Liber Sentence Examples
Norberg (Codex Nazaraeus, liber Adami appellatus, 3 vols., Copenhagen, 1815-1816, followed by a lexicon in 1816, and an onomasticon in 1817), is so defective as to be quite useless; even the name Book of Adam is unknown to the Mandaeans.
Liber magnus, vulgo "Liber Adami" appellatus, opus Mandaeorum summi ponderis (2 vols., Berlin and Leipzig, 1867), is an excellent metallographic reproduction of the Paris MS. A German soul, permeates the whole aether, the domain of Ayar.
It is possible that the Orationes may represent a letter book of Richard de Bury's, entitled Liber Epistolaris quondam domini Ricardi de Bury, Episcopi Dunelmensis, now in the possession of Lord Harlech.
The Liber de compositione alchemiae, which professes to be by Morienus - perhaps the same as the Marianus who was the teacher of Khalid - was translated by Robertus Castrensis, who states that he finished the work in 1182, and speaks as if he were making a revelation - " Quid sit alchemia nondum cognovit vestra Latinitas."
Among more eminent Genoese cartographers are Joannes da Carignano 1344), Petrus Vesconte, who worked in 1311 and 1327, and is the draughtsman of the maps illustrating Marino Sanuto's Liber secretorum fidelium crucis, which was to have roused Christendom to engage in another crusade (figs.Advertisement
Pseudo-Joachimite treatises sprang up on every hand, and, finally, in 1254, there appeared in Paris the Liber introductorius ad Evangelium aeternum, the work of a Spiritual Franciscan, Gherardo da Borgo San Donnino.
From the 14th century to the middle of the 16th, Ubertin of Casale (in his Arbor Vitae crucifixae), Bartholomew of Pisa (author of the Liber Conformitatum), the Calabrian hermit Telesphorus, John of La Rochetaillade, Seraphin of Fermo, Johannes Annius of Viterbo, Coelius Pannonius, and a host of other writers, repeated or complicated ad infinitum the exegesis of Abbot Joachim.
In 1202 he was again in Italy and published his great work, Liber abaci, which probably procured him access to the learned and refined court of the emperor Frederick II.
Some years afterwards (perhaps in 1228) Leonardo dedicated to the well-known astrologer Michael Scott the second edition of his Liber abaci, which was printed with Leonardo's other works by Prince Bald.
The other works consist of the Practica geometriae and some most striking papers of the greatest scientific importance, amongst which the Liber quadratorum may be specially signalized.Advertisement
The methods which Leonardo made use of in solving those problems fill the Liber quadratorum, the Flos, and a Letter to Magister Theodore.
All these treatises seem to have been written nearly at the same period, and certainly before the publication of the second edition of the Liber abaci, in which the Liber quadratorum is expressly mentioned.
In his Practica geometriae plain traces of the use of the Roman agrimensores are met with; in his Liber abaci old Egyptian problems reveal their origin by the reappearance of the very numbers in which the problem is given, though one cannot guess through what channel they came to Leonardo's knowledge.
The Liber abaci, which fills 459 printed pages, contains the most perfect methods of calculating with whole numbers and with fractions, practice, extraction of the square and cube roots, proportion, chain rule, finding of proportional parts, averages, progressions, even compound interest, just as in the completest mercantile arithmetics of our days.
Among the contents of this book we simply mention a trigonometrical chapter, in which the words sinus versus arcus occur, the approximate extraction of cube roots shown more at large than in the Liber abaci, and a very curious problem, which nobody would search for in a geometrical work, viz.Advertisement
Leonardo gave as solution the numbers 11 i 4 4, 16, 9 4 - 7 4 and 6197 T, - the squares of 3,, 41'v and 2, 7; and the method of finding them is given in the Liber quadratorum.
A strange barbaric chant commonly known as the Lorica or Hymn of St Patrick is preserved in the Liber hymnorum.
In their southward progress the Ripuarians 1 The chronicler Fredegarius and the author of the Liber historiae Francorum make Sunno and Marcomeres his predecessors, but in reality they were chiefs of other Frankish tribes.
The author of the Liber also claims that Chlodio was the son of Pharamund, but this personage is quite legendary.
He was the author of De septuaginta interpretibus (1661), De poematum Cantu et viribus rhythmi (1673), and Variarum observationum liber (1685).Advertisement
The chief source of information about him is the Liber contra Auxentium in the Benedictine edition of the works of Hilary.
Alanus was acquainted with the celebrated Liber de causis.
About the same time, or not long after, the Liber de causis became known - a work destined to have a powerful influence on Scholastic thought, especially in the period immediately succeeding.
His travels and mercantile experience had led E t u eopre him to conclude that the Hindu methods of computing were in advance of those then in general use, and in 1202 he published his Liber Abaci, which treats of both algebra and arithmetic. In this work, which is of great historical interest, since it was published about two centuries before the art of printing was discovered, he adopts the Arabic notation for numbers, and solves many problems, both arithmetical and algebraical.
Distinct rank was accorded to aldermen, and in the Liber Albus we are told that " it is a matter of experience that ever since the year of our Lord 1350, at the sepulture of aldermen, the ancient custom of interment with baronial honours was observed."Advertisement
After the establishment of the Commune and the appointment of a mayor the sheriffs naturally lost much of their importance, and they became what they are styled in Liber Albus " the Eyes of the Mayor."
The sword-bearer is noticed in the Liber Albus (1419) and the first record of an appointment is dated 1426.
Walafrid's poetical works also include a short life of St Blaithinaic, a high-born monk of Iona, murdered by the Danes in the first half of the 9th century; a life of St Mammas; and a Liber de visionibus Wettini.
The Tractatus consolatorius pro morte amici and the Liber de eruditione filiorurn regalium (dedicated to Queen Margaret) were printed at Basel in December 1480.
The Liber de Institutione Principum, a treatise on the duties of kings and their functionaries, has never yet been printed, and the only MS. copy the writer of this article has been able to consult does not contain in its prologue all the information which Echard seems to imply is to be found there.
It became a leading text-book in the nascent university, and its popular description as the Liber pauperum gave rise to the nickname pauperistae applied to Oxford students of law.
There is ample evidence that the civil law was soon once more a favourite study at Oxford, where we learn that, in 1190, two students from Friesland were wont to divide between them the hours of the night for the purpose of making a copy of the Liber pauperum.
Venck, in his Magister Vacarius (1820), prints the prologue, and a table of contents, of the Liber pauperum, from a MS. now lost.
Our only authority, a passage in the Liber Pontificalis, describes the gift as including the whole of Italy and Corsica, except the lands north of the Po, Calabria and the city of Naples.
He had earlier opened a correspondence with Augustine, along with his friends Tyro and Hilarius, and although he did not meet him personally his enthusiasm for the great theologian led him to make an abridgment of his commentary on the Psalms, as well as a collection of sentences from his works - probably the first dogmatic compilation of that class in which Peter Lombard's Liber sententiarum is the best-known example.
The accounts of his papacy preserved in the Liber pontificalis are little else than a record of the gifts said to have been conferred on the Roman church by Constantine the Great.
Ravaisson-Mollien has discovered a number of fragments by him, among which the most important is the De Essentia Dei et de Substantia Dei; a Liber Sententiarum, consisting of discussions on ethics and Scriptural interpretation, is also ascribed to Champeaux.
Their dogmatic symbols are usually said to include nine separate creeds which together form the Book of Concord (Liber Concordiae).
But service under Northumberland was no bed of roses, and in his diary Cecil recorded his release in the phrase ex misero aulico factus liber et meijuris.
The twelve hymns of the Cathemerinon liber (" Daily Round ") consist of six for daily use, five for festivals, and one intended for every hour of the day.
This book, with the Cathemerinon liber and the Psychomachia, was among the most widely read books of the middle ages.
This liber posthumus was the Constructio referred to later in this article.
The " liber posthumus " was the Constructio (1619), in the preface to which Robert Napier states that he has added an appendix relating to another and more excellent species of logarithms, referred to by the inventor himself in the Rabdologia, and in which the logarithm of unity is o.
It is possible that the Liber Pontificalis refers to the office under the Latin synonym, when it says of Pope Victor (186-197) that he made sequentes cleros, a term - sequens - which Pope Gaius (283-293) uses in the sense of acolyte.
The Liber Pluscardensis, a valuable authority on early Scots history, was compiled in the priory by Maurice Buchanan in 1461.
During the 17th century a manuscript of the Liber was discovered in Rome by the humanist, Lucas Holstenius, who prepared an edition for publication; for politic reasons, however, the papal authorities would not allow this to appear, as the book asserted the superiority of a general council over the pope.
The two existing manuscripts of the Liber are in the Vatican library, Rome, and in the library of St Ambrose at Milan.
Paulus used the document called the Origo gentis Langobardorum, the Liber ponticfialis, the lost history of Secundus of Trent, and the lost annals of Benevento; he made a free use of Bede, Gregory of Tours and Isidore of Seville.
His name has been attached to a Liber Sacramentorum anterior to that of St Gregory, but he can have composed only certain parts of it.
The earliest record in the West of the blessing of the palms and the subsequent procession is the liber ordinum of the West Gothic Church (published by Fhrotin, Paris, 1904, pp. 178 sqq.), which dates from the 6th century; this shows plainly that the ceremonial of the procession had been borrowed from Jerusalem.
The Liber comitis formerly attributed to St Jerome must be three, or nearly three, centuries later than that saint, and the Luxeuil lectionary, or Lectionarium Gallicanum, which Mabillon attributed to the 7th, cannot be earlier than the 8th century; yet the oldest MSS.
Or liber authenticorum.
For further information and investigations see Duchesne, Liber pontificalis; Lipsius, Die Apokr.
The Liber jurium reipublicae Genuensis was edited by Ricotti in the 7th, 8th and 9th volumes of the Monuments historiae patriae (Turin, 1854-1857).
Of the latter the best known are Summula casuum conscientiae (1627); Liber theologiae moralis (1644), and Universae theologiae moralis problemata (1652-1666).
It would appear from Liber Eliensis (end of 12th century) that she was a widow when Leofric married her in 1040.
Another, the so-called Epitome of Julian, contains 125 Novels in Latin; and the third, the Liber authenticarum or vulgata versio, has 134, also in Latin.
The muniments of the abbacy, preserved in the archives of the earl of Morton, were edited by Cosmo Innes for the Bannatyne Club and published in 1837 under the title of Liber sancte Marie de Melros.
See Liber historiae Francorum, edited by B Krusch, in Mon.
The Liber contains much information about papal affairs in general, and about endowments, martyrdoms and the like, but a considerable part of it is obviously legendary.
The Liber, which was used by Bede for his Historia Ecclesiastica, was first printed at Mainz in 1602.
In 1817, after the publication of his first work, Aegineticorum liber, he received an appointment at the Magdaleneum in Breslau, and in 1819 he was made adjunct professor of ancient literature in the university of Gottingen, his subject being the archaeology and history of ancient art.
But Domesday Book (liber) although compiled from the returns of that survey, must be carefully distinguished from them; nor is it certain that it was compiled in the year in which the survey was made.
Domesday Book was originally preserved in the royal treasury at Winchester (the Norman kings' capital), whence it speaks of itself (in' one later addition) as Liber de Wintonia.
But a work called Liber Monstrorum,' preserved in two MSS.
It was borne by one of the 'early settlers in Iceland, and a monk named Biuulf is commemorated in the Liber Vitae of the church of Durham.
C. Krofta, in Monumenta vaticana res gestas Bohemicas illustrantia (Prague, 1905); Der Liber Cancellariae Apostolicae vom Jahre 1380, ed.
As to the blessing of candles, according to the Liber pontificals Pope Zosimus in 417 ordered these to be blessed, 8 and the Gallican and Mozabaric rituals also provided for this ceremony.9 The Feast of the Purification of the Virgin, known as Candlemas, because on this day the candles for the whole year are blessed, was established - according to some authorities - by Pope Gelasius I.
We may also mention Cupido Cruciatus, Cupid on the cross; Technopaegion, a literary trifle consisting of a collection of verses ending in monosyllables; Eclogarum Liber, on astronomical and astrological subjects; Epistolae, including letters to Paulinus and Symmachus; lastly, Praefatiunculae, three poetical epistles, one to the emperor Theodosius.
Bast mats are now made chiefly in Russia, the bark being cut in long strips, when the liber is easily separable from the corky superficial layer.
The name Geber has long been used to designate the author of a number of Latin treatises on alchemy, entitled Summa perfectionis magisterii, De investigatione perfectionis, De inventione veritatis, Liber fornacum, Testamentum Geberi Regis Indiae and Alchemia Geberi, and these writings were generally regarded as translations from the Arabic originals of Abu Abdallah Jaber ben Hayyam (Haiyan) ben Abdallah al-Kufi, who is supposed to have lived in the 8th or 9th century of the Christian era.
Taking the six treatises enumerated above he concluded, after critical examination, that the two last may be disregarded as of later date than the others, and that the De investigatione perfectionis, the De inventione and the Liber fornacum are merely extracts from or summaries of the Summa perfectionis with later additions.
The latter states in the Arabic works referred to above that under that title he collected 70 of the 500 little treatises or tracts of which he was the author, and the titles of those tracts enumerated in the Kitab-al-Fihrist as forming the chapters of the Liber de Septuaginta correspond in general with those of the Latin work, which further is written in a style similar to that of the Arabic Jaber and contains the same doctrines.
He is best known by his treatise on the Eucharist (De corpore et sanguine Domini liber), in which he controverted the doctrine of transubstantiation as taught in a similar work by his contemporary Radbertus Paschasius.
The alkaloids are contained, according to Howard, chiefly in the cellular tissue next to the liber.
A part of his compendium of medicine was published in Latin in the 16th century as Liber theoricae nec non practicae Alsaharavii (Augsburg, 1519).
In some of the tombs of these legionaries coins of Maxentius have been found, while the Liber Pontificalis records that Constantine gave to the church of Albano "omnia scheneca deserta vel domos intra urbem Albanensem," which has generally been taken to refer to the abandoned camp. It was at this period, then, that the civitas Albanensis arose.
This was an important stage in the history of the centralization of canon law; the collection was officially received by the Frankish Church, imposed by the council of Aix-la-Chapelle of 802, and from that time on' was recognized and quoted as the liber canonum.
Evidently the impulse towards unity had to come from without; it began with the alliance between the Carolingians and the Papacy, and was accentuated by the recognition of the liber canonum.
To the 12th century belong the collection in the MS. of Saragossa (Caesaraugustana) to which attention was drawn by Antonio Agustin; that of Cardinal Gregory, called by him the Polycarpus, in 8 books (about 1115); and finally the Liber de misericordia et justitia of Algerus, 10 scholasticus of Liege, in 3 books, compiled at latest in 1123.
As it came as an addition to the five books of Gregory IX., it was called the sixth book, the Liber Sextus.
These drawbacks were felt a long time back, and to this feeling we owe two attempts at a supplementary codification which were made in the 16th century, both of which are "Liber known under the name of Liber septimus.
The pope had this Liber VII.
In 1707 William Whiston published the algebraical lectures which Newton had delivered at Cambridge, under the title of Arithmetica Universalis, sive de Compositione et Resolutione Arithmetica Liber.
His Commentary on the Liber Feudorum is considered to be one of the best of his works, which were unfortunately left by him for the most part in an incomplete state.
In 1667 he wrote, with the assent of the elector palatine, a tract, De statu imperii germanici, liber onus.
In the Liber Sad-der, indeed (Porta xxv.), we read, " Cavendum est tibi a jejunio; nam a mane ad vesperam nihil comedere non est bonum in religione nostra "; but according to the Pere de Chinon (Lyons, 1671) the Parsee religion enjoins, upon the priesthood at least, no fewer than five yearly fasts.
In honour of Liber (also called Liber Pater and Bacchus) two festivals were celebrated.
Liber was originally an old Italian god of the productivity of nature, especially of the vine.
His name indicated the free, unrestrained character of his worship. When, at an early period, the Hellenic religion of Demeter spread to Rome, Liber and Libera were identified with Dionysus and Persephone, and associated with another Italian goddess Ceres, who was identified with Demeter.
His value as a historian is marred by his violent party spirit; some of his historical tracts, such as the Liber de instructione principum and the Vita Galfridi Archiepiscopi Eborecensis, seem to have been designed as political pamphlets.
An abridgment of the latter part of it, the little Libellus Islandorum (to which the title of the bigger Liber - Islendingabok- is often given), was made by the historian for his friends Bishops Ketil and Thorlak, for whom he wrote the Liber (c. 1137).
This charming little book is, with the much later collections of laws, our sole authority for the Icelandic constitution of the commonwealth, but, " much as it tells, the lost Liber would have been of still greater importance."
This saga, together with several scattered tales of early Christians in Iceland before the change of faith (1002), may have made up a section of the lost Liber.
Benedetti expounded in his Speculationum Liber (Turin, 1585) perfectly clear ideas as to the nature of accelerated motion, some years in advance of Galileo's dramatic experiments at Pisa.
Stubbs conjecturally identified the first part of the Gesta (r170-1177) with the Liber Tricolumnis, a register of contemporary events kept by Richard Fitz Neal, the treasurer of Henry II.
It was opposed at the time by the monk Gaunilo, in his Liber pro Insipiente, on the ground that we cannot pass from idea to reality.
Anselm replied to the objections of Gaunilo in his Liber Apologeticus.
Liber, Rashi (1906), published as a memorial of Rashi on the 800th anniversary of his death.
The forged letters are not, for the most part, entirely composed of fresh material; the author draws his inspiration from the notices on each of the popes given in the Liber Pontificalis; he inserts whole passages from ecclesiastical writers; and he antedates the evidences of a discipline which actually existed; so it is by no means all invented.
The larger, Al-Shifa' (Sanatio), exists nearly complete in manuscript in the Bodleian library and elsewhere; part of it on the De Anima appeared at Pavia (1490) as the Liber Sextus Naturalium, and the long account of Avicenna's philosophy given by Shahrastani seems to be mainly an analysis, and in many places a.
At the same time the cult of Dionysus and Persephone (see LIBER AND LIBERA) was introduced.
Another supposition is that the author of the Liber Pontificals gives the papal interpretation of a grant that had been expressed by Pippin in ambiguous terms; and this view is supported by the history of the subsequent controversy between king and pope.
The chief authorities whom Nennius followed were Gildas' De excidio Britonum, Eusebius, the Vita Patricii of Murichu Maccu Machtheni, the Collectanea of Tirechan, the Liber occupationis (an Irish work on the settlement of Ireland), the Liber de sex aetatibus mundi, the chronicle of Prosper of Aquitaine, the Liber beati Germani.
In 1877 he received the degree of docteur es lettres with two remarkable theses, a dissertation De Macario magnete, and an Etude sur le Liber pontificalis, in which he explained with unerring critical acumen the origin of that celebrated chronicle, determined the different editions and their interrelation, and stated precisely the value of his evidence.
In this sense passio was used by the early Christian writers, and the term is also applied to the sufferings and deeds of saints and martyrs, synonymously with acta or fiesta, a book containing such being known as a "passional" (liber passionalis) or "passionary" (passionarius).
This great work, which is perhaps the frequently-referred-to Liber Sex Scientiarum, he began, and a few fragments still indicate its outline.
His next treatise, Liber apologeticus de arbitrii libertate, was written during his stay in Palestine, and in connexion with the controversy which engaged him there.
At the instance of Euric's son, Alaric II., an examination was made of the Roman laws in use among Romans in his dominions, and the resulting compilation was approved in 506 at an assembly at Aire, in Gascony, and is known as the Breviary of Alaric, and sometimes as the Liber Aniani, from the fact that the authentic copies bear the signature of the referendarius Anian.
This code, known as the Liber judiciorum, is 1 The lacunae in these fragments have been filled in by the aid of the law of the Bavarians, where the chief provisions are reproduced.
This law bears the title of Liber Constitutionum, which shows that it emanated from the king; it is also known as the Lex Gundobada or Lex Gombata.
For cases between Romans, however, Gundobald compiled the Lex Romana Burgundionum, called sometimes, through a misreading of the MSS., the Liber Papiani or simply Papianus.
Then appeared, under the influence of the school of law at Pavia, the Liber legis Langobardorum, also called Liber Papiensis (beginning of Tith century), and the Lombarda (end of 11th century) in two forms - that given in a Monte Cassino MS. and known as the Lombarda -Casinensis, and the Lombarda Vulgata.
The writings of Gildas have come down to us under the title of Gildae Sapientis de excidio Britanniae liber querulus.
On the maps illustrating the encyclopaedic Liber floridus by Lambert, Lambert Liber flori dus 1120 FIG.