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lhasa

lhasa

lhasa Sentence Examples

  • Odoric set out on his travels about 1318, and his journeys embraced parts of India, the Malay Archipelago, China and even Tibet, where he was the first European to enter Lhasa, not yet a forbidden city.

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  • In 1715 Fathers Desideri and Freyre made their way from Agra, across the Himalayas, to Lhasa, and the Capuchin Friar Orazio della Penna resided in that city from 1735 until 1747.

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  • He left Holland in 1718, went by land through Persia to India, and eventually made his way to Lhasa, where he resided for a long time.

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  • He went thence to China, returned to Lhasa, and was in India in time to be an eye-witness of the sack of Delhi by Nadir Shah in 1737.

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  • Krishna's remarkable journey in 1879-1882 extended from Lhasa northwards through Tsaidam to Sachu, or Saitu, in Mongolia.

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  • He subsequently passed through eastern Tibet to the town of Darchendo, or Tachienlu, on the high road between Lhasa and Peking, and on the borders of China.

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  • Failing to reach India through Upper Assam he returned to the neighbourhood of Lhasa, and crossed the Himalayas by a more westerly route.

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  • Both these explorers visited Lhasa.

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  • He penetrated southwards to within a month's march of Lhasa.

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  • Bonvalot, accompanied by Prince Henri d'Orleans, crossed the Tibetan plateau from north to south, but failed to enter Lhasa.

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  • Rockhill, commenced his Tibetan journeys, and also attempted to reach Lhasa, without success.

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  • He, too, failed to penetrate the jealouslyguarded portals of Lhasa; but he secured (with the assistance of a native surveyor) a splendid addition to our previous Tibetan mapping.

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  • Littledale's first journey ended at Peking; his second, in 1894-1895, took him almost within sight of the sacred walls of Lhasa, but he failed to pass inside.

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  • The mission of Sir Francis Younghusband to Lhasa in 1904 resulted in an extension of the Indian system of triangulation which finally determined the geographical position of that city, and in a most valuable reconnaissance of the valleys of the Upper Brahmaputra and Indus by Captains C. H.

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  • Bulldog, bulldog (miniature), mastiff, Great Dane, Newfoundland (black, white and black, or other than black), St Bernard (rough and smooth), Old English sheepdog, collie (rough and smooth), Dalmatian, poodle, bull terrier, white English terrier, black and tan terrier, toy spaniel (King Charles or black and tan, Blenheim, ruby or red and tricolour), Japanese, Pekingese, Yorkshire terrier, Maltese, Italian greyhound, chowchow, black and tan terrier (miniature), Pomeranian, pug (fawn and black), Schipperke, Griffon Bruxellois, foreign dogs (bouledogues frangais, elk-hounds, Eskimos, Lhasa terriers, Samoyedes and any other varieties not mentioned under this heading).

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  • of its course), and the Raka Tsanpo and Kyi-chu (or river of Lhasa) below.

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  • The great river itself is known in Tibet by many names, being generally called the Nari Chu, Maghang Tsanpo or Yaro Tsanpo, above Lhasa; the word " tsanpo " (tsang-po) meaning (according to Waddell) the " pure one," and applying to all great rivers.

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  • The upper reaches are nowhere fordable between Tadum and Lhasa, but there is a ferry at Likche (opposite Tadum on the southern bank), where wooden boats covered with hide effect the necessary connexion between the two banks and ensure the passage of the Nepal trade.

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  • From Shigatse, which stands near the mouth of the Nyang Chu, to the Kyi-chu, or Lhasa river, there is no direct route, the river being unnavigable below Shigatse.

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  • Thence the valley of the Kyi-chu (itself navigable for small boats for about 30 m.) leads to Lhasa northwards.

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  • Throughout the greater part of its course in Tibet, where it is called the Dza-Chu, it flows south-eastwards to Chiamdo, on the great east and west caravan route from China to Lhasa.

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  • The second river in the province in point of size is the Salween, a huge river, believed from the volume of its waters to rise in the Tibetan mountains to the north of Lhasa.

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  • Rather than encounter alone the horrors of a four months' journey to Lhasa they resolved to wait for eight months till the arrival of a Tibetan embassy on its return from Peking.

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  • Crossing the deserts of Koko Nor, they passed the great lake of that name, with its island of contemplative lamas, and, following a difficult and tortuous track across snow-covered mountains, they at last entered Lhasa on the 29th of January 1846.

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  • The Tibetans call their country Bod, which (For the northern part, see China) Scale, 1:9.500.000 0 Railways Longitude East 85 of Greenwich word in colloquial pronunciation is aspirated into Bhod or Bhot, and in the modern Lhasa dialect is curtailed into Bho.

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  • The lake region is noted for a vast number of hot springs, which are widely distributed between the Himalayas and 34° N., but are most numerous to the west of Tengri Nor (north-west of Lhasa).

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  • The northern portion of Tibet is an arid and wind-swept desert; but in the southern portion the valleys of Lhasa, Shigatse, Gyantse and the Brahmaputra are covered with good soil and groves of trees, well irrigated, and richly cultivated.

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  • The observations of Strachey, Godwin-Austen and of Griesbach and other members of the Geological Survey of India only extend to the southern edge or rim of the great plateau, where vast alluvial deposits in horizontal strata have been furrowed into deep ravines, while Russian explorers have but superficially examined the mountain regions of the north and north-east, and the British mission to Lhasa, in 1904 afforded observations merely along the trade-route to that city.

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  • Between the Ladak frontier and Lhasa the plateau region teems with evidences of abandoned mines.

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  • Here, at an elevation of 15,000 ft., about the great Lake Dangra, we hear of well-built villages and of richly cultivated fields of barley, indicating a condition of climate analogous to that which prevails in the districts south of Lhasa, and in contrast to the sterility of the lake region generally and the nomadic character of its population.

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  • Our knowledge of the flora of northern and central Tibet has been considerably increased by the collections of Prjevalsky, Wellby, Bower, Thorold, Littledale and the Lhasa Mission, and that of eastern Tibet by Rockhill.

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  • The peculiar form of tussocky grass which prevails in the Pamirs is the characteristic feature of the Tibetan Chang-t'ang of the Tsaidam plains and of the bogs north-east of Lhasa.

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  • A few localities in the extreme southern portions of the country, and around Lhasa possibly, are said to produce a non-glutinous variety of rice.

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  • Waddell gives a list of 164 species of plants collected by him at Lhasa, several being new species.

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  • The little that was known of the Tibetan language before Hodgson's time was mainly derived from the writings of the Romish friars who resided for several years in Lhasa in the first half of the 18th century.'

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  • This scholarly linguist, equipped with modern methods of scientific research, did not confine himself to the classical period like Csoma, but extended his ' The Capuchin friars who were settled in Lhasa for a quarter of a century from 1719 studied the language; two of them, Francisco Orazio della Penna, well known from his accurate description of Tibet, and Cassian di Macerata sent home materials which were utilized by the Augustine friar Aug.

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  • Bell (Calcutta, 1905), which has full English-Tibetan vocabularies, graduated exercises and examples in the Lhasa dialect of to-day.

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  • The question has turned mainly upon the elucidation of the phenomenon of the silent letters, generally prefixed, which differentiate the spelling of many words from their pronunciation, in the central dialect or current speech of Lhasa.

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  • In the 9th century, as shown by the bilingual Tibeto-Chinese edict at Lhasa, there was relatively little difference between the spoken and the written language.

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  • An inhabitant of Lhasa, for example, finds the distinction between s and z', or between s and z, not in the consonant, but in the tone, pronouncing s' and s with a high note and z' and z with a low one.

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  • In the bilingual inscriptions, Tibetan and Chinese, set up at Lhasa in 822, and published by Bushell in 1880, we remark that the silent letters were pronounced: Tib.

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  • In Khamdo, but subject to the direct rule of Lhasa, are several small districts, the principal are Nyarong, Tsarong, and Mar Khams or " Lower Khamdo."

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  • For convenience of classification we may include in Khamdo a long strip of country extending along the northern border of the Lhasa territory of Lhorong jong and Larego as far as Tengri Nor, and bounded to the north by the Dang-la mountains, which is designated by Tibetans as Gyade or " the Chinese province."

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  • This strip of country has its: own native chiefs, but is' under the control of a high Manchu officer stationed at Lhasa, known colloquially as the " superintendent of savage tribes."

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  • It includes Lhasa and a large number of outlying districts in south-eastern Tibet, such as Po, Pemakoichen, Zayul.

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  • (4) The fourth division of Tibet, called Tsang, includes all south-west Tibet from the Lhasa or Central province to the Indian frontier as far as Lake Manasarowar.

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  • Tsang and Nari are under the rule of Lhasa, all the high civil and military authorities in these provinces holding their offices from it.

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  • Though the whole of Tibet is under the suzerainty of China, the government of the country is divided into two distinct administrations, the one under the rule of the Dalai lama of Lhasa, the other under local kings or chiefs, and comprising a number of ecclesiastical fiefs.

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  • Both are directed and controlled by the high Chinese officials residing at Lhasa, Sining Fu; and the capital of the Chinese province of Szechuen.

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  • The part of Tibet under the rule of Lhasa, by far the largest and wealthiest, includes the central province of V, Tsang, Nari and a number of large outlying districts in southern and even in eastern Tibet.

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  • The central government of this part of the country is at Lhasa; the nominal head is the Dalai lama or grand lama.

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  • There is also a Tsong-du or National Assembly, divided into a greater assembly, including all government officials, and called together only to decide on matters of supreme importance, and a lesser assembly, consisting of certain high officials of Lhasa, noblemen, and delegates from the monasteries of Debung, Sera and Galdan, and fairly constantly in session.

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  • The taxes paid to the Lhasa government are mostly in kind, sheep, ponies, meal, butter, wool, native cloth, &c., and the coin paid is said to be about 130,000 ounces of silver a year.

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  • Chandra Das states that the crown revenues of Lhasa amount to about 2,000,000 rupees annually.

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  • The administrative subdivisions of the Lhasa country, of which there are fifty-four, are called jong, or " prefecture," each of which is under the rule of two jong-pon, the one a lama, the other a layman.

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  • They collect all taxes, are responsible for the levy of troops, the courier service, corvees, &c., and exercise judicial functions, corresponding directly with Lhasa.

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  • The great trade routes are, first, that which, starting from Cheng-tu, the capital of the Chinese province of Szechuen, passes by way of Tachienlu or Dartsedo, Litang, Batang, Chiamdo, Larego, Lhasa, Gyantse, Shigatse, reaches the Nepalese Routes, &C. frontier at Nielam and goes thence to Katmandu.

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  • Minor roads go from Sining Fu in the Chinese province of Kansuh via Tsaidam and the Tang la pass to Nagchuka and Lhasa.

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  • From this point it leads to Riwoche, and then through Gyade or Chinese province to Nagchuka and Lhasa.

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  • The most direct route from India to Lhasa, and that most frequented by the traders of Lhasa, is by the Chumbi Valley, and was followed by the British Mission.

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  • It crosses the Himalayas by the Tang Pass (15,200 ft.), and thence proceeds via Gyantse (13,200 ft.) and the Kharo Pass (16,500 ft.), Yamdok Lake (15,000) to the Tsang-po (12,100 ft.), and crossing the river winds up along the Kyi Chu, on which Lhasa stands, 33 m.

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  • From Katmandu, the capital of Nepal, a difficult mountain route runs by Kirong to the No la (16,600 ft.), descending from which pass it strikes the Tsangpo about midway between Lhasa and Lake Manasarowar.

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  • It continues through the central lake district to Tengri Nor and Lhasa.

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  • According to a summary furnished by Lieut.-Colonel Waddell (Lhasa and its Mysteries), the chief imports from China are silk, carpets, porcelain and tea-bricks.

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  • In the market at Lhasa opium sells for its weight in silver.

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  • Ingots of Chinese silver were sent from Lhasa with a small proportion of gold dust, and an equal weight in mohurs was returned, leaving to the Nepal rajahs, between gold dust and alloy, a good profit.

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  • The Gurkhas, after becoming masters of Nepal, were anxious to renew the profitable traffic in coin, and in this view sent a deputation to Lhasa with a quantity of coin to be put in circulation.

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  • This brought the intervention of the Chinese, who drove the Gurkhas out of Tibet (1792), and then began to strike silver coins for Lhasa use, bearing Chinese and Tibetan characters.

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  • Friar Odoric of Pordenone is supposed to have reached Lhasa c. 1328, travelling from Cathay; but this visit is doubtful.

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  • On the strength of certain statements in the narrative of Fernao Mendes Pinto, some authorities hold that he may have visited Lhasa in the course of his journeys in the middle of the 16th century.

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  • The Jesuit Antonio Andrada, a native of Portugal (1580-1634), travelling from India, appears to have entered Tibet on the west, in the Manasarowar Lake region, and made his way across to Tangut and north-western China; in 1661 the Jesuit fathers Johann Grueber (an Austrian) and Albert D 'Orville (a Belgian) travelled from Peking via Tangut to Lhasa, and thence through Nepal to India.

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  • During the first half of the 18th century various Capuchin friars appear to have passed freely between Calcutta and Lhasa (1708) by way of Nepal.

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  • They even founded a mission in Lhasa, which, after failing at first, was more firmly established in 1715 and lasted till 1733.

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  • In 1716 two Jesuits, P. Ipolito Desideri, of Pistoia, and P. Freyre, a Portuguese, reached Lhasa by way of Kashmir, Ladak, and the enormous journey from Ladak by the holy lakes and the valley of the Tsangpo.

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  • Desideri remained at Lhasa till April 1721, witnessing the capture of Lhasa successively by Dzungar and Chinese.

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  • of Leiden, whose thirst for travel carried him through India to Lhasa (1730), where he is said to have resided a long time, to have acquired the language, and to have become intimate with some of the lamas.

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  • After travelling from Lhasa to Peking with a lama mission he returned, again by Lhasa, to India, and was an eyewitness of the sack of Delhi by Nadir Shah in 1737.

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  • In1811-1812the first English visit to Lhasa occurred.

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  • He actually did reach Lhasa, stayed there about five months, and had several interviews with the Dalai lama, but was compelled to return to India.

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  • But the Abbe Huc states that William Moorcroft, an Englishman who made a journey into Tibet in the neighbourhood of Lake Manasarowar in 1812, and another into Kashgar in 1824, lived in Lhasa for twelve years disguised as a Mussulman.

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  • He was supposed to have died on the Afghan frontier in 1825 on his second journey; but if Huc's story is true he reached Lhasa in 1826, and did not leave it till 1838, being assassinated on his homeward journey, when maps and drawings were found on him, and his identity was for the first time suspected by the Tibetans.

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  • In1844-1846the French missionaries, Evariste Regis Huc and Joseph Gabet, made their way to Lhasa from China.

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  • They travelled from China the route followed by Grueber and by Van de Putte, via Siningfu, and reached Lhasa on the 29th of January 1846.

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  • It was Ke-shen, a wellknown Chinese statesman, who was disgraced for making, peace with the English at Canton in 1841, and was then on a special deputation to Lhasa, who ostensibly expelled them.

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  • In 1866 the Abbe Desgodins travelled through portions of eastern Tibet and reached Chiamdo (in Kham), but was prevented from approaching any closer to Lhasa.

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  • In the first, after an ineffectual attempt by Nepal, he travelled by the Manasarowar Lake, and the road thence eastward, parallel to the course of the Tsangpo, reaching Lhasa on the 10th of January 1866, and leaving it on the 21st of April 1867.

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  • On the second journey (1874) he started from Ladak, crossing the vast and elevated plateau by the Tengri Nor and other great lakes, and again reaching Lhasa on the 18th of November.

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  • In 1878 A.-K also revisited Lhasa, stayed a year, and afterwards continued into Tsaidam, not returning to India till 1882.

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  • This was the opportunity for a series of valuable exploratory journeys through the Tibetan provinces adjoining the Indian and Nepalese frontiers, which added greatly to our stock of information about Lhasa and the districts surrounding that city.

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  • He managed, nevertheless, to extricate himself, and turning north-eastwards he passed through Chetang, and reached Lhasa by way of Samye monastery.

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  • Chandra Das made a second journey in 1881, with the intention of reaching Lhasa.

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  • He travelled by way of Tashilhunpo, lay dangerously ill for some time at Samding monastery, duly reached Lhasa, where he visited the Dalai Lama, but owing to small-pox in the city could remain there only a fortnight, though he made full use of this time.

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  • It was when setting out in 1888 to make an attempt to reach Lhasa that he died.

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  • At this point Bower was stopped by some of the headmen of the Tibetan pastoral tribes (here under the rule of Lhasa), and obliged to make a long circuit to the north well out of Lhasa territory, and then eastward - till he struck the road to Chiamdo through Gyade or Chinese Tibet.

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  • From this point she seems to have followed the Chiamdo road to near that town, when she turned westwards and continued in that direction till she came on the high road from Lhasa to Sining Fu somewhere north of Nagchuka.

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  • Here, like all other European travellers who have tried to reach Lhasa from the north, she was stopped by the Lhasan authorities.

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  • Dutreuil de Rhins and Fernand Grenard, both Frenchmen, left Cherchen, with Lhasa as their objective.

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  • Here they were finally stopped by the Tibetans, and after a delay of six weeks passed in vain attempts to obtain permission to go to Lhasa, they were only allowed to proceed to Nagchuka on the Sining-Lhasa road, and to continue by the Gyade route to Yekundo, near the upper Dre chu, and thence to Sining in Kansuh.

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  • Pushing rapidly on in the direction of Lhasa, when not over 50 m.

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  • In 1898 a Dutch missionary in China named Rijnhart started with his wife from the vicinity of Koko Nor, with the intention of reaching Lhasa, but at the upper Mekong, to the east-north-east of the city, he was murdered, and 1898.

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  • On his final penetration southward, arriving within fourteen days of Lhasa, he left the bulk of his caravan and pushed rapidly on towards that city, but was stopped when about five days from it (Aug.

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  • He took up his residence in the Yarlung country south of Lhasa.

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  • Mang-srong mang tsan, the second son and successor of Srong tsan gam-po, continuing the conquests of his father, subdued the Tukuhun Tatars around the Koko-Nor in 663, and attacked the Chinese; after some adverse fortune the latter took their revenge and penetrated as far as Lhasa, where they burnt the royal palace (Yumbu-lagang).

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  • In this reign a severe struggle took place with China, peace being concluded in 821 at Ch'ang-ngan and ratified at Lhasa the following year by the erection of bilingual tablets, which still exist.

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  • The first and fourth became masters of Tsangrong, the second, took possession of Amdo and Tsongkha, the third became king of U (or the central Lhassan province), and removed the capital to Yarlung, south of Lhasa.

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  • This lama was Sodnam rGyamtso, the third successor of Gedundub, the founder of the Tashilhunpo monastery in 1447, who had been elected to the more important abbotship of Galdan near Lhasa, and was thus the first of the great, afterwards Dalai, lamas.

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  • In1872-1873some attempt was made by Indian officials to open up trade with Tibet; further attempts followed in 1884, and in 1886 a mission was .organized to proceed to Lhasa.

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  • A lama, a Mongolian Buriat by birth and a Russian subject, whose Russianized name was Dorjiev, had come to Lhasa about 1880.

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  • When subsequently visiting Russia, he appears to have drawn the attention of the authorities towards Tibet as a field for their statecraft, and he established himself as the unofficial representative of Russia in Lhasa.

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  • He therefore sent a representative of high rank, who had audience of the tsar, and returned with proposals for a treaty and for the residence of a Russian royal prince in Lhasa in order to promote friendly relations.

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  • But both the Chinese authorities in Lhasa and the Tsong-du were averse from any such proceedings.

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  • Russian arms had been imported into Lhasa.

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  • In fact the advance to Lhasa, resumed after the storming of the Gyantse Jong (fort) on the" 6th of July, met with comparatively little opposition, and the capital was reached on the 3rd of August.

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  • The expedition left Lhasa on the 23rd of September and reached India again at the close of the following month.

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  • The Anglo-Russian convention of 1907 determined the following conditions with respect to Tibet - the recognition of the suzerain rights of China and the territorial and administrative integrity of the country; that no official representative at Lhasa should be appointed either by England or by Russia, and that no concessions for railways, mines, &c., should be sought by either power.

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  • When the Dalai Lama attempted to give orders that they should cease, the Chinese amban in Lhasa disputed his authority, and summoned the Chinese troops to enter the city.

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  • Asiatic Soc. (1891); Notes on the Ethnology of Tibet (Washington, 1895); Chandra Das, Journey to Lhasa and Central Tibet (London, 1899); G.

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  • Journal (1894); Lhasa and its Mysteries (London, 1905); Sir R.

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  • Candler, The Unveiling of Lhasa (London, 1905); P. Landon, Lhasa (London, 1905); W.

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  • In Mongolia and other parts of Central Asia tea is made into a kind of soup, somewhat on the lines of the following written regarding tea in Tibet by Colonel Waddell in his book Lhasa and its Mysteries.

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  • In addition, after making careful inquiry through various commissions, he reformed the systems of education and police, laid down a comprehensive scheme of irrigation, improved the leave rules and the excessive report-writing of the civil service, encouraged the native princes by the formation of the Imperial Cadet Corps and introduced many other reforms. His term of office was also notable for the coronation durbar at Delhi in January 1903, the expedition to Lhasa in 1904, which first unveiled that forbidden city to European gaze, and the partition of Bengal in 1905.

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  • Lhasa >>

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  • Deposits of purer material (chic 'sale or water borax) occur at the lakes of Rudok, situated to the east of the Pugha district; also still farther to the east at the great lakes Tengri Nor, north of Lhasa, and several other places.

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  • Littledale, du Rhins and Bonvalot may have stood on it as they looked southwards towards Lhasa, but for some Soo or 600 m.

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  • Nor can it be said to be as yet well defined to the east of Lhasa.

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  • North of Bhutan, between the Himalayan crest and Lhasa, this formation is approximately maintained; farther east, although the same natural forces first resulted in the same effect of successive folds of the earth's crust, forming extensive curves of ridge and furrow, the abundant rainfall and the totally distinct climatic conditions which govern the processes of denudation subsequently led to the erosion of deeper valleys enclosed between forest-covered ranges which rise steeply from the river banks.

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  • J Y Y explored from Lhasa to the sources of the Brahmaputra and Indus, at the conclusion of the Tibetan mission in 1904, conclusively prove that Mount Everest, which appears from the Tibetan plateau as a single dominating peak, has no rival amongst Himalayan altitudes, whilst the very remarkable investigations made by permission of the Nepal durbar from peaks near Kathmandu in 1903, by Captain Wood, R.E., not only place the Everest group apart from other peaks with which they have been confused by scientists, isolating them in the topographical system of Nepal, but clearly show that there is no one dominating and continuous range indicating a main Himalayan chain which includes both Everest and Kinchinjunga.

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  • He was the founder of the present capital of Tibet, now known as Lhasa; and in the year 622 (the same year as that in which Mahomet fled from Mecca) he began the formal introduction of Buddhism into Tibet.

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  • These are the cloisters of La Brang (Jokhang) and Ra Moche, still, though much changed and enlarged, the most sacred abbeys in Tibet, and the glory of Lhasa.

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  • The most distinguished of those who came The were Santa Rakshita, Padma Sambhava and Kamala Sila, for whom, and for their companions, the king built a splendid monastery still existing, at Samje, about three days' journey south-east of Lhasa.

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  • teacher and reformer in Lhasa, and before his death in 1419 there were three huge monasteries there containing 30,000 of his disciples, besides others in other parts of the country.

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  • These two leaders were then known as the Dalai Lama and the Pantshen Lama, and were the abbots of the great monasteries at Gedun Dubpa, near Lhasa, and at Tashi Lunpo, in Farther Tibet, respectively.

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  • On his second journey in 1877, while endeavouring to reach Lhasa through east Turkestan, he re-discovered the great lake Lop-nor, which had not been visited by any European since Marco Polo.

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  • from Lhasa, when he was turned back by order of the Dalai Lama.

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  • In September 1888 he started on a fifth expedition, intending 4 to reach Lhasa, but on the 1st of November he died at Karakol on Lake Issyk-kul.

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  • lower; but the observations of Captain Wood from peaks near Khatmandu, in Nepal, and those of the same officer, and of Major Ryder, from the route between Lhasa and the sources of the Brahmaputra in 1904, have definitely fixed the relative position of the two mountain masses, and conclusively proved that there is no higher peak than Everest in the Himalayan system.

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  • We spend three days guided sightseeing in Lhasa, acclimatizing to the altitude of the Forbidden City.

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  • Odoric set out on his travels about 1318, and his journeys embraced parts of India, the Malay Archipelago, China and even Tibet, where he was the first European to enter Lhasa, not yet a forbidden city.

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  • In 1715 Fathers Desideri and Freyre made their way from Agra, across the Himalayas, to Lhasa, and the Capuchin Friar Orazio della Penna resided in that city from 1735 until 1747.

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  • He left Holland in 1718, went by land through Persia to India, and eventually made his way to Lhasa, where he resided for a long time.

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  • He went thence to China, returned to Lhasa, and was in India in time to be an eye-witness of the sack of Delhi by Nadir Shah in 1737.

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  • Nain Singh explored the sources of the Indus and of the Upper Brahmaputra in the years 1865-1867; and in 1874-1875 he followed a line from the eastern frontiers of Kashmir to the Tengri Nor lake and thence to Lhasa, in which city he remained for some months.

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  • Krishna's remarkable journey in 1879-1882 extended from Lhasa northwards through Tsaidam to Sachu, or Saitu, in Mongolia.

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  • He subsequently passed through eastern Tibet to the town of Darchendo, or Tachienlu, on the high road between Lhasa and Peking, and on the borders of China.

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  • Failing to reach India through Upper Assam he returned to the neighbourhood of Lhasa, and crossed the Himalayas by a more westerly route.

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  • Both these explorers visited Lhasa.

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  • He penetrated southwards to within a month's march of Lhasa.

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  • Bonvalot, accompanied by Prince Henri d'Orleans, crossed the Tibetan plateau from north to south, but failed to enter Lhasa.

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  • Rockhill, commenced his Tibetan journeys, and also attempted to reach Lhasa, without success.

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  • He, too, failed to penetrate the jealouslyguarded portals of Lhasa; but he secured (with the assistance of a native surveyor) a splendid addition to our previous Tibetan mapping.

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  • Littledale's first journey ended at Peking; his second, in 1894-1895, took him almost within sight of the sacred walls of Lhasa, but he failed to pass inside.

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  • The mission of Sir Francis Younghusband to Lhasa in 1904 resulted in an extension of the Indian system of triangulation which finally determined the geographical position of that city, and in a most valuable reconnaissance of the valleys of the Upper Brahmaputra and Indus by Captains C. H.

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  • Bulldog, bulldog (miniature), mastiff, Great Dane, Newfoundland (black, white and black, or other than black), St Bernard (rough and smooth), Old English sheepdog, collie (rough and smooth), Dalmatian, poodle, bull terrier, white English terrier, black and tan terrier, toy spaniel (King Charles or black and tan, Blenheim, ruby or red and tricolour), Japanese, Pekingese, Yorkshire terrier, Maltese, Italian greyhound, chowchow, black and tan terrier (miniature), Pomeranian, pug (fawn and black), Schipperke, Griffon Bruxellois, foreign dogs (bouledogues frangais, elk-hounds, Eskimos, Lhasa terriers, Samoyedes and any other varieties not mentioned under this heading).

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  • of its course), and the Raka Tsanpo and Kyi-chu (or river of Lhasa) below.

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  • The great river itself is known in Tibet by many names, being generally called the Nari Chu, Maghang Tsanpo or Yaro Tsanpo, above Lhasa; the word " tsanpo " (tsang-po) meaning (according to Waddell) the " pure one," and applying to all great rivers.

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  • The upper reaches are nowhere fordable between Tadum and Lhasa, but there is a ferry at Likche (opposite Tadum on the southern bank), where wooden boats covered with hide effect the necessary connexion between the two banks and ensure the passage of the Nepal trade.

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  • From Shigatse, which stands near the mouth of the Nyang Chu, to the Kyi-chu, or Lhasa river, there is no direct route, the river being unnavigable below Shigatse.

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  • Thence the valley of the Kyi-chu (itself navigable for small boats for about 30 m.) leads to Lhasa northwards.

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  • Throughout the greater part of its course in Tibet, where it is called the Dza-Chu, it flows south-eastwards to Chiamdo, on the great east and west caravan route from China to Lhasa.

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  • The second river in the province in point of size is the Salween, a huge river, believed from the volume of its waters to rise in the Tibetan mountains to the north of Lhasa.

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  • Returning overland across Asia, through the Land of Prester John and through Casan, the adventurous traveller seems to have entered Tibet, and even perhaps to have visited Lhasa.

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  • Rather than encounter alone the horrors of a four months' journey to Lhasa they resolved to wait for eight months till the arrival of a Tibetan embassy on its return from Peking.

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  • Crossing the deserts of Koko Nor, they passed the great lake of that name, with its island of contemplative lamas, and, following a difficult and tortuous track across snow-covered mountains, they at last entered Lhasa on the 29th of January 1846.

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  • The Tibetans call their country Bod, which (For the northern part, see China) Scale, 1:9.500.000 0 Railways Longitude East 85 of Greenwich word in colloquial pronunciation is aspirated into Bhod or Bhot, and in the modern Lhasa dialect is curtailed into Bho.

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  • The lake region is noted for a vast number of hot springs, which are widely distributed between the Himalayas and 34° N., but are most numerous to the west of Tengri Nor (north-west of Lhasa).

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  • The northern portion of Tibet is an arid and wind-swept desert; but in the southern portion the valleys of Lhasa, Shigatse, Gyantse and the Brahmaputra are covered with good soil and groves of trees, well irrigated, and richly cultivated.

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  • The observations of Strachey, Godwin-Austen and of Griesbach and other members of the Geological Survey of India only extend to the southern edge or rim of the great plateau, where vast alluvial deposits in horizontal strata have been furrowed into deep ravines, while Russian explorers have but superficially examined the mountain regions of the north and north-east, and the British mission to Lhasa, in 1904 afforded observations merely along the trade-route to that city.

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  • Between the Ladak frontier and Lhasa the plateau region teems with evidences of abandoned mines.

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  • Here, at an elevation of 15,000 ft., about the great Lake Dangra, we hear of well-built villages and of richly cultivated fields of barley, indicating a condition of climate analogous to that which prevails in the districts south of Lhasa, and in contrast to the sterility of the lake region generally and the nomadic character of its population.

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  • Our knowledge of the flora of northern and central Tibet has been considerably increased by the collections of Prjevalsky, Wellby, Bower, Thorold, Littledale and the Lhasa Mission, and that of eastern Tibet by Rockhill.

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  • The peculiar form of tussocky grass which prevails in the Pamirs is the characteristic feature of the Tibetan Chang-t'ang of the Tsaidam plains and of the bogs north-east of Lhasa.

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  • A few localities in the extreme southern portions of the country, and around Lhasa possibly, are said to produce a non-glutinous variety of rice.

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  • Waddell gives a list of 164 species of plants collected by him at Lhasa, several being new species.

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  • It is not a uniform speech, but comprises several dialects which have been classed by Jaeschke into three groups, namely (i) the central or the dialects of Lhasa and the central provinces of U and Tsang (including Spiti) which is the lingua franca of the whole country, (2) the western dialects of Ladak, Lahul, Baltistan and Purig, and (3) the eastern dialects of the province of Khams. In addition to these, however, are many sub-dialects of Tibetan spoken in the frontier Himalayan districts and states outside Tibet, namely, in Kunawar and Bashahr, Garhwal, Kumaon, Nepal including especially the Serpa and Murmi of eastern Nepal, Sikkim (where the dialect is called Danjong-ka), Bhutan (Lho-ka or Duk-ka.), all of which are affiliated to a central group of dialects.

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  • The little that was known of the Tibetan language before Hodgson's time was mainly derived from the writings of the Romish friars who resided for several years in Lhasa in the first half of the 18th century.'

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  • This scholarly linguist, equipped with modern methods of scientific research, did not confine himself to the classical period like Csoma, but extended his ' The Capuchin friars who were settled in Lhasa for a quarter of a century from 1719 studied the language; two of them, Francisco Orazio della Penna, well known from his accurate description of Tibet, and Cassian di Macerata sent home materials which were utilized by the Augustine friar Aug.

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  • Bell (Calcutta, 1905), which has full English-Tibetan vocabularies, graduated exercises and examples in the Lhasa dialect of to-day.

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  • The question has turned mainly upon the elucidation of the phenomenon of the silent letters, generally prefixed, which differentiate the spelling of many words from their pronunciation, in the central dialect or current speech of Lhasa.

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  • In the 9th century, as shown by the bilingual Tibeto-Chinese edict at Lhasa, there was relatively little difference between the spoken and the written language.

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  • An inhabitant of Lhasa, for example, finds the distinction between s and z', or between s and z, not in the consonant, but in the tone, pronouncing s' and s with a high note and z' and z with a low one.

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  • In the bilingual inscriptions, Tibetan and Chinese, set up at Lhasa in 822, and published by Bushell in 1880, we remark that the silent letters were pronounced: Tib.

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  • Spra or spreu (a monkey), now altered into deu at Lhasa, teu in Lahul, Spiti and Tsang, is still more recognizable in the Gyarung shepri and in the following degenerated forms - shreu in Ladak, streu-go in Khams and in cognate languages, soba in Limbu, saheu in Lepcha, simai in Tablung Naga, sibeh in Abor Miri, shibe in Sibsagar Miri, sarrha in Kol, sara in Kuri, &c. Grog-ma (ant), now altered into the spoken t'oma, is still kyoma in Bhutan, and, without the suffix, korok in Gyarung, k'oro- in Sokpa, k'orok, k'alek in Kiranti, &c. Grang-po- (cold), spoken t' ammo, is still grang-mo in Takpa, k'yam in Burmese, &c. A respectful word for " head " is ii, written dbu, which finds its cognates in Murmi thobo, Sibsagar Miri tub, &c. Bya (bird), spoken cha, is still pye in Gyarung.

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  • An equally popular book is the Love Songs of Ts'angs-dbyangs rgyamts'o, attributed to the dissipated young Dalai lama who was deposed in 1701 (see Lhasa).

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  • In Khamdo, but subject to the direct rule of Lhasa, are several small districts, the principal are Nyarong, Tsarong, and Mar Khams or " Lower Khamdo."

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  • For convenience of classification we may include in Khamdo a long strip of country extending along the northern border of the Lhasa territory of Lhorong jong and Larego as far as Tengri Nor, and bounded to the north by the Dang-la mountains, which is designated by Tibetans as Gyade or " the Chinese province."

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  • This strip of country has its: own native chiefs, but is' under the control of a high Manchu officer stationed at Lhasa, known colloquially as the " superintendent of savage tribes."

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  • It includes Lhasa and a large number of outlying districts in south-eastern Tibet, such as Po, Pemakoichen, Zayul.

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  • (4) The fourth division of Tibet, called Tsang, includes all south-west Tibet from the Lhasa or Central province to the Indian frontier as far as Lake Manasarowar.

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  • Tsang and Nari are under the rule of Lhasa, all the high civil and military authorities in these provinces holding their offices from it.

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  • Though the whole of Tibet is under the suzerainty of China, the government of the country is divided into two distinct administrations, the one under the rule of the Dalai lama of Lhasa, the other under local kings or chiefs, and comprising a number of ecclesiastical fiefs.

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  • Both are directed and controlled by the high Chinese officials residing at Lhasa, Sining Fu; and the capital of the Chinese province of Szechuen.

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  • The part of Tibet under the rule of Lhasa, by far the largest and wealthiest, includes the central province of V, Tsang, Nari and a number of large outlying districts in southern and even in eastern Tibet.

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  • The central government of this part of the country is at Lhasa; the nominal head is the Dalai lama or grand lama.

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  • There is also a Tsong-du or National Assembly, divided into a greater assembly, including all government officials, and called together only to decide on matters of supreme importance, and a lesser assembly, consisting of certain high officials of Lhasa, noblemen, and delegates from the monasteries of Debung, Sera and Galdan, and fairly constantly in session.

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  • The taxes paid to the Lhasa government are mostly in kind, sheep, ponies, meal, butter, wool, native cloth, &c., and the coin paid is said to be about 130,000 ounces of silver a year.

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  • Chandra Das states that the crown revenues of Lhasa amount to about 2,000,000 rupees annually.

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  • The administrative subdivisions of the Lhasa country, of which there are fifty-four, are called jong, or " prefecture," each of which is under the rule of two jong-pon, the one a lama, the other a layman.

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  • They collect all taxes, are responsible for the levy of troops, the courier service, corvees, &c., and exercise judicial functions, corresponding directly with Lhasa.

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  • The great trade routes are, first, that which, starting from Cheng-tu, the capital of the Chinese province of Szechuen, passes by way of Tachienlu or Dartsedo, Litang, Batang, Chiamdo, Larego, Lhasa, Gyantse, Shigatse, reaches the Nepalese Routes, &C. frontier at Nielam and goes thence to Katmandu.

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  • Minor roads go from Sining Fu in the Chinese province of Kansuh via Tsaidam and the Tang la pass to Nagchuka and Lhasa.

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  • From this point it leads to Riwoche, and then through Gyade or Chinese province to Nagchuka and Lhasa.

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  • The most direct route from India to Lhasa, and that most frequented by the traders of Lhasa, is by the Chumbi Valley, and was followed by the British Mission.

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  • It crosses the Himalayas by the Tang Pass (15,200 ft.), and thence proceeds via Gyantse (13,200 ft.) and the Kharo Pass (16,500 ft.), Yamdok Lake (15,000) to the Tsang-po (12,100 ft.), and crossing the river winds up along the Kyi Chu, on which Lhasa stands, 33 m.

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  • From Katmandu, the capital of Nepal, a difficult mountain route runs by Kirong to the No la (16,600 ft.), descending from which pass it strikes the Tsangpo about midway between Lhasa and Lake Manasarowar.

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  • It continues through the central lake district to Tengri Nor and Lhasa.

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  • According to a summary furnished by Lieut.-Colonel Waddell (Lhasa and its Mysteries), the chief imports from China are silk, carpets, porcelain and tea-bricks.

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  • In the market at Lhasa opium sells for its weight in silver.

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  • Ingots of Chinese silver were sent from Lhasa with a small proportion of gold dust, and an equal weight in mohurs was returned, leaving to the Nepal rajahs, between gold dust and alloy, a good profit.

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  • The Gurkhas, after becoming masters of Nepal, were anxious to renew the profitable traffic in coin, and in this view sent a deputation to Lhasa with a quantity of coin to be put in circulation.

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  • This brought the intervention of the Chinese, who drove the Gurkhas out of Tibet (1792), and then began to strike silver coins for Lhasa use, bearing Chinese and Tibetan characters.

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  • Friar Odoric of Pordenone is supposed to have reached Lhasa c. 1328, travelling from Cathay; but this visit is doubtful.

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  • On the strength of certain statements in the narrative of Fernao Mendes Pinto, some authorities hold that he may have visited Lhasa in the course of his journeys in the middle of the 16th century.

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  • The Jesuit Antonio Andrada, a native of Portugal (1580-1634), travelling from India, appears to have entered Tibet on the west, in the Manasarowar Lake region, and made his way across to Tangut and north-western China; in 1661 the Jesuit fathers Johann Grueber (an Austrian) and Albert D 'Orville (a Belgian) travelled from Peking via Tangut to Lhasa, and thence through Nepal to India.

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  • During the first half of the 18th century various Capuchin friars appear to have passed freely between Calcutta and Lhasa (1708) by way of Nepal.

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  • They even founded a mission in Lhasa, which, after failing at first, was more firmly established in 1715 and lasted till 1733.

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  • In 1716 two Jesuits, P. Ipolito Desideri, of Pistoia, and P. Freyre, a Portuguese, reached Lhasa by way of Kashmir, Ladak, and the enormous journey from Ladak by the holy lakes and the valley of the Tsangpo.

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  • Desideri remained at Lhasa till April 1721, witnessing the capture of Lhasa successively by Dzungar and Chinese.

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  • of Leiden, whose thirst for travel carried him through India to Lhasa (1730), where he is said to have resided a long time, to have acquired the language, and to have become intimate with some of the lamas.

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  • After travelling from Lhasa to Peking with a lama mission he returned, again by Lhasa, to India, and was an eyewitness of the sack of Delhi by Nadir Shah in 1737.

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  • Some fifty volumes, the relics of the mission library, were in 1847 recovered from Lhasa by Brian Hodgson, through the courtesy of the Dalai lama himself, and were transmitted as an offering to Pope Pius IX.

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  • In1811-1812the first English visit to Lhasa occurred.

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  • He actually did reach Lhasa, stayed there about five months, and had several interviews with the Dalai lama, but was compelled to return to India.

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  • But the Abbe Huc states that William Moorcroft, an Englishman who made a journey into Tibet in the neighbourhood of Lake Manasarowar in 1812, and another into Kashgar in 1824, lived in Lhasa for twelve years disguised as a Mussulman.

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  • He was supposed to have died on the Afghan frontier in 1825 on his second journey; but if Huc's story is true he reached Lhasa in 1826, and did not leave it till 1838, being assassinated on his homeward journey, when maps and drawings were found on him, and his identity was for the first time suspected by the Tibetans.

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  • In1844-1846the French missionaries, Evariste Regis Huc and Joseph Gabet, made their way to Lhasa from China.

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  • They travelled from China the route followed by Grueber and by Van de Putte, via Siningfu, and reached Lhasa on the 29th of January 1846.

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  • It was Ke-shen, a wellknown Chinese statesman, who was disgraced for making, peace with the English at Canton in 1841, and was then on a special deputation to Lhasa, who ostensibly expelled them.

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  • In 1866 the Abbe Desgodins travelled through portions of eastern Tibet and reached Chiamdo (in Kham), but was prevented from approaching any closer to Lhasa.

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  • Nain Singh reached Lhasa in the course of two remarkable journeys.

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  • In the first, after an ineffectual attempt by Nepal, he travelled by the Manasarowar Lake, and the road thence eastward, parallel to the course of the Tsangpo, reaching Lhasa on the 10th of January 1866, and leaving it on the 21st of April 1867.

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  • On the second journey (1874) he started from Ladak, crossing the vast and elevated plateau by the Tengri Nor and other great lakes, and again reaching Lhasa on the 18th of November.

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  • In 1878 A.-K also revisited Lhasa, stayed a year, and afterwards continued into Tsaidam, not returning to India till 1882.

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  • This was the opportunity for a series of valuable exploratory journeys through the Tibetan provinces adjoining the Indian and Nepalese frontiers, which added greatly to our stock of information about Lhasa and the districts surrounding that city.

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  • He managed, nevertheless, to extricate himself, and turning north-eastwards he passed through Chetang, and reached Lhasa by way of Samye monastery.

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  • Chandra Das made a second journey in 1881, with the intention of reaching Lhasa.

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  • He travelled by way of Tashilhunpo, lay dangerously ill for some time at Samding monastery, duly reached Lhasa, where he visited the Dalai Lama, but owing to small-pox in the city could remain there only a fortnight, though he made full use of this time.

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  • It was when setting out in 1888 to make an attempt to reach Lhasa that he died.

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  • At this point Bower was stopped by some of the headmen of the Tibetan pastoral tribes (here under the rule of Lhasa), and obliged to make a long circuit to the north well out of Lhasa territory, and then eastward - till he struck the road to Chiamdo through Gyade or Chinese Tibet.

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  • From this point she seems to have followed the Chiamdo road to near that town, when she turned westwards and continued in that direction till she came on the high road from Lhasa to Sining Fu somewhere north of Nagchuka.

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  • Here, like all other European travellers who have tried to reach Lhasa from the north, she was stopped by the Lhasan authorities.

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  • Dutreuil de Rhins and Fernand Grenard, both Frenchmen, left Cherchen, with Lhasa as their objective.

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  • Here they were finally stopped by the Tibetans, and after a delay of six weeks passed in vain attempts to obtain permission to go to Lhasa, they were only allowed to proceed to Nagchuka on the Sining-Lhasa road, and to continue by the Gyade route to Yekundo, near the upper Dre chu, and thence to Sining in Kansuh.

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  • Pushing rapidly on in the direction of Lhasa, when not over 50 m.

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  • In 1898 a Dutch missionary in China named Rijnhart started with his wife from the vicinity of Koko Nor, with the intention of reaching Lhasa, but at the upper Mekong, to the east-north-east of the city, he was murdered, and 1898.

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  • On his final penetration southward, arriving within fourteen days of Lhasa, he left the bulk of his caravan and pushed rapidly on towards that city, but was stopped when about five days from it (Aug.

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  • The British armed mission of 1904 performed a brilliant feat of marching and reached Lhasa, whose mysteries were thus unveiled, but this exploit belongs to the section dealing with history, below.

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  • He took up his residence in the Yarlung country south of Lhasa.

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  • Mang-srong mang tsan, the second son and successor of Srong tsan gam-po, continuing the conquests of his father, subdued the Tukuhun Tatars around the Koko-Nor in 663, and attacked the Chinese; after some adverse fortune the latter took their revenge and penetrated as far as Lhasa, where they burnt the royal palace (Yumbu-lagang).

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  • In this reign a severe struggle took place with China, peace being concluded in 821 at Ch'ang-ngan and ratified at Lhasa the following year by the erection of bilingual tablets, which still exist.

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  • The first and fourth became masters of Tsangrong, the second, took possession of Amdo and Tsongkha, the third became king of U (or the central Lhassan province), and removed the capital to Yarlung, south of Lhasa.

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  • This lama was Sodnam rGyamtso, the third successor of Gedundub, the founder of the Tashilhunpo monastery in 1447, who had been elected to the more important abbotship of Galdan near Lhasa, and was thus the first of the great, afterwards Dalai, lamas.

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  • In1872-1873some attempt was made by Indian officials to open up trade with Tibet; further attempts followed in 1884, and in 1886 a mission was .organized to proceed to Lhasa.

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  • A lama, a Mongolian Buriat by birth and a Russian subject, whose Russianized name was Dorjiev, had come to Lhasa about 1880.

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  • When subsequently visiting Russia, he appears to have drawn the attention of the authorities towards Tibet as a field for their statecraft, and he established himself as the unofficial representative of Russia in Lhasa.

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  • He therefore sent a representative of high rank, who had audience of the tsar, and returned with proposals for a treaty and for the residence of a Russian royal prince in Lhasa in order to promote friendly relations.

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  • But both the Chinese authorities in Lhasa and the Tsong-du were averse from any such proceedings.

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  • Russian arms had been imported into Lhasa.

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  • In fact the advance to Lhasa, resumed after the storming of the Gyantse Jong (fort) on the" 6th of July, met with comparatively little opposition, and the capital was reached on the 3rd of August.

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  • The expedition left Lhasa on the 23rd of September and reached India again at the close of the following month.

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  • The Anglo-Russian convention of 1907 determined the following conditions with respect to Tibet - the recognition of the suzerain rights of China and the territorial and administrative integrity of the country; that no official representative at Lhasa should be appointed either by England or by Russia, and that no concessions for railways, mines, &c., should be sought by either power.

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  • When the Dalai Lama attempted to give orders that they should cease, the Chinese amban in Lhasa disputed his authority, and summoned the Chinese troops to enter the city.

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  • Asiatic Soc. (1891); Notes on the Ethnology of Tibet (Washington, 1895); Chandra Das, Journey to Lhasa and Central Tibet (London, 1899); G.

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  • Journal (1894); Lhasa and its Mysteries (London, 1905); Sir R.

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  • Candler, The Unveiling of Lhasa (London, 1905); P. Landon, Lhasa (London, 1905); W.

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  • (See the articles on Brahmanism; Buddhism; and Lhasa.) Pre-Christian Monasticism.

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  • In Mongolia and other parts of Central Asia tea is made into a kind of soup, somewhat on the lines of the following written regarding tea in Tibet by Colonel Waddell in his book Lhasa and its Mysteries.

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  • In addition, after making careful inquiry through various commissions, he reformed the systems of education and police, laid down a comprehensive scheme of irrigation, improved the leave rules and the excessive report-writing of the civil service, encouraged the native princes by the formation of the Imperial Cadet Corps and introduced many other reforms. His term of office was also notable for the coronation durbar at Delhi in January 1903, the expedition to Lhasa in 1904, which first unveiled that forbidden city to European gaze, and the partition of Bengal in 1905.

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  • Deposits of purer material (chic 'sale or water borax) occur at the lakes of Rudok, situated to the east of the Pugha district; also still farther to the east at the great lakes Tengri Nor, north of Lhasa, and several other places.

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  • Littledale, du Rhins and Bonvalot may have stood on it as they looked southwards towards Lhasa, but for some Soo or 600 m.

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  • Nor can it be said to be as yet well defined to the east of Lhasa.

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  • North of Bhutan, between the Himalayan crest and Lhasa, this formation is approximately maintained; farther east, although the same natural forces first resulted in the same effect of successive folds of the earth's crust, forming extensive curves of ridge and furrow, the abundant rainfall and the totally distinct climatic conditions which govern the processes of denudation subsequently led to the erosion of deeper valleys enclosed between forest-covered ranges which rise steeply from the river banks.

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  • J Y Y explored from Lhasa to the sources of the Brahmaputra and Indus, at the conclusion of the Tibetan mission in 1904, conclusively prove that Mount Everest, which appears from the Tibetan plateau as a single dominating peak, has no rival amongst Himalayan altitudes, whilst the very remarkable investigations made by permission of the Nepal durbar from peaks near Kathmandu in 1903, by Captain Wood, R.E., not only place the Everest group apart from other peaks with which they have been confused by scientists, isolating them in the topographical system of Nepal, but clearly show that there is no one dominating and continuous range indicating a main Himalayan chain which includes both Everest and Kinchinjunga.

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  • He was the founder of the present capital of Tibet, now known as Lhasa; and in the year 622 (the same year as that in which Mahomet fled from Mecca) he began the formal introduction of Buddhism into Tibet.

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  • These are the cloisters of La Brang (Jokhang) and Ra Moche, still, though much changed and enlarged, the most sacred abbeys in Tibet, and the glory of Lhasa.

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  • The most distinguished of those who came The were Santa Rakshita, Padma Sambhava and Kamala Sila, for whom, and for their companions, the king built a splendid monastery still existing, at Samje, about three days' journey south-east of Lhasa.

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  • teacher and reformer in Lhasa, and before his death in 1419 there were three huge monasteries there containing 30,000 of his disciples, besides others in other parts of the country.

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  • For Tsongkapa and his followers wore the yellow or orange-coloured garments which had been the distinguishing mark of the order in the lifetime of its founder, and in support of the ancient rules Tsongkapa reinstated the fortnightly rehearsal of the Patimokkha or " disburdenment " in regular assemblies of the order at Lhasa - a practice which had fallen into desuetude.

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  • These two leaders were then known as the Dalai Lama and the Pantshen Lama, and were the abbots of the great monasteries at Gedun Dubpa, near Lhasa, and at Tashi Lunpo, in Farther Tibet, respectively.

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  • At the great yearly festival at Lhasa they make in the cathedral an imposing array, not much less magnificent than that of the clergy in Rome; for the ancient simplicity of dress has disappeared in the growing differences of rank, and each division of the spiritual army is distinguished in Tibet, as in the West, by a special uniform.

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  • On his second journey in 1877, while endeavouring to reach Lhasa through east Turkestan, he re-discovered the great lake Lop-nor, which had not been visited by any European since Marco Polo.

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  • from Lhasa, when he was turned back by order of the Dalai Lama.

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  • In September 1888 he started on a fifth expedition, intending 4 to reach Lhasa, but on the 1st of November he died at Karakol on Lake Issyk-kul.

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  • lower; but the observations of Captain Wood from peaks near Khatmandu, in Nepal, and those of the same officer, and of Major Ryder, from the route between Lhasa and the sources of the Brahmaputra in 1904, have definitely fixed the relative position of the two mountain masses, and conclusively proved that there is no higher peak than Everest in the Himalayan system.

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  • We spend three days guided sightseeing in Lhasa, acclimatizing to the altitude of the Forbidden City.

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  • Perhaps you may want to consider a smaller dog, such as Lhasa Apso or Pekinese.

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  • This allows dogs and puppies to remain much cleaner, and these crates are highly utilized for those gloriously coated breeds such as Shih Tzu, Lhasa Apsos, Maltese and Yorkshire Terriers to name a few.

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  • We have three male dogs: an 11-year-old Lhasa Apso, a Maltese/Yorkie mix, and an 18-month-old Boston Terrier.

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  • Then the Lhasa became very miffed, and to make a long story short, they are all marking territory and ruining my house!

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  • This is the best thing that could happen, since it will eliminate the dog that set the Lhasa off.

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  • Hello,I have an 18-month-old Lhasa Apso that was bred 33 days ago.

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  • Standard 28 day tours include visits to Beijing, Xian, Lhasa, Shigatse, Lhatse, Saga, Paryang, Manasarovar Lake, Tarchen, Mt. Kailash, Tarchen, Tsada, Seng Ge Tsangpo, Gertse, Tsochen, Lhatse, Shigatse, Lhasa, and Shanghai.

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