The species most liable to be struck are oaks, poplars and pear trees; beech trees are exceptionally safe.
If there are, they are liable to be glass oats!
Such partial competition, with the discrimination it involves, is liable to be worse for the public than no competition at all.
In ethics empiricism begins by recognizing that man possesses sensations, and so is liable to pleasures and pains.
Although this fact will not in itself make the companies liable to any process of reorganization similar to that following insolvency and foreclosure of the American railway, it is probable that reorganization of some sort must nevertheless take place in Great Britain, and it may well be questioned whether the position of the transportation system of that country would not have been better if it had been built up and projected on the experience gained by actual earlier losses, as in the United States.
This system of telegraphic printing has a great advantage over the step-by-step system in avoiding the necessity for the rapidly acting electric escapement, which, however skilfully planned and executed, is always liable to failure when worked too rapidly.
Failure to comply with any of the rules renders a company " liable for each offence, on conviction under the Summary Jurisdiction Acts, to a fine not exceeding fifty pounds, or in the case of a continuing offence to a fine not exceeding ten pounds for every day during which the offence continues after conviction."
It held shipper as well as carrier, and corporation as well as its officer or agent, liable for violations of the act, and conferred upon United States courts power to employ equity processes in putting an end to discrimination.
So long as a great horde of nomads was encamped on the frontier the country was liable to be invaded by an overwhelming force of ruthless marauders.
The slight reproach to which the virtue of patriotism is commonly liable, the noble are most likely to incur.
The Arno is navigable for barges as far as Florence; but it is liable to sudden floods, and brings down with it large quantities of earth and stones, so that it requires careful regulation.
infallibilitas, infallibilis, formed from fallor, to make a mistake), the fact or quality of not being liable to err or fail.
The government itself, which is only the mode which the people have chosen to execute their will, is equally liable to be abused and perverted before the people can act through it.
The chief drawback to type A is that the errors of the screw are liable to change by wear, otherwise the apparatus, as made and used at Potsdam, is, on the whole, a convenient and accurate one.
In consequence, in 1908, of 490,000 liable, some I 10,000 actually joined for full training and 24,000 of the new 2nd category for short training, which contrasts very forcibly with the feeble embodiments of i906 and 1907.
It was further enjoined that any one playing bowls outside of his own garden or orchard was liable to a penalty of 6s.
By this law, every man liable and accepted for service served for eight or nine years on the Active Army and its Reserve (of which three to five were spent with the colors), four or, five in the Mobile Militia, and the rest of the service period of nineteen years in the Territorial Militia.
The company is liable to a fine of twenty pounds a day if it should open the line in contravention of such order or direction.
But as it was laid in cast-iron chairs the lower table was exposed to damage under the hammering of the traffic, and thus was liable to be rendered useless as a running surface.
Wood is the material most widely used, but steel is employed in some countries where timber is scarce or liable to destruction by white ants, though it is still regarded as too expensive in comparison with wood for general adoption.
The smallness of the pipes renders it liable to damage by frost, but this accident may be prevented by always keeping in frosty weather a small fire in the furnace.
The full number of persons liable to be called upon for military service and engaged in such service is calculated (1908) as 4,800,000, of whom 1,350,000 of the active army and the younger classes of army reserve would constitute the field armies set on foot at the outbreak of war.
It is, however, less liable to cause confusion, and in many other ways more convenient to employ the better known term Marsupialia in both senses.
On the 12th of July 1871, Articles 268, 269 and 270 of the Italian Penal Code were so modified as to make ecclesiastics liable to imprisonment for periods varying from six months to five years, and to fines from 1000 to 3000 lire, for spoken or written attacks against the laws of the state, or for the fomentation of disorder.
The authority thus conferred was confided exclusively to the prince, and was declared liable to modification by law in the case of his successor.
In 1904, under the old system of three-years service with numerous total and partial exemptions, 324,253 men became liable to incorporation, of whom 25,432 were rejected as unfit, 55,265 were admitted as one-year volunteers, 62,160 were put back, 27,825 had already enlisted with a view to making the army a career, 5257 were taken for the navy, and thus, with a few extra details and casualties, the contingent for full service dwindled to 147,549 recruits.
The winds are liable to little variation; they blow from the west, often with great violence, for nine months in the year, and at other times from the north; and they moderate the summer heats, which are chiefly felt during the months of July and August, when the hot winds blow from the coast of Anatolia.
A small permanent magnet is always liable to become demagnetized, or have its polarity reversed by the action of lightning.
The growth, year after year, on the same soil of one kind of plant unfits it for bearing further crops of the kind which has exhausted it, and renders them:_less vigorous and more liable to disease.
The law may apparently be " a general rule " or " a tendency " which is liable to be " checked," or a particular case of the law of the conservation of energy.
The beginnings of this rupture, as well as a sharp affray between his volunteers and the townsfolk of Ajaccio, may have quickened Bonaparte's resolve to return to France in May 1792, but there were also personal and family reasons for this step. Having again exceeded his time of furlough, he was liable to the severe penalties attaching to a deserter and an émigré but he saw that the circumstances of the time would help to enforce the appeal for reinstatement which he resolved to make at Paris.
The climate is healthy; owing to the elevated situation it is somewhat cold, and is liable to sudden diurnal and seasonal changes; the temperature in January sometimes falls to 4° F.
The comparatively rapid growth of the tree is its great recommendation to the planter; it is best raised from acorns sown on the spot, as they are very bitter and little liable to the attacks of vermin; the tree sends down a long tap-root, which should be curtailed by cutting or early transplanting, if the young trees are to be removed.
The writing, although not well formed, is sufficiently distinct for ordinary messages; the figures 3, 5, and 8 are, however, liable to be mistaken for each other, being very similar in appearance.
At present, therefore, classifications of the Hydromedusae have a more or less tentative character, and are liable to revision with increased knowledge of the life-histories of these organisms. Many groups bear at present two names, the one representing the group as defined by polyp-characters, the other as defined by medusa-characters.
Should the young die or be removed during this period, the parents are liable to die, suffering severely from the turgid congestion of the hypertrophied walls of the crop.
The timber is very much twisted in grain, and liable to warp and split, but is used for making plasterers' laths and for fencing; "shingles" for roofing are sometimes made of it.
The heartwood varies in colour from dark brown to pale yellowishbrown; hard, close-grained, and little liable to split accidentally, it is, for a hard wood, easy to work.
The payment of a debt is sometimes secured by one person, called a surety, who makes himself collaterally liable for the debt of the principal.
In Austria, whoever commits blasphemy by speech or writing is liable to imprisonment for any term from six months up to ten years, according to the seriousness of the offence.
The true mushroom itself is to a great extent a dung-borne species, therefore mushroom-beds are always liable to an invasion from other dung-borne forms. The spores of all fungi are constantly floating about in the air, and when the spores of dung-infesting species alight on a mushroom-bed they find a nidus already prepared that exactly suits them; and if the spawn of the new-comer becomes more profuse than that of the mushroom the stranger takes up his position at the expense of the mushroom.
The same body draws up the list of males liable to the poll-tax and of the lands liable to land-tax, these being the chief sources of revenue.
The marriage contract, without which the Code ruled that the woman was no wife, usually stated the consequences to which each party was liable for repudiating the other.
Unfortunately, however, the method of agreement is liable to be baffled by " plurality of causes."
In addition to this there is compulsory service in the National Guard (a) in the first class, consisting of men between seventeen and thirty years of age, liable for service with the standing army, and numbering some 15,000; (b) in the second class, for departmental service only, except in so far as it may be drawn upon to make up losses in the more active units in time of war, consisting of men from thirty to forty-five years of age, and (c) in the third class, for local garrison duty, consisting of men between forty-five and sixty years old.
Being less hydrated than malachite it is itself liable to alteration into this mineral, and pseudomorphs of malachite after azurite are not uncommon.
This method, however, was not found satisfactory: the projecting feet were liable to be broken off, and in 1799 or 1800 Jessop abandoned them, using instead separate cast-iron sockets or chairs, which were fastened to the sleepers and in which the rails were supported in an upright position.
Liable 441,171 453,640 469,860 475,737
The oak in Europe is liable to injury from a great variety of insect enemies: the young wood is attacked by the larvae of the small stag-beetle and several other Coleoptera, and those of the wood-leopard moth, goat moth and other Lepidoptera feed upon it occasionally; the foliage is devoured by innumerable larvae; indeed, it has been stated that half the plant-eating insects of England prey more or less upon the oak, and in some seasons it is difficult to find a leaf perfectly free from their depredations.
Personal guarantees were often given that the debtor would repay or the guarantor become liable himself.
With regard to the occurrence of plants, such as Juncus effusus, which possess xerophytic characters and yet live in situations which are not ordinarily of marked physiological dryness, it should be remembered that such habitats are liable to occasional physical drought; and a plant must eventually succumb if it is not adapted to the extreme conditions of its habitat.
"The sin once committed, there is no more wavering or flinching possible to him, who has fought so hard against the demoniac possession; while she who resigned body and soul to the tempter, almost at a word, remains liable to the influences of religion and remorse."
The gondola or flat car corresponds to the European open wagons and is used to carry goods not liable to be injured by the weather; but in the United States the practice of covering the load with tarpaulins is unknown, and therefore the proportion of box cars is much greater than in Europe.
The sacrifice is in its origin a communion; god and worshippers have a bond of kinship between them; but it is liable to be interrupted or its strength diminished.
In 1902 the king of Sweden, as arbitrator under a convention signed at Washington in 1899, decided that Great Britain and the United States were liable for injuries due to action taken by their representatives during the military operations of 1899.
In time, notwithstanding a certain inherent individualism and impatience of control, veritable despotisms arose in the Semitic world, although such organizations were invariably liable to sudden collapse as the old forms of life broke down with changing conditions.'
On the Pacific coast all the rivers are rapid and liable to sudden floods.
Sugars are also liable to fermentation.'
persons acquiring by purchase or adjudication, and the lessee was liable to be ejected by such persons, unless (a precaution usually taken) sasine of the subjects demised was expressly conferred on him by the lease.
He is liable for injuries or losses happening during his enjoyment, unless he prove that they have taken place without his fault (Art.
The lessee is liable for injuries and losses happening by the act of persons belonging to his house or of his sub-tenants (Art.
" Accidents " here mean ordinary accidents only, such as hail, lightning or frost, and the lessee will not be answerable for loss caused by extraordinary accidents such as war or floods, unless he has, been made liable for all accidents, foreseen or unforeseen (Art.
The money that is spent in prospecting and in development is therefore liable to prove a loss.
As regards the jus vetus, therefore, the judges and practitioners of Justinian's time had two terrible difficulties to contend with - first, the bulk of the law, which made it impossible for any one to be sure that he possessed anything like the whole of the authorities bearing on the point in question, so that he was always liable to find his opponent quoting against him some authority for which he could not be prepared; and, secondly, the uncertainty of the law, there being a great many important points on which differing opinions of equal legal validity might be cited, so that the practising counsel could not advise, nor the judge decide, with any confidence that he was right, or that a superior court would uphold his view.
use methylated spirit to clean shellac brushes Other stains which are liable to bleed through paint can be sealed using knotting.
liable on conviction to a substantial fine.
Failure to comply may render a reader liable to be fined at the rate posted in the library.
Chief Officers should be vicariously liable for the actions of their officers.
Joint and several liability Where two or more people are on the same position in the table, they are jointly and severally liable.
liable to compensate him.
liable to repay the benefit received.
liable to reimburse the cost of their placement.
liable to pay the Council Tax at each property in the City.
liable to indemnify him.
liable to deteriorate rapidly.
The partnership may also be liable for VAT if the turnover exceeds the current limit.
The School will not be liable for any loss suffered by you which is indirect, special or consequential or comprises loss of profits.
lumbered with debts of up to £ 20,000, liable to interest at the rate of inflation.
mistreated as a result, who could be held liable?
For those who rent an apartment, the landlord or superintendent is only liable for damages that occur to the outside of the house, such as structural damages.
If someone is injured while visiting the property you rent, you may be liable for any medical costs that arise, particularly if you or your family members are found to be at fault for the injury.
This is one portion of insurance that most people assume landlords are liable for but, more often than not, it is the tenant who is liable and will experience the financial burden.
If a guest in your rented home is injured, even if you are not directly at fault for the injury, you may still be liable for the costs surrounding medical care for your guest.
If you purchase or withdraw any products for personal use, you are liable for the portion of use tax charged by the state.
If you try this with a business site, you are liable to lawsuit for copyright infringement.
Its whereabouts is thus, to a great extent, concealed both from enemies searching for spiders and from insects suitable for food; and its open meshwork of strong threads makes it much less liable to be beaten down by rain or torn to shreds by winds than if it were a flat sheet of closely woven silk.
- the Landlord and Tenant Act 1730 - makes a tenant who holds over after receiving a notice from his landlord liable to the extent of double the value of the premises.
In 1792 the quantity exported from the United States was only 1 It is related that in the year 1784 William Rathbone, an American merchant resident in Liverpool, received from one of his correspondents in the southern states a consignment of eight bags of cotton, which on its arrival in Liverpool was seized by the customhouse officers, on the allegation that it could not have been grown in the United States, and that it was liable to seizure under the Shipping Acts, as not being imported in a vessel belonging to the country of its growth.
The initial diameter of the well drilled from the bottom of this pit is in some instances as much as 36 in., bore-holes of the larger size being preferred, as they are less liable to become choked, and admit of the use of larger bailers for raising the oil.
The steam is superheated and may thus be heated to any desired temperature without increase of pressure, which would be liable to damage the still.
Hot-wire ammeters are, however, liable to a shift of zero, and means are always provided by some adjusting screw for slightly altering the sag of the wire and so adjusting the index needle to the zero of the scale.
It is essential that the permanent magnet should be subjected to a process of ageing so that its field may not be liable to change subsequently with time.
Its most important feature, when compared with the previous constitution of 1868, is its provision for the choice of state officials other than the governor (who was previously chosen by election) by elections instead of by the governor's appointment, but the governor, who serves for four years and is not eligible for the next succeeding term, still appoints the circuit judges, the state' attorneys for each judicial circuit and the county commissioners; he may fill certain vacancies and may suspend, and with the Senate remove officers not liable to impeachment..
The climate is temperate, but liable to sudden changes; the mean temperature is 63° I F., the maximum (in July) 99° 01, the minimum (in January) 31°.
The chief exports are raw cotton, rice, wheat, oil-seeds, hides and lac. The exports of wheat are liable to extreme fluctuations, especially during famine periods.
3 These impressions from transfers, however, are liable to be inferior to impressions taken from an original plate or an electrotype.
Several imprisonments, including that of George Fox at Derby in 1650-1651, were brought about under the Blasphemy Act of 1650, which inflicted penalties on any one who asserted himself to be very God or equal with God, a charge to which the Friends were peculiarly liable owing to their doctrine of perfection.
The interruption of preachers when celebrating divine service rendered the offender liable to three months' imprisonment under a statute of the first year of Mary, but Friends generally waited to speak till the service was over.'
For many years after this they were liable to imprisonment for non-payment of tithes, and, together with other Dissenters, they remained under various civil disabilities, the gradual removal of which is part of the general history of England.
The slaves were bound to work for their masters during this period for three-fourths of the day, and were to be liable to corporal punishment if they did not give the due amount of labour.
The width, however, proved inconvenient, and the broad sheet was liable to injury by tearing.
Where, as in private herbaria, the specimens are not liable to be handled with great frequency, a stitch here and there round the stem, tied at the back of the sheet, or slips of paper passed over the stem through two slits in the sheet and attached with gum to its back, or simply strips of gummed paper laid across the stem, may be resorted to.
When, as with some plants like Verbascum, the thick hard stems are liable to cause the leaves to wrinkle in drying by removing the pressure from them, small pieces of bibulous paper or cotton wool may be placed upon the leaves near their point of attachment to the stem.
This mode has some disadvantages attending it; such sheets are difficult to handle; the crustaceous species are liable to have their surfaces rubbed; the foliaceous species become so compressed as to lose their characteristic appearance; and the spaces between the sheets caused by the thickness of the specimen permit the entrance of dust.
The instincts of nest-building, incubation and the rearing of young, though they occur later in life than those concerned in locomotion and the obtaining of food, are none the less founded on a hereditary basis, and in some respects are less rather than more liable to modification by the experience gained by the carrying out of hereditarily definite modes of procedure.
In return for these privileges the lord was liable to forfeit his rights if he neglected to protect and defend the tenant or did anything injurious to the feudal relation.
Each of the larger streams, as well as a large proportion of the smaller ones, is accompanied by a belt of bottom land, of greater or less width, lying low as regards the stream, and liable to overflow at times of high water.
Whatever be the historical worth of this story, it may safely be said that it cannot be disproved by deductive reasoning from the premisses of abstract logic. The most we can do is to assert that a universe in which such things are liable to happen on a large scale is unfitted for the practical application of the theory of cardinal numbers.
All able-bodied males are liable, on reaching their 21 st year, for 3 years' service with the colours, and 9 years in the reserve.
So long as Stambolov, the energetic Bulgarian statesman, was alive he succeeded in keeping the Bulgarian element quiet, and the peace of the country was less liable to disturbance.
wide and very deep. Its banks are of mud, with no other retaining walls than those formed by the foundations of the houses, which are consequently always liable to be undermined by the action of the water.
The only point of practical interest requiring mention here is the very singular fact attested by all peach-growers, that, while certain peaches are liable to the attacks of mildew, others are not.
If the leaves should happen to shade the fruit, not only during the ripening process but at any time after the stoning period, they should be gently turned aside, for, in order that the fruit may acquire good colour and flavour, it should be freely exposed to light and air when ripening; it will bear the direct rays of the sun, even if they should rise to loo°, but nectarines are much more liable to damage than peaches.
Africa, can, however, only be enforced by special administrative machinery and at considerable expense, and this legislative action can only be regarded as temporary and preliminary to the establishment of plantations of rubber trees, which are not only easier to control, but the trees are less liable to injury from careless tapping.
During the tropical rains the soil is liable, to a greater or less extent, to denudation, which becomes very serious when the land slopes; and in any case, the soil is apt to become impoverished by the loss of its soluble constituents.
10), and was liable to the same duties and privileges as Israel (see references in Oxford Gesenius, p. 158).
It is liable to floods, when it becomes impassable for weeks.
The offender, whether simoniacus (one who had bought his orders) or simoniace promotus (one who had bought his promotion), was liable to deprivation of his benefice and deposition from orders if a secular priest, - to confinement in a stricter monastery if a regular.
The innocent simoniace promotus was, apart from dispensation, liable to the same penalties as though he were guilty.
The tragedians used her story to point the moral of the instability of human happiness; Niobe became the representative of human nature, liable to pride in prosperity and forgetfulness of the respect and submission due to the gods.
de Phys., Paris, 1900, p. 561) that the true effect of magnetization is liable to be disguised by secondary or parasitic phenomena, arising chiefly from polarization of the electrodes and from local variations in the concentration and magnetic condition of the electrolyte; these may be avoided by working with weak solutions, exposing only a small surface in a non-polar region of the metal, and substituting a capillary electrometer for the galvanometer generally used.
It must always be remembered that we are liable (especially in the case of fossilized integuments) to attach an unwarranted interpretation to the mere discontinuity or continuity of the thickened plates of chitinous cuticle on the back of an Arthropod.
Like the scorpions the spiders have a special tendency to cannibalism, and accordingly the male, in approaching the female for the purpose of fertilizing her, is liable to be fallen upon and sucked dry by the object of his attentions.
Others have a special faculty of consuming dry, powdery vegetable and animal refuse, and are liable to multiply in manufactured products of this nature, such as mouldy cheese.
Owing to the uncertainty of the periodical rains in Cutch, the country is liable to severe famines, and it has suffered greatly from plague.
they must no longer be liable to military service, and they were possibly restricted to the nobility.
But neither earthquakes nor the plague, to which it was also peculiarly liable, could divert trade and prosperity from it.
There are also many rifle associations, the members of which are liable to be called out for defence.
The government was a despotism, but a king who aroused the extreme dissatisfaction of his subjects was liable to be murdered.
If our results are imperfect and liable to correction, that is only to be expected in the present position of the historical study of the Bible.
It was a deep-seated belief that those who took part in religious functions were liable to communicate this " holiness " to others (compare the complex ideas associated with the Polynesian taboo).
The drug has naturally always been liable to great adulteration in spite of penalties, the severity of which suggests the surviving tradition of its sacred character.
Another resolution, of importance for the history of the treatment of heresy, was the canon which decreed that armed force should be employed against the Cathari in southern France, that their goods were liable to confiscation and their persons to enslavement by the princes, and that all who took up weapons against them should receive a two years' remission of their penance and be placed - like the crusaders - under the direct protection of the church.
In summer the heat and moisture are excessive, and the Aapies (which is spanned by four bridges) is liable to floods.
The subsequent experiments of Snellen, Senftleben, and, more lately, of Turner, seem to show that if the eyeball be protected from the impingement of foreign particles, an accident to which it is liable owing to its state of anaesthesia, the ulceration may be warded off indefinitely.
From these causes a certain shrinkage is liable to occur, more evident in some parts of the body than in others.
Cattle kept within-doors are in a large proportion of cases tubercular, while those leading an outdoor life are much less liable to infection.
Thus workers in lead suffer from the effects of this substance as a poison, those who work in phosphorus are liable to necrosis of bone and fatty degeneration of the blood vessels and organs, and the many occupations in which dust is inhaled (coalmining, stone-dressing, steel-polishing, &c.; fig.
The particles in this case set up a form of fibrosis of the lung, which, either of itself or by rendering the organ liable to tubercular infection, is extremely fatal.
One chief means employed by nature in accomplishing this object is the investment of those parts of the organism liable to be attacked with an armour-like covering of epidermis, periderm, bark, &c. The grape is proof against the inroads of the yeastplant so long as the husk is intact, but on the husk being injured the yeast-plant finds its way into the interior and sets up vinous fermentation of its sugar.
Now differences in the amount of crystalloids cause alteration in osmotic pressure while the proteid content affects it but little; and of the crystalloids the chlorides appear to be those most liable to variation.
These houses were specially liable to be destroyed by fire, and in order to save the city from this imminent danger the famous Assize of Building known as " Fitz-Ailwyne's Assize " was drawn up in 1189.
The artificial harbour was formed (1807-1832) between the mainland and the picturesque island of Ireland's Eye, and preceded Kingstown as the station for the mail-packets from Great Britain, but was found after its construction to be liable to silt, and is now chiefly used by fishing-boats and yachts.
This is the cheapest of the three caving systems, but is applicable only when the deposit lies between walls of very solid rock, as otherwise wall rock is liable to cave with and become mixed with ore, which adds greatly to the expense of handling.
In some mining districts the coal is liable to spontaneous combustion.
In cold climates men coming from the warm atmosphere of a mine, often in wet clothing, are liable to suffer in health unless proper provision is made for the necessary change of clothing.
of mercury to balance the pressure of the atmosphere, a Geisler pump necessarily is a somewhat long-legged and unwieldy instrument; in addition, the long tube is liable to breakage.
Although liable to great extremes of temperature, and to a very scanty rainfall, the district is not unhealthy.
9), either offence rendering him liable to be crucified.
The surface of the vessel may be hard, but the vessel is liable to fracture on receiving a trifling shock.
It is important that the thermal expansion of the two materials which are thus incorporated should be nearly alike, as otherwise warping of the finished sheet is liable to result.
Like the Bahr-el-Jebel the Bahr-el-Ghazal is liable to be choked by sudd.
Aluminium is barely affected even at a white heat, if it is pure; the ordinary impure metal is liable to be very readily oxidized.
In the design of a structure such as a tall reservoir dam it is important that the line of thrust in the material should pass inside the core of a section, so that the material should not be in a state of tension anywhere and so liable to open and admit the water.
The chief defect of the tower was its weakness against vertical fire; its masonry was further liable to be cut through by breaching batteries.
The temple rules do not apply to synagogues, however, and unseemly conduct in them is liable only to civil action.
On the other hand it should not be too open in texture or the roots do not get a proper hold of the ground and are easily disturbed by wind: moreover such soils are liable to blow away, leaving the underground parts exposed to the air and drought.
A soil consisting of sand entirely would be very loose, would have little capacity to retain water, would be liable to become very hot in the daytime and cool at night and would be quite unsuitable for growth of plants.
Nitrates are very soluble in water and are therefore liable to be washed out of the soil by heavy rain.
Many soils of a light sandy or gravelly or peaty nature and liable to drought and looseness of texture can be improved by the addition of large amounts of clay of an ordinary character.
It is best adapted for application to clays and fen lands and should not be practised on shallow light sands or gravelly soils, since the humus so necessary for the fertility of such areas is reduced too much and the soil rendered too porous and liable to suffer from drought.
Seedling plants of tobacco, like many other crops, are liable to attack by " cut worms," the caterpillars of species of Peridromia and Agrotis.
Stored tobacco is liable to be attacked and ruined by the " cigarette beetle," a cosmopolitan insect of very varied tastes, feeding not only on dried tobacco of all kinds, including snuff, but also on rhubarb, cayenne pepper, tumeric, ginger, figs and herbarium specimens.
Moreover, unless the conditions are closely watched, it is liable to be thrown down in a spongy form.
Were it not for the use of some such device the arc would be liable to constant fluctuation and to frequent extinction.
This advantage is especially observed in some cases in which the charge of the furnace is liable to attack the containing vessel at high temperatures, as it is often possible to maintain the outer walls of the electric furnace relatively cool, and even to keep them lined with a protecting crust of unfused charge.
Examples of acts of indemnity are two private acts passed in 1880 to relieve Lords Byron and Plunket from the disabilities and penalties to which they were liable for sitting and voting in the House of Peers without taking the oath.
The wood is generally reddish-brown, light and of a coarse grain and spongy texture, easy to work, but liable to shrink and warp. Mountain-grown wood is harder, stronger, less liable to warp and more durable.
This high physical zest in life seems to have declined after 1831, when his eyes began to trouble him, and he became liable to depression.
The Pacific coast of the Japanese islands is more liable than the western shore to shocks disturbing a wide area.
The bailiff then becomes liable for non-execution, mis-execution or insufficient return of any writs, and in the case of non-return of any writ, if the sheriff returns that he has delivered the writ to a bailiff of a liberty, the sheriff will be ordered to execute the writ notwithstanding the liberty, and must cause the bailiff to attend before the high court of justice and answer why he did not execute the writ.
Athens might fairly insist that the protection of the Aegean would become impossible if some of the chief islands were liable to be used as piratical strongholds, and further that it was only right that all should contribute in some way to the security which all enjoyed.
The conditions which led to the second Athenian or Delian Confederacy were fundamentally different, not only in virtue of the fact that the allies had learned from experience the dangers to which such a league was liable, but because the enemy was no longer an oriental power of whose future action there could be no certain anticipation, but Sparta, whose ambitious projects since the fall of Athens had shown that there could be no safety for the smaller states save in combination.
The rainfall, however, after the eastern monsoons, is very heavy, and the island is liable to violent hurricanes.
"Nothing that a Bhutia possesses is his own," wrote the British envoy in 1864; "he is at all times liable to lose it if it attracts the cupidity of any one more powerful than himself.
The Maltese, of whom 86% cannot understand Italian, are still liable to be tried, even for their lives, in Italian, to them a foreign language.
If the bishop rejects the clerk within that time he is liable to a duplex querela in the ecclesiastical courts, or to a quare impedit in the common law courts, and the bishop must then certify the reasons of his refusal.
The entire plain was well adapted for pasturage and corn-growing, but was liable to floods owing to the lack of free outlets for its water-courses.
His action is liable to be arrested at any time at the will of either party unless otherwise agreed, in which case to arrest it prematurely would be a breach of good faith.
The chief errors to which the stereometer is liable are (I) variation of temperature and atmospheric pressure during the experiment, and (2) the presence of moisture which disturbs Boyle's law.
4) that Bessel had indicated, by notes in his handbooks, the following points which should be kept in mind in the construction of future heliometers: (I) The segments should move in cylindrical slides; b (2) the screw should be protected from dust; 6 (3) the zero of the position circle should not be so liable to change; 7 (4) the distance of the optical centres of the segments should not change in different position angles or otherwise; 8 (5) the points of the micrometer screws should rest on ivory plates; 9 (6) there should be an apparatus for changing the screen.'° Wilhelm Struve, in describing the Pulkowa heliometer,' 1 made The distances of the optical centres of the segments from the eye-piece are in this method as I; secant of the angle under measurement.
7 The tube, being of wood, was probably liable to warp and twist in a very uncertain way.
They are liable to the objection that their employment is limited to the measurement of very small angles, viz.
5 cc. per litre at o C. while as a matter of fact the amount absorbed approaches 50 cc. The form of combination is unstable and apparently variable, so that the quantities of free carbonic acid, bicarbonate and normal carbonate are liable to alter.
Indeed, there still existed on the statute a provision that "Masters and Bachelors who did not follow Aristotle faithfully were liable to a fine of five shillings for every point of divergence, and for every fault committed against the logic of the Organon."
Cannel coals are generally variable in quality, being liable to change into shales or black-band ironstones within very short horizontal limits.
A portion of this may be got by the process known as robbing the pillars, but the coal so obtained is liable to be very much crushed from the pressure of the superincumbent strata.
generally in South Staffordshire, the coals are suffi ciently free from gas, or rather the gases are not liable to become explosive when mixed with air, to allow the use of naked lights, candles being generally used.
Danger arising from coal dust is best guarded against by systematically sprinkling or watering the main roads leading from the working faces to the shaft, where the dust falling from the trams in transit is liable to accumulate.
In the thick coal workings in South Staffordshire the slack left behind in the sides of work is especially liable to fire from so-called spontaneous combustion, due to the rapid oxidization that is set up when finely divided coal is brought in contact with air.
Rigid guides connected with the walling of the pit are probably the best and safest, but they have the disadvantage of being liable to distortion, in case of the pit altering its form, owing to irregular movements of the ground, or other causes.
Otherwise, the wife may control her property as if single, and neither is liable for what are clearly the debts of the other.
The power of excommunication was transferred from the community to the bishop, and was liable to abuse from personal motives: Gregory the Great rebukes a bishop for using for private ends power conferred for the public good (Epist.
By one of those waves of popular feeling to which the Japanese people are peculiarly liable, the nation which had supported him up to a certain point suddenly veered round and opposed him with heated violence.
Moreover, its prefects, since they were two and liable to be disunited, and since they could not be senators, neither combined with the In permanent forts and fortresses, praetorium probably denoted strictly a residence: the official headquarters building (though commonly styled praetorium by moderns) was the principia.
They are of extremely widespread occurrence; there is hardly one of the chief classes of animals which does not furnish hosts for these parasites, scarcely one of the common tissues or organs of the Metazoan body which may not be liable to infection.
which a fixed muzzle sight was liable.
with a level and a clamp; the level is fixed at the correct angle for drift; if the sight (as is especially liable to be artillery the case on steep hillsides) is tilted away from the angle sights.
the end of the barrel renders it peculiarly liable to injury, and in some rifles therefore it is provided with guards or ears; these, however, have the disadvantage that more or less of the light that would otherwise light up the sight is intercepted by the guards.
Certainly they were liable to military service and presumably to that taxation which fell upon Athenians at home.
Examined from this point of view the majority of domestic filters were found to be gravely defective, and even to be worse than useless, since unless they were frequently and thoroughly cleansed, they were liable to become favourable breeding-places for microbes.
The census of agriculture is also liable to a wide margin of error, owing to defects in farm accounts and the inability of many farmers to state the amount or the value even of the leading crops.
The moneyers, who were elected by the burgesses, were responsible for the manufacture of the coin, and according to Madox were liable at the time of Henry II.
Formerly bullion was melted in crucibles made of refractory clay, but they are liable to crack and require careful handling These were succeeded by iron crucibles, especially for melting silver, and these have now been generally replaced by graphite (plumbago) crucibles made of a mixture of clay and graphite.
The horse-drawn hoe is steered by means of handles in the rear, but its successful working depends on accurate drilling of the seed, because unless the rows are parallel the roots of the plants are liable to be cut and the foliage injured.
The Employers' Liability Act of 1902 (amended and broadened in 1910) holds an employer liable for damages in any case in which one of his employees sustains a personal injury by reason of the negligence of the employer, of a sub-contractor, of a superintendent, or any other person in the employer's service whose duty it was to see that " the ways, works or machinery connected with or used in the business," were in proper condition, or whose duty it was to " direct ...
any employee," it is not proved that the employee failed in due care and diligence; by another law of 1910 in certain dangerous employments the employer is liable unless the injured employee was negligent.
On rich soils the crop is liable to grow too rapidly and yield a"coarse, uneven sample, consequently the best barley is grown on light, open and preferably calcareous soils, while if the condition of the soil is too high it is often reduced by growing wheat before the barley.
Barley is liable to smut and the other fungus diseases which attack wheat, and the insect pests which prey on the two plants are also similar.
Mag., 1878, 2, p. 500, or Rayleigh, Sound, § 386) that sounds of considerable intensity when heard by themselves are liable to be completely obliterated by graver sounds of sufficient force goes far to explain this, for the summation tones are of course always accompanied by such graver sounds.
An arbitrator is not liable to be sued for want of skill or for negligence in conducting the arbitration (Pappa v.
Thus it is liable to cause a cutaneous erythema in the course of its excretion by the skin; it has a marked diuretic action; and it is a fairly efficient disinfectant of the urinary passages.
Its administration causes the appearance in the urine of a salt of cubebic acid which is precipitated by heat or nitric acid, and is therefore liable to be mistaken for albumin, when these two most common tests for the occurrence of albuminuria are applied.
Lilies are, under certain conditions favourable to the development of the disease, liable to the attacks of three parasitic fungi.
It is important that no more should be supplied at a time than is necessary, as most animals rapidly foul their food, and except in a few special cases, wild animals are peculiarly liable to the evil results of stale or putrid substances.
In Maryland a wife holds her property as if single except that she can convey real estate only by a joint deed with her husband (this requirement being for the purpose of effecting a release of the husband's " dower interest "), neither husband nor wife is liable for the separate debts of the other, and on the death of either the rights of the survivor in the estate of the other are about equal.
Employers of workmen in a clay or coal mine, stone quarry, or on a steam or street railway are liable for damage in case of an injury to any of their workmen where such injury is caused by the negligence of the employer or of any servant or employee of the employer.
A constitutional provision makes each stockholder in a state bank liable to the amount of his share or shares for all the bank's debts and liabilities.
Thus, according to Jewish tradition, there are eighteen7 passages in which the older scribes deliberately altered the text on the ground that the language employed was either irreverent or liable to misconception.
The first missionary journey may have begun in 47 or 48; the arrival of Festus may have taken place in the summer of 58 or of 59; the two years of the Roman imprisonment recorded in the last chapter of Acts may have ended in the spring of 61 or 62; and the dates which fall in between these extremes are liable to the same variation.
The cockle is liable to the same suspicion as the oyster of conveying the contamination of typhoid fever where the shores are polluted, but as it is boiled before being eaten it is probably less dangerous.
Strathearn, as the valley of the Earn is called, extending from the loch to the Firth of Tay, is a beautiful and, on the whole, fertile tract, though liable at times to heavy floods.
But all such sources are liable to the most confounding errors, and some passages relied on have in any case to submit to conjectural emendation.
In 52 B.C. he passed a fresh law de jure magistratuum which cut away the ground beneath Caesar's feet by making it possible to provide a successor to the Gallic provinces before the close of 49 B.C., which meant that Caesar would become for some months a private person, and thus liable to be called to account for his unconstitutional acts.
But it did nothing for the southern lakes, so that a further system of dikes was recommended in preference, in 1614, by the Dutch engineer Adrian Boot; it was inadequate for its work and, not being lined with masonry, it was liable to be choked by falls.
By the treaty of Tilsit (July 9th, 1807) Frederick William had to surrender half his dominions, and what remained to him was exhausted by French exactions and liable at any moment to be crushed out of existence by some new whim of Napoleon.
The territory differs much in character; the Po and other smaller rivers which fall into the Adriatic terminate in a huge and continually advancing delta which extends right along the coast, and is liable to inundation.
The defects of this method are that the tops are liable to split in the brake and the butts to remain foul.
Among the Ewe a man who kills one is liable to be put to death; no leopard skin may be exposed to view, but a stuffed leopard is worshipped.
A Trypanosome usually produces markedly harmful effects upon gaining an entry into animals which have never been, by their distribution, liable to its invasion previously.
Delhi boil, Oriental sore, " bouton d'Alep ") to which people in different parts of the East are liable.
Electrostatic voltmeters are also liable to have their indications disturbed by electrification of the glass cover of the instrument; this can be avoided by varnishing the glass with a semi-conducting varnish so as to prevent the location of electrostatic charges on the glass.
This legal capacity rendered them liable to military service as heavy-armed fighting men, and as such they were enrolled in the military units called centuriae.
Both classes were liable to civic burdens, but the incolae had none of the privileges of citizenship except a limited right of voting.
The users of water were named Aquarii or hydroparastatae in the 4th century, and were liable to death under the code of Theodosius.
Quite as much must be ascribed to the want of faith in the legislatures of states and cities, which are deemed tao liable to be influenced by selfish corporations.
Persons found guilty of bringing false charges, of blackmail, or of suborning false witnesses, were liable to criminal prosecution by the state and a fine on conviction.
This serious defect of solid weirs, where the riparian lands are liable to be injured by inundations, can be slightly mitigated by keeping down the crest of the weir somewhat below the required level, and then raising the water-level at the low stage of the river by placing a row of planks along the top of the weir.
An objection has occasionally been urged against frames lowered on to the bed of a river that they are liable to be covered over by detritus or drift brought down by floods, and consequently are subject to injury or impediments in being raised.
The addition of a foot-bridge greatly facilitates the raising and lowering of these shutter weirs, and also aids the regulation of the discharge; but it renders this form of weir much more costly than the ordinary frame weir, and where large quantities of drift come down with sudden floods, the frames of the bridge are liable to be carried away, and therefore boats must be relied on for working the weir.
Occasionally in certain localities in the north-west the grain is liable to injury from frost in late summer; but as the proportion of land under cultivation increases the climate becomes modified and the danger from frost is appreciably less.
above the timber-bearing soil along the banks, and all along the lower river the country is liable to overflow; and as the land backward from the stream slopes downward from the banks heaped up by successive flood-deposits, each overflow creates along the river a fringe of swamps.
The weakest parts of a MS. book were the outer margins; and hence the beginnings and the ends of lines, whether of verse or prose, were specially liable to injury.
Thus the Roman letters E and F are liable to be confused in capital script, but not in cursive (e, f), C, G, in capitals, c, e in the cursive writing called Caroline minuscule, c, t, in the angular cursive of the 13th century and later.
When similar letters or groups of letters stand next to each other, one of these is liable to be omitted.
Wherever the word or group of words repeated is not the one that he has just copied loss is liable to occur.
A more subtle danger to which we are especially liable in the case of a dead language is that of our acquiescing in a sense which satisfies us but which would not have satisfied the ancient writer.
Both of these procedures are arbitrary in their principle, and liable to be erratic in their application.
The river is navigable by vessels of 700 tons, though liable, when spring-tides are flowing, to a bore which rises, in rough weather, to a height of 9 ft.
Both vertically and transversely it measures about an inch and a quarter, while antero-posteriorly it is only about three-quarters of an inch, though its size is liable to great variation.
State laws made liable to prosecution for misdemeanour any contract labourer who, having received advances, failed for any but good cause to fulfil the contract; or any contract labourer who made a second contract without giving notice tohis second employer of a prior and unfulfilled contract; or any employer of a labourer who had not completed the term of a prior contract.
Being mostly Englishmen, they preferred to reside in the portion of their diocese within the gate, and Drogheda, being a walled town, was less liable to attack from the natives.
It is remarkably tough, resisting a rending strain better than any of the fir or pine woods in common use, though not as elastic as some; properly seasoned, it is as little liable to shrink as to split; the boughs being small compared to the trunk, the timber is more free from large knots, and the small knots remain firm and undecayed.
If a money-lender fails to register himself, or if he carries on a money-lending business otherwise than in his registered name, or in more names than one, or elsewhere than at his registered address, he is liable on summary conviction to a fine, not exceeding one hundred pounds.
"Things strangled" and "blood" were rigorously abstained from; the lot was regarded as sacred; the accumulation of wealth they held to be unscriptural and improper, and each member considered his property as liable to be called upon at any time to meet the wants of the poor and the necessities of the church.
Section 3 of the earlier act provides that a person who injures the cable either wilfully or by culpable negligence is " guilty of a misdemeanour and on conviction: (a) if he acted wilfully, shall be liable to penal servitude for a term not exceeding five years, or to imprisonment with or without hard labour for a term not exceeding two years, and to a fine either in lieu of or in addition to such penal servitude or imprisonment; and (b) if he acted by culpable negligence shall be liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding three months without hard labour, and to a fine not exceeding £100 either in lieu of or in addition to such imprisonment."
Owing to its tropical situation and its almost entire dependence upon the monsoon rains, India is more liable than any other country in the world to crop failures, which upon occasion deepen into famine.
A candidate therefore is not, as far as the law is concerned, liable to any expense whatever.
In order to explain free will, he supposes, contrarily to Fouillee, that the laws of phenomena are indeterminate, contingent and liable to exceptions.
Secondly, there are so-called " subjective sensations," without any external object as stimulus, most commonly in vision, but also in touch, which is liable to formication, or the feeling of creeping in the skin, and to horripilation, or the feeling of bristling in the hair; yet, even in " subjective sensations," we perceive something sensible, which, however, must be within, and not outside, the organism.
We find it also in the compensations to which they were entitled for various injuries, in the fines to which they were liable, and in the value attached to their oaths.
On the other hand the gebur seems not to have been liable to payments of this kind, presumably because the land which he cultivated formed part of the demesne (inland) of his lord.
- All classes are said to have been liable to the duty of military service.
Generally speaking, however, each tribe formed a political unit in itself, and the combinations brought together from time to time in the hands of powerful kings were liable to fall to pieces after the first disaster.
Although a compass may thus be made practically correct for a given time and place, the magnetism of the ship is liable to changes on changing her geographical position, and especially so when steaming at right angles or nearly so to the magnetic meridian, for then sub-permanent magnetism is developed in the hull.
Some vessels are more liable to become sub-permanently magnetized than others, and as no corrector has been found for this source of deviation the navigator must determine its amount by observation.
In Scotland, medical and other scientific reports are lodged in process before the trial, and the witness reads them as part of his evidence and is liable to be examined or cross-examined on their contents.
The climate of Old Castile is healthy, but liable to severe cold and heat.
In pneumonia and other acute disease, where the patient is liable to sudden collapse, a hypodermic injection of strychnine will often save the patient's life.
c. 5 (1743) all persons pretending to have skill in physiognomy were deemed rogues and vagabonds, and were liable to be publicly whipped, or sent to the house of correction until next sessions.'
he quotes with approbation the Hippocratic doctrine referred to above; and 1 The Act 39 Elizabeth c. 4 (1597-1598) declared " all persons fayning to have knowledge of Phisiognomie or like Fantasticall Ymaginacious " liable to " be stripped naked from the middle upwards and openly whipped until his body be bloudye."
These are much more liable to occur when the stones are flat and angular than when they are round.
Sometimes rough concrete is rendered over with a plaster of cement and sand after the shutters have been removed, but this is liable to peel off and should be avoided.
In some parts of North America it is found that the white peaches are much less liable to the attack of a disease known as the "yellows" than are the yellow-fleshed ones.
The shallow strait separating it from the mainland is liable to be blocked by sand-banks; a canal was cut through these in the 7th century B.C. by the Corinthians, and was again after a long period of disuse opened up by the Romans.
Scions from a tree which is weakly, or liable to injury by frosts, are strengthened by engrafting on robust stocks.
Winter pruning is effected when the tree is comparatively at rest, and is therefore less liable to " bleeding " or outpouring of sap. Summer pruning or pinching off the tips of such of the younger shoots as are not required for the extension of the tree, when not carried to too great an extent, is preferable to the coarser more reckless style of pruning.
The seeds should be kept in sacks or bags in a dry place, and if from plants which are rare, or liable to lose their vitality, they are advantageously packed for transmission to a distance in hermetically sealed bottles or jars filled with earth or moss, without the addition of moisture.
These are unfitted for garden purposes until improved by draining, liming, trenching and the addition of porous materials, such as ashes, burnt ballast or sand, but when thoroughly improved they are very fertile and less liable to become exhausted than most other soils.
It any state most plants feed greedily upon it, and when pure or free from decaying wood or sticks it is a very safe ingredient in composts; but it is so liable to generate fungus, and the mycelium or spawn of certain fungi is so injurious to the roots of trees, attacking them if at all sickly or weakened by drought, that many cultivators prefer not' to mix leaf-mould with the soil used for permanent plants, as peaches or choice ornamental trees.
Stem suckers are such as proceed from the base of the stem, as is often seen in the case of the currant and lilac. They should be removed in any case; when required for propagation they should be taken with all the roots attached to them, and they should be as thoroughly disbudded below ground as possible, or they are liable to continue the habit of suckering.
Of those that are liable to suffer injury in winter, as the Brompton and Queen Stocks, a portion should be potted and wintered in cold frames ventilated as freely as the weather will permit.
The last is liable to suffer from damp during winter, and some spare plants should be wintered in a frame.
As waterways all the rivers labour under the drawbacks of rapids, mud-banks at their mouths, banks overgrown with forest, sparse population, and currents liable to serious variations due to irregularity of supply from the mountains and sudden rainfalls.
These two classes of properties tend to exclude each other, for, as a general rule, whatever tends to make iron and steel hard and strong tends to make it correspondingly brittle, and hence liable to break treacherously, especially under shock.
But immediately above this level the charge is relatively viscous, because here the temperature has fallen so far that it is now at the melting or formation point of the slag, which therefore is pasty, liable to weld the whole mass together es so much tar would, and thus to obstruct the descent of the charge, or in short to " scaffold."
The reason for this is that in it the slag, by means of which all the purification must needs be done, is not heated effectively; that hence it is not readily made thoroughly liquid; that hence the removal of the phosphoric slag made in the early dephosphorizing stage of the process is liable to be incomplete; and that hence, finally, the phosphorus of any of this slag which is left in the furnace becomes deoxidized during the second or deoxidizing stage, and is thereby returned to befoul the underlying steel.
brittle at a red heat, so that it is very liable to be torn by the aeolotachic contraction in cooling from the molten state; and it has no good effects to offset these.
29, is liable to become oxidized by the diffusion of the atmospheric oxygen, in which case it can hardly be completely welded later, since welding implies actual contact of metal with metal; it thus forms a permanent flaw.
Fur skins taken out of season are indifferent, and the hair is liable to shed itself freely; a good furrier will, however, reject such faulty specimens in the manufacturing.
The London Chamber of Commerce have issued to the British trade a notice that any misleading term in advertising and all attempts at deception are illegal, and offenders are liable under the Merchandise Marks Act 1887.
Theodolites are designed to measure horizontal angles with greater accuracy than vertical, because it is on the former that the most important work of a survey depends; measures of vertical angles are liable to be much impaired by atmospheric refraction, more particularly on long lines, so that when heights have to be determined with much accuracy the theodolite must be discarded for a levelling instrument.
The use of aluminium in the construction of all parts not liable to much wear is to be commended, owing to the smaller weight.
He was included among the twenty liable to penalties other than capital, and was finally incapacitated from holding any office of trust.
These two tendencies may well be said to be general instincts of humanity; because, though not always called into activity, they are always liable to be evoked, and in all ages and among all races they frequently have asserted themselves.
It is more liable to occur in the earlier than in the later months of pregnancy, and it would also appear to occur more readily at the periods corresponding to those of the menstrual discharge.
Malformations of the pelvis, accidental injuries and the diseases and displacements to which the uterus is liable, on the one hand; and, on the other, various morbid conditions of the ovum or placenta leading to the death of the foetus, are among the direct local causes.
By a deficiency in development of parenchyma and an increase in the mechanical tissue, leaves are liable to become hardened and spinescent.
It is especially liable to earthquakes.
1) says "everything that is eaten and is watched over and grows out of the ground is liable to tithe."
made any person refusing to set out tithes liable to pay double the value in the ecclesiastical court or treble in a common law court.
Commissioners (now the board of agriculture) are appointed to execute the acts; a rent charge on all lands liable to tithes at the time of the passing of the first act is substituted for those tithes, of which the gross amount is ascertained either by voluntary parochial agreement, or, failing that, by compulsory award confirmed by the commissioners; and the value of the tithes is fixed in the latter case by their average value in the particular parish during the seven years preceding Christmas 1835, without deduction for parochial or county and other rates, charges and assessments falling on tithes, the rent charge being liable to all the charges to which tithes were liable.
C. 93) a gross rent charge can be substituted for a commutation of tithes on common rights at a fixed sum per head; a gross rent charge made payable in respect of the tithes of a gated or stinted pasture rated to the relief of the poor may be apportioned thereupon and enforced in the method prescribed by the other Tithe Acts; a rent charge on commons may be commuted for part of the land or redeemed, if the landowners and persons liable for tithe so agree; and upon enclosure, a rate per head may be converted into a rent charge on the lands allotted.
Tithe rent charge under these acts is subject to the same liabilities and incidents as tithes, such as parliamentary, parochial, county and other rates, especially the poor rate and highway rate; but the owner of tithe rent charge attached to a benefice has been exempted by an act of 1899 from payment of half the amount of any rate which he would be liable to pay under the Agricultural Rates Act 1896, the other half being borne by the Inland Revenue Commissioners.
The landowner is made liable to pay the rent charge in spite of any contract to the contrary between him and the occupier; the rent charge if in arrear for three months is recoverable by an order of the county court, whatever its amount may be: if the land is occupied by the owner, the order is executed by the same means as those prescribed in the Tithe Acts; but if it is not, then by a receiver being appointed for the rents and profits of the land: neither landlord nor occupier is personally liable for payment; and appeal lies to the High Court on points of law; and a remission of rent charge may be claimed when its amount exceeds two-thirds of the annual value of the land.
It is, however, most liable to absorb moisture upon subsequent exposure.
Adult foreigners visiting the country are also liable to be attacked, and women, especially, rarely escape disfigurement if they stay in the country for any length of time.
No assessment can be levied on lands which have not been watered, and the law of Egypt requires that in order to render land liable to taxation the water during the Nile flood must have flowed naturally over it.
The area estimated from the whole three projects is 262,000 acres, situated in the only part of Burma that is considered liable to famine.
If the debtor broke his oath, he became liable to the discipline of the Church.
It is the most densely populated tract in India, and therefore always liable to famine; but it is now well protected almost everywhere by railways.
The quantities of such imported articles as are liable to duty have, indeed, been known for many years; and in 1872 official tables were compiled showing the value both of imports and of exports.
By the constitution of the 16th of April 1871 every German is liable to service and no substitution is allowed.
Often they were separated one from the other by large stretches of territory under the rule of a hostile prince and their trade was peculiarly liable to attack by an adventurous body of knights.
The masters were compelled to insure themselves against the payments for which they might become liable, and for this purpose had to form trades associations, self-governing societies, which in each district included all the masters for each particular trade.
The white breeds are liable to sun-scald, and black pigs (like black men) are much better adapted than white to exposure in strong sunlight, conforming to the rule that animals in the tropics have black skins.
It was ordained that the eldest born of the race should not enter the council-chamber; if he did so, he was liable to be seized and sacrificed if detected (Herodotus vii.
recruits liable to military service but in excess of the annual 103,000 enrollable by law) pending the adoption of the Army bills by the two parliaments.
The Cruelty to Animals Acts 1849 and 1854 render liable to prosecution and fine practically any act of cruelty to an animal; such acts as dubbing a cock, cropping the ears of a dog or dishorning cattle, are offences.
The Dogs Act 1865 rendered owners of dogs liable for injuries to cattle and sheep; the Dogs Act 1906 extended the owner's liability for injury done to any cattle by a dog, and further, where a dog is proved to have injured cattle or chased sheep it may be treated as a dangerous dog and must be kept under proper control or be destroyed.
Every man who could not purchase exemption, with the exception of those living in Cairo, Alexandria and Suez, on becoming 19 years old was liable nominally to 12 years service; but many men were kept for 30 or 40 years, in spite of constant appeals.
Army.The youth of Egypt was liable to be called upon for service in the field under the local chiefs.
When in the cell the assimilative processes exceed dissimilative, the external manifestations of energy are liable to cease or diminish.
Moreover, an elective monarchy implied that, at every fresh succession, the king was liable to be bound by a new Haandfaestning, or charter.
The plants included are, however, mainly well-established parasites, and the absence of nucellus is only one of those characters of reduction to which parasites are liable.
If he erred he was liable to prosecution, and even if the matter were passed by the Bureau he would not be relieved of the responsibility for infringement of the regulations, although the fact might be pleaded in mitigation.
This change, however, only applied to censorship by the Foreign Office, and messages were still liable to censorship from the point of view of other departments (Admiralty, War Office, Home Office or Treasury, for instance) consulted by the Press Bureau - a system which continued until 1919.
The climate is more severe than that of the sister peninsulas, and the temperature is liable to sudden changes.
We may infer, from its epithet, "Golden," that the external appearance of Antioch was magnificent; but the city needed constant restoration owing to the seismic disturbances to which the district has always been peculiarly liable.
All thallium compounds volatile or liable to dissociation at the temperature of the flame of a Bunsen lamp impart to such flame an intense green colour.
They were not intended, however, to answer the questionings of a 20thcentury European questioner, and are liable now to be misunderstood.
An adulterer was always liable to be killed by the aggrieved husband, or by some member of his clan.
If the culprit himself could not be reached, any member of the clan was liable to suffer in his stead.
As soon as possible after felling, logs by sawing into scantling sizes, for if the log is left to dry or season, it is liable on shrinking to split.
Elm is very liable to warp and shake, is porous and usually cross-grained.
The islands retain the exemption from direct taxation which they enjoyed under the British protectorate; in lieu of this there is an ad valorem tax of 202% on exported oil and a tax of 6% on wine exported to Greek ports; these commodities are further liable to an export duty of 12%, which is levied on all agricultural produce and articles of local manufacture for the maintenance and construction of roads.
These towns are situated in a valley on the Hunter River, which is liable to sudden floods, to guard against which the river is protected by stone embankments at West Maitland, while there are flood-gates at East Maitland.
Thus Satisfactions became not merely signs of sorrow but actual merits, which freed men from the need to undergo the temporal pains here and in purgatory which their sins had rendered them liable to.
Then he was liable to be seized and put to death as a pestilent heretic. There only remained to draft and publish the edict containing the ban.
They are on the whole carelessly made and maintained, and are liable to go badly and more or less permanently out of repair in heavy rain.
The lixiviation of the blackash requires great care, as the calcium sulphide is liable to be changed into soluble calcium compounds, which immediately react with sodium carbonate and destroy a corresponding quantity of the latter, rendering the soda weaker and impure.
Discouraged by the official authorities, and ever liable to banishment or deportation, they not only devoted themselves with courage to their special work of evangelization, but were also the first to study the vernacular dialects spoken by the common people.
In default of due payment, their lands were liable to be sold to the highest bidder.
If he failed to pay his rent, however excessive, his property was rendered liable to distraint and his person to imprisonment.
The rates thus ascertained are fixed for a term of thirty years; but during that period the aggregate rent-roll of a district is liable to be affected by several considerations.
The rate is a little more than 2l% on all incomes exceeding £133 a year, and a little more than 2% on incomes exceeding £66, the minimum income liable to assessment having been raised in 1903 from £33.
Other pulses, lentils, &c., are extensively grown, but the area under these crops is liable to great contraction in years of drought, as it consists for the most part of unirrigated lands.
The merest suspicion of unorthodox opinions, the possession of foreign newspapers, the wearing of a beard or an anonymous denunciation, sufficed for the arrest and condemnation of a man to years of imprisonment, while the attendibili, or persons under police surveillance liable to imprisonment without trial at any moment, numbered 50,000.
The determination of stellar parallaxes is a matter of great difficulty on account of the minuteness of the angle to be measured, for in no case does the parallax amount to I"; moreover, there is always an added difficulty in determining an annual change of position, for seasonal instrumental changes are liable to give rise to a spurious effect which will also have an annual period.
8 and II), and though much of his work is provisional, and perhaps liable to considerable revision of the when more extensive data are obtainable, it probably Stars.
Pelagius insisted that sin was an act, not a state, an abuse of the freedom of the will, and that each man was responsible and liable to punishment only for his own acts.
As personal dependents of the lord native villeins were liable to be sold, and we find actual sales recorded: Glastonbury Abbey e.g.
It is the same with all the recent attempts to extend the syllogism beyond its rules, which are not liable to exceptions, because they follow from the nature of syllogistic inference from universal to particular.
It is a heuristic process liable to failure, and its application by a nation of talkers even to physics where non-expert opinion is worthless somewhat discredited it.
We know that we need to pass from what Spinoza terms experientia y oga,' where imagination with its fragmentary apprehension is liable to error and neither necessity nor impossibility can be predicated, right up to that which fictionem terminat - namely, intellectio.
The waste of heat in the chimney gases is accordingly greater; and further, the metallic shell is liable to be quickly burned away as a result of its contact at a high temperature with free oxygen.
Without preheating the expanding air becomes so cold as to be liable to deposit snow from the moisture held in suspension, and thereby to clog the valves.
The method of deducing the specific heat from Regnault's formula for the variation of the total heat is evidently liable in a greater degree to the objections which have been urged against his method of determining the specific heat, since it makes the value of the specific heat depend on small differences of total heat observed under conditions of greater difficulty at various pressures.
The metal is prepared by distilling the carbonate with carbon (an explosive compound similar to that obtained from potassium and carbon monoxide is liable to be formed simultaneously); by reducing the hydroxide with aluminium: 4RbOH+2A1=Rb 2 O Al203+2Rb+2H2 (N.
Among the other indications of great geological disturbances on the Pacific Coast may also be mentioned the earthquakes to which California like the rest of the coast is liable.
The mineral is especially liable to surface alteration, tarnishing with beautiful iridescent colours; a blue colour usually predominates, owing probably to the alteration of the chalcopyrite to covellite (CuS).
Grafted filberts are less liable than others to be encumbered by suckers at the root.
Some valuable tobacco land, which, however, is somewhat liable to flood, and some remarkable burial-caves are found in the valley of the Kinabatangan.
Great discoveries in Cappadocia, Assyria and Egypt were then only at their beginning, and any statement was liable to be quickly disproved by the appearance of new evidence.
Herein it differs notably from other exotic diseases liable to similar diffusion.
In plague countries the diseases with which it is most liable to be confounded are malaria, relapsing fever and typhus, or broncho-pneumonia in pneumonic cases.
By the Venice convention a number of articles of merchandise are classed as susceptible and liable to be refused admission, but the only ones which there is any reason to consider dangerous are used clothing and rags.
The Cydnus is liable to floods, and its deposits have covered Roman Tarsus to a depth of 20 ft.
The climate of the district is liable to extremes, being very cold in the winter and excessively hot in the summer.
The notion that ancient burial mounds were liable to be inhabited by dragons was common in the Germanic world: there is perhaps a trace of it in the Derbyshire place-name Drakelow, which means " dragon's barrow."
They are therefore liable to be modified from time to time, or to be superseded by more convenient or more comprehensive modes of statement.
This curve, bein~ an asymptote to its axis, is capable of being indefinitely proloi~ged towards X; but in designing pivots it should stop before the angle PTY becomes less than the angle of repose of the rubbing surfaces, otherwise the pivot will be liable to stick in its bearing.
Yet violations of these rules are jealously watched by the other members of the sept, and are liable - in accordance with the general custom in which communal matters are regulated in India - to be brought before a special council (panchayat), originally consisting of five (pancha), but now no longer limited to that number, since it is chiefly the greater or less strictness in the observance of caste rules and the orthodox ceremonial generally that determine the status of the sept in the social scale of the caste.
Chief amongst these are the Brahmans who minister for" unclean "Sudras and lower castes, including the makers and dealers in spirituous liquors; as well as those who officiate at the great public shrines or places of pilgrimage where they might be liable to accept forbidden gifts, and, as a matter of fact, often amass considerable wealth; and those who officiate as paid priests at cremations and funeral rites, when the wearing apparel and bedding of the deceased are not unfrequently claimed by them as their perquisites.
What it did make impossible for him was to attain that union immediately on the cessation of his present life, as he would first have to pass through higher and purer stages of mundane existence before reaching that goal; but in this respect he only shared the lot of all but a very few of the saintliest in the higher spheres of life, since the ordinary twice-born would be liable to sink, after his present life, to grades yet lower than that of the Sudra.
If the worship of Siva, despite the purport of his chief symbol, seems on the whole less liable to produce these undesirable effects than that of the rival deity, it is doubt- less due partly to the real nature of that emblem being little realized by the common people, and partly to the somewhat repellent character of the "great god," more favourable to evoking feelings of awe and terror than a spirit of fervid devotion.
They are then dried and put up for preservation in glass-stoppered bottles; and they require to be very carefully guarded against mites and various other minute insects, to the attacks of which they are peculiarly liable.
The latter obscurity results either from coalescence, to which all joints and segments are liable, or from subdivision, which occasionally affects joints even in the trunk-legs.
And it suggests that the insurer is not liable for salvage where the policy is free of particular average, which does not accord with practice.
He had insured the cargo but not the ship. The cargo underwriters were held liable to pay a contribution to damage done to the ship by cutting away masts for the general safety.
" Bishops and rectors were made elective, with salaries paid by the state; and all priests were required to take an oath of fidelity to the government: those who refused the oath rendered themselves liable to banishment.
Sweet wines, which are liable to fret, are more highly and frequently sulphured than dry wines.
In the case of Rhine wines it is between 20 and 25° C. If the temperatures rise above this, the fermentation is liable to be too rapid, too much alcohol is formed at a relatively early stage, and the result is that the fermentation ceases before the whole of the sugar has been transformed.
Wines which have received a check of this description during the main fermentation are very liable to bacterial troubles and frets.
Thus in parts of California, where high temperatures are liable to prevail during the vintage, the system - first employed in Algeria - of cooling the must during fermentation to the proper temperature by means of a series of pipes in which iced water circulates is now largely employed.
The process is tedious, the resulting fibre is brown in colour, and it is said to be peculiarly liable to undergo heating (probably owing to the soft heavy quality of the flax) if exposed to moisture and kept close packed with little access of air.
Foreigners are liable to all the above taxes except the military exemption tax.
the, arungquiltha of Central Australia; and here, we may note, we come nearest to a conception of magic as something other than religion, the trafficker in arungquiltha being socially suspect, nay, liable to persecution, and even death (as amongst the Arunta tribe, see Spencer and Gillen, Native Tribes of C. Australia, 536), at the hands of his fellows.
Lest our picture of primitive religion appear too brightly coloured, a word must be said on the perversions to which the exploitation of the sacred is liable.
Muffle furnaces are suitable for fine ores which are liable to decrepitate or sinter.
The methods by which such results are to be obtained cannot, however, as yet be practised economically on a working scale; one great difficulty in applying them to the refining of metals is that the jets of liquid would be liable to carry with them articles of anode mud, and Swan has shown that the presence of solid particles in the electrolyte is one of the most fruitful causes of the well-known nodular growths on electrodeposited copper.
In this process the anode solution had to be kept separate from the cathode solution, and the membrane which had in consequence to be used, was liable to become torn, and so to cause trouble by permitting the two solutions to mix.
The domestic Indian buffalo (Bos bubalus) exists as a wild animal in North Australia; it is very liable to revert to a wild state, being little altered from its still-existing wild ancestor.
The channels of some of the hill streams, however, are of so little depth that the highest lands in their neighbourhood are liable to sudden floods.
These lands are very extensive, and present every degree of fertility and elevation, from the vast chars of pure sand, subject to annual inundations, to the firm islands, so raised by drift-sand and the accumulated remains of rank vegetable matter, as no longer to be liable to flood.
Assam is liable to earthquakes.
under contract deserting are liable to fine and imprisonment, and, subject to certain restrictions, may be arrested without warrant by their employers.
Section A, which receives extra allowances, is liable to be called up in a minor emergency; section B is the general reserve; section C, also part of the general reserve, consists of men who have been sent to the reserve prematurely; section D (which is often suspended) consists of men who at the expiry of their twelve years' engagement undertake a further four years' reserve liability.
It was probably mainly on account of this money-lending that the Jews were so heartily detested and liable to such gross ill-treatment by the people.
The private forests are protected from abuse chiefly by the important legislation of 1903, which prescribes penalties for excessive lumbering and any action liable to endanger the regrowth of wood.
establishing, at the urgent suggestion of Charles, a regular army; each district in the country being henceforward liable to provide and maintain a fixed number of infantry and cavalry for the service of the state.
in exchange for a compensation of ninety days' drill for those liable to military service, proposed to retain the old military system of the country and to strengthen the defences of Norrland, and the government bill for a reorganization of the army was accepted by the Riksdag in an extraordinary session.
P. sylvestris in Britain is liable to many insect depredations: the pine-chafer, Hylurgus piniperda, is destructive in some places, the larva of this beetle feeding on the young succulent shoots, especially in young plantations; Hylobius abietis, the fir-weevil, eats away the bark, and numerous lepidopterous larvae devour the leaves; the pine-sawfly is also injurious in some seasons; the removal of all dead branches from the trees and from the ground beneath them is recommended, as most of these insects lay their eggs among the decaying bark and dead leaves.
The wood of the white pine is durable for indoor use, especially when protected by paint, but when exposed to moist air it rapidly decays, and it is very liable to dry rot; it is said to be best when grown on sandy soils.
Natural beds of oysters occur on stony and shelly bottoms at depths varying from 3 to 20 fathoms. In nature the beds are liable to variations, and, although Huxley was somewhat sceptical on this point, it seems that they are easily brought into an unproductive condition by over-dredging.
3 (1690), which makes an offender liable for treble damages.
The places mentioned are all suitable for persons suffering from chronic bronchitis, who should avoid any irritation of the larynx, trachea or bronchi by air which is too dry or which is liable to great changes of temperature.
The crystals of octahedral borax fuse more easily than those of the prismatic form and are less liable to split when heated, so that they are preferable for soldering or fluxing.
The name given to intermittent streams liable to sudden freshets.
Moreover, though the farmers might leave British territory they were still held to be liable to the jurisdiction of British courts.
The two areas thus became an international settlement, and the subjects of all three nationalities - the only powers then interested - acquired the same privileges and became liable to the same burdens.
Having effected this reduction, and computed the correction to be applied to the observation in order to eliminate all known errors to which the instrument is liable, the work of the practical astronomer is completed.
A law passed in May 1908 against nepotism (closely following the Texas law of 1907) forbids public officers to appoint (or vote for) any person related to them by affinity or consanguinity within the third degree to any position in the government of which they are a part; makes persons thus related to public officers ineligible to positions in the branch in which their relative is an official; and renders any official making such an appointment liable to fine and removal from office.
Petrels are archaic oceanic forms, with great powers of flight, dispersed throughout all the seas and oceans of the world, and some species apparently never resort to land except for the purpose of nidification, though nearly all are liable at times to be driven ashore, and often very far inland, by gales of wind.'
With reference to the case in which the parties to the first marriage have been divorced, it may be observed that no sentence or act of any foreign country dissolving a vinculo a marriage contracted in England by persons continuing to be domiciled in England, for grounds on which it is not liable to be dissolved a vinculo in England will be recognized as a divorce (R.
This singular association of lay and spiritual powers was liable to the abuse of allowing the whole succession to fall into lay hands, as happened to a large extent in later times.
Again, such tribal forces were only levies gathered together for a few weeks at most, unprovided with military stores or the means of transport, and consequently generally unprepared to attack fortifications of any kind,' and liable to melt away as quickly as they were gathered together.
The portions of the tribe-land were not occupied for a fixed term, as the land of the sept was liable to gavelkind or redistribution from time to time.
In February 1893, on the application of the sheriff of Kerry, an order from Dublin Castle, refusing protection, was pronounced illegal in the Queen's Bench, and persons issuing it were declared liable to criminal prosecution.
The county in which the crime occurs is, without regard to the conduct of the officers, liable in damages of not less than $2000 to the legal representative of the person lynched; the county is authorized, however, to recover this amount from the persons engaged in the lynching.
An act of indemnity is a statute passed for the purpose either of relieving persons from disabilities and penalties to which they have rendered themselves liable or to make legal transactions which, when they took place, were illegal.
In the Karst it is liable to sudden and violent changes, and especially to the bora, a fierce N.N.E.
traverses a vast marshy level during which its course is liable to blocking by floating vegetation.
The following list, therefore, must be regarded as purely tentative, and liable to correction in the light of fuller information: -
The sensitiveness of the instrument depends upon the exactness of the sensitive tint, when the colour of the two halves of the field are the same, and this is liable to be upset by absorption in the substance under investigation.
On the other hand, the eastern part of this zone is the part of Spain which is liable to be visited from time to time by the scorching leveche, the name given in Spain to the sirocco, as well as by the solano, a moist and less noxious east wind.
the secon.d-class reserve, which contains the surplus of the annual contingent of recruits, and is liable to one months training in.
and consequently becomes liable to be confounded with the infinitive (amar, render, partir).
Nevertheless civil servants gradually replaced military officers in the work of administration, army officers being liable to be suddenly removed for war or other service, often at times when the presence of officials possessed of local experience was most important.
An animal ought to be in good condition when being broken in, else it is liable to break out in unpleasant ways when it becomes high-spirited as a result of improved condition.
It should be well but not overfed, and while young not overworked, as an overtired animal is liable to refuse to pull, and thus contract a bad habit.
Boiled food of any kind is unnatural to a horse, and is risky to give, being liable to produce colic, especially if the animal bolts its food when hungry, although it generally produces a glossy coat.
Too much linseed, often used in preparing horses for market, gives a similar appearance, but is liable to induce fatty degeneration of the liver; given in moderation it regulates the bowels and stimu