The Liassic beds are often metamorphosed and the limestones contain garnet and wollastonite.
The Liassic coprolites are described by Buckland as resembling oblong pebbles, or kidney-potatoes; they are mostly 2 to 4 in.
And when we know that the Chrysomelidae and Buprestidae also lived in Triassic, and the Carabidae, Elateridae, Cerambycidae and Scarabaeidae, in Liassic times, we cannot doubt that the great majority of our existing families had already been differentiated at the beginning of the Mesozoic epoch.
Mesozoic rocks are represented by slates containing Ammoniles and Monotis, evidently of Triassic age, rocks containing Ammonites Bucklandi of Liassic age, a series of beds rich in plants of Jurassic age, and beds of Cretaceous age containing Trigonia and many other fossils.
Geologically they are known to date back to the Oligocene period, and wings believed to be referable to them have been found in Liassic and Jurassic beds.
Fossil Trichoptera occur in rocks of Liassic age.
The oldest beds which have yet been recognized are shales and hornstones with Liassic fossils.
The former extension of Rhaetic, Liassic and Cretaceous formations in the island is indicated by the presence of fragments of these strata in a large volcanic vent on the plateau, on the south side of the road leading from Brodick to Shiskine.
From the Permian to the Lias the sequence in the central Himalaya shows no sign of a break, nor has any unconformity been proved between the Liassic beds and the overlying Spiti shales, which contain fossils of Middle and Upper Jurassic age.
The oldest known Diatoms are represented by some specimens found entangled in the spicules of a Liassic sponge, and identified by Rothpletz as species of the recent genus Pyxidicula.
A genus Zonatrichites, compared with species of Cyanophyceae, has been described as a Calcareous alga from Liassic limestones of Silesia.
Equisetites Muensteri is a characteristic and fairly widely spread Rhaetic and Liassic species, having a comparatively slender stem, with leaf-sheaths consisting of a few broad and short leaf-segments.
Ctenozamites occurs chiefly in the Rhaetic coal-bearing beds of Scania, and has been found also in the Liassic clays of FIG.
ii) and Portugal, and from Liassic beds in Dorsetshire.
The well-known Whitby jet of Upper Liassic age appears to have been formed to a large extent from Araucarian wood.
In many of the flowers described by Mr Wieland the structure is identical in essential features with that of the female flowers of Bennettites Gibsonianus described by Carruthers and by Solms-Laubach, and with that of a French Liassic species described by Lignier: the whole consists of a convex receptacle bearing mature seeds at the tips of pedicels associated with interseminal scales (fig.
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