How to use Leipzig in a sentence
He went to the university of Leipzig as a student of philosophy and natural sciences, but entered officially as a student of medicine.
At Leipzig, GÃ¶ttingen and Halle he studied for four years, ultimately devoting himself to mathematics and astronomy.
In 1815 he settled at Leipzig as privatdocent, and the next year became extraordinary professor of astronomy in connexion with the university.
He was educated at Gottingen and Leipzig.
Ruckert (Quedlinburg and Leipzig, 1858); another version of the tale, Lorengel, is edited in the Zeitschr.Advertisement
After studying law at the universities of Leipzig and GÃ¶ttingen, he entered the service of the prince of Nassau-Weilburg, whom in 1791 he represented at the imperial diet.
He entered the university of GÃ¶ttingen, but soon left, and, taking service in the Austrian army, took part in the Russian campaign of 1812, and fought in the following year at Dresden, Kulm and Leipzig.
He spent two years from 1886 to 1888 in travelling, and visited Riga Polytechnic and the universities of Wiirzburg, Graz, Amsterdam and Leipzig.
He was then appointed to the ordinary chair of mathematics successively at Basel (1863), Tubingen (1865) and Leipzig (1868).
He began his screntific studies at Leipzig, but afterwards went to Berlin.Advertisement
In Germany a few Cartesian lecturers taught at Leipzig and Halle, but the system took no root, any more than in Switzerland, where it had a brief reign at Geneva after 1669.
In 1869 and 1871 he was president of the first and second Jewish Synods at Leipzig and Augsburg.
But for Leipzig a comparison with the Gewandhaus Band may be sought.
In 18J4 he left Berlin to become professor of physics in Basel University, removing nine years afterwards to Brunswick Polytechnic, and in 1866 to Karlsruhe Polytechnic. In 1871 he accepted the chair of physical chemistry a t Leipzig.
He died at Leipzig on the 24th of March 1899.Advertisement
At twenty he entered the university of Wittenberg, and studied afterwards at the university of Leipzig.
See Johann Franz Encke, sein Leben and Wirken, von Dr C. Bruhns (Leipzig, 1869), to which a list of his writings is appended.
It reverted to Hanover after the battle of Leipzig in 1813, and in 1816 was ceded to Prussia, the greater part of it being at once transferred by her to Denmark in exchange for Swedish Pomerania.
He afterwards reckoned the Leipzig disputation (June-July 1519) and the burning of the papal bull (December 1520) as the beginning of the Reformation.
He studied law at Gottingen and Leipzig, but ultimately devoted himself entirely to literary studies.Advertisement
He hid himself in the Dominican convent at Leipzig in fear of popular violence, and died there on the 4th of July 1519, just as Luther was beginning his famous disputation with Eck.
Eugene Beauharnais, viceroy of the kingdom of Italy, showed both constancy and courage; but after the battle of Leipzig (October 1619, 1813) his power crumbled away under the assaults of the now victorious Austrians.
He remembered his connexion with Florence when he wrote Romische Briefe von einem Florentiner (Leipzig, 1840-44), and his residence in Rome was also responsible for his Geschichte der Stadt Rom (3 vols., 1867-70)..
Other works which may be mentioned are Zeitgenossen, Biografien and Charakteristiken (Berlin, 1862); Bibliografia del lavori pubblicati in Germania sulla storia d'Italia (Berlin, 1863); Biographische Denkblatter nach personlichen Erinnerungen (Leipzig, 1878); and Saggi di storia e letteratura (Florence, 1880).
He may be said to have set the pattern which was followed in succeeding ages by the compilers of " political geographies " Geschichte der wissenschaftlichen Erdkunde der Griechen (Leipzig, 1891), Abt.Advertisement
Phillipson, Studien uber Wasserscheiden (Leipzig, 1886); also I.C. Russell, River Development (London, 1898) (published as The Rivers of North America, New York, 1898).
Having studied at Marburg and Jena, he for some time lived at Leipzig as a private tutor; but in 1802 he was appointed professor at Marburg, and two years later professor of philology and ancient history at Heidelberg.
He corresponded with many of the European savants of his day, and contributed largely to the Ada Eruditorum of Leipzig.
On the history of railway legislation in England, see Cohn, Untersuchungen fiber die Englische Eisenbahnpolitik (Leipzig, 1874-83).
He studied theology at Erlangen and Berlin, and in 1856 became professor ordinarius of systematic theology and New Testament exegesis at Leipzig.
He died at Leipzig on the 21st of September 1902.
Fragments of his poems have been collected by Wilke, De graecorum syllis (Warsaw, 1820), Paul, Dissertatio de syllis (Berlin, 1821), and Wachsmuth, Sillographorum graec. reliquiae (Leipzig, 1885).
There is also a German translation (Leipzig, 1801).
The Milhamoth was published in 1560 at Riva di Trento, and has been published at Leipzig, 1866.
The Aethiopic exists both in London and Paris, and was printed at Leipzig by Dr Hommel in 1877.
Among his writings are Die Jacobiner in Ungarn (Leipzig, 1851) and Eletem es Korom (Pest, 1880), and many treatises on Hungarian questions in the publications of the Academy of Pest.
After doing some research work at Simancas in Spain, he became professor of history at the university of Dorpat in 1867; and was then in turn professor at Konigsberg, Bonn and Leipzig.
He died at Leipzig on the 6th of November, 1892.
He was educated at Sorau and Dresden and at the university of Leipzig, in which city he spent the rest of his life.
He died at Leipzig on the 18th of November 1887.
After the disastrous defeat of Leipzig (r 7th-19th Dctober 1813), when French domination in Germany and Italy -vanished like an exhalation, the allies gave Napoleon another opportunity to come to terms. The overtures known as the Frankfcrt terms were ostensibly an answer to the request for information which Napoleon made at the field of Leipzig.
Liber magnus, vulgo "Liber Adami" appellatus, opus Mandaeorum summi ponderis (2 vols., Berlin and Leipzig, 1867), is an excellent metallographic reproduction of the Paris MS. A German soul, permeates the whole aether, the domain of Ayar.
Marlborough was forthwith sent from the Hague to the castle of Altranst2dt near Leipzig, where Charles had fixed his headquarters, "to endeavour to penetrate the designs" of the king of Sweden.
Yet as systematists their authors were no worse than Klein, whose Historiae Avium Prodromus, appearing at Lubeck in 1750, and Stemmata Avium at Leipzig in 1759, met with considerable favour in some quarters.
In like manner in 1786, Scopoli - already the author of a little book published at Leipzig in 1769 under the title of Annus I.
At the same place appeared in 1767 Leem's work, De Lapponibus Finmarchiae, to which Gunnerus contributed some good notes on the ornithology of northern Norway, and at Copenhagen and Leipzig was published in 1780 the Fauna Groenlandica of Otho Fabricius.
Nitzsch, printed at Leipzig in 1811 - a miscellaneous set of detached essays on some Nitzsch.
He published Aristoteles fiber die Farben (1849), Aristoteles' acht Blcher der Physik (1857), and numerous minor articles on smaller points, such as the authenticity of the thirty-eight books of the Problems. The work by which he is best known is the Geschichte der Logik im Abendland (Leipzig, 1855-1870).
From various traditions it may be gathered that Basselin was 1 See Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung (Leipzig, 1834), Bd.
In 1803, having formally surrendered the part of Hesse on the left bank of the Rhine which had been taken from him in the early days of the Revolution, Louis received in return a much larger district which had formerly belonged to the duchy of Westphalia, the electorate of Mainz and the bishopric of Worms. In 1806, being a member of the confederation of the Rhine, he took the title of Louis I., grandduke of Hesse; he supported Napoleon with troops from 1805 to 1813, but after the battle of Leipzig he joined the allies.
The nine books were subsequently expanded to twelve (Leipzig, 1874).
When the weakness of his eyes made it necessary for him to depend almost entirely on the service of readers and secretaries, in his eighty-first year he began to write the Weltgeschichte (9 vols., Leipzig, 1883-88).
A collected edition of Ranke's works in fifty-four volumes was issued at Leipzig (1868-90), but this does not contain the Weltgeschichte.
The son pursued his studies at Dorpat (1869-1872) and at Leipzig, where he took his degree; and soon afterwards (1874) began lecturing as a Privatdozent.
He was appointed professor of theology at Erlangen in 1836 and at Leipzig in 1845.
Poggendorff immediately put himself in communication with the publisher, Barth of Leipzig, with the result that he was installed as editor of a scientific journal, Annalen der Physik and Cheinie, which was to be a continuation of Gilberts Annalen on a somewhat extended plan.
He was against the Leipzig Interim (1548) with its compromise on some Catholic usages, and was involved in controversies and quarrels; with Georgius Merula, against whom he maintained the need of exorcism in baptism; with Osiander's adherents in the matter of justification; with his colleague, Nicholas von Amsdorf, to whom he had resigned the Eisenach superintendency; with Flacius Illyricus, and others.
He died at Leipzig on the lath of August 1558.
Erdmann at Leipzig in 1843; and during the 'fifties and 'sixties many other laboratories were founded.
Stohmann of Leipzig; and the new data and the conclusions to be drawn from them formed the subject of much discussion, Briihl endeavouring to show how they supported Kekule's formula, while Thomsen maintained that they demanded the benzene union to have a different heat of combustion from the acetylene union.
In 1828 he was removed to the Nicolaischule at Leipzig, where he was less successful.
His first music master was Gottlieb Muller, who thought him self-willed and eccentric; and his first production as a composer was an overture, performed at the Leipzig theatre in 1830.
Schmidt, Tableaux de la Revolution francaise, &c. (Leipzig, 1867-1870), a collection of reports of the secret police on which the above work is based.
T maps of more elaborate design illustrate the MS. copies of Sallust's Bellum jugurthinum; one of these taken from a codex of the 11th century in the Leipzig town library is shown in fig.
Not less important than his histories are the historical romances, the best-known of which, Ein Kampf um Rom, in four volumes (Leipzig, 1876), which has gone through many later editions, was also the first of the series.
His wife Therese, nee Freiin von DrosteHi lshoff, was joint-author with him of Walhall, Germanische Gutter and Heldensagen (Leipzig, 1898).
A collected edition of his works of fiction, both in prose and verse, has reached twenty-one volumes (Leipzig, 1898), and a new edition was published in 1901.
Dahn also published four volumes of memoirs, Erinnerungen (Leipzig, 1890-1895).
At GÃ¶ttingen he remained, declining all further calls elsewhere, as to Erlangen, Kiel, Halle, Tubingen, Jena and Leipzig, until his death, which occurred on the 4th of February 1855.
His father, a prosperous merchant in Breslau, intended Ferdinand for a business career, and sent him to the commercial school at Leipzig; but the boy got himself transferred to the university, first at Breslau, and afterwards at Berlin.
Berlin, Leipzig, Frankfort and the industrial centres on the Rhine were the chief scenes of his activity.
Lassalle's Die Philosophie Herakleitos des Dunklen von Ephesos (Berlin, 1858), and the System der erworbenen Rechte (Leipzig, 1861) are both marked by great learning and intellectual power.
His Collected Works were issued at Leipzig in 1899-1901.
Oncken's Lassalle (Stuttgart, 1904); another excellent work on his life and writings is George Brandes's Danish work, Ferdinand Lassalle (German translation, 4th ed., Leipzig, 1900).
Blucher was reported near Wittenberg, and Schwarzenberg was moving slowly round to the south of Leipzig.
On the 15th Napoleon concentrated his forces to the east of Leipzig, with only a weak detachment to the west, and in the evening the allies were prepared to attack him.
It took Blucher time to extricate his troops from the confusion into which the battle had thrown them, and the garrison of Leipzig and the troops left on the right bank of the Elster still resisted obstinately - hence no direct pursuit could be initiated and the French, still upwards of 10o,000 strong, marching rapidly, soon gained distance enough to be reformed.
Leipzig and Breslau; in 1615 it was included in the postal system of Turn and Taxis.
Among them may be mentioned the Zeitschrift fiir physikalische Chemie (Leipzig); and the Journal of Physical Chemistry (Cornell University).
He was educated at Schulpforta, and studied the classics at the universities of Bonn and Leipzig.
Engler's Versuch einer Entwickelungsgeschichte der Pflanzenwelt (Leipzig, 1879-1882), we should have in Siberia (a) the arctic region; (b) the sub-arctic or coniferous region - north Siberian province; (c) the Central-Asian domain - Altai and Daurian mountainous regions; and (d) the east Chinese, intruding into the basin of the Amur.
After filling clerical posts in Leipzig, he became Prediger (preacher) in Vienna in 1856.
He was educated at the school of Pforta, and the university of Leipzig.
In 1684 he commenced the career of professor of natural law at Leipzig, and soon attracted attention by his abilities, but particularly by his daring attack upon traditional prejudices, in theology and jurisprudence.
A German translation of part of his works was made by Ziethen (Leipzig 1854-1857).
The discovery of the Coptic translation of these Acts in 1897, and its publication by C. Schmidt (Acta Pauli aus der Heidelberger koptischen Papyrushandschrift herausgegeben, Leipzig, 1894), have confirmed what had been previously only a hypothesis that the Acts of Thecla had formed a part of the larger Acts of Paul.
Many towns were founded, among which were Dresden, Leipzig and Freiburg; Chemnitz began its textile industry; and although the condition of the peasants was wretched, that of the townsmen was improving.
What in the opinion of Albrecht Dieterich (Eine Mithrasliturgie, Leipzig, 1903) is a Mithras liturgy is preserved in a Greek MS. of Egyptian origin of about A.D.
See Franz Cumont, Textes et monuments figures relatifs aux mysteres de Mithra (Brussels, 1896, 1899), which has superseded all publications on the subject; Albrecht Dieterich, Eine Mithrasliturgie (Leipzig, 1903).
He was asked in 1709 to conduct a rich young gentleman to Dresden, and on his return journey he lectured at Leipzig, Halle and Hamburg.
After studying at Leipzig and Bonn, where he was a pupil of Dahlmann, he established himself as a privatdozent at Leipzig, lecturing on history and politics.
The most important of the essays have been collected under the title Historische and politische Aufscitze (4 vols., Leipzig, 1896); a selection from his more controversial writings was made under the title Zehn Jahre deutscher Kampfe; in 1896 a new volume appeared, called Deutsche Kampfe, neue Folge.
Munich, Erlangen, Coire and Leipzig became for brief successive intervals his home.
There are, moreover, HungarianFrench dictionaries by Kiss and Karady (Pest and Leipzig, 18 441848) and Babos and Mole (Pest, 1865), and English-Hungarian dictionaries by Dallos (Pest, 1860) and Bizonfy (Budapest, 1886).
The Senate can interpose a veto in all matters of legislation, saving taxation, and where there is a collision between the two bodies, provision is made for reference to a court of arbitration, consisting of members of both houses in equal numbers, and also to the supreme court of the empire (Reichsgericht) sitting at Leipzig.
This important version was first published in a good text by Lagarde, Psalterium juxta hebraeos hieronymi (Leipzig, 1874).
Ephraemi Syri, &c., opera selecta, pp. 2 5 1 -33 6; and these have since been supplemented by Zettersteen's edition of a large number of his religious poems or metrical prayers (Beitrdge zur Kenntniss der religiosen Dichtung Balais, Leipzig, 1902).
The other, John bar Aphtonya, was the founder of the famous monastery of Kenneshre, opposite ' See Feldmann, Syrische Wechsellieder von Narses (Leipzig, 1896); Mingana, Narsai, homiliae et carmina (2 vols., Mosul, 1905); and other editions of which a list is given by Duval, p. 344 seq.
A latter (probably Nestorian) recension is contained in a Paris MS., which was used along with the other by Bruns and Sachau in their exhaustive edition (Syrisch-romisches, Rechtsbuch, Leipzig, 1880).
The Mrarrath gazze or Cave of Treasures, translated and edited by C. Bezold (Leipzig, 1883-1888), is akin (as Duval remarks) to the Book of Jubilees.
The entire text of the London MS. was published by Land in the third volume of his Anecdota syriaca; and there is now an English translation by Hamilton and Brooks (London, 1899), and a German one by Ahrens and Kruger (Leipzig, 1899).
A Prussian reserve corps under the grand duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, formed at Leipzig, had meanwhile overrun eastern Bavaria up to Nuremberg.
From Leipzig, after a month's stay, Voltaire moved to Gotha.
Frankfort, nominally a free city, but with a Prussian resident who did very much what he pleased, was not like Gotha and Leipzig.
From 1581 he studied at the universities of Strassburg, Leipzig, Heidelberg and Jena.
In 1854 he removed from Prague to a similar appointment at Kiel, and again in 1862 from Kiel to Leipzig.
He returned to France in 1813, after the battle of Leipzig, and was made prefect of the department of Nord.
It was the hand of the author of that offensive Missive to Frederick William III., on the liberty of the press, that drafted the Carlsbad decrees; it was he who inspired the policy of repressing the freedom of the universities; and he noted in his diary as "a day more important than that of Leipzig" the session of the Vienna conference of 1819, in which it was decided to make the convocation of representative assemblies in the German states impossible, by enforcing the letter of Article XIII.
In 1865 he was called to Leipzig in the same capacity, and he died in that city on the 25th of November 1884.
The entire music performed at Rome in Holy Week, Allegri's Miserere included, has been issued at Leipzig by Breitkopf and Hertel.
Schmid, Gesetze der Angelsachsen (2nd ed., Leipzig, 1858) is still valuable on account of its handiness and the fulness of its glossary.
For further details regarding the formation of Sumerian and Babylonian-Assyrian proper names, as well as for an indication of the problems involved and the difficulties still existing, especially in the case of Sumerian names,' see the three excellent works now at our disposal for the Sumerian, the old Babylonian, and the neoBabylonian period respectively, by Huber, Die Personennamen den Keilschrifturkunden aus der Zeit der Konige von Ur and Nisin (Leipzig, 1907); Ranke, Early Babylonian Proper Names (Philadelphia, 1905); and Tallqvist, Neu-Babylonisches Namenbuch (Helsingfors, 1905).
Geffcken, Lex Salica (Leipzig, 1898), the text in 65 chapters, with commentary paragraph by paragraph, and appendix of additamenta; and the edition undertaken by Mario Krammer for the Mon.
Schafer (Leipzig, 1901), contains valuable information concerning the state of the Ethiopian kingdom in its author's time.
There is a modern German edition by Schmitt (Leipzig, 1898).
The fairs of Leipzig and Frankfort-on-Main rose in importance as Novgorod, the stronghold of Hanse trade in the East, was weakened by the attacks of Ivan III.
He studied at Leipzig and Erlangen, and in 1829 was called to Jena as professor of theology.
C. Baur, and became in 1858 pastor of the church of St Thomas, professor ordinarius of historical theology and superintendent of the Lutheran church of Leipzig.
Munich lies at the centre of an important network of railways connecting it directly with Strassburg (for Paris), Cologne, Leipzig, Berlin, Rosenheim (for Vienna) and Innsbruck (for Italy via the Brenner pass), which converge in a central station.
In 1882 he became professor of theology at Erlangen, and in 1889 proceeded to Leipzig, where he was professor until 1898, and then for a year rector of the university.
His education, begun in Zurich and Berlin, was completed at the university of Leipzig, where he graduated in 1876.
At Leipzig he was one of the founders of the Akademisch-philosophische Verein, and was the first editor of the Vierteljahrsschrift fiir wissenschaftliche Philosophie.
In 1409, in conjunction with his brother William, he founded the university of Leipzig, for the benefit of German students who had just left the university of Prague.
Here cross and unite the lines from Berlin to Basel, from Cologne to Wiirzburg and Vienna, from Hamburg and Cassel, and from Dresden and Leipzig to France and Switzerland.
In the 17th century the town was the seat of a great book-trade; but it has long been distanced in this department by Leipzig.
He also edited a collection of essays dealing with Italy, under the title Italia (4 vols., Leipzig, 1874-1877).
The supreme courts of justice of the duchy are in Karlsruhe, Freiburg, Offenburg, Heidelberg, Mosbach, Waldshut, Constance and Mannheim, whence appeals lie to the Reichsgericht (supreme tribunal of the empire) in Leipzig.
Charles fought for his father-in-law until after the battle of Leipzig in 1813, when he joined the Allies.
Pallas also edited and contributed to Neue nordische Beitrage zur physikal schen Erdand Volkerbeschreibung, Naturgeschichte, and Oekonomie (1781-1796), published Illustrationes plantarum imperfecte vel nondum cognitarum (Leipzig, 1803), and con tributed to Buffon's Natural History a paper on the formation of mountains.
His chief work, Historia Critica Philosophiae, appeared at Leipzig (5 vols., 1 74 2 - 1 744).
While professor of morals at Leipzig, Otto Mencke planned the Acta eruditorum, with a view to make known, by means of analyses, extracts and reviews, the new works produced throughout Europe.
Down to the early part of the 18th century Halle and Leipzig were the headquarters of literary journalism in Germany.
Krause at Leipzig and carried on by various editors down to 1797.
The Swiss History was re-issued at Leipzig and Zurich, in 15 vols.
Doebner ((Leipzig, 1886); Lettres et memoires, edited by Countess Bentinct London, 1880); duke of Portland, Hist.
He settled in Leipzig as a journalist; but the democratic views expressed in some essays and the volumes of poems Glocke and Kanone (1481) and Irdische Phantasien (1842) led to his expulsion from Saxony in 1846.
He studied at Leipzig, and at first belonged to the Hegelian school of philosophy.
After studying at Leipzig, Altenburg and Ingolstadt, he was ordained priest in 1520 and appointed Hebrew tutor in the Augustinian convent at Nuremberg.
The work has been frequently reprinted, the Leipzig edition (1846) containing a life of Languet by Treitschke.
The interest felt by German literary men in Shaftesbury was revived by the publication of two excellent monographs, one dealing with him mainly from the theological side by Dr Gideon Spicker (Freiburg in Baden, 1872), the other dealing with him mainly from the philosophical side by Dr Georg von Gizycki (Leipzig, 1876).
See Lagarde's edition appended to his Genesis Graece (Leipzig, 1868).
In 1543 he quitted Frankfort for a similar position at Leipzig, his contention that it was the duty of the civil magistrate to punish fornication, and his sudden departure, having given offence to the authorities of the former university.
He died at Leipzig on the 17th of March 1565.
Hardly had they melted away when the French made a most brilliant counter-attack from their main position between the farms of Leipzig and Moscow.
In 1794 he entered the university of Leipzig, where he studied theology for four years.
He wrote Memoiren (Leipzig, 1850); Der Nationalkrieg in Ungarn, &c. (Leipzig, 1851); a history of the Crimean War, Der Krieg im Orient.
In this year he went to the university of Leipzig, in order to study law; but he became involved in a serious conflict with the police and was obliged to continue his studies in Berlin.
On his march to Leipzig he passed through Dresden, where he issued his spirited Aufruf an die Sachsen, in which he called upon his countrymen to rise against their oppressors.
He became lieutenant towards the end of April, and took part in a skirmish at Kitzen near Leipzig on the 7th of June, when he was severely wounded.
After being nursed by friends at Leipzig and Carlsbad, he rejoined his corps and fell in an engagement outside a wood near Gadebusch in Mecklenburg on the 26th of August 1813.
He was educated at Leipzig, and became professor of theology there in 1750, and principal of the university in 1773.
A collected edition of his works was published in Leipzig and Gorlitz in 1734.
The German squadron consisted of the armoured cruisers " Scharnhorst " (flag) and " Gneisenau " (both 1908, 11,420 tons, 8 8-in., 6 5.9-in., 202 knots) and the light cruisers " Leipzig " (1906, 3,200 tons, io 4.1-in., 20 knots), " Nurnberg " (1908, 3,39 6 tons, 10 4.1-in., 22 knots) and " Dresden " (1908, 3,544 tons, 12 4.1-in., 25 knots).
The rest of the German squadron joined in, the "Scharnhorst " engaging the " Good Hope," the " Gneisenau " the " Monmouth," and the " Leipzig " the " Glasgow."
The " Monmouth " had ceased fire and turned away to the W., followed by the " Glasgow," who had been heavily engaged by the " Leipzig " and " Dresden " and had received five hits.
In the more congenial grande guerre of Russia and Germany he was in his element, and at Smolensk, Borodino and Leipzig he did brilliant service.
Wagner (Leipzig, 1830), and a new edition was published by P. de Lagarde (GÃ¶ttingen; 1888-1889); also Opere Italiane, ed.
After the death of the elector Frederick in 1464, Albert and Ernest ruled their lands together, but in 1485 a division was made by the treaty of Leipzig, and Albert received Meissen, together with some adjoining districts, and founded the Albertine branch of the family of Wettin.
Settling at Leipzig, still without any fixed means of livelihood, he was again reduced to literary drudgery.
He was educated at Leipzig, and then at Wittenberg, where he was one of the first who matriculated (1502) in the recently founded university.
Throughout his life he remained one of Luther's most determined supporters; was with him at the Leipzig conference (1519), and the diet of Worms (1521); and was in the secret of his Wartburg seclusion.
In the mist of the early morning Wallenstein's army was formed in line of battle along the Leipzig road with its right on Liitzen.
Skirmishers lined the bank and the ditch of the Leipzig road.
The Swedish centre (infantry) had forced their way across the Leipzig road and engaged Wallenstein's living forts at close quarters.
Grimm (Leipzig, 1897) connects the word with an ancient common Teut.
See C. Varrentrapp, Hermann von Wied (Leipzig, 1878).
Krenkel (Josephus and Lucas, Leipzig, 18 94, p. 97) is that Josephus does not mean to imply that Abila was the only possession of Lysanias, and that he calls it the tetrarchy or kingdom of Lysanias because it was the last remnant of the domain of Lysanias which remained under direct Roman administration until the time of Agrippa.
His father, Romanus Teller (1703-1750), was a pastor at Leipzig, and afterwards became professor of theology in the university.
After studying at Tubingen and Leipzig and travelling in Egypt and Syria, he entered the ministry of the Free Church of Scotland and was appointed professor of Old Testament subjects in the Free Church College at Glasgow 1892.
From the Waisenhaus at Halle he passed in 1733 to the university of Leipzig, and there spent five years.
On the 10th of June 1746 he left Holland and settled in Leipzig, where he hoped to get medical practice.
But his shy, proud nature was not fitted to gain patients, and the Leipzig doctors would not recommend one who was not a Leipzig graduate.
He had still to go on doing literary task-work, but his labour was much worse paid in Leipzig than in Leiden.
In Leipzig Reiske worked mainly at Greek, though he continued to draw on his Arabic stores accumulated in Leiden.
He had already made himself known by critical studies on the history of the middle ages, of which the most important was his Geschichte des ersten Kreuzzuges (Dusseldorf, 1841; new ed., Leipzig, 1881), a work which, besides its merit as a valuable piece of historical investigation, according to the critical methods which he had learnt from Ranke, was also of some significance as a protest against the vaguely enthusiastic attitude towards the middle ages encouraged by the Romantic school.
The following table shows the area and population of the whole kingdom and of each of the five chief governmental districts, or Kreishauptmannschaften, into which it is divided The chief towns are Dresden (pop. 1905, 514,283), Leipzig (502,570), Chemnitz (244,405),(244,405), Plauen (105,182), Zwickau (68,225), Zittau (34, 6 79), Meissen (32,175),(32,175), Freiberg (30,869), Bautzen (29,372), Meerane (24,994), Glauchau (24,556), Reichenbach (24,911),(24,911), Crimmitzschau (23,340), Werdau (19,476), Pirna (19,200).
The first railway between Leipzig and Dresden, due entirely to private enterprise, was opened in part in April 1837, and finished in 1840, with a length of 71 m.
Enormous quantities of cherries, plums and apples are annually borne by the trees round Leipzig, Dresden and Colditz.
Geese abound particularly round Leipzig and in Upper Lusatia, poultry about Bautzen.
The early foundation of the Leipzig fairs, and the enlightened policy of the rulers of the country, have also done much to develop its commercial and industrial resources.
Waxcloth is manufactured at Leipzig, and artificial flowers at Leipzig and Dresden.
Dobeln, Werdau and Lossnitz are the chief seats of the Saxon leather trade; cigars are very extensively made in the town and district of Leipzig, and hats and pianofortes at Leipzig, Dresden and Chemnitz.
The very large printing trade of Leipzig encourages the manufacture of printing-presses in that city.
The first chamber consists of the adult princes of the blood, two representatives of the Lutheran and one of the Roman Catholic Church, a representative of Leipzig university, the proprietor (or a deputy) of the Herrschaft of Wildenfels, a proprietor of the mediatized domains, two of Standesherrschaften, one of those of four estates in fee, the superintendent at Leipzig, a deputy of the collegiate institution at Wurzen, 12 deputies elected by owners of nobiliar estates, ten landed proprietors and five other members nominated by the king and the burgomasters of eight towns.
Leipzig is the seat of the supreme court of the German empire.
The Reformed Church has consistories in Dresden and Leipzig.
Of the four universities founded by the Saxon electors at Leipzig, Jena, Wittenberg, later transferred to Halle, and Erfurt, now extinct, only the first is included in the present kingdom of Saxony.
The conservatory of music at Leipzig enjoys a world-wide reputation; not less the art collections at Dresden.
The important partition of Leipzig accordingly took place in 1485, and resulted in the foundation of the two main lines of the Saxon house.
To its educational advantages, already conspicuous, he added the three Fi rstenschulen at Pforta, Grimma and Meissen, and for administrative purposes, especially for the collection of taxes, he divided the country into the four circles of the Electorate, Thuringia, Meissen and Leipzig.
The country had four universities, those of Leipzig, Wittenberg, Jena and Erfurt; books began to increase rapidly, and, by virtue of Luther's translation of the Bible, the Saxon dialect became the ruling dialect of Germany.
After the death of Gustavus Adolphus at the battle of Liitzen, not far from Leipzig, in 1632, the elector, who was at heart an imperialist, detached himself from the Swedish alliance, and in 1635 concluded the peace of Prague with the emperor.
After the battle of Bautzen, Napoleon's headquarters were successively at Dresden and Leipzig.
During the battle of Leipzig in October 1813, the popular Saxon feeling was displayed by the desertion of the Saxon troops to the side of the allies.
Frederick was taken prisoner in Leipzig, and the government of his kingdom was assumed for a year by the Russians.
An active opposition began to make itself evident in the diet and in the press, and in 1830, under the influence of the July revolution in Paris, riots broke out in Leipzig and Dresden.
Religious considerations arising out of the attitude of the government towards the " German Catholics," and a new constitution for the Protestant Church, began to mingle with purely political questions, and Prince John, as the supposed head of the Jesuit party, was insulted at a review of the communal guards at Leipzig in 1845.
Marr of the Grusian (Georgian) text, and he added to it (Leipzig, 1904) a translation of various small exegetical pieces, which are preserved in a Georgian version only (The Blessing of Jacob, The Blessing of Moses, The Narrative of David and Goliath).
A great part of the original of the Chronicle has been published by Adolf Bauer (Leipzig, 1905) from the Codex Matritensis Graecus, 22 I.
His eldest son, Gustav, is the author of several well-known historical works, namely, Gustav Adolf (Leipzig, 1869-1870); Herzog Bernhard von Weimar (Leipzig, 1885); an admirable Historischer Handatlas (Leipzig, 1885), and several writings on various events of the Thirty Years' War.
It is navigable from Naumburg, too m., with the help of sluices, and is connected with the Elster near Leipzig by a canal.
Members of the Albert Society of Saxony, however, spend two years in the wards at Dresden, and a third at Leipzig, attending lectures and demonstrations.
See generally Franz Boll, Sphaera (Leipzig, 1903); also the bibliographies to ASTROLOGY and BABYLONIAN AND ASSYRIAN RELIGION.
Meanwhile Maurice had refused to recognize the Interim issued from Augsburg in May 1548 as binding on Saxony; but a compromise was arranged on the basis of which the Leipzig Interim was drawn up for his lands.
Brandenburg (Leipzig, 1900-1904); and a sketch of him is given by Roger Ascham in A Report and Discourse of the Affairs and State of Germany (London, 1864-1865).
The university of Jena, led by Matthias Flacius, was the headquarters of the stricter Lutherans, while Wittenberg and Leipzig were the centres of the Philippists or followers of Melanchthon.
In the end, the greater proportion adopted the Book of Concord (1577), drafted chiefly by Jacob Andreae of Tubingen, Martin Chemnitz of Brunswick and Nicolas Selnecker of Leipzig.
Conferences were held at Leipzig (1631), Thorn (1645), Cassel (1661); but without success.
In his celebrated Codex Liturgicus Ecclesiae Lutherande in epitomen redactus (Leipzig, 1848), Daniel has used 98 different liturgies and given specimens to show the differences which they exhibit.
The sons of the gentry, denied proper instruction at home, betook themselves to the nearest universities across the border, to Goldberg in Silesia, to Wittemberg, to Leipzig.
The focus of Polish nationality was now transferred from Warsaw, where the Targowicians and their Russian patrons reigned supreme, to Leipzig, whither the Polish patriots, Kosciuszko, Kollontaj and Ignaty Potocki among the number, assembled from all quarters.
Szujski's book has superseded even Joachim Lelewel's learned History of Poland (Pol., Brussels, 1837), of which there are excellent French (Paris, 1844) and German (Leipzig, 1846) editions.
The soundest history of Lithuania, before its union with Poland, is still Lelewel's History of Lithuania (Pol., Leipzig, 1839), of which a French translation was published at Paris in 1861.
The portrait prefixed to the Leipzig edition of her works is a striking one, representing a handsome, intellectual-looking woman, dressed in the garb of some religious order.
Bruckner (Leipzig, 1901; also written in Polish); Chmielowski, History of Polish Literature (in Polish, 3 vols.); Stanislaus Tarnowski, History of Polish Literature (in Polish); Grabowski, Poezya Polska po roku 1863 (Cracow, 1903); Heinrich Nitschmann, Geschichte der polnischen Literatur (Leipzig; sine anno).
It was not, however, until after the Leipzig disputation with Eck that Luther won his allegiance.
Her earliest publications were Sappho and Hammerstein, two poems which appeared at Leipzig in 1880.
Several of the works of "Carmen Sylva" were written in collaboration with Mite Kremnitz, one of her maids of honour, who was born at Greifswald in 1857, and married Dr Kremnitz of Bucharest; these were published between 1881 and 1888, in some cases under the pseudonyms Dito et Idem, and includes the novel Aus zwei Welten (Leipzig, 1884), Anna Boleyn (Bonn, 1886), a tragedy, In der Irre (Bonn, 1888), a collection of short stories, &c. Edleen Vaughan, or Paths of Peril, a novel (London, 1894), and Sweet Hours, poems (London, 1904), were written in English.
Though undoubtedly sparing his Swedes unduly, to the just displeasure of the allies, Charles John, as commander-in-chief of the northern army, successfully defended the approaches to Berlin against Oudinot in August and against Ney in September; but after Leipzig he went his own way, determined at all hazards to cripple Denmark and secure Norway.
Leipoldt (Leipzig, 1907), may also be warmly recommended; it is clear and methodical, and does not make the common mistake of assigning too much to secondary causes; the author does not forget that he is dealing with a sacred book, and that he has to show why it was held sacred.
Weiss (Das Neue Testament, Leipzig, 1894-1900), but the method followed in this is so subjective and pays so little attention to the evidence of the versions that it is not likely to be permanently important.
He was educated at the gymnasium in Gotha, and afterwards at the universities of Erfurt, Kiel, where he came under the influence of the pietist Christian Kortholt (1633-1694), and Leipzig.
He graduated at Leipzig, where in 1685 he became a Privatdozent.
After a long visit to Spener, who was at that time a court preacher in Dresden, he returned to Leipzig in the spring of 1689, and began to give Bible lectures of an exegetical and practical kind, at the same time resuming the Collegium Philobiblicum of earlier days.
Prohibited from lecturing in Leipzig, Francke in 1690 found work at Erfurt as "deacon" of one of the city churches.
They were collected and published in French as Memoires de chymie (Paris, 1785-1788); in English as Chemical Essays, by Thomas Beddoes (London, 1786); in Latin as Opuscula, translated by Schafer, edited by Hebenstreit (Leipzig, 1788-1789); and in German as Sdmmtliche Werke, edited by Hermbstadt (Berlin, 1793).
Reference should also be made to Hoppe's Tafeln zur dreissigstelligen logarithmischen Rechnung (Leipzig, 1876), which give in a somewhat modified form a table of the hyperbolic logarithm of + Irn.
The succession of life from the earliest times as it was known at the close of the last century was treated by the same author in his Handbuch der Palciontologie (5 vols., Munich and Leipzig, 1876-1893).
In 1850 he was directed by the government to assist in the organization of the German Industrial Exhibition of Leipzig (the first of its kind).
There had already been serious revolts and raids, and after the battle of Leipzig the Russians drove the king from Cassel (October 1813), the kingdom of Westphalia was dissolved and the old order was for a time re-established.
He graduated at Columbia University in 1878, studied at Leipzig, where he received the degree of Ph.D.
From 1872 he held the chair of astrophysics at Leipzig University.
He died at Leipzig on the 25th of April 1882.
Copious references to these mentions are collected in Tuch, De Nino Urbe (Leipzig, 1845).
By the exercise of his musical talents he earned money enough for the start, at Helmstadt, of an university career, which the aid of a wealthy patron enabled him to continue at Leipzig.
He became director of the music-school at Pforten in 1572, was transferred to Leipzig in the same capacity in 1594, and retained this post until his death on the 24th of November 1615, despite the offers successively made to him of mathematical professorships at Frankfort and Wittenberg.
Of later editions the most important are those of C. Muller (Paris, 1853) and Meineke (Leipzig, 1866-1877).
Cassini's new method of parallaxes was inserted in the Ada Eruditorum of Leipzig in 1685.
A very ancient fragment (dated 1080) of al-Anbari's recension, containing five poems in whole or part, is in the Royal Library at Leipzig.
After studying at Leipzig, he went to Amsterdam, where he edited Homer and the Onomasticon of Julius Pollux for Wetzstein the publisher.
He finally found a permanent post in Bucharest as secretary to the prince of Walachia, Alexander Mavrocordato, whose work Hepc TWV KaefKOVTwv (De Of ciis) he had previously translated for Fritzsch, the Leipzig bookseller, by whom he had been employed as proof-reader and literary hack.
In addition to writing numerous articles for the Leipzig Acta Eruditorum, Bergler edited the editio princeps of the Byzantine historiographer Genesius (1733), and the letters of Alciphron (1715), in which seventy-five hitherto unpublished letters were for the first time included.
In 1874 he was elected regular professor of philosophy at Zurich, and in the following year was called to the corresponding chair at Leipzig, where he founded an Institute for Experimental Psychology, the precursor of many similar institutes.
It is connected by two lines of railway with Leipzig and by local lines with neighbouring smaller towns.
Lucubrationes were partially collected at Basel 1563 and in 1566 (omnia opera) at Louvain; a fuller edition drawn chiefly from these two appeared at Frankfort and Leipzig in 1689.
Owing to its pleasant situation and accessibility, it has become a favourite residence of business men of Leipzig and Halle.
Fechner saw psychology deriving advantage from the methods, as well as the results, of his experiments, and in 1879 the first psychological laboratory was erected by Wundt at Leipzig.
The texts submitted to the emperor, lost before 1570, are reconstructed and compared with the textus receptus by P. Tschackert, Die unvercinderte Augsburgische Konfession (Leipzig, 1901).
As head of the Protestant party the young elector Maurice of Saxony negotiated with Melanchthon and others, and at Leipzig, on the 22nd of December 1548, secured their acceptance of the Interim as regards adiaphora (things indifferent), points neither enjoined nor forbidden in Scripture.
This modification was known as the Leipzig Interim; its advocates were stigmatized as Adiaphorists.
Having studied law at Leipzig, Helmstadt and Jena, and mathematics, especially geometry and mechanics, at Leiden, he visited France and England, and in 1636 became engineer-in-chief at Erfurt.
Recovery from these disasters was retarded by the permanent diversion of trade to new centres like Leipzig and St Petersburg, and by a state of unsettlement due to the government's disregard of its guarantees to its Protestant subjects.
For information on artistic anatomy as applied to physiognomy see th catalogue of sixty-two authors by Ludwig Choulant, Geschichte and Bibliographie der anatomischen Abbildung, &c. (Leipzig, 1852), and the works of the authors enumerated above, especially those of Aristotle, Franz, Porta, Cardan, Corvus and Bulwer.
Hesse-Cassel was then added to Jerome Bonaparte's new kingdom of Westphalia; but after the battle of Leipzig in 1813 the French were driven out and on the 21st of November the elector returned in triumph to his capital.
The Lipscani was originally the street of merchants who obtained their wares from the annual fair at Leipzig; for almost all crafts or gilds, other than the bakers and tavern-keepers, were long confined to separate quarters; and the old names have survived, as in the musicians', furriers', and money-changers' quarters.
He then applied his financial knowledge to banking business in Cologne, Berlin, Gotha and Leipzig.
The North German or Bremen Society split into a strict Lutheran or Leipzig agency and the Hermannsburg Mission, which aimed at a more primitive and apostolic method.
Professor Delitzsch estimated that i oo,000 Jews had embraced Christianity in the first three quarters of the i 9th century; and Dr Dalman of Leipzig says that " if all those who have entered the Church and their descendants had remained together, instead of losing themselves among the other peoples, there would now be a believing Israel to be counted by millions, and no one would have ventured to speak of the uselessness of preaching the Gospel to the Jews."
Cantor, Vorlesungen fiber Geschichte der Mathematik (Leipzig, t880); P. Tannery, " Thales de Milet ce qu'il a emprunte a l'Egypte," Revue Philosophique, March 1880; " La Tradition touchant Pythagore, Oenopide, et Thales," Bul.
In 1886 he was chosen to succeed Felix Klein in the chair of geometry at Leipzig, but as his fame grew a special post was arranged for him in Christiania.
His primary aim has been declared to be the advancement and elaboration of the theory of differential equations, and it was with this end in view that he developed his theory of transformation groups, set forth in his Theorie der Transf ormationsgruppen (3 vols., Leipzig, 1888-1893), a work of wide range and great originality, by which probably his name is best known.
Scheffers, but only one volume made its appearance (Geometrie der Beriihrungstransformationen, Leipzig, 1896).
An analysis of Lie's works is given in the Bibliotheca Mathematica (Leipzig, 1900).
He did, indeed, in February 1631 call a meeting of Protestant princes at Leipzig, but in spite of the appeals of the preacher Matthias Hoe von Hohenegg (1580-1645) he contented himself with a formal protest.
At length in September 1645 the elector was compelled to agree to a truce with the Swedes, who, however, retained Leipzig; and as far as Saxony' was concerned this ended the Thirty Years' War.
Winkler (1703-1770), professor of physics at Leipzig, substituted a leather cushion for the hand.
In 1746 he entered the university of Leipzig as a theological student.
He was only allowed to return to Leipzig on the condition that he would devote himself to the study of medicine.
In 1748, however, the company broke up, and Lessing, who had allowed himself to become surety for some of the actors' debts, was obliged to leave Leipzig too, in order to escape their creditors.
Hitherto Lessing had, as a dramatist, followed the methods of contemporary French comedy as cultivated in Leipzig; Miss Sara Sampson, however, marks the beginning of a new period in the history of the German drama.
In October 1755 Lessing settled in Leipzig with a view to devoting himself more exclusively to the drama.
In Leipzig Lessing had also an opportunity of developing his friendship with Kleist who happened to be stationed there.
In 1760, feeling the need of some change of scene and work, Lessing went to Breslau, where he obtained the post of secretary to General Tauentzien, to whom Kleist had introduced him in Leipzig.
In 1772 he published Emilia Galotti, a tragedy which he had begun many years before in Leipzig.
Henckel's Pyritologia, oder Kieshistorie (Leipzig, 1725); of which an English translation appeared in 1757, entitled Pyritologia; or a History of the Pyrites, the Principal Body in the Mineral Kingdom.
The defeat of Leipzig in 1813 was the signal for a general revolt in the Netherlands; the prince of Orange (son of William V.) was recalled, and amidst general Creation provinces to form the kingdom of the Netherlands, of the p g Kingdom which was also to include the bishopric of Liege and of the the duchy of Bouillon, and the prince of Orange was Nether- placed upon the throne on the 15th of March 1815 as lands.
The history of furs can be read in Marco Polo, as he grows eloquent with the description of the rich skins of the khan of Tatary; in the early fathers of the church, who lament their introduction into Rome and Byzantium as an evidence of barbaric and debasing luxury; in the political history of Russia, stretching out a powerful arm over Siberia to secure her rich treasures; in the story of the French occupation of Canada, and the ascent of the St Lawrence to Lake Superior, and the subsequent contest to retain possession against England; in the history of early settlements of New England, New York and Virginia; in Irving's Astoria; in the records of the Hudson's Bay Company; and in the annals of the fairs held at Nizhniy Novgorod and Leipzig.
While many buyers from America and Russia are personally in attendance at the sales, many more are represented by London and Leipzig agents who buy for them upon commission.
Of course there are many transactions, generally in the cheaper and coarser kinds of furs, used only in central Europe, Russia and Asia which in no way interest the London market, and there are many direct consignments of skins from collectors in America and Russia to London, New York and Leipzig merchants.
The chief exceptions are the Persian and Astrachan lambs, which are bought at the Russian 'fairs, and are dressed and dyed in Leipzig, and the ermine and Russian squirrels, which are dressed and manufactured into linings either in Russia or Germany before offered for sale to the wholesale merchants or manufacturers.
In Weissenfels, near Leipzig, the dressing of Russian grey squirrel and the making it into linings is a gigantic industry, and is the principal support of the place.
The majority of heads, gills or throats, sides or flanks, paws and pieces of skins cut up in the fur workshops of Great Britain, America and France, weighing many tons, are chiefly exported to Leipzig, and made up in neighbouring countries and Greece, where labour can be obtained at an alarmingly low rate.
The southern sides of this range are comparatively steep; on the north it slopes gently down to the plains of Leipzig, but is intersected by the deep valleys of the Elster and Mulde.
The population is thickest in upper Silesia around Beuthen (coal-fields), around Ratibor, Neisse and Waldenburg (coal-fields), around Zittau (kingdom of Saxony), in the Elbe valley around Dresden, in the districts of Zwickau and Leipzig as far as the Saale, on the northern slopes of the Harz and around Bielefeld in Westphalia.
Wall papers are produced chiefly in Rhenish Prussia, Berlin and Hamburg; the finer sorts of letter-paper in Berlin, Leipzig and Nuremberg; and printing-paper (especially for books) in Leipzig, Berlin and Frankfort-on-Main.
This office, not to be confused with the Reiclzsgericht (supreme legal tribunal of the empire) in Leipzig, deals principally with the drafting of legal measures to be submitted to the Reichstag.
The supreme court of the German empire is the Reichsgerichi, having its seat at Leipzig.
On this point it must be borne in mind that the population of the larger towns, on account of the greater mobility of the population since the introduction of railways and the abolition of restrictions upon free settlement, has become more mixedBerlin, Leipzig, Hamburg, &c., showing proportionally more Roman Catholics, and Cologne, Frankfort-onMain, Munich more Protestants than formerly.
For instruction in agriculture there are agricultural schools attached to several universitiesnotably Berlin, Halle, GÃ¶ttingen, Konigsberg, J ena, Poppelsdorf near Bonn, Munich and Leipzig.
The most celebrated public libraries are those of Berlin (i,ooo,ooo volumes and 30,000 MSS.); Munich (1,000,000 volumes, 40,000 MSS.); Heidelberg (563,000 volumes, 8ooo MSS.); GÃ¶ttingen (503,000 volumes, 6000 MSS.); Strassburg (760,000 volumes); Dresden (500,000 volumes, 6000 MSS.); Hamburg (municipal library, 600,000 volumes, 5000 MSS.); Stuttgart (400,000 volumes, 3500 MSS.); Leipzig (universitylibrary, 500,000 volurries, 5000 MSS.); Wurzburg (350,000 volumes); TUbingen (340,000 volumes); Rostock (318,000 volumes); Breslau (university library, 300,000 volumes, 7000 MSS.); Freiburg-im-Breisgau (250,000 volumes); Bonn (265,000 volumes); and Konigsberg (230,000 volumes, I ioo MSS.).
Leipzig, Berlin and Stuttgart are the chief centres of the trade.
Some large cities, notably Berlin, Cologne, Hamburg, Dresden, Leipzig and Munich, have, however, newspapers with a daily circulation of over 100,000 copies, and in the case of some papers in Berlin a million copies is reached.
Of these the most important are the conservatoires of Leipzig, Dresden, Berlin, Munich and Frankforton-Main.
Luther had confronted the cardinal legate Cajetan, had passed through his famous controversy at Leipzig with Johann Eck, and was about to burn the bull of excommunication.
Having captured Frankfort-on-Oder and forced the hesitating elector of Brandenburg, George William, to grant him some assistThe earn- ance, Gustavus Adolphus added the Saxon army to his paignof, own, and in September 1631 he met Tilly, at the heed Gustavus of nearly the whole force of the League, at Breitenfeld, P near Leipzig,, where he gained a victory which placed North Germany entirely at his feet.
The campaign that followed, after some initial reverses, culminated in the crushing victory of the allies at Leipzig (October 1618, 1813),and was succeeded by the joint invasion of France, during which the German troops wreaked vengeance on the unhappy population for the wrongs and violences of the French rule in Germany.
It was, however, opposition in the Bundesrat which obliged him to abandon his scheme for imperial railways, and when, in 1877, it was necessary to determine the seat of the new supreme court of justice, the proposal of the government that Berlin should be chosen was out-voted by thirty to twenty-eight in favor of Leipzig.
To complete the work a supreme court of appeal was established in Leipzig, which was competent to hear appeals not only from imperial law, but also from that of the individual states.
Most, a printer from Leipzig, who had been expelled from Berlin, went to London, where he founded the Freilicit, a weekly paper, in which he advocated a policy of violence.
Much has also been done in Prussia, in Brandenburg, in Bavaria, in Hanover, in Wurttemberg and in Baden, and collections of authorities have been made by competent scholars, of which the Geschichtsquellen der Provinz Sachsen und angrenzender Gebiete (Halle, 1870, f 01.), which extends to forty volumes, the smaller Scrip/ores rerum Prussicarum (Leipzig, 1861-1874), and the seventy-seven volumes of the Publikationen aus den koniglichen preussischen Slaatsarchiven, veranlasst und unterstutzt durch die konigliche Archivverwaltung (Leipzig, 1878, fol.), may be cited as examples.
There is also the great series of volumes, primary and supplementary, forming the Ailgemeine deutsche Biographic (Leipzig, 1875, fol.), in which the word deutsche is interpreted in the widest possible sense.
By the treaty of Trachenberg (July 12, 1813) the Grand Alliance was completed; on the 16th, 17th and 18th of October the battle of Leipzig was fought; and the victorious advance into France was begun, which issued, on the 11th of April 1814, in Napoleon's abdication.
After the year 1873, a strong movement in favour of protective duties made itself felt among the Austrian manufacturers who were affected by the competition of German, English and Belgian goods, and Austria was influenced by the general movement in economic thought which about this time caused the reaction 2 Matlekovits, Die Zollpolitik der osterreichish-ungarischen Monarchie (Leipzig, 1891),., gives the Hungarian point of view; Bazant, Die Handelspolitik OsterreichUngarns (1875-1892, Leipzig, 1894).
For a fuller description of these social reforms, see the Jahrbuch fir Gesetzgebung (Leipzig, 1886, 1888 and 1894); also the annual summary of new laws in the Zeitschrift fur Staatswissenschaft (Stuttgart).
In 1867 he accepted a call to Leipzig, where he died on the 4th of March 1890.
The best edition is by Rose (2nd ed., Leipzig, 1899); see also Nohl, Index Vitruvianus (1876); Jolles, Vitruvs Aesthetik (1906); Sontheimer, Vitruv and seine Zeit (1908).
Not much can be said in praise of the complete translations into the German language, neither of that of Ullmann, which has appeared in several editions, nor of that of Henning (Leipzig) and Grigull (Halle), all of them shallow amateurs who have no notion of the difficulties to be met with in the task, and are almost entirely dependent on Sale.
For a full list of other works see DahlmannWaitz, Quellenkunde (Leipzig, 1906).
He there began the study of Saxon history, still devoting his attention chiefly to the history of commerce and economy, and published Die Geschichte des Kurfiirsten August von Sachsen in y olkswirthschaftlicher Beziehung (Leipzig, 1868) and Geschichte des deutschen Zollwesens (Leipzig, 1869).
Islams, p. 464 (Leipzig, 1868).
Melanchthon was first drawn into the arena of the Reformation controversy through the Leipzig Disputation (June 27 - July 8, 1519), at which he was present.
In the Loci of 1535 Melanchthon sought to put the fact of the co-existence of justification and good works in the believer on a secure basis by declaring the latter necessary to eternal life, though the believer's destiny thereto is already fully guaranteed in his justification, In the Loci of 1543 he did not retain the doctrine of the necessity of good works in order to salvation, and to this he added, in the Leipzig Interim, "that this in no way countenances the error that eternal life is merited by the worthiness of our own works."
The most learned of modern Melanchthon scholars was probably Karl Hartfelder, who wrote Philipp Melanchthon als Praeceptor Germaniae (Berlin, 18 99); Melanchthoniana paedagogica (Leipzig, 1892), giving in the first named two full bibliographies, one of all works written on Melanchthon, the other of all works written by him (in chronological order).
Abteilung, pp. 216-226 and 440-442; Ludwig Braunfels, Kritischer Versuch fiber den Roman Amadis von Gallien (Leipzig, 1876); Theophilo Braga, Historia das novelas portuguezas de cavalleria (Porto, 1873), Curso de litteratura e arte portugueza (Lisboa, 1881), and Questoes de litteratura e arte portugueza (Lisboa,1885); Marcelino Menendez y Pelayo, Origenes de la novela (Madrid, 1905); Eugene Baret, De l'Amadis de Gaule et de son influence sur les me urs et la litterature au X VI e et au X VII e siecle (Paris, 1873).
A technical college occupies the premises in which Meyer's Bibliographisches Institut carried on business from 1828, when it removed hither from Gotha, until 1874, when it was transferred_to Leipzig.
Huber, and their fiancees Minna and Dora Stock - with whom he had corresponded, to pay a visit to Leipzig.
A visit to Leipzig in 1801, and to Berlin - where there was some prospect of his being invited to settle - in 1804, were the chief outward events of his later years.
Wadstein, Die eschatologische Ideengruppe, Antichrist, Weltsabbat, Weltende and Welgericht (Leipzig, 1896), which contains excellent material for the history of the idea in the West during the middle ages; W Meyer, "Ludus de Antichristo," in Sitzbericht der Miinchener Akad.
Having studied theology in the academy of the Moravian brethren at Niesky, and philosophy at Leipzig and Jena, he travelled for some time, and in 1806 became professor of philosophy and elementary mathematics at Heidelberg.
In 1748 he entered the university of Leipzig, where he was frequently in want of the necessaries of life.
His distress had almost amounted to despair, when he procured the situation of tutor in the family of a French merchant in Leipzig, which enabled him to continue his studies.
His son, Johann Kaspar, the poet's father (1710-1782), studied law at Leipzig, and, after going through the prescribed courses of practical training at Wetzlar, travelled in Italy.
In October 1765, Goethe, then a little over sixteen, left Frankfort for Leipzig, where a wider and, in many respects, less provincial life awaited him.
Behrisch, a genial, original comrade, he learned the art of writing those light Anacreontic lyrics which harmonized with the tone of polite Leipzig society.
Artificial as this poetry is, Goethe was, nevertheless, inspired by a real passion in Leipzig, namely, for Anna Katharina SchOnkopf, the daughter of a wine-merchant at whose house he dined.
To his Leipzig student-days belong also two small plays in Alexandrines, Die Laune des Verliebten, a pastoral comedy in one act, which reflects the lighter side of the poet's love affair, and Die Mitschuldigen (published in a revised form, 1769), a more sombre picture, in which comedy is incongruously mingled with tragedy.
Oeser (1717-1799), the director of the academy of painting in the Pleissenburg, who had given him lessons in drawing, as the teacher who in Leipzig had influenced him most.
His stay in Leipzig came, however, to an abrupt conclusion; the distractions of student life proved too much for his strength; a sudden haemorrhage supervened, and he lay long ill, first in Leipzig, and, after it was possible to remove him, at home in Frankfort.
He still corresponded with his Leipzig friends, but the tone of his letters changed; life had become graver and more earnest for him.
The Gothic architecture of the Strassburg minster became to him the symbol of a national and German ideal, directly antagonistic to the French tastes and the classical and rationalistic atmosphere that prevailed in Leipzig.
Even more than Herder's precept and example, this passion showed Goethe how trivial and artificial had been the Anacreontic and pastoral poetry with which he had occupied himself in Leipzig; and the lyrics inspired by Friederike, such as Kleine Blumen, kleine Blcitter and Wie herrlich leuchtet mir die Natur!
In youth he had musical ambitions, studied under Mendelssohn and Weinlig at Leipzig, under Loewe at Stettin, and afterwards at Vienna.
In 1879, his increasing illness necessitating the constant presence of an attendant, he went to live at Leipzig, where he died.
His principal theological work was the Fortbildung des Christenthums zur Weltreligion, in 4 volumes (Leipzig, 1833-1840).