Palmerston offered him the post of colonial secretary.
Already in October 1879 it was clear enough that he had thrown in his lot with the Liberal party, but it was not till March 1880 that he publicly announced this change of allegiance.
In 1886 the old Liberal party was run on the rocks and went to pieces.
Lord Derby became a Liberal Unionist, and took an active part in the general management of that party, leading it in the House of Lords till 1891, when Lord Hartington became duke of Devonshire.
From first to last he was at heart a moderate Liberal.
Hamilton is the seat of Colgate University, which was founded in 1819, under the name of the Hamilton Literary and Theological Institution, as a training school for the Baptist ministry, was chartered as Madison University in 1846, and was renamed in 1890 in honour of the Colgate family, several of whom, especially William (1783-1857), the soap manufacturer, and his sons, James Boorman (1818-1904), and Samuel (1822-1897), were its liberal benefactors.
16 1920); (b) about 40,000 owners of small holdings, averaging from 26 to 150 ac., formed the backbone of the Lettish middle class, and the liberal professions (nicknamed the " grey barons ") were partly supported by about 10,000 tenants of small farms; (c) the owners of very small holdings in Latgalia and Courland numbered some 10,600.
These causes and the fermentation of liberal principles produced by the French Revolution originated a conspiracy in Lisbon in 1817, which was, however, discovered in time to prevent its success.
In Rio, the Portuguese troops with which the king had surrounded himself as the defence against the liberal spirit of the Brazilians, took up arms on the 26th of February 1821, to force him to accept the system proclaimed in Portugal.
In November the emperor put an end to the angry debates which ensued in the assembly by dissolving it, exiling the Andradas to France, and convoking a new assembly to deliberate on a proposed constitution more liberal than the former project.
When Dom Pedro left Brazil for the purpose of making a tour through Europe and the United States he appointed Princess Isabella to act as regent, and she showed herself so swayed in political questions by Church influence that Liberal feeling became more and more anti-dynastic. Another incident which gave strength to the opposition was the sudden abolition of slavery without any compensation to slave-owners.
In parliament he continued to lend the most effective help to the Liberal party.
In the years1083-1085there was a second rising in Maine which was not laid to rest until William had granted liberal terms to the leader, Hubert of Beaumont.
In 1832 he accompanied the Liberal expedition to Terceira as a volunteer, and was one of D.
In his youth, the excesses of absolutism had made Herculano a Liberal, and the attacks on his history turned this man, full of sentiment and deep religious conviction, into an anti-clerical who began to distinguish between political Catholicism and Christianity.
The commission among other proposals for a more liberal and sympathetic native policy urged the creation of a native advisory Board entrusted with very wide powers.
To this list must be added: (I) the Satyricon of Martianus Capella, the greater part of which is a treatise on the seven liberal arts, the fourth book dealing with logic; (2) the De artibus ac disciplinis liberalium literarum of Cassiodorus; (3) the Origines of Isidore of Seville (ob.
Since then, says their regretful pupil, " less time and less care have been bestowed on grammar, and persons who profess all arts, liberal and mechanical, are ignorant of the primary art, without which a man proceeds in vain to the rest.
No sooner was the idea of such a tribute started than liberal contributions came from all quarters, which enabled his friends to present him with a sum of 80,000.
Lord Palmerston was again prime minister, and having discovered that the advanced liberal party was not so easily "crushed" as he had apprehended, he made overtures of reconciliation, and invited Cobden and Milner Gibson to become members of his government.
He at once became very popular with the students, but his political opinions made it impossible for the Saxon government to appoint him to a professorship. He was at that time a strong Liberal; he hoped to see Germany united into a single state with a parliamentary government, and that all the smaller states would be swept away.
In the Reichstag he had originally been a member of the National Liberal party, but in 1879 he was the first to accept the new commercial policy of Bismarck, and in his later years he joined the Moderate Conservatives, but his deafness prevented him from taking a prominent part in debate.
After the liberal concessions of 1860 and 1861, however, he became a life member of the Austrian senate.
They lavished money on the embellishment of their capital, Gyulafehervar, which became a sort of Protestant Mecca, whither scholars and divines of every anti-Roman denomination flocked to bask in the favour of princes who were as liberal as they were pious.
The alarm of the government at the power and popularity of the Liberal party induced it, soon after the accession of the new king, the emperor Ferdinand I.
The diet of 1839 refused to proceed to business till the political prisoners had been released, and, while in the Lower Chamber the reforming majority was larger than ever, a Liberal party was now also formed in the Upper House under the brilliant leadership of Count Louis Batthyany and Baron Joseph EdtvOs.
3 This project was favoured by the Magyar conservative magnates who had never broken with the court, but was steadily opposed by the Liberal leader Ferencz Deal(whose upright and tenacious character made him at this crisis the oracle and the buttress of the national cause.
Fortunately, in Kalman Tisza, the leader of the Liberal From the first, Tisza was exposed to the violent attacks of the opposition, which embraced, not only the party of Independence, champions of the principles of 1848, but the so-called National party, led by the brilliant orator Count Albert Apponyi, which aimed at much the same ends but looked upon the Compromise of 1867 as a convenient substructure on which to build up the Magyar state.
Himself a Calvinist, he succeeded in putting an end to the old quarrel of Catholic and Protestant and uniting them in a common enthusiasm for a race ideal; nominally a Liberal, he trampled on every Liberal principle in order to secure the means for governing with a firm hand; and if the political corruption of modern Hungary is largely his work, 4 to him also belongs the credit for the measures which have placed the country on a sound economic basis and the statesmanlike temper which made Hungary a power in the affairs of Europe.
The Liberal party, however, realized the abyss towards which they were hurrying the country, and united their efforts to come to a constitutional understanding with the king.
The issue of a programme so liberal, and notably the inclusion in it of the idea of universal suffrage, entirely checkmated the opposition parties.
3 In the general elections that followed the Liberal party was practically wiped out, its leader, Count Istvan Tisza, retiring into private life.
1, 1897, declared it to be neither national, nor Liberal, nor Christian to oppress the nationalities.
Clemenceau and Lloyd George found themselves between two irreconcilable standpoints - between Sonnino, who claimed the liberal fulfilment of their treaty pledges, with the addition of the port of Fiume, and President Wilson, 'who refused all cognizance of the secret treaties and regarded them as expressly abrogated by the Allies when they accepted his successive notes as the basis of the Armistice.
She inherited nearly all of his great fortune, and out of it she gave away a long series of liberal benefactions to various institutions
Had the fusion of the two little republics which Pretorius sought to bring about, and from which apparently the Free State was not averse, actually been accomplished in 1860, it is more than probable that a republican state on liberal lines, with some prospect of permanence and stability, might have been formed.
Meantime Frere's proposals to fulfil the promises made to grant the Boers a liberal constitution were shelved.
franchise, and also for a more liberal commercial policy in the matter of railways, dynamite and customs dues, began to be made.
Lode tin, as tinstone derived from primary deposits is often termed, is mined in the ordinary method, the very hard gangue in which it occurs necessitating a liberal use of explosives.
While pointing out that history has a utility as a mental discipline and a part of a liberal education, he recommended its study chiefly for its own sake, for the truth's sake and for the pleasure which it brings.
All went well for a time; but Dionysius had Philistus and others about him, who were opposed to any kind of liberal reform, and the result was the banishment of Dion from Syracuse as a dangerous innovator.
As the reign of Louis Philippe went on, Lamartine, who had previously been a liberal royalist, something after the fashion of Chateaubriand, became more and more democratic in his opinions.
He was educated at Glasgow University and at Trinity College, Cambridge (senior optime, and classical honours); was returned to parliament for Stirling as a Liberal in 1868 (after an unsuccessful attempt at a by-election); and became financial secretary at the war office (1871-1874; 1880-1882), secretary to the admiralty (1882-1884), and chief secretary for Ireland (1884-1885).
In Mr Gladstone's 1886 ministry he was secretary for war, and filled the same office in the Liberal ministry of 1892-1895.
Though a prominent member of the inner Liberal circle and a stanch party man, it was not supposed by the public at this time that any ambition for the highest place could be associated with Sir Henry CampbellBannerman; but the divisions among the Liberals, and the rivalry between Lord Rosebery and Sir William Harcourt, made the political situation an anomalous one.
In this he was successful, although the advent of the Boer War of1899-1902created new difficulties with the Liberal Imperialists.
In the Liberal campaign on behalf of free trade the real leader, however, was Mr Asquith.
A Liberal majority at the dissolution was promised by all the signs at by-elections.
But if Lord Rosebery once more separated himself from the official Liberals, his principal henchmen in the Liberal League were included in the cabinet, Mr Asquith becoming chancellor of the exchequer, Sir Edward Grey foreign secretary, and Mr Haldane war minister.
At the general election in January 1906 an overwhelming Liberal majority was returned, irrespective of the Labour and Nationalist vote, and Sir Henry himself was again elected for Stirling.
From the beginning of the session of 1908 it was evident, however, that Mr Asquith, who was acting as deputy prime minister, would before long succeed to the Liberal leadership; and on the 5th of April Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman's resignation was formally announced.
From a party-political point of view the period of Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman's premiership was chiefly marked by the continued controversies remaining from the general election of 1906, - tariff reform and free trade, the South African question and the allied Liberal policy for abolishing Chinese labour, the administration of Ireland, and the amendment of the Education Act of 1902 so as to remove its supposed denominational character.
On the other hand, so far as concerned the ultimate fortunes of the Liberal party, Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman's premiership can only be regarded as a period of marking time.
His own special "leads" were few, owing to the personal reasons given above; his declaration at the Queen's Hall, London, early in 1907, in favour of drastic land reform, served only to encourage a number of extremists; and the Liberal enthusiasm against the House of Lords, violently excited in 1 9 06 by the fate of the Education Bill and Plural Voting Bill, was rather damped than otherwise, when his method of procedure by resolution of the House of Commons was disclosed in 1907.
Moreover, the Liberal promises of economy had been largely falsified, the reductions in the navy estimates being dangerous in themselves, while the income tax still remained at practically the war level.
Relations came to his aid, and presently his anxieties were relieved by Francis Martin, bursar of Trinity, who gave him liberal help. Benson took his degree in 1852 as a senior optime, eighth classic and senior chancellor's medallist, and was elected fellow of Trinity in the following year.
Giddings (Chicago, 1892), by his son-inlaw, George Washington Julian (1817-1899), a Free-soil leader and a representative in Congress in 1849-1851, a Republican representative in Congress in 1861-1871, a Liberal Republican in the campaign of 1872, and afterwards a Democrat.
Zumalacarregui had no sympathy with the liberal principles which were spreading in Spain, and became noted as what was called a Servil or strong Royalist.
His brother officers, whose leanings were liberal, denounced him to the revolutionary government, and asked that he might be removed.
Ben Adret, with the approval of other prominent Spanish rabbis, sent a letter to the community at Montpellier proposing to forbid the study of philosophy to those who were less than thirty years of age, and, in spite of keen opposition from the liberal section, a decree in this sense was issued by ben Adret in 1305.
In reality, a very liberal expenditure of artillery ammunition on the part of the fleet was doing considerably less damage to the Ottoman defences than the Allied sailors imagined to be the case.
The cabinet, in which Baron Louis was minister of finance, and Marshal Gouvion Saint Cyr remained minister' of war, was entirely Liberal; and its first act was to suppress the ministry of police, as Decazes held that it was incompatible with the regime of liberty.
His reforms met with the strong hostility of the Chamber of Peers, where the ultra-Royalists were in a majority, and to overcome it he got the king to create sixty new Liberal peers.
In December 1821 he returned to sit in the House of Peers, when he continued to maintain his Liberal opinions.
A liberal scholar, he became widely known in 1854 through a work, Die Nachtgesichte Sacharjas.
Under the Restoration he defended Liberal principles in the Constitutionnel, of which he was the founder.
During the war the Eight had been practically rulers of the city, but now the parte Guelfa, led by Lapo da Castiglionchio and Piero degli Albizzi, attempted to reassert itself by illicit interference in the elections and by a liberal use of "admonitions "(ammonizioni).
In 1848 there was a liberal revolutionary movement in Florence, and Leopold granted a constitution.
It is unquestionably better and easier to evaporate in vacuo than in an open pan, and with a better system of firing, a more liberal provision of steam generators, and multiple-effect evaporators of improved construction, a far larger yield of sugar is obtained from the juice than was possible of attainment in those days, and the megass often suffices as fuel for the crop.
The renewal of the convention was disapproved by certain Liberal politicians, who insisted that the price of sugar had been raised by the convention; and Sir Edward Grey said that the government had intended to denounce the convention, but other countries had urged that Great Britain had induced them to enter into it, and to alter their fiscal system for that purpose, and it would he unfair to upset the arrangement.
The matter temporarily dropped, but certain Liberal members of parliament continued to press for the withdrawal of Great Britain from the convention, it being stated that a promise had been privately given by Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman that the government would withdraw as soon as practicable.
In 1881 the king refused to sanction the law by which the ministers were to remain in office for a fixed term of eighteen months, and upon the consequent resignation of Canovas del Castillo, he summoned Sagasta, the Liberal leader, to form a cabinet.
This programme was based upon the idea of a liberal reconstruction: he aimed at the reduction and simplification of the State schools combined with a more rigorous method of teaching, and at affording all facilities to, and indeed inviting the competition of, private instruction, fearless of the confessional school, which in his view would be compelled to modernize itself in order to maintain competition with the State school.
He was the first tenant farmer to represent a Scottish constituency, and was returned to parliament, unopposed, as Liberal member for the western division of Aberdeen in 1868.
He was a man of mild and liberal spirit, broadened by varied culture, constitutionally averse from narrow views and enforced uniformity.
Elected as a Liberal member for Aylesbury in 1852, he was for a few weeks under-secretary for foreign affairs, but afterwards freely criticized the government, especially in connexion with army administration.
From 1865 to 1868 he was Liberal M.P. for Greenwich.
At Riad, Fesal, who had been in power since the Egyptian retirement, was still reigning; and the religious tyranny of Wahhabism prevailed, in marked contrast to the liberal regime of Talal in Jebel Shammar.
The overthrow of the Wahhabis in 1817 restored Sultan Said to independence; he equipped and armed on Western models a fleet built in Indian ports, and took possession of Sokotra and Zanzibar, as well as the Persian coast north of the straits of Hormuz as far east as Gwadur, while by his liberal policy at home Sohar, Barka and Muscat became prosperous commercial ports.
In 1837, on the 18th of November, along with six of his colleagues he signed a formal protest against the action of King Ernst August (duke of Cumberland) in abolishing the liberal constitution of 1833, which had been granted to the Hanoverians by his predecessor William IV.
In 1847, "the great shipwreck-year in Germany," as he has called it, he was invited back to GÃ¶ttingen on honourable terms - the liberal constitution having been restored.
But though a liberal theologian, he was no dry rationalist.
In conjunction with Struve he drew up the Radical programme carried at the great Liberal meeting held at Offenburg on the 12th of September 1847 (entitled "Thirteen Claims put forward by the People of Baden").
The municipal finance has on the whole been sound, and notwithstanding the extra burdens assumed on the incorporation of the suburbs, the equilibrium of the communal budget was maintained up to the fall of the Liberal administration.
In modern political history the expression "cave of Adullam" (hence "Adullamites") came into common use (being first employed in a speech by John Bright on the 13th of March 1866) with regard to the independent attitude of Robert Lowe (Lord Sherbrooke), Edward Horsman and their Liberal supporters in opposition to the Reform Bill of 1866.
Welles supported President Johnson in his quarrel with Congress, took part in the Liberal Republican movement of 1872, and returning to the Democratic party, warmly advocated the election of Samuel J.
The great undertaking was supported by liberal subscriptions, and Walton's political opinions did not deprive him of the help of the Commonwealth; the paper used was freed from duty, and the interest of Cromwell in the work was acknowledged in the original preface, part of which was afterwards cancelled to make way for more loyal expressions towards that restored monarchy under which Oriental studies in England immediately began to languish.
The historical institute of Peru, also at Lima, is charged by the government, from which it receives a liberal subsidy, with the work of collecting, preparing and publishing documents relating to Peruvian history, and of preserving objects of archaeological and historic character.
This feeling led a number of high-minded gentlemen to form themselves into an organization under the name of Liberal Republicans.
The longer Christina ruled, the more anxious for the future fate of her empire grew the men who had helped to build it up. Yet she gave fresh privileges to the towns; she encouraged trade and manufactures, especially the mining industries of the Dales; in 1649 she issued the first school ordinance for the whole kingdom; she encouraged foreign scholars to settle in Sweden; and native science and literature, under her liberal encouragement, flourished as they had never flourished before.
Otto was of tall and commanding presence, and although subject to violent bursts of passion, was liberal to his friends and just to his enemies.
Gladstone was returned unopposed, this time in conjunction with the Liberal lawyer whom he had beaten at the last election.
At Christmas 1867 Lord Russell announced his final retirement from active politics, and Gladstone was recognized by acclamation as leader of the Liberal party.
Except in finance, he was not able to accomplish much, for he was met and thwarted at every turn by his chief's invincible hostility to change; but the more advanced section of the Liberal party began to look upon him as their predestined leader.
The result of the general election was to retain Lord Palmerston's Leader of Leader of Liberal party.
At the beginning of 1875 Gladstone carried into effect the resolution which he had announced a year before, and formally resigned the leadership of the Liberal party.
His second administration, of which the main achievement was the extension of the suffrage to the agricultural labourers, was harassed by two controversies, relating to Ireland and Egypt, which proved disastrous to the Liberal party.
When it was over the Liberal party was just short of the numerical strength which was requisite to defeat the combination of Tories and Parnellites.
On the r7th of December an anonymous paragraph was published, stating that if Mr Gladstone returned to office he was prepared to " deal in a liberal spirit with the demand for Home Rule."
Bismarck was desirous of giving the city, in view of its former freedom, a more liberal constitution than is usual in ordinary cases.
He conceived it as " a religious monopoly " to which " the nation at large contributes," while " Presbyterians alone receive," and which placed him in " a relation to the state " so " seriously objectionable " as to be " impossible to hold."5 The invidious distinction it drew between Presbyterians on the one hand, and Catholics, Friends, freethinking Christians, unbelievers and Jews on the other, who were compelled to support a ministry they " conscientiously disapproved," offended his always delicate conscience; while possibly the intellectual and ecclesiastical atmosphere of the city proved uncongenial to his liberal magnanimity.
He was interested in the development of agriculture and commerce; sought to improve education and the administration of justice, and was in general a wise and liberal ruler.
of the Act of Confederation, a liberal constitution, under which two chambers were constituted and their assent declared necessary for legislation and taxation.
The July Revolution led to no disturbances in Baden; but the new grand-duke from the first showed liberal tendencies.
The elections of 1830 were not interfered with; and the result was the return of a Liberal majority.
The next few years saw the introduction, under successive ministries, of Liberal reforms in the constitution, in criminal and civil law, and in education.
of Liberal principles, the communes being made responsible for education, though the priests were admitted to a share in the management.
In 1867, on the accession to the premiership of Julius von Jolly (1823-1891), several constitutional changes in a Liberal direction were made; responsibility of ministers, freedom of the press, compulsory education.
The office of administering the cardinal's estate was a very ungrateful one, for the family resented the liberal benefactions of their kinsman to the Church and the univesity, and accused Dlugosz of exercising undue influence, from which charge he triumphantly vindicated himself.
In addition, they formed a source of revenue and power for their founders, who on their part conceded liberal charters to the new towns.
It has always remained Liberal in literature and Conservative in politics.
Karamsin brought out in 1802 the V'yestnik Evropi, an important review with Liberal tendencies.
It is the seat of Buchtel College (co-educational; non-sectarian), which was founded by the Ohio Universalist Convention in 1870, was opened in 1872, and was named in honour of its most liberal benefactor, John R.
He planted the seed of the modern Liberal party as opposed to the pure Whigs.
In all ways he was the ardent advocate of what have in later times been known as "Liberal causes," the removal of all religious disabilities and tests, the suppression of private interests which hampered the public good, the abolition of the slave trade, and the emancipation of all classes and races of men from the strict control of authority.
(b) Institutiones divinarun et humanarum litterarum, an encyclopaedia of sacred and profane literature for the monks, and a sketch of the seven liberal arts.
His education, the influence of his mother, and perhaps still more that of his wife's father, the Prince Consort, had made him a strong Liberal, and he was much distressed at the course of events in Prussia after the appointment of Bismarck as minister.
On the 22nd of July he succeeded Fetid Pasha as grand vizier, but on the 6th of August was replaced by Kiamil Pasha, a man of more liberal views, at the instance of the young Turkish committee.
1184), sire de Joinville, who accompanied Henry the Liberal, count of Champagne, to the Holy Land in 1147, received from him the office of seneschal, and this office became hereditary in the house of Joinville.
As president he was punctilious in the discharge of his duties, ready to give help and encouragement to artists young and old, and his tenure of the office was marked by some wise and liberal reforms. He frequently went abroad, generally to Italy, where he was well known and appreciated.
After some years spent in journalism at Chicago, he was in 1874 elected as the Liberal candidate to represent Levis in the Canadian parliament.
By looking at them together we understand how much the comedy of Terence was able to do to refine and humanize the manners of Rome, but at the same time what a solvent it was of the discipline and ideas of the old republic. What makes Terence an important witness of the culture of his time is that he wrote from the centre of the Scipionic circle, in which what was most humane and liberal in Roman statesmanship was combined with the appreciation of what was most vital in the Greek thought and literature of the time.
Ambrosius Macrobius Theodosius (c. 400) wrote a treatise on Cicero's Somnium Scipionis and seven books of miscellanies (Saturnalia); and Martianus Capella (c. 430), a native of Africa, published a compendium of the seven liberal arts, written in a mixture of prose and verse, with some literary pretensions.
Fremy, Un Ambassadeur liberal sous Charles IX Henri III, Arnaud du Ferrier (Paris, 1880).
In the closing years of Alexander's reign events in Poland cast their shadow before them, and in answer to political conspiracies Novosiltsov, formerly adviser to the Grand Duke Constantine as governor of Poland, upon his transfer to Lithuania initiated the persecution of liberal thought.
The Peasants' party combined with the Popular Socialist party, while the "Workers' Federation" and the "Yeomen's Union" (these being but the small landowners) formed part of the Christian Socialist governing bloc. Legally recognized parties which were not represented in the Seim were: (a) the Progressive party (Pajanga); (b) the Liberal party (known as the Santara Union); (c) " Landlords' Association" (which comprised only large landed proprietors).
There the more liberal theology rapidly made way among a people who judged it more by its fruits than its arguments, and Macleod won many adherents by his practical schemes for the social improvement of the people.
He was the earnest champion of the advancement of American shipping, and advocated liberal subsidies, insisting that the policy of protection should be applied on sea as well as on land.
The institution embraces a college of liberal arts (1860), with a school of political and ' As lieutenant-governor, Newbold serves for the unexpired portion of the term to which Kirkwood was elected; Kirkwood resigned on the 1st of February 1877, having been chosen United States senator.
In1907-1908the institution had 28 buildings (including the old State Capitol, built in 1840), a teaching and administrative force of nearly 200 members and 2315 students, of whom 1082 were in the college of liberal arts; the university library had about 65,000 volumes (25,000 were destroyed by fire in 1897), and the university law library, 14,000 volumes; and the total income of the university was about $611,000.
In 1 9 08 the library of the State Historical Society of Iowa, housed in the Hall of the Liberal Arts of the university, numbered about 40,000 volumes.
He immediately proceeded to muzzle opposition by stringent press laws, and the discovery of minor liberal conspiracies afforded an excuse for further repression.
to swamp the liberal majority in the upper house by the nomination of twenty-seven new peers; he availed himself of the temporary popularity of the monarchy after the Spanish campaign to summon a new Chamber of Deputies.
At Cambridge he was president of the Union and acquired a considerable reputation for ability; and when he entered Parliament in 1906, at the age of 27, as Liberal member for the Chesterton division of Cambridgeshire, he was chosen by 1'Ir.
While most of the "Broad Churchmen" were influenced by ethical and emotional considerations in their repudiation of the dogma of everlasting torment, he was swayed by purely intellectual and theological arguments, and in questions of a more general liberty he often opposed the proposed Liberal theologians, though he as often took their side if he saw them hard pressed.
He was a liberal protector of art and literature, and the kindliness of his disposition formed a marked contrast to the cruelty of his father; but he was given to intemperance, and the cause of his death was dropsy brought on by alcoholic abuse.
He was succeeded by his sons, Edward (1323-1329), known as "the Liberal," on account of his extravagance, and Aimone, the Peaceful (1329-1343), who strove to repair the harm done to the state's exchequer by his predecessor and proved one of the bestrinces of his line.
Edward the Liberal Aimone the Peaceful Anne =the eastern emperor, (d.
Dingli and ecclesiastics of all denominations, for conflicting reasons, swelled the opposition against the liberal concessions obtained from Leo XIII.
He was liberal, kindly, good-tempered and easy of access, and his yielding to his subjects' wishes in order to obtain supplies for carrying on the French war contributed to the consolidation of the constitution.
gave fresh impulse to the Liberal movement, and on the 4th of September 1847 Leopold instituted the National Guard - a first step towards the constitution; shortly after the marchese Cosimo Ridolfi was appointed prime minister.
His speech on their departure was uncompromisingly Italian and Liberal.
Leopold of Tuscany was a well-meaning, not unkindly man, and fonder of his subjects than were the other Italian despots; but he was weak, and too closely bound by family ties and Habsburg traditions ever to become a real Liberal.
Though most of the land is under garden cultivation, the mass of the people is dependent more or less directly on mercantile pursuits; for, while the exclusive policy both of Chinese and Portuguese which prevented Macao becoming a free port till1845-1846allowed what was once the great emporium of European commerce in eastern Asia to be outstripped by its younger and more liberal rivals, the local, though not the foreign, trade of the place is still of very considerable extent.
Des Moines is the seat of Des Moines College, a Baptist institution, co-educational, founded in 1865 (enrolment, 1907-1908, 21 4); of Drake University (co-educational; founded in 1881 by the Disciples of Christ; now non-sectarian), with colleges of liberal arts, law, medicine, dental surgery and of the Bible, a conservatory of music, and a normal school, in which are departments of oratory and commercial training, and having in 1907-1908 -1764 students, of whom 520 were in the summer school only; of the Highland Park College, founded in 1890; of Grand View College (Danish Lutheran), founded in 1895; and of the Capital City commercial college (founded 1884).
Liberal, courteous, a shrewd observer, loyal and watchful in the cause of Russia, he maintained the best possible relations with Lord Lansdowne and Sir Edward Grey, and became a favourite at Court and in London society.
Having been elected M.P. for the Ayr burghs in 1818, he devoted the greater part of his life to the promotion of Liberal reforms. In 1820 he married the only daughter of Sir Samuel Romilly.
He entered public life in 1849 as Liberal member for the county of Sherbrooke, but opposed the chief measure of his party, the Rebellion Losses Bill, and in the same year signed a manifesto in favour of union with the United States, believing that in no other way could Protestant and AngloSaxon ascendancy over the Roman Catholic French majority in his native province be maintained.
After much discussion and reflection he drew closer to the camp of "the Oxford Liberal Movement."
Early in 1503 Machiavelli drew up for Soderini a speech, Discorso sull y provisione del danaro, in which the duty and necessity of liberal expenditure for the protection of the state were expounded upon principles of sound political philosophy.
After a short stay in France he returned to Italy and identified himself with the Liberal movement; he became an active journalist, and founded a newspaper called L' Opinione in 1847.
His brother, Giovanni Durando (1804-1869), was in early life driven into exile on account of his Liberal opinions.
As viceprincipal of the theological college at Cuddesdon (1854-1859) he wielded considerable influence, and, on returning to Oxford as vice-principal of St Edmund's Hall, became a growing force among the undergraduates, exercising his influence in strong opposition to the liberal reaction against Tractarianism, which had set in after Newman's secession in 1845.
Rome, it is certain, deliberately favoured her ally's unjust claims with the view of keeping Carthage weak, and Massinissa on his part was cunning enough to retain the friendship of the Roman people by helping them with liberal supplies in their wars against Perseus of Macedon and Antiochus.
aroused some ill-feeling, the government on the whole was fairly liberal.
was elected to the Holy See and began his reign with apparently Liberal and nationalist tendencies, Farini returned to Italy and was appointed secretary-general to G.
He spoke chiefly on financial questions; his known Liberal views did not prevent Louis XVIII.
He retired to his house in Logrono, which he left six years later, in 1854, when called upon by the queen to take the lead of the powerful Liberal and Progressist movement which prevailed for two years.
After 1856 Espartero resolutely declined to identify himself with active politics, though at every stage in the onward march of Spain towards more liberal and democratic institutions he was asked to take a leading part.
In 1907 he became recorder of Sunderland and in 191() a K.C. In 1910 he entered the House of Commons as Liberal member for Newcastle.
On the election in 1846 of Pius IX., who appeared to be a Liberal and an Italian patriot, the eyes of a]1 Italy were turned on him as the heaven-born leader who was to rescue the country from the foreigner.
This to some extent reconciled the king to the Liberal movement, for it accorded with his religious views.
The remaining seven books contain expositions of the seven liberal arts, which then comprehended all human knowledge.
The work was a complete encyclopaedia of the liberal culture of the time, and was in high repute during the middle ages.
These conditions they themselves said were liberal, nor could they have ventured to assume their old positions throughout Uganda.
This bill was indignantly rejected, and, instigated by Jon Sigurasson, another was demanded of far more liberal tendencies.
The Liberal party had high hopes of "the giver of constitutions," but he disappointed his admirers by steadily rejecting every Liberal project.
Scholars, like Colet, read the New Testament in Greek and lectured on justification by faith before they knew of Luther, and More included among the institutions of Utopia a rather more liberal and enlightened religion than that which he observed around him.
From 1869 to 1879 he took part in local politics, and was premier from 1876-1879; in 1882 he entered the Canadian parliament as a Liberal, and from 1896 to 1901 was minister of marine and fisheries.
At the dissolution he surrendered his priory without compunction to the crown, and received a liberal pension.
At the same time expenditures were largely increased by liberal pension legislation, and the government's purchase of silver bullion almost doubled by the provisions of the new Sherman Silver Purchase Act of 1890.
Of the education of Herodotus no more can be said than that it was thoroughly Greek, and embraced no doubt the three subjects essential to a Greek liberal education - grammar, gymnastic training and music. His studies would be regarded as completed when he attained the age of eighteen, and took rank among the eplzebi or eirenes of his native city.
The occurrence marked him out for promotion by a Liberal Government, and in the autumn he received from Lord Brougham as chancellor the living of Kirby-underDale in Yorkshire.
He took the liberal side in the questions of Maynooth, of the admission of Jews to parliament, of the Gorham case, and of the educational conscience clause.
In the elections of June 1920 he secured a seat in the Reichstag as a member of the Deutsche Volkspartei, the new electioneering name of the former National Liberal party.
After the revolution of 1830 he came to Paris, formed connexions with numerous political personages, even with King Louis Philippe, and became a brilliant defender of Liberal ideas in the law courts and in the press, - witness his :loge funebre of the bishop Gregoire (1830), his Memoire for the political rehabilitation of Marshal Ney (1833), and his plea for the accused of April (1835).
During the events which led up to the Declaration of Independence this school, known as the "Liberal" school, was not prominent though the number of its adherents steadily grew.
A moderately liberal theologian, he became best known as a New Testament critic and exegete, being the author of the Commentary on the Synoptics (1889; 3rd ed., 1901), the Johannine books (1890; 2nd ed., 1893), and the Acts of the Apostles (1901), in the series Handkommentar zum Neuen Testament.
For the history of German thought it was of the greatest importance that a Liberal from the Rhine, by a systematic history of the Revolution, attempted to overthrow the influence which the revolutionary legend, as expounded by French writers, had acquired over the German mind; and the book was an essential part of the influences which led to the formation of a National Liberal school of thought.
But the influence of labour in the Progressive or, as it preferred to be called, Liberal party, was considerable, and the legislative results noteworthy.
But, when the disestablished communion had to be reconstituted under the greatest difficulties, it was found of the highest importance that the occupant of his position should be a man of a liberal and genial spirit.
The Liberal party was almost swept away, and Sir John, on his return to power, put his policy into effect with a thoroughness that commanded the admiration even of his opponents, who, after long resistance, adopted it on their accession to office in 1896.
In his general conception of human affairs there is a tendency to regard too exclusively the material side of things, which made him pre-eminently the economist of the French liberal bourgeoisie.
The University of Washington (1862) at Seattle embraces a college of liberal arts, a college of engineering and schools of law, pharmacy, mines and forestry.
The constitution was subsequently modified but remained of a liberal.
This constitution appears to have been modelled on terms a great deal too liberal and enlightened to please Mr Kruger, whose one idea was to have at his command the armed forces of the Free State when he should require them, and who pressed for an offensive and defensive affiance.
The advent of a Liberal administration under Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman in Great Britain in December 1905 completely altered the political situation in the late Boer states.
He was dissatisfied with General Grant's administration, and became its sharp critic. The discontent which he did much to develop ended in the organization of the Liberal Republican party, which held its National Convention at Cincinnati in 1872, and nominated Greeley for the presidency.
Frederick Augustus was succeeded in 1827 by his brother Antony, to the great disappointment of the people, who had expected a more liberal era under Prince Frederick Augustus, the king's nephew.
Growing interest in politics produced dissatisfaction with the compromise of 1831, and the Liberal opposition grew in numbers and influence.
This increased the opposition of the Liberal middle classes to the government.
Warned by the sympathy excited in Saxony by the revolutionary events at Paris in 1848, the king dismissed his reactionary ministry, and a Liberal cabinet took its place in March 1848.
A new electoral law of the same year reformed the Saxon diet by abolishing the old distinction between the various " estates " and lowering the qualification for the franchise; the result was a Liberal majority in the Lower House and a period of civil and ecclesiastical reform.
They demanded from the Liberal Minister of Education, Marchet, that disciplinary measures should be used against him.
Hancock was not by nature a leader, but he wielded great influence on account of his wealth and social position, and was liberal, public-spirited, and, as his repeated election - the elections were annual - to the governorship attests, exceedingly popular.
The liberal school of thought of which Mohler was a prominent exponent was discouraged in official circles, while Protestants, on the other hand, complain that the author failed to grasp thoroughly the significance of the Reformation as a great movement in the spiritual history of mankind, while needlessly dwelling on the doctrinal shortcomings, inconsistencies and contradictions of its leaders.
The present position may be illustrated from a work representing the more liberal Anglican theology.
should die childless, and received a liberal dotation, but was allowed no share in public affairs.
At court he represented the Liberal party against the empress Eugenie.
Nevertheless he was influential in effecting the reform by which in 1869 it was sought to reconcile the Empire with Liberal principles.
The last of these, Ferdinand, who succeeded in 1848, granted a liberal constitution to his people, but cancelled it during the reaction of 1852.
At this time the tone of the Russian court was extremely liberal, humanitarian enthusiasts like Peter Volkonsky and Nikolai Novosiltsov possessing great influence.
His English patrons were liberal.
In 1794 the effects of the French Revolution were shown in the more liberal constitution granted by the city government.
But this constitution did not seem liberal enough to many citizens, so that in 1846 the government gave way to the Radicals, led by James Fazy (1794-1878), who drew up a constitution that was accepted by a popular vote on the 21st of May 1847.
Even in the Bill of Rights the phrase "Protestant religion" occurs, but not "Protestant Church," and it was reserved for the Liberal government, in the original draft (afterwards changed) of the Accession Declaration Bill introduced in 1910, to suggest "Protestant Reformed Church of England" as a new title for the Established Church.
It became - to quote Professor Kattenbusch - the "secular" designation of the adherents of the Reformation, the shibboleth of the "liberal" ecclesiastical and theological tendencies.
Originally of Liberal tendencies, he developed from 1837 onwards ultramontane opinions, founded in 1852 the Catholic group which in 1861 took the name of the Centre party (Centrum) and became one of its most conspicuous orators.
His brother, PETER REICHENSPERGER (1810-1892), counsellor to the appeal court at Cologne (1850) and until 1879 to the Obertribunal at Berlin, was elected to the Reichstag in 1867 as a member of the Liberal Opposition, but subsequently joined the Centre party.
Its liberal tendencies caused him to be accused of unsound views, and a most exhaustive report prepared by the Lancashire College committee was followed by numerous pamphlets for and against.
In January 1910 the Liberal government was again returned to power; but the Unionist party was now committed to Tariff Reform, which had made great strides in obtaining popular support.
The tariff history of France in the 19th century divides itself into three periods: one of complete prohibition, lasting till 1860; second, of liberal legislation, from 1860 to 1881; third, of reversion to protection after 1881.
The commercial treaty of 1786 between Great Britain and France has already been referred to as making a breach in the restrictive system of the 18th century; and in the early years of the French Revolution a similar wave of liberal policy is to be seen.
(3) This more liberal policy, however, probably never had deep root in French public opinion.
More important, however, in undermining the liberal system, was the change in agricultural conditions which began to set in in the decade of 1878-88.
under the influence of the Liberal statesmen then still powerful in the Prussian government.
Within the Zollverein, after 1834, there was an almost unceasing struggle between the protectionist and Free Trade parties, Prussia supporting in the main a Liberal policy, while the South German states supported a Protectionist policy.
After 1860 a change towards a more liberal policy was brought about by the efforts of Prussia, which concluded independently a commercial treaty with France, forcing on the other members of the Zollverein the alternative of either parting company French with Prussia or of joining her in her relations with treaty France.
After the foundation of the German Empire, the duties of the Zollverein became those of Germany, and for a time the liberal regime was maintained and extended, with respect to the tariff as with respect to other matters.
Although an ardent liberal, he took little part in political affairs.
A liberal and a corrservative theology (rationalist and orthodox) exist side by side within the churches, and while the latter clings to the theology of the 16th century, the former ventures to raise doubts about the truth of such a common and simple standard as the Apostles' Creed.
Until 1846 the country enjoyed peace under the just and liberal rule of Zahir-ud-din, the Chinese governor, but in that year a fresh Khoja revolt under Kath Tora led to his making himself master of the city, with circumstances of unbridled licence and oppression.
As an ecclesiastic he was pious, pure, simple in his mode of life, charitable, and a learned and liberal patron of letters; but as a sovereign he proved weak, timid and incapable.
28, 1573), which granted absolute religious liberty to all non-Catholic denominations (dissidentes de religiose, as they now began to be called) without exception, thus exhibiting a far more liberal intention than the Germans had manifested in the religious peace of Augsburg eighteen years before.
is said to have expended 50,000,000 livres a year for bribing purposes, the court of Vienna was scarcely less liberal, and very soon nearly all the monarchs of the Continent and their ministers were in the pay of one or other of the antagonists.
His warning, "No nonsense, gentlemen" (Point de reveries, Messieurs), was taken in very ill part, and it was perhaps naturally, but beyond question most unhappily, the truth that the tsar's concessions only served to encourage the Poles to revolt, and to produce a strong Russian reaction against his liberal policy.
He was a man of liberal sentiments, and, had his plans been carried out, Poland might have been saved.
The institution embraces a college of liberal arts, a college of engineering, a college of law (united in 1897 with the law school of Cincinnati College, then the only surviving department of that college, which was founded as Lancaster Seminary in 1815 and was chartered as Cincinnati College in 1819), a college of medicine (from 1819 to 1896 the Medical College of Ohio; the college occupies the site of the old M`Micken homestead), a college for teachers, a graduate school, and a technical school (founded in 1886 and transferred to the university in 1901); while closely affiliated with it are the Clinical and Pathological School of Cincinnati and the Ohio College of Dentistry.
This "Puttkammer regime" was intensely unpopular; it was attacked in the Reichstag not only by Radicals like Richter and Rickert, but by National Liberals like Bennigsen, and when the emperor Frederick III., whose Liberal tendencies were notorious, succeeded to the throne, it was clear that it could not last.
He also entered into relations with the well-known French Liberal Catholic Lamennais, whose views on the reconciliation of the Roman Catholic Church with the principles of modern society had aroused much suspicion in Ultramontane circles.
The addresses delivered in the Catholic congress at Malines were a declaration in the direction of a Liberal solution of the problem of the relations of Church and State.
Giving rein to their ancient antipathy, the revolted peasantry attacked the towns, which were liberal in ideas and republican in sympathies.
Rich as he was through the benefices conferred on him by his patron, he was liberal to men of letters.
In 1879 Moody opened the Northfield seminary for young women, at Northfield, Mass., and in 1881 the adjacent Mount Hermon school for boys; in each a liberal practical education centres about Bible training; the boys do farm-work and the girls house-work.
The influence of Varro's last work on the nine disciplinae, or branches of study, long survived in the seven " liberal arts " recognized by St Augustine and Martianus Capella, and in the trivium and quadrivium of the middle ages.
In his survey of the " liberal arts " St Augustine imitates (as we have seen) the Disciplinae of Varro, and in the greatest of his works, the De Civitate Dei (426), he has preserved large portions of the Antiquitates of Varro and the De Republica of Cicero.
About the same date, and in the same province of northern Africa, Martianus Capella produced his allegorical work on the " liberal arts," the principal, and, indeed, often the only, text-book of the medieval schools.
In Italy, where the study of Latin literature seems never to have entirely died out, young nobles and students preparing for the priesthood were not infrequently learning Latin together, in private grammar schools under liberal clerics, such as Anselm of Bisate (fl.
In 1392 Vergerio addressed to a prince of Padua the first treatise which methodically maintains the claims of Latin as an essential part of a liberal education.
A certain discontent with the current traditions of classical training found expression in the Essays on a Liberal Education (1867).
Woodward, Studies in Education during the Age of the Renaissance (1906), chap. xiii.; Acland and Llewellin Smith, Studies in Secondary Education, with introduction by James Bryce (1892); Essays on a Liberal Education, ed.
The reaction of 1815-1821 in favour of classics was followed by the more liberal programme of Vatimesnil (1829), including, for those who had no taste for a classical education, certain " special courses " (1830), which were the germ of the enseignement special and the enseignement moderne.
His father, Prince Alexei Petrovich Kropotkin, belonged to the old Russian nobility; his mother, the daughter of a general in the Russian army, had remarkable literary and liberal tastes.
trans., What is Christianity?, London, 1901) may be compared with the Liberal Catholic view in A.
Events had now made Mr Lloyd George and his financial policy the centre of the Liberal party programme; but party tactics for the moment prevented the ministry, who remained in office, from simply sending the budget up again to the Lords and allowing them to pass it.
He unsuccessfully contested Coventry in 1863; in 1865 he was elected in the liberal interest for Warwick, for which he sat until his elevation to the peerage.
Athens is the seat of Ohio University (co-educational), a state institution established in 1804, and having in 1908 a college of liberal arts, a state normal college (1902), a commercial college, a college of music and a state preparatory school.
On the 15th of September 1821 Costa Rica, with the other Central American provinces, revolted and joined the Mexican empire under the dynasty of Iturbide; but this subjection never became popular, and, on the establishment of a Mexican republic in 1823, hostilities broke out between the Conservatives, who desired to maintain the union, and the Liberals, who wished to set up an independent republic. The opposing factions met near the Ochomogo Pass; the republicans were victorious, and the seat of government was transferred from Cartago, the old capital, to San Jose, the Liberal headquarters.
Neither of these methods could do much for the historical understanding of the phenomena of prophecy as a whole, and the more liberal students of the Old Testament were long blinded by the moralizing unhistorical rationalism which succeeded the old orthodoxy.
Whenever, on the contrary, they settled in a place they had a claim to a liberal maintenance at the hands of the congregation.
The meagre autobiographical preface, which he affixed to the complete edition of his works when he was fifty-seven years old, makes it clear that he received a liberal education - being of noble family - practised as a lawyer and entered official life, and finally held some high office under Theodosius.
In 1886 the widow of Henry Draper, one of the pioneers of stellar spectroscopy, made a liberal provision for carrying on spectroscopic investigations at Harvard College in memory of her husband.
Stewart gives us to understand that he had, as early as 1752, adopted the liberal views of commercial policy which he afterwards preached; and this we should have been inclined to believe independently from the fact that such views I These two numbers were reprinted in 1818.
Of the pieces preserved by his desire the most valuable is his tract on the history of astronomy, which he himself described as a "fragment of a great work"; it was doubtless a portion of the "connected history of the liberal sciences and elegant arts" which, we are told, he had projected in early life.
Similarly, he is of opinion that some probation, even in the higher and more difficult sciences, might be enforced as a condition of exercising any liberal profession, or becoming a candidate for any honourable office.
In 1788 he published Deputation aux Etats generaux, a pamphlet remarkable for its bold exposition of liberal principles, and partly on the strength of this he was elected deputy to the states-general by the Third Estate of the bailliage of Metz.
His sensibility, social charm, liberal ideas (he was one of the earliest of the Magyar freemasons) and personal beauty, opened the doors of the best houses to him.
Nothing more was accomplished until after the downfall of Maximilian, and with a liberal subsidy from the Mexican government the Ferrocarril Mexicano was pushed to its completion in 1873.
In 1857 the adoption of a more liberal and democratic constitution paved the way for a new period in the educational history of the country.
It was promulgated in Mexico, and the ecclesiastics and Spaniards, fearing that a Liberal Spanish government would force on them disendowment, toleration and other changes, induced Augustin de Iturbide, who had already been conspicuous in suppressing the risings, to take the field in order to effect what may be called a reactionary revolution.
Maximilian carried the elaborate etiquette of the court of Vienna to Mexico, but favouring toleration of Protestantism, and the supremacy of the Crown over the Church, he was too liberal for the clericals who had set him up. As a foreigner he was unpopular, and the regiments of Austrians and Belgians which were to serve as the nucleus of his own army were more so.
There were some frontier difficulties with the United States, and with Guatemala, which revived a claim dropped since 1858 to a portion of the state of Chiapas; and there was considerable internal progress, aided by a too liberal policy of subsidies to railways and even to lines of steamships.
In a ruler of his character it is not surprising that the Revolution and its developments had produced an unconquerable suspicion of constitutional principles and methods, which the Liberal agitations in Germany tended to increase.
The delegates of the Clarendon Press in Oxford, and the syndics of the Pitt Press in Cambridge, entered into a liberal arrangement with the revisers, by which the necessary funds were provided for all their expenses.
Meanwhile he became very well known in Liberal society, and he had begun the celebrated.
Twice he declined the offer of a portfolio in the Neapolitan cabinet, and upon the triumph of the reactionary party undertook the defence of the Liberal political prisoners.
Moreover, special provision had been made in the Constitutional Act of 1791 for the liberal endowment of the Protestant religion, then identified in the official mind with the Church of England, through what were afterwards known as the Clergy Reserves, being one-seventh of the lands of the new townships opened for settlement.
Their seminary in Amsterdam has boasted of many distinguished names - Curcellaeus, Limborch, Wetstein, Le Clerc; and their liberal school of theology, which naturally grew more liberal and even rationalistic, reacted powerfully on the state church and on other Christian denominations.
As a church they now number 27 communities with about 12,500 members, in a flourishing condition and respected for their traditions of scholarship and liberal thought.
At the same time the fears of the more sober and respectable citizens were allayed by Otho's liberal professions of his intention to govern equitably, and by his judicious clemency towards Marius Celsus, consul-designate, a devoted adherent of Galba.
The Liberal branch had 3732 organizations in 1906 with a total membership of 274,649.
But this change was not permanent as the more liberal system prevails in the Ciceronian period The comitia tributa was in the later Republic the usual organ for laws passed by the whole people.
His father, a Vendean by birth, was an ordinary locksmith, who enthusiastically accepted the principles of the French Revolution and roused in his son' the same love for liberal ideas.
He wrote a Histoire de la revolution francaise (1824) in support of the Liberal cause.
His Histoire de Marie Stuart (2 vols., 1851) is well worth reading; the author made liberal use of some important unpublished documents, taken for the greater part from the archives of Simancas.
From 1843 to 1868 he was the chief of the Liberal party in Barcelona, and as proprietor and editor of El Conseller did much to promote the growth of local patriotism in Catalonia.
But although the administration was weak, corrupt and cruel, it succeeded in establishing the Roman Catholic religion, and in introducing the Spanish language among the Indians and Ladinos, who thus obtained a tincture of civilization and ultimately a desire for more liberal institutions.
The Liberal party began to rise in influence about 1870, and in May 1871 Cerna was deposed.
Syracuse University, whose campus (of zoo acres) in the south-east part of the city commands a fine view of the lake, is a co-educational institution largely under Methodist Episcopal control, but not sectarian, which in1908-1909had 239 instructors and 3205 students (1336 in the college of liberal arts; 189 in the summer school; 62 in the library school; 933 in the college of fine arts; 147 in the college of medicine; 179 in the college of law; 401 in the college of applied science; and 78 in the teachers' college).
The courses in library economy (college of liberal arts) are particularly well known.
He received a liberal education, and, when he left school, became an officer in the artillery; but his sympathy with the peasants, among whom he had lived during his boyhood in the country, developed in him at first democratic and, later, revolutionary opinions.
His mind gradually turned from belief in the efficacy of violent measures to the acceptance of constitutional methods; and in his last book, King Stork and King Log, he spoke with approval of the efforts of politicians on the Liberal side to effect, by argument and peaceful agitation, a change in the attitude of the Russian government towards various reforms. Stepniak constantly wrote and lectured, both in Great Britain and the United States, in support of his views, and his energy, added to the interest of his personality, won him many friends.
From 1832 to 1835 he sat in the Hungarian Diet, where his extreme liberal views and his singular eloquence soon rendered him famous as a parliamentary leader.
The new viceroy was also called upon to decide grave questions between the native population and the resident British, and he resolved upon a liberal policy towards the former, among his measures being the repeal of the Vernacular Press Act, the extension of local government and the appointment of an Education Commission.
Liberal aid is given by the federal, provincial and municipal governments to the construction of railways, amounting often to more than half the cost of the road.
Great Britain did something; the loyalists received liberal grants of land and cash compensation amounting to nearly 4' 4,000,000.
Soon after the meeting of parliament, a Liberal member of the House, Mr L.
Lord Dufferin, who had succeeded Lord Lisgar as governor-general in 1872, at once sent for the leader of the Opposition, Mr Alexander Mackenzie, who succeeded in forming a Liberal administration which, on appealing to the constituencies, was supported by an overwhelming majority, and held power for the five following years.
On the accession to power of the Liberal party, a new policy was adopted for the construction of the trans-continental railway.
The new system was laid before parliament in 1879 by the finance minister, Sir Leonard Tilley; and the tariff then agreed upon, although it received considerable modification from time to time, remained, under both Conservative and Liberal administrations, the basis of Canadian finance, and, as Canadians generally believed, the bulwark of their industry.
Macdonald continuing from that time without a break until his death in 1891, while his party remained in power till 1896» This long-continued Conservative supremacy was apparently due to the policy of bold and rapid development which it had adopted, and which appealed to a young and ambitious country more strongly than the more cautious proposals of the Liberal leaders.
From the election of 1887 the Riel agitation ceased to seriously influence politics, but the fiscal controversy continued under new forms. Between 1887 and 1891 a vigorous agitation was kept up under Liberal auspices in favour of closer trade relations with the United States, at first under the name of Commercial Union and later under that of Unrestricted Reciprocity.
Breaks had been made in the Liberal ranks also by the death in 1892 of the Hon.
But the appeal made to the electors in 1896 resulted in a decisive victory for the Liberal party, and marked the beginning of a long period of Liberal rule.
This was as true under Liberal as under Conservative auspices - as Canadians understood the meaning of these party names.
To a still more ambitious line, the Grand Trunk Pacific, extending from the Atlantic to the Pacific, aiming at extensive steamship connexion on both oceans, and closely associated with the Grand Trunk system of Ontario and Quebec, the government of Canada gave liberal support as a national undertaking.
While at Montreal he had joined the Institut Canadien, a literary and scientific society which, owing to its liberal discussions and the fact that certain books upon its shelves were on the Index expurgatorius, was finally condemned by the Roman Catholic authorities.
Sir John Macdonald, then in opposition, had committed his party to a protectionist policy, and Laurier, notwithstanding that the Liberal party stood for a low tariff, avowed himself to be "a moderate protectionist."
But the Liberal government, to which Laurier was admitted as minister of inland revenue in 1877, made only a slight increase in duties, raising the general tariff from 15% to 171%; and against the political judgment of Alexander Mackenzie, Sir Richard Cartwright, George Brown, Laurier and other of the more influential leaders of the party, it adhered to a low tariff platform.
He was associated with Blake in his sustained opposition to high tariff, and to the Conservative plan for the construction of the Canadian Pacific railway, and was a conspicuous figure in the long struggle between Sir John Macdonald and the leaders of the Liberal party to settle the territorial limits of the province of Ontario and the legislative rights of the provinces under the constitution.
In 1887, upon the resignation of Blake on the ground of illhealth, Laurier became leader of the Liberal party, although he and many of the more influential men in the party doubted the wisdom of the proceeding.
Although he was classed in Canada as a Liberal, his tendencies would in England have been considered strongly conservative; an individualist rather than a collectivist, he opposed the intrusion of the state into the sphere of private enterprise, and showed no sympathy with the movement for state operation of railways, telegraphs and telephones, or with any kindred proposal looking to the extension of the obligations of the central government.
Willison, Sir Wilfrid Laurier and the Liberal Party; a Political History (Toronto, 1903); L.
In 1838 the king began to suspect his heir of plotting with the Liberal party to bring about a change of ministry, or even his own abdication.
He was elected a member of the Reichstag, where he joined the National Liberal party, for like many other exiles he was willing to accept the results of Bismarck's work.
True to his free trade principles he and a number of followers left the National Liberal party and formed the so-called " Secession "in 1880.
In 1900 he was elected Liberal member for Midlothian, and in 1905 entered the Government as Comptroller of the Household and Scottish Liberal Whip. In 1909 he became UnderSecretary for India, and in 1910 parliamentary secretary to the Treasury and chief Liberal Whip, in which position he remained until 1 9 12.
As Whip the Master of Elibank earned high praise for his energy and tact; but he was somewhat unfortunately mixed up with the " Marconi Scandal " in connexion with Mr. Lloyd George and Sir Rufus Isaacs, as having invested part of the Liberal Party funds in American Marconi shares in which he, with them, was speculating - a transaction hotly debated in Parliament in 1913.
He was for many years a member of the Federal Parliament, and for a few months in 1878 was minister of militia under the Liberal government.
Largely owing to his influence the Liberal party refused in 1878 to abandon its Free Trade policy, an obstinacy which led to its defeat in that year.
In 1842 he formed the first Liberal administration, in connexion with Mr (afterwards Sir) L.
Internal dissensions soon began to appear in the Liberal party, and in 1851 Mr Baldwin resigned.
He now occupied a great position for which he was supremely fitted, and at a juncture in the reform of university studies when a theologian of liberal views, but universally respected for his massive learning and his devout and single-minded character, would enjoy a unique opportunity for usefulness.
In 1539, as representative to the chapter-general of his order he visited Rome; here he was made doctor of theology, and while he mixed with the liberal circle associated with Juan de Valdes, he had also the confidence of Paul III.
"I would rather hew wood," he exclaimed, "than be a king under the conditions of the king of England"; and when the Liberal opposition obstructed all the measures proposed by a ministry not selected from the parliamentary majority, he lost patience.
He now entered the service of the grand-duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, and remained at the head of the grand-ducal government until 1867, when he became plenipotentiary for the two Mecklenburg duchies in the council of the German Confederation (Bundesrat), where he distinguished himself by his successful defence of the medieval constitution of the duchies against Liberal attacks.
Soon afterwards a quarrel between the duke and Huskisson led to the retirement from the ministry of all its more liberal members.
Early in 1881, on the advice of Count Loris-Melikov, he determined to try the effect of some moderate liberal reforms on the revolutionary agitation, and for this purpose he caused a ukaz to be prepared creating special commissions, composed of high officials and private personages who should prepare reforms in various branches of the administration.
He fought in the war of independence, was a prominent member of the advanced Liberal party from 1820 to 1823, and in the latter year was condemned to death.
The reactionaries in power put off their promised reforms so persistently as to anger even Metternich; nor did the replacement of Bernetti by Lambruschini in 1836 mend matters; for the new cardinal secretary of state objected even to railways and illuminating gas, and was liberal chiefly in his employment of spies and of prisons.
In the Constituent Assembly, where he sat as deputy for Dourdan, he professed liberal views, and was the proposer of various financial laws.
This constitution was sanctioned by the prince regent, afterwards King George IV.; but it was out of harmony with the new and liberal ideas which prevailed in Europe, and it hardly survived George's decease in 1830.
These liberal arrangements, however, did not entirely allay the discontent.
Order, however, having been restored, in 1850 he dismissed the Liberal ministry and attempted to evade his concessions; a bitter struggle had just broken out when Ernest Augustus died in November 1851.
But the more liberal government which succeeded did not enjoy his complete confidence, and in 1865 a ministry was once more formed which was more in accord with his own ideas.
was a most liberal monarch, reigning with great mildness and justice to his end, but that his brother, from his despotic and harsh disposition, upset all the other had done, and lost the throne.
In raising More to that eminent position, the king had not merely considered his professional distinction but had counted upon his avowed liberal and reforming tendencies.
In it is none, man or woman, but readeth or studieth the liberal arts, yet is their chief care of piety.
At first inclined to conservatism, he afterwards became an exponent of the mediating theology (Vermittelungs-theologie), and ultimately a liberal theologian and advanced critic. Associating himself with the "German Protestant Union" (Deutsche Protestanten-verein), he defended the community's claim to autonomy, the cause of universal suffrage in the church and the rights of the laity.
The Growth of the Spirit of Christianity from the First Century to the Dawn of the Lutheran Era, established his reputation as a liberal and spiritually minded theologian; and Queen Victoria invited him to preach at Balmoral.
His broad churchmanship placed him in opposition to the dominant tendency in the Church of England, and he was also a strong and militant Liberal in politics, being an ardent advocate of the disestablishment of the Church in Wales.
This recall was granted by the Liberal government of Sagasta, but Weyler afterwards asserted that, had he been left alone, he would have stamped out the rebellion in six months.
At court much time was given to poetic recitation, often accompanied by music, and accomplished poets received liberal rewards.
The Board of Trade was asked to supply full figures, and while its report was awaited the uncertainty of attitude on the part of the government afforded grateful opportunity for opposition mischief-making, since the Liberal party had now the chance of acting as the conservative champions of orthodox economics.
His dialectical dexterity in evading the necessity of expressing his fiscal opinions further than he had already done became a daily subject for contemptuous criticism in the Liberal press; but he insisted that in any case no definite action could be taken till the next parliament; and while he declined to go the "whole hog" - as the phrase went - with Mr Chamberlain, he did nothing to discourage Mr Chamberlain's campaign.
The Liberal leaders had given public pledges of their adhesion to Lord Lansdowne's foreign policy, and the fear of their being unable to carry it on was no longer a factor in the public mind.
Amid Liberal protests in favour of immediate dissolution, he resigned on the 4th of December; and Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman, being entrusted by the king with the formation of a government, filled his cabinet with a view to a general election in January.
In 1778 appeared a published correspondence between these two liberal theologians on the subjects of materialism and necessity, wherein Price maintains, in opposition to Priestley, the free agency of man and the unity and immateriality of the human soul.
Although Becket was a man of narrow sympathies and by no means of liberal views, he had died for the liberties of his caste, and the aureole that surrounded him enhanced the prestige and ascendancy of the papacy.
Until driven from Rome by the republican agitation of 1848 he was a popular idol, open to liberal political views.
The Papacy Italy and Europe were astir with the Liberal agitation, and Italian which in 1848 culminated in the series of revolutions Unity.
Liberal churchmen in Italy, while rejecting Mazzini's dream of a republic, had evolved projects for attaining national unity while preserving the temporal power.
was at first not unfavourably inclined, but the revolution of 1848 cured him of his Liberal leanings.
Violated by the Liberal constitution of 1867, which granted religious liberty, depotentiated by laws setting up lay jurisdiction over matrimonial cases and state control of education, it was abrogated in 1870 by Austria, who alleged that the proclamation of papal infallibility had so altered the status of one of the contracting parties that the agreement was void.
As the arbitrary king alienated the Liberal Catholics, who were still more or less under the spell of the French Revolution, the Catholic provinces took advantage of the upheavals of 1830 to form the independent kingdom of Belgium.
The Education Act of 1842 led to the formation of the Liberal party, whose bond of union was resistance to clericalism, whose watchword was the " independence of the civil power."
The Catholics and Liberals were alternately in control until 1894, when the tenfold enlargement of the electorate broke down the Liberal party completely.
Although the Liberal record of the pope was a thing of the past, and his policy had, since Gaeta, become firmly identified with the reactionary policy of Antonelli, yet the early years of his pontificate were in such lively recollection as to allow of Pius IX.'s appearing to some extent in the light of a national hero.
" Liberal of the Catholicism," which was its offspring, had died with Educated Montalembert, after being placed under a ban by c assle Rome.
of Russia, and resumed his old place in the Liberal salon of Madame de Stael.
In a series of pamphlets he advocated the principles of a Liberal monarchy and the freedom of the press.
In 1816 he was again in Paris, advocating Liberal constitutional principles.
He founded in 1818 with other Liberal journalists the Minerve francaise and in 1820 La Renommee.
His political inconsistencies were more apparent than real, for there was no break in his advocacy of Liberal principles.
By liberal endowments and minute but judicious regulations he brought about a rapid development of Silesian industries; in particular he revived the mining and weaving operations which at present constitute the country's chief source of wealth.
As a public speaker he had an inborn Irish readiness and vehemence of expression; and, though a thorough Liberal, he split from Mr Gladstone on Irish home rule, and took an active part in politics in opposing it.
Owing to its central position, its liberal government, and its policy of religious toleration, Pennsylvania had become during the 18th century a refuge for European immigrants, especially persecuted sectaries.
It is the seat of Fort Worth University (coeducational), a Methodist Episcopal institution, which was established as the Texas Wesleyan College in 1881, received its present name in 1889, comprises an academy, a college of liberal arts and sciences, a conservatory of music, a law school, a medical school, a school of commerce, and a department of oratory and elocution, and in 1907 had 802 students; the Polytechnic College (coeducational; Methodist Episcopal, South), which was established in 1890, has preparatory, collegiate, normal, commercial, and fine arts departments and a summer school, and in 1906 had 12 instructors and (altogether) 696 students; the Texas masonic manual training school; a kindergarten training school; St Andrews school (Protestant Episcopal), and St Ignatius Academy (Roman Catholic).
He covered his defection from Hardenberg's liberal constitutionalism by a series of "philosophical" treatises on the nature of the state and of man, and became the soul of the reactionary movement at the Berlin court, and the faithful henchman of Metternich in the general politics of Germany and of Europe.
Entering parliament in 1860 as Liberal member for Pontefract (a seat that he continued to hold till 1885), he became civil lord of the admiralty in 1864, and in 1865 financial secretary to the treasury.
From 1880 to 1882 he was secretary for war, a post he accepted somewhat unwillingly; and in that position he had to bear the responsibility for the reforms which were introduced into the war office under the parsimonious conditions which were then part of the Liberal creed.
Childers was a capable and industrious administrator of the old Liberal school, and he did his best, in the political conditions then prevailing, to improve the naval and military administration while he was at the admiralty and war office.
Although of German extraction his sympathies were with the Danish national party and he contributed to the liberal journal the Kjabenhavnsposten while he was a student of law at the university of Copenhagen, and from 1839 to 1842 edited, with Christian N.
The July revolution in Paris gave the signal for disturbances; the elector was forced to summon the estates; and on the 5th of January 1831 a constitution on the ordinary Liberal basis was signed.
Among Reuchlin's own pupils were Melanchthon, Oecolampadius and Cellarius, while Sebastian Munster in Heidelberg (afterwards professor at Basel), and Buchlein (Fagius) at Isny, Strasburg and Cambridge, were pupils of the liberal Jewish scholar Elias Levita.
Finding, however, that his colleagues in the administration favoured a much more leisurely rate of progress than he himself advocated, he once more retired into private life (1876) and renewed his liberal propagandism.
In 1843 he was appointed to a professorship in the Ecole Evangelique at Geneva, but the development of his opinions in favour of the Liberal movement in Protestant theology led to his resigning the post six years later.
The college comprises an academy, a college of liberal arts, a school of expression, a school of commerce, schools of music and of art, and a school of correspondence; and in 1907-1908 had 33 instructors, 575 students and a library of 24, 4 00 volumes.
Her half-brother, Lord James Stuart, shared the duties of her chief counsellor with William Maitland of Lethington, the keenest and most liberal thinker in the country.
For planting against walls, trees which have been trained for two years in the nursery are preferred, but maiden trees can be very successfully introduced, and by liberal treatment may be speedily got to a fruiting state.
In May 1894 King Alexander, by another coup d'etat, abolished the liberal constitution of 1889 and restored the conservative one of 1869.
He tried to reconcile political parties by granting from his own initiative a liberal constitution (April 6, 1901), introducing for the first time in the constitutional history of Servia the system of two chambers (skupshtina and senate).
He opposed the abortive Liberal concessions of January 1867, announced in a personal letter from Napoleon III.
It was to obtain popular support for this policy and for the Bavarian claims on Baden that the crown prince pressed for a liberal constitution, the reluctance of Montgelas to concede it being the cause of his dismissal.
The earlier years of his reign were marked by a liberal spirit and the reform, especially, of the financial administration; but the revolutions of 1831 frightened him into reaction, which was accentuated by the opposition of the parliament to his expenditure on building and works of art.
The Jesuits now gained the upper hand; one by one the liberal provisions of the constitution were modified or annulled; the Protestants were harried and oppressed; and a rigorous censorship forbade any free discussion of internal politics.
Lola Montez, created Countess Landsfeld, was supreme in the state; and the new minister, Prince Ludwig von Oettingen-Wallerstein (1791-1870), in spite of his efforts to enlist Liberal sympathy by appeals to pan-German patriotism, was powerless to form a stable government.
He was succeeded by Karl Freiherr von Schrenk auf Notzing (1806-1884), an official of Liberal tendencies who had been Bavarian representative in the diet of the Confederation.
The opposition of the "patriot" party, however, reinforced by the strong Catholic sentiment of the country, continued powerful, and it was only the steady support given by the king to successive Liberal ministries that prevented its finding disastrous expression in the parliament, where it remained in a greater or less majority till 1887, and has since, as the "centre," continued to form the most compact party in an assembly made up of "groups."
Voluinsky, however, now thought himself strong enough to attempt to supersede Biren himself, and openly opposed the favourite in the Council of State in the debates as to the indemnity due to Poland for the violations of her territory during the war of the Polish Succession, Biren advising that a liberal indemnity should be given, whereas Voluinsky objected to any indemnity at all.
The oldest secession from the Orthodox Church is that of the Remonstrants, who still represent the most liberal thought in the country, and have their own training college at Leiden.
Ministers were declared responsible to the States-General, and a liberal measure of self-government was also granted.
But the long liberal ascendancy closed the ranks of the CatholicCalvinist coalition, and united them against the neutral schools, and in 1889 they were able to pass a law enabling not only the unsectarian public schools, but all private schools organized by societies and bodies recognized by the law to receive subventions from the state.
The liberal ministry of 1891 attempted to deal with the question, and a proposal was made by the minister Tak van Poortvliet, which almost amounted to universal suffrage.
Dr Kuyper accordingly resigned, and a moderate liberal cabinet was formed by Th.
A moderate liberal ministry was formed (1894) and in 1896 carried into law what was known as the van Houten project.
He declined offers which would have led him into the Anglican ministry or The Bar, and in 1719 entered the very liberal academy for dissenters at Kibworth in Leicestershire, taught at that time by the Rev. John Jennings, whom Doddridge succeeded in the ministry at that place in 1723, declining overtures from Coventry, Pershore and London (Haberdashers' Hall).
The congress of Vienna assigned the whole of the lower Rhenish districts to Prussia, which had the tact to leave them in undisturbed possession of the liberal institutions they had become accustomed to under the republican rule of the French.
Catholic, Liberal and Socialist, but the presence of Catholic-Democrats or some other new faction may increase the total to four or even five.
The result of the voting is, 16,000 Catholic votes, 9000 Liberal, 4500 Socialist, and 2500 Catholic-Democrat.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.