Leiden sentence example

leiden
  • For about a year he studied at Leiden, paying special attention to philosophy and Greek.
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  • In the following year he was appointed successor to the celebrated Perizonius, who had held the chair of history, Greek language and eloquence at Leiden.
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  • Bosscha, Het Leven van Willem den Tweede, Koning der Nederlanden, 1793-1849 (Amsterdam, 1852); P. Blok, Geschiedenis der Nederlandsche Volk (Leiden, 1908).
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  • Among these towns were Franeker in Friesland, Harderwyk, Deventer, Utrecht, Leiden, Amersfoort, Amsterdam, Leeuwarden in Friesland.
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  • In 1647 the difficulties that had arisen at Utrecht were repeated on a smaller scale at Leiden.
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  • In his lifetime his views had been taught in Utrecht and Leiden.
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  • At Leiden, Utrecht, Groningen, Franeker, Breda, Nimeguen, Harderwyk, Duisburg and Herborn, and at the Catholic university of Louvain, Cartesianism was warmly expounded and defended in seats of learning, of which many are now left desolate, and by adherents whose writings have for the most part long lost interest for any but the antiquary.
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  • Christoph Wittich (1625-1687), professor at Duisburg and Leiden, is a representative of the moderate followers who professed to reconcile the doctrines of their school with the faith of Christendom and to refute the theology of Spinoza.
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  • Kamerlingh Onnes at Leiden in 1908.
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  • Meusel (Leipzig, 1871) from a Leiden MS. A.
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  • Foreign editions were published in Italian at Verona in 1623, in Latin at Leiden in 1626 and 1628, and in Dutch at Gouda in 1626.
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  • The Leiden magistrates said in 1581:" If we accept everything determined upon in the synod, we shall end by being vassals of the synod.
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  • at Leiden in 1752.
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  • Dordrecht, Leiden, Haarlem, Delft, Vlaardigen, Rotterdam in Holland, and Middleburg and Zierikzee in Zeeland, repeated with modifications the characteristics of the communes of Flanders and Brabant.
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  • The Spaniards laid siege to Leiden, and though stricken down by a fever at Delft the prince spared no exertion to save the town.
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  • The The siege dykes were cut, the land flooded, but again and again and relief a relieving force was baulked in its attempts to reach of Leiden.
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  • In honour of this great deliverance, the state of Holland founded the university, which was speedily to make the name of Leiden illustrious throughout Europe.
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  • He died at Leiden in November 1669.
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  • In the hope of drawing away the Spaniards from the siege of Leiden by a diversion in the south, Louis, with his brothers John and Henry, at the head of a force of mixed nationalities and little discipline, crossed the frontier near Maastricht, and advanced as far as the Mookerheide near Nijmv,-egen.
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  • See Stokvis, Manuel d'histoire, &c. (Leiden, 1890-1893).
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  • In order to provide employment for his soldiers, Corbulo made them cut a canal from the Mosa (Meuse) to the northern branch of the Rhine, which still forms one of the chief drains between Leiden and Sluys, and before the introduction of railways was the ordinary traffic road between Leiden and Rotterdam.
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  • He studied medicine in London, Paris and Leiden, receiving his M.D.
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  • degree at Leiden in 1721.
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  • On the passing of the Act of Uniformity in 1662, Newcomen lost his living, but was soon invited to the pastorate at Leiden, where he was held in high esteem not only by his own people but by the university professors.
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  • A much more important work in the history of geographical method is the Geographia generalis of Bernhard Varenius, a German medical doctor of Leiden, who died at the age of twentyeight in 1650, the year of the publication of his book.
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  • de Man, Vergelijkende myologische en neurologische Studien over Amphibien en Vogels (Leiden, 1873), (Corvidae); A.
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  • The latter position he held for nearly forty-five years, with the exception of a short time spent at the university of Leiden, where his health was affected by the Dutch climate.
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  • Stokvis' Manuel d'histoire (Leiden, 1888).
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  • Land, Anecdota syriaca (Leiden, 1874), iv.
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  • Chaderton published a sermon preached at St Paul's Cross about 1580, and a treatise of his On Justification was printed by Anthony Thysius, professor of divinity at Leiden.
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  • Landauer (unfinished; Leiden, 1877-1883).
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  • Brisson's work was in French, with a parallel translation (edited, it is said, by Pallas) in Latin, which last was reprinted separately at Leiden three years afterwards.
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  • After travelling in France and England, he studied the Cartesian philosophy under John Racy at Leiden.
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  • The editio princeps of the original appeared at Augsburg (1471); that of Haverkamp (Leiden, 1738 and 1767) has now been superseded by C. Zangemeister, who has edited the Hist.
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  • By the generosity of friends he was educated at the gymnasium at Haarlem and afterwards at the university of Leiden.
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  • In 1853 he became professor extraordinarius of theology at Leiden, and in 1855 full professor.
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  • 1821) were the chief founders, and of which Leiden became the headquarters.
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  • He died at Leiden on the 10th of December 1891.
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  • At the time of his father's assassination in 1584 he was being educated at the university of Leiden, at the expense of the states of Holland and Zeeland.
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  • (Leiden, 1841-1861); G.
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  • The researches of Professor Dozy, of Leiden, have amply confirmed this opinion.
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  • in the second half of the 13th century, partly (so far as relates to the Cid) from the above, partly from contemporary Arabic histories, and partly from tradition; the Cronica del Cid, first published in 1512, by Juan de Velorado, abbot of the monastery of San Pedro at Cardena, which is a compilation from the last, interlarded with new fictions due to the piety of the compiler; lastly, various Arabic manuscripts, some of contemporary date, which are examined and their claims weighed in the second volume of Professor Dozy's Recherches sur l'histoire politique et litteraire de l'Espagne pendant le moyen dge (Leiden, 1849).
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  • C. Klinkert, Nieuw Maleisch-Nederlandisch Woorden boek (Leiden, 1893); John Leyden, Malay Annals (London, 1821); William Marsden, The History of Sumatra (London, 181 I); Malay Dictionary (London, 1824); Sir William Maxwell, A Manual of the Malay Language (London, 1888); T.
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  • In the Leiden museum there are a number of papyri which were found in a tomb at Thebes, written probably in the 3rd century A.D., though their matter is older.
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  • This treatise was probably composed at a date not very different from that of the Leiden papyrus.
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  • Thus the pseudo-Democritus, who was reputed the author of the Physica et Mystica, which itself concludes each of its receipts with a magical formula, was believed to have travelled in Chaldaea, and to have had as his master Ostanes l the Mede, a name mentioned several times in the Leiden papyrus, and often by early Christian writers such as Tertullian, St Cyprian and St Augustine.
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  • at Paris and Leiden, are quite dissimilar from the Latin works attributed to Geber, and show few if any traces of the positive chemical knowledge, as of nitric acid (aqua dissolutiva or fortis) or of the mixture of nitric and hydrochloric acids known as aqua regis or regia, that appears in the latter.
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  • Lorentz of Leiden, from considerations based on the Clausius-Mossotti theory of dielectrics.
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  • Lucas Janszon Waghenaer (Aurigarius) of Enkhuizen published the first edition of his Spiegel der Zeevaart (Mariners' Mirror) at Leiden in 1585.
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  • de Bedae vita et Scriptis (Leiden, 1838), is still useful.
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  • The Berlin herbarium is especially rich in more recent collections, and other national herbaria sufficiently extensive to subserve the requirements of the systematic botanist exist at St Petersburg, Vienna, Leiden, Stockholm, Upsala, Copenhagen and Florence.
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  • van Vloten as Le Livre des beautes et des antitheses (Leiden, 1898); the Kitab ul -hala.
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  • by the same (Leiden, 1900); two other smaller works, the Excellences of the Turks and the Superiority in Glory of the Blacks over the Whites, also prepared by the same.
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  • Miller (Leiden, 1884; cf.
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  • Johannes was a Calvinist, however, and the strict Lutherans of the Palatinate caused him once more to become a wanderer; in 1578 he settled at Leiden as student of theology, and finally became pastor at Dort, where he died in 1585.
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  • Here the son received his education, until in 1595 he entered the university of Leiden, where he became the lifelong friend of Hugo Grotius, and studied classics, Hebrew, church history and theology.
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  • From 1614 to 1619 he was director of the theological college at Leiden.
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  • In 1632 he left Leiden to take the post of professor of history in the newly founded Athenaeum at Amsterdam, which he held till his death on the 19th of March 1649.
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  • (Leiden, 1907-1908).
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  • The Leiden copy of ~Omar Khayygms work on algebra was noticed as far back as i 742 by Gerald Meerman in the preface to his Specimen calculi fluxionalis; further notices of the same work by Sdillot appeared in the Nouv.
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  • The complete text, together with a French translation (on the basis of the Leiden and Paris copies, the latter first discovered by M.
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  • From his father he received the rudiments of his education, which was continued at Leiden under A.
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  • These investigations, together with his discovery of the "wonderful phenomenon" of polarization, are recorded in his Traite de la lumiere, published at Leiden in 1690, but composed in 1678.
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  • He died at the Hague on the 8th of June 1695, bequeathing his manuscripts to the university of Leiden, and his considerable property to the sons of his younger brother.
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  • A volume entitled Opera posthuma (Leiden, 1703) contained his "Dioptrica," in which the ratio between the respective focal lengths of object-glass and eye-glass is given as the measure of magnifying power, together with the shorter essays De vitris figurandis, De corona et parheliis, &c. An early tract De ratiociniis tin ludo aleae, printed in 16J7 with Schooten's Exercitationes mathematicae, is notable as one of the first formal treatises on the theory of probabilities; nor should his investigations of the properties of the cissoid, logarithmic and catenary curves be left unnoticed.
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  • 's Gravesande, in four quarto volumes entitled Opera varia (Leiden, 1724) and Opera reliqua (Amsterdam, 1728).
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  • Uylenbroek from manuscripts preserved at Leiden, with the title Christiani Hugenii aliorumque seculi XVII.
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  • Major Humbert was sent there by Napoleon in 1808 and his notes are still preserved in the museum of Leiden.
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  • Thus it occurs in a magical book of Moses, w hich has been edited from a Leiden papyrus of the 3rd or 4th century by Dieterich (Abraxas, 109).
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  • version of the Vulgate was published at Vienna by the Jesuit George Kaldi, 8 and another complete translation of the Scriptures, the so-called Komdromi Biblia (Komorn Bible) was made in 1685 by the Protestant George Csipkes, though it was not published till 1717 at Leiden, twenty-nine years after his death., On behalf of the Catholics the Jesuit Peter Pazman, eventually primate, Nicholas Eszterhazy, Sambas, Balasfi and others were the authors of various works of a polemical nature.
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  • About the beginning of the 17th century various mathematical works by Franciscus Vieta were published, which were afterwards collected by Franz van Schooten and republished in 1646 at Leiden.
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  • Editions: Heinsius (Leiden, 1630); Fischer (Leipzig, 1783) � in Aldine Edition of Apuleius (Venice, 1521; Paris, 1532); Fell (Oxford, 1667).
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  • His body was buried in the church 1 This letter, even if spurious as now suspected, is found in the 11th-century Leiden MS., and is therefore anterior to the first crusade.
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  • These are to be found for the most part in an IIth-century MS. at Leiden.
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  • The important works on the three above-mentioned councils are to be found in the I ithcentury Leiden MS. just alluded to.
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  • (Leiden, 1896); H.
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  • Descartes strengthened these views, both by experiments and geometrical investigations, in his Meteors (Leiden, 1637).
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  • Jacobus Baradaeus, de Stichter der syrische monophysietische Kerk (Leiden, 1882).
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  • In the late usage at Harran the worshipper, after purifying his garments and his heart, was advised to put on the clothing of the particular god he addressed (de Goeje, Oriental Congress, Leiden, 1 Herod.
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  • DANIEL NEAL (1678-1743), English historian, born in London on the 14th of December 1678, was educated at the Merchant Taylors' School, and at the universities of Utrecht and Leiden.
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  • The method of clinical instruction in hospitals, commenced by the Italians, was introduced into Holland, where it was greatly developed, especially at Leiden, in the hands of Francis de la Bo gy, called Sylvius (1641-1672).
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  • One of the most elaborate developments of the system was that of Archibald Pitcairne (1652-1713), a Scottish physician who became professor at Leiden, to be spoken of hereafter.
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  • The founder of the iatrochemical school was Sylvius (1614-1672), who belonged to a French family settled in Holland, and was for fourteen years professor of medicine at Leiden, where he attracted students from all quarters of Europe.
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  • He was for many years .professor of medicine at Leiden, where he lectured five hours a day, and excelled in influence and reputation not only his greatest forerunners, Montanus of Padua and Sylvius of Leiden, but probably every subsequent teacher.
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  • The hospital of Leiden, though with only twelve beds available for teaching, became the centre of medical influence in Europe.
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  • Here he became, as did his contemporary and rival Stahl, a popular and influential teacher, though their university had not the European importance of Leiden.
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  • Haller occupied in the new university of Gottingen (founded 1737) a position corresponding to that of Boerhaave at Leiden, and in like manner influenced a very large circle of pupils, The appreciation of his work in physiology belongs to the history of that science; we are only concerned here with its influence on medicine.
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  • S.)/n==Authorities== - The two most ancient manuscripts of Lucretius, O and Q, are both at Leiden, one being a folio (oblongus) and the other a quarto (quadrates).
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  • - The following works are the most important: Denny, Monographia Anoplurorum Britanniae (London, 18 43); Giebel, Insecta Epizoa (which contains the working-up of Nitzsch's posthumous materials; Leipzig, 1874); van Beneden, Animal Parasites (London, 1876); Piaget, Les Pediculines (Leiden, 1880); Megnin, Les Parasites et les maladies parasitaires (Paris, 1880); Neumann, Parasites and Parasitic Diseases of Domesticated Animals (1892); Osborn, Pediculi and Mallophaga affecting Man and the Lower Animals (Washington, 1891; U.S. Dept.
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  • Bake, Posidonii Rhodii reliquiae (Leiden, 1810), a valuable monograph; R.
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  • In February the same year (1575), the university of Leiden had been founded, and thither, by the kindness of friends, Arminius was sent to study theology.
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  • The six years he remained at Leiden (1J76-1582) were years of active and innovating thought in Holland.
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  • Caspar Koolhaes, the heroic minister of Leiden - its first lecturer, too, in divinity - pleaded against a too rigid uniformity, for such an agreement on "fundamentals" as had allowed Reformed, Lutherans and Anabaptists to unite.
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  • Leiden had been happy, too, in its first professors.
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  • Snellius, Arminius's old patron, now removed to Leiden, expounded the Ramist philosophy, and did his best to start his students on the search after truth, unimpeded by the authority of Aristotle.
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  • In 1603 he was called, in succession to Franz Junius, to a theological professorship at Leiden, which he held till his death on the 19th of October 1609.
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  • The controversy was embittered and the differences sharpened by his appointment to the professorship at Leiden.
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  • The works of Arminius (in Latin) were published in a single quarto volume at Leiden in 1629, at Frankfort in 1631 and 1635.
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  • - Of Arabic sources accessible in translations the geographical works of Ya`kubi (Descriptio al Magribi, by De Goeje, Leiden, 1860), Al-Bakri (Descr.
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  • de l'Afrique, &c., by Dozy and De Goeje, Leiden, 1866) belong to the loth, nth and 12th centuries respectively; the history of Ibn Khaldun (Hist.
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  • (Leiden, 1898).
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  • p. 120), and in the Leiden Papyrus, xvii.
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  • Dieterici has published at Leiden: Alfarabi's philosophische Abhandlungen (1890; German trans.
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  • His Epistolae were published at Leiden in 1647, and a French translation at Paris in 1668-1670.
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  • of Leiden in 1874, D.D.
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  • He was intended for the medical profession, and studied at the universities of Berlin, Halle, Gottingen and Leiden.
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  • It is probable that he completed his education at Leiden or Utrecht.
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  • Of those founded in the 19th century may be mentioned the Recensent (1803), and Nieuwe Recensent; the Nederlandsch Museum (1835); the Tijdstroom (1857); the Tijdspiegel, a literary journal of Protestant tendency; the Theologisch Tijdschrift (1867), the organ of the Leiden school of theology; and the Dietsche Warande, a Roman Catholic review devoted to the national antiquities.
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  • He studied at Leiden university, where he became intimate with the most famous scholars of the age - J.
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  • The Apologie ou defence du tres illustre Prince Guillaume contre le ban et l'edit du roi d'Espagne (Leiden, 1581) is sometimes attributed to Languet.
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  • The attacks on the genuineness of the whole or part of the collection have been refuted by Wilde (Leiden, 1889).
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  • 1743), Glasgow and Leiden.
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  • de Goeje, Memoire sur la conque'te de la Syrie (Leiden, 1900); Butler, Arab Conquest of Egypt (Oxford, 1902); art.
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  • Many prehistoric remains found in the neighbourhood are in the museum at Leiden.
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  • at Leiden, he settled down in his native city, becoming also physician to the count of Lippe.
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  • van Schooten at Leiden in 1646.
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  • The 1 Marshal Luxemburg, who was left in command of the army in Holland during the winter of 1672-73, had indeed made a bold attempt to capture Leiden and the Hague by marching a corps, from Utrecht across the frozen inundations.
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  • Piaget's Pediculines (Leiden, 1880-1905), and G.
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  • Kaiser (Annalen der Sternwarte in Leiden, iii.
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  • Weber, " Siboga Expedition," Petermanns Mitteilungen (1900); Siboga Expeditie (Leiden, 1902 et seq.); F.
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  • His first tractate (1535, first printed 1627) is directed against the "horrible and gross blasphemy of John of Leiden" - though the genuineness of this tract has been doubted.
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  • He was educated at the university of Leiden, where he formed a close intimacy with Daniel Heinsius.
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  • Most of his life was passed in Leiden, but in 1650 he became blind, and the last years of his life were spent in his son's house at Oudewater, where he died on the 30th of April 1660.
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  • He made many valuable contributions to the history of Holland :: Batavia Illustrata (4 parts, Leiden, 1609); Corte historische Beschryvinghe der Nederlandscher Oorlogen (1612); Inferioris Germaniae ...
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  • Van der Waals, in a famous monograph, On the Continuity of the Liquid and Gaseous States (Leiden, 1873), has shown that the imperfections of equation (14) maybe traced to two_causes: (i.) The calculation has not allowed for the finite size of the molecules, and their consequent interference with one another's motion, and (ii.) The calculation has not allowed for the field of inter-molecular force between the molecules, which, although small, is known to have a real existence.
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  • Schmeltz, Ethnographische beschrijving van de Westen Noordkust van Nederlandsch Nieuw-Guinea (Leiden, 1893); A.
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  • Schmeltz, Beitrdge zur Ethnographie von Neuguinea (Leiden, 1905), sqq.; A.
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  • Arcana naturae ope exactissimorum microscopiorum selecta, Leiden, 1715-1722); and a selection from them was translated by S.
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  • Of these prose versions the oldest existing seems to be that known as the "Anonymus Nilanti," so called because first edited by Nilant at Leiden in 1709 from a MS. of the 13th century.
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  • For the wars in Boni, see Perelaer, De Bonische expedition, 18 591860 (Leiden, 1872); and Meyers, in the Militaire Spectator (1880).
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  • The terrible events in Minster, which was controlled for a short time (1533-34) by a group of Anabaptists under the leadership of John of Leiden, the introduction of polygamy (which appears to have been a peculiar accident rather than a general principle), the speedy capture of the town by an alliance of Catholic and Protestant princes, and the ruthless retribution inflicted by the victors, have been cherished by ecclesiastical writers as a choice and convincing instance of the natural fruits of a rejection of infant baptism.
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  • (2 vols., Leipzig, 1887); van Herwerden, `Iaropia (Leiden, 1885); H.
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  • It is connected by electric and steam tramways with Zandvoort, Leiden, Amsterdam and Alkmaar.
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  • But everything of which he could cheat his appetite was spent on Arabic books, and when he had read all that was then printed he thirsted for manuscripts, and in March 1738 started on foot for Hamburg, joyous though totally unprovided, on his way to Leiden and the treasures of the Warnerianum.
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  • When he reached Leiden (June 6, 1738) he found that the lectures were over for the term and that the MSS.
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  • Reiske's first years in Leiden were not unhappy, till he got into serious trouble by introducing emendations of his own into the second edition of Burmann's Petronius, which he had to see through the press.
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  • He had still to go on doing literary task-work, but his labour was much worse paid in Leipzig than in Leiden.
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  • In Leipzig Reiske worked mainly at Greek, though he continued to draw on his Arabic stores accumulated in Leiden.
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  • Their worship was prohibited, and their chief pastor, Leger, was obliged to flee, and in his exile at Leiden wrote his Histoire generale des eglises vaudoises (1684).
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  • It may be said to begin with the arrival in 1620 of a small company including William Brewster, elder of the refugee church in Leiden, which founded Plymouth in the modern Massachusetts in the winter of that year.
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  • They were all Puritans, but not all Independents - indeed, at first only the men from Leiden were, and they were throughout more enlightened and tolerant than the men of the other settlements.
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  • The remarkable junction or fusion of the Independents or " Separatists " who emigrated from Leiden to Plymouth, Massachusetts, with the Puritan Nonconformists of Massachusetts Bay, modified Independency by the introduction of positive fraternal relations among the churches.
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  • In 1594 he was appointed professor of theology at Leiden, and before going thither received from the university of Heidelberg the degree of doctor.
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  • He taught quietly at Leiden till 1603, when Jakobus Arminius came to be one of his colleagues in the theological faculty, and began to teach Pelagian doctrines and to create a new party in the university.
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  • During the life of Arminius a bitter controversy had sprung up between his followers and the strict Calvinists, led by Francis Gomar, his fellow-professor at Leiden; and, in order to decide their disputes, a synodical conference was proposed, but Arminius died before it could be held.
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  • 1620, official edition); Ada der Nationale Synode to Dordrecht 1618 (Leiden, 1887), French translation (Leiden, 1622 and 1624, 2 vols.), for the Canons, and the Sententia Remonstrantium, E.
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  • They were from the beginning Separatists from the Church of England; they had established Independent (Congregational) churches at Scrooby and Gainsborough early in the 17th century, and some of them had fled to Amsterdam in 1608 to avoid persecution, and had removed to Leiden in the following year.
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  • (Leiden, 1884).
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  • From Germany he proceeded to the Netherlands, staying at Leiden, Utrecht and Amsterdam, and passing in 1657 to Queen's College, Oxford, where he lived three years.
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  • Varenius studied at the gymnasium of Hamburg (1640-42), and at Konigsberg (1643-45) and Leiden (1645-49) universities, where he devoted himself to mathematics and medicine, taking his medical degree at Leiden in 1649.
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  • His principal works were, Conspectus systematis ornithologiae, mastozologiae, erpetologiae et amphibologiae, Ichthyologiae (Leiden, 1850), Tableau des oiseaux-mouches (Paris, 1854), Ornithologie fossile (Paris, 1858).
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  • In 1705 he was unanimously elected one of the ministers of the Walloon church at Leiden; and about the same time he succeeded M.
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  • de Valder in the chair of philosophy and mathematics at Leiden.
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  • The garden at Leiden dates from 1577, that at Leipzig from 1579.
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  • Forbes, A Naturalist's Wanderings in the Eastern Archipelago (London, 1885); P. van der Lith, Nederlandsch Oostindie (2nd ed., Leiden, 1893-1895); F.
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  • Blink, Nederlandsch Oosten West-Indie, geographisch, ethnologisch, en economisch beschreven (Leiden, 1904, sqq.).
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  • (Leiden, 1875).
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  • .-tom His complete works have been printed twice; by the Froben firm under the direction of his literary executors (9 vols., Basel, 1540); and by Leclerc at Leiden (11 vols., 1703-1706).
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  • SNELLIUS, Dutch astronomer and mathematician, was born at Leiden in 1580.
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  • In 1613 he succeeded his father Rudolph Snell (1546-1613) as professor of mathematics in the university of Leiden.
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  • He died at Leiden on the 30th of October 1626.
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  • Finsch published at Leiden an elaborate monograph of the parrots, 4 regarding them as a family, in which he admitted 26 genera, forming 5 subfamilies: (I) that composed of Strigops (Kakapo), only; (2) that containing the crested forms or cockatoos; (3) one which he named Sittacinae, comprising all the long-tailed species - a somewhat heterogeneous assemblage, made up of Macaws and what are commonly known as parakeets; (4) the parrots proper with short tails; and (5) the so-called "brush-tongued" parrots, consisting of the LoRIES (q.v.) and Nestors.
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  • He received his education at Utrecht, at Leiden, in his native city, and finally at Utrecht University, which he entered in 1652.
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  • The last sixteen years of his life (1593-1609) were spent at Leiden, which was also for more than twenty years (1631-1653) the home of Salmasius, and for thirteen (1579-1592) that of Lipsius (d.1606).
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  • The two brothers, Bonaventura and Abraham Elzevir, published two editions at Leiden in 1624 and 1633, based chiefly on Beza's text.
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  • by Vorstius, Leiden, 1644; see Jew.
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  • LEIDEN or Leyden, a city in the province of South Holland, the kingdom of the Netherlands, on the Old Rhine, and a junction station 18 m.
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  • The population of Leiden which, it is estimated, reached ioo,000 in 1640, had sunk to 30,000 between 1796 and 1811, and in 1904 was 56,044.
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  • The two branches of the Rhine which enter Leiden on the east unite in the centre of the town, which is further intersected by numerous small and sombre canals, with tree-bordered quays and old houses.
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  • Of Leiden's old gateways only two - both dating from the end of the 17th century - are standing.
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  • In spite of a certain industrial activity and the periodical bustle of its cattle and dairy markets, Leiden remains essentially an academic city.
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  • The presence within half a century of the date of its foundation of such scholars as Justus Lipsius, Joseph Scaliger, Francis Gomarus, Hugo Grotius, Jacobus Arminius, Daniel Heinsius and Guardas Johannes Vossius, at once raised Leiden university to the highest European fame, a position which the learning and reputation of Jacobus Gronovius, Hermann Boerhaave, Tiberius Hem sterhuis and David Ruhnken, among others, enabled it to maintain down to the end of the 18th century.
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  • The municipal museum, founded in 1869 and located in the old cloth-hall (Laeckenhalle) (1640), contains a varied collection of antiquities connected with Leiden, as well as some paintings including works by the elder van Swanenburgh, Cornelius Engelbrechtszoon, Lucas van Leiden and Jan Steen, who were all natives of Leiden.
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  • Leiden is an ancient town, although it is not the Lugdunum Batavorum of the Romans.
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    0
  • The weaving establishments (mainly broadcloth) of Leiden at the close of the 15th century were very important, and after the expulsion of the Spaniards Leiden cloth, Leiden baize and Leiden camlet were familiar terms. These industries afterwards declined, and in the beginning of the 19th century the baize manufacture was altogether given up. Linen and woollen manufactures are now the most important industries, while there is a considerable transit trade in butter and cheese.
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  • of Leiden, is a popular seaside resort and fishing village.
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  • Violently attacked by the English and by his own countrymen for this act, he retired from public affairs and, save for a mission to Paris in 1590, lived henceforth in Leiden or on his estate in Zeeland, where he worked at a translation of the Bible.
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  • He died at Leiden on the 15th of December 1598.
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  • Suringar, De Romanis Autobiographis (Leiden, 1846); H.
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  • Kern, Aryabhattiyam (Leiden, 1874), trans.
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  • His book, Van den Circkel (Delft, 1596), gave the ratio correct to 20 places, but he continued his calculations as long as he lived, and his best result was published on his tombstone in St Peter's church, Leiden.
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  • A new departure, however, was made by Willebrord Snell of Leiden in his Cyclometria, published in 1621.
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  • (Leiden, 1646); Marie, Hist.
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  • 4 But see Les Delices de Leide (Leiden, 1712); or de Haan, Mess.
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  • Snellius (Leiden, 1698), another by Alex.
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  • Schooten (Leiden, 1656) and, most successfully of all, by R.
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  • His Cleomedis meteora, with notes and Latin translation, was reprinted at Leiden as late as 1820.
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  • So great was the outcry caused by its publication that Lamettrie was forced to take refuge in Leiden, where he developed his doctrines still more boldly and completely, and with great originality, in L'Homme machine (Eng.
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  • Piaget, Les Pediculines (Leiden, 1880-1885); F.
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  • Dozy, Histoire des Musulmans d'Espagne, Leiden, 1861; and Historia Abbadidarum (Scriptorum Arabum loci de Abbadidio), Leiden, 1846.
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  • See, besides the books above cited, De Wette, Opuscula; Wansche, Die Leiden des Messias (1870).
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  • The success which followed his labours not only in the town of Utrecht, but also in Zwolle, Deventer, Kampen, Amsterdam, Haarlem, Gouda, Leiden, Delft, Zutphen and elsewhere, was immense; according to Thomas Kempis the people left their business and their meals to hear his sermons, so that the churches could not hold the crowds that flocked together wherever he came.
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  • But personally Peter learnt nearly all that he wanted to know - gunnery at Konigsberg, shipbuilding at Saardam and Deptford, anatomy at Leiden, engraving at Amsterdam - and was proceeding to Venice to complete his knowledge of navigation when the revolt of the slryeltsy, or musketeers (June 1698), recalled him to Moscow.
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  • van Lynden's monograph (Leiden, 1802).
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  • The town preserves associations of Goethe, who wrote Die Leiden des jungen Werthers after living here in 1772 as a legal official, and of Charlotte Buff, the Lotte of Werther.
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  • It has been printed separately, with Latin translation and scholia, at Leiden, 1621, at Helmstadt, 1666, and at Paris, 1850.
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  • HERMANN WITSIUS (1636-1708), Dutch theologian, was born at Enkhuysen, North Holland, and studied at Groningen, Leiden and Utrecht.
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    0
  • In 1698 he went to Leiden as the successor of Friedrich Spanheim.
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  • He died at Leiden on the 22nd of October 1708.
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  • In the Leiden MS. of this work, which for long was erroneously ascribed to one Peter Adsiger, is a spurious passage, long believed to mention the variation of the compass.
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  • Having studied law at Leipzig, Helmstadt and Jena, and mathematics, especially geometry and mechanics, at Leiden, he visited France and England, and in 1636 became engineer-in-chief at Erfurt.
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  • of Leiden, whose thirst for travel carried him through India to Lhasa (1730), where he is said to have resided a long time, to have acquired the language, and to have become intimate with some of the lamas.
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  • Subsequently he held the mastership of the grammar school at Southampton, and in 1582 was professor of divinity and minister of the reformed church at Leiden.
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  • From Leiden he wrote (9 June 1585) to Lord Burghley advising the assumption of the protectorate of the Low Countries by Elizabeth.
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    0
  • He studied at Leiden university, and graduated in 1823 both as doctor of literature and LL.D.
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  • 567, p. 34 (Leiden, 1714).
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    0
  • Ragel wrote a book on naevi; Rhazes (1040) devoted several chapters to it; and Averroes (1165) made many references to it in his De sanitate, p. 82 (Leiden, 1537).
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  • van der Lith, Nederlands-Indic (Leiden, 1893-1894).
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    0
  • Wichmann, Sammlungen des geologischen Reichsmuseums (Leiden, 1881-1884); A.
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    0
  • WILLIAM DOWDESWELL (1721-1775), English politician, was a son of William Dowdeswell of Pull Court, Bushley, Worcestershire, and was educated at Westminster school, at Christ Church, Oxford, and at the university of Leiden.
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  • The father of Hugo was a lawyer in considerable practice, who had four times served the office of burgomaster of Leiden, and was one of the three curators of the university of that place.
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  • At Leiden he was much noticed by J.
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  • He took the degree of doctor of law at Leiden, and entered on practice as an advocate.
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  • His letters were printed first in a selection, Epistolae ad Gallos (12mo, Leiden, 1648), abounding, though an Elzevir, in errors of the press.
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    0
  • Supplements to the large collection of 1687 were published at Haarlem, 1806; Leiden, 1809; and Haarlem, 1829.
    0
    0
  • the codex Vesontinus, formerly at Besancon (11th century), has been divided into three portions, now in Rome, Paris and Leiden respectively, while there is also a transcript of the whole of this MS. at Leiden.
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  • - Editions by Hermolaus Barbarus (Rome, 1492); Dalecampius (Lyons, 1587); Gronovius (Leiden, 1669); Hardouin (Paris, 1685); Franz (Leipzig, 1778-1791); Sillig, with index by O.
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  • he obtained letters treating of the question (since printed at the end of Stillingfleet's Unreasonableness of Separation) from Le Moyne, professor of divinity at Leiden, and the famous French Protestant divine, Jean Claude.
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  • ADRIAN RELAND (1676-1718), Dutch Orientalist, was born at Ryp, studied at Utrecht and Leiden, and was professor of Oriental languages successively at Harderwijk (1699) and Utrecht (1701).
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  • The first Spanish drama written by Jews was entitled "Esther," by Solomon Usque and Lazaro Gratiano, published in 1567; and there is another entitled "Comedia famosa de Aman y Mordechay," produced anonymously in Leiden in 1699.
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  • SIMON STEVINUS (1548-1620), Dutch mathematician, was born in 1548 at Bruges (where the Place Simon Stevin contains his statue by Eugen Simonis) and died in 1620 at the Hague or in Leiden.
    0
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  • His plea for the teaching of the science of fortification in universities, and the existence of such lectures in Leiden, have led to the impression that he himself filled this chair; but the belief is erroneous, as Stevinus, though living at Leiden, never had direct relations with its university.
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  • There are two complete editions in French of his works, both printed at Leiden, one in 1608, the other in 1634 by Albert Girard.
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  • The legend in this form first appeared in a pamphlet of four leaves alleged to have been printed at Leiden in 1602.
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  • 496 (Leiden, 1890-1893); also s.v.
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    0
  • Among later works one of great importance is MiddenSumatra; Reizen en Onderzoekingen der Sumatra Expeditie, 18 77 - 18 79 (Leiden, 1881, sqq.), edited by P. J.
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  • viii., with map and five plates (Leiden, 1904); D.
    0
    0
  • It must be further remarked that both the " dunepans," or depressions, which are naturally marshy through their defective drainage, and the geest grounds - that is, the grounds along the foot of the downs - have been in various places either planted with wood or turned into arable and pasture land; while the numerous springs at the base of the dunes are of the utmost value to the great cities situated on the marshy soil inland, the example set by Amsterdam in 1853 in supplying itself with this water having been readily followed by Leiden, the Hague, Flushing, &c.
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  • The largest towns are Amsterdam, Rotterdam, the Hague, Utrecht, Groningen, Haarlem, Arnhem, Leiden, Nijmwegen, Tilburg.
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  • In the manufacture of woollen and linen goods Tilburg ranks first, followed by Leiden, Utrecht and Eindhoven; that of half-woollens is best developed at Roermond and Helmond.
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  • The oldest secession from the Orthodox Church is that of the Remonstrants, who still represent the most liberal thought in the country, and have their own training college at Leiden.
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  • There are three state universities in Holland, namely, Leiden (1575), Groningen (1585) and Utrecht (1634).
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    0
  • A national institution at Leiden for the study of languages, geography and ethnology of the Dutch Indies has given place to communal institutions of the same nature as Delft and at Leiden, founded in 1864 and 1877.
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  • Ritter (Amsterdam, 1898), containing a series of articles on all subjects connected with the kingdom during the second half of the 19th century, written by specialists; and Les Pays Bas (Leiden, 1899), and La Hollande geographique, ethnologique, politique, &c. (Paris, 1900), both works of the same class as the preceding.
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  • Hofdyk (Leiden, 1881-1884); Noord-Hollandsche Oudheden, by G.
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    0
  • T wo professors of theology at Leiden Jacobus Arminius Gomarus.
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    0
  • Mehren, Expose de la reforme de l'Islamisme commencee par Abou `l-Hasan Ali el-Ash`ari (Leiden, 1878); and D.
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    0
  • John was educated at Leiden, and early displayed remarkable talents, more especially in mathematics and jurisprudence.
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  • After studying theology in Geneva, Leiden and France, he became pastor of the Italian congregation in Geneva in 1647; after a brief pastorate at Lyons he again returned to Geneva as professor of theology in 1653, having modestly declined a professorship of philosophy in 1650.
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  • (Leiden, 1861).
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  • i.-iii., Berlin, 1861-1865; 2nd ed., 1869); C. Snouck Hurgronje, Het mekkaansche Feest (Leiden, 1880), De Islam (de Gids, 1886, ii.
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  • HERMANN BOERHAAVE (1668-1738), Dutch physician and man of science, was born at Voorhout near Leiden on the 31st of December 1668.
    0
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  • Entering the university of Leiden he took his degree in philosophy in 1689, with a dissertation De distinctione mentis a corpore, in which he attacked the doctrines of Epicurus, Hobbes and Spinoza.
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  • of medicine at Leiden; in his inaugural discourse, De commendando Hippocratis studio, he recommended to his pupils that great physician as their model.
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  • In 1709 he became professor of botany and medicine, and in that capacity he did good service, not only to his own university, but also to botanical science, by his improvements and additions to the botanic garden of Leiden, and by the publication of numerous works descriptive of new species of plants.
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  • In 1729 declining health obliged him to resign the chairs of chemistry and botany; and he died, after a lingering and painful illness, on the 23rd of September 1738 at Leiden.
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  • His genius so raised the fame of the university of Leiden, especially as a school of medicine, that it became a resort of strangers from every part of Europe.
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  • His principal works are - Instilutiones medicae (Leiden, 1708); A phorismi de cognoscendis et curandis morbis (Leiden, 1709), on which his pupil and assistant, Gerard van Swieten (1700-1772) published a commentary in 5 vols.; and Elementa chemiae (Paris, 1724).
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  • Willmore, The Spoken Arabic of Egypt (2nd ed., London, 1905); Spitta Bey, Grammatik des arabischen Vulgardialektes von Agypten, Conies arabes modernes (Leiden, 1883).
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  • Of the collections of Egyptian antiquities in public museums, those of the British Museum, Leiden, Berlin, the Louvre, Turin were already very important in the first half of the i9th century, also in a less degree those of Florence, Bologna and the Vatican.
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  • Thompson, The Demotic Magical Papyrus of London and Leiden (London, 1904).
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  • at Leiden.
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  • Chabas, but other papyri of as great or greater importance are to be found in the Leiden, Turin and other collections.
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  • See John Selden, Titles of Honor (1672); Antonius Matthaeus, De nobilitate, de principibus, de ducibus, &c., libri quatuor (Amsterdam and Leiden, 1696, lib.
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  • THEODOR NOLDEKE (1836-), German Semitic scholar, was born at Harburg on the 2nd of March 1836, and studied at Göttingen, Vienna, Leiden and Berlin.
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  • The Hessian star catalogue was published in Lucius Barettus's Historia coelestis (Augsburg, 1668), and a number of other observations are to be found in Coeli et siderum in eo errantium observationes Hassiacae (Leiden, 1618), edited by Willebrord Snell.
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  • Stokvis, Manuel d'histoire (Leiden, 1889); Guichenon, Histoire de Dombes (1863, 1872); and various works by M.
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  • Here the sect had gained considerable influence, through the adhesion of Rothmann, the Lutheran pastor, and several prominent citizens; and the leaders, Johann Matthyszoon or Matthiesen, a baker of Haarlem, and Johann Bockholdt, a tailor of Leiden, had little difficulty in obtaining possession of the town and deposing the magistrates.
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  • Bockholdt, better known in history as John of Leiden, was now supreme.
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  • The excesses of John of Leiden, the Brigham Young of that age, cast an unjust stigma on the Baptists, of whom the vast majority were good, quiet people who merely carried out in practice the early Christian ideals of which their persecutors prated.
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  • Cocceius at Leiden, as well as a call to Groningen.
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  • 29 1837 at Maassluis, and was educated at the university of Leiden.
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  • Wetzlar brought new friends and another passion, that for Charlotte Buff, the daughter of the Amtmann there - a love-story which has been immortalized in Werthers Leiden - and again the young poet's nature was obsessed by a love which was this time strong enough to bring him to the brink of that suicide with which the novel ends.
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  • With Die Leiden des jungen Werthers (1774), the literary precipitate of the author's own experiences in Wetzlar, Goethe succeeded in attracting, as no German had done before him, the attention of Europe.
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  • In 1778, and again in 1780, young Adams accompanied his father to Europe; studying in Paris in1778-1779and at the university of Leiden in 1780.
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  • Nehemia (Leiden, 1909), pp. 173-176; C. C. Torrey, Ezra Studies (Chicago, 1910), pp. 321 sqq.
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  • He became professor at Leiden in 1882, and devoted himself especially to the study of properties of matter at low temperatures.
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  • As director of the Cryogeen Laboratory, founded by him at Leiden, he succeeded, in 1908, in liquefying helium.
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  • During the following twelve years he resided in Holland, and preached before Calvinistic congregations at Amsterdam, Leiden and Utrecht.
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  • In 1817 he commenced his studies at Leiden University, proving a brilliant scholar, and twice obtaining a gold medal for his prize essays.
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  • The Belgian revolt of that year forced Thorbecke to resign his position at Ghent, and he subsequently went to Leiden.
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  • In 1831 he was appointed professor of jurisprudence and political science at Leiden University.
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  • In that capacity, and, before his appointment at Leiden, as a lecturer on political science, history and economics at Amsterdam, he gained great reputation as a political reformer, particularly after the publication of his standard work, Aanteekeningen op de Grondwet (" Annotations on the Constitution," 1839; 2nd ed., Amsterdam, 1841-1843), which became the textbook and the groundwork for the new reform party in Holland, as whose leader Thorbecke was definitely recognized.
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  • Boissier, Ciceron et ses amis; Suringar, Cicero de vita sua (Leiden, 18 54); W.
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    0
  • Bella ud-Din's chief work is his Life of Saladin (published at Leiden with Latin translation by A.
    0
    0
  • 2 (2nd ed., Leiden, 1864); Noldeke, D.M.Z., 1 875, p. 76 sqq.; Baladhuri 137.
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    0
  • Patton, Ahmed ibn Hanbal and the Mihna (Leiden, 18 9 7); and article Mahommedan Religion.
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    0
  • de Goeje, Me'moire sur les migrations des Ziganes a travers l'Asie (Leiden, 1903); also Gipsies.
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    0
  • de Goeje, Memoire sur les Carmathes du Bahrain et les Fatimides (Leiden, 1886).
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  • von Kleist of Kammin in Pomerania in 1745,' and it was repeated in another form in 1746 by Cunaeus and P. van Musschenbroek, of the university of Leyden (Leiden), whence the term Leyden jar.
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    0
  • Molengraaf, Geologische Verkinningstochten in Centraal Borneo (Leiden, 1900, Eng.
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    0
  • Niewenhuis, In Centraal Borneo (Leiden, 1901), and Quer durch Borneo (Leiden, 1904), &c.; W.
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    0
  • Mus., Leiden.
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  • On leaving the Erasmus school at Rotterdam he gave proof of his ability by an Oratio scholastica de medicina (1685), and at Leiden University in 1689 he maintained a thesis De brutorum operationibus, in which he advocated the Cartesian theory of automatism among animals.
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  • A complete edition of his works was published at Leiden, under the title of Sam.
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  • The papers reprinted in Bekker's Homerische Bldtter (Bonn, 1863-1872) and Cobet's Miscellanea Critica (Leiden, 1876) are of the highest value.
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  • A (Sijthoff; Leiden, 1901), with an introduction by D.
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  • It was republished by the Elzevirs at Leiden in 1633, and again at Zurich in 1735, while an elaborate annotated edition (prepared by Mr Coolidge), with French translation, notes and appendices, appeared at Grenoble in 1904.
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  • But humanism, first of all in its protagonist Erasmus, afterwards in the long 'a ' list of critical scholars and editors, Lipsius, Heinsius sc and Grotius, in the printers Elzevir and-Plantin, developed ship. itself from the centre of the Leiden university with massive energy, and proved that it was still a motive force of intellectual progress.
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  • Charles was Born on the 29th of August 1725, and was sent for his education to Leiden and Oxford.
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  • (Leiden, 1885).
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    0
  • From Franeker in 1843 he went to Leiden as professor extraordinarius, and in 1845 was promoted to the rank of ordinarius.
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  • The same year he was recalled to Bordeaux, where he was appointed the colleague of Dr Primrose; and when Francis Gomarus was removed to Leiden, Cameron, in 1618, was appointed professor of divinity at Saumur, the principal seminary of the French Protestants.
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  • 393; Hummel, De Prodico Sophista (Leiden, 1846); Cougny, De Prodico Ceio (Paris, 1858).
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  • Kuypert (Leiden, 1745, and at Bulak, 1835); C. Brockelmann, Gesch.
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    0
  • Sagenkunde (Leiden, 1893), Ges.
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  • BURGERSDYK or Burgersdicius, Francis (1590-1629), Dutch logician, was born at Lier, near Delft, and died at Leiden.
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    0
  • After a brilliant career at the university of Leiden, he studied theology at Saumur, where while still very young he became professor of philosophy.
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    0
  • After five years he returned to Leiden, where he accepted the chair of logic and moral philosophy, and afterwards that of natural philosophy.
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    0
  • de Visser, Die nicht Menschen-Gestaltigen Gotter der Griechen (Leiden, 1903).
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    0
  • Bewusstsein der Menschheit (Berlin, 1882); Rauwenhoff, Weisbegeerte van den Godsdienst (Leiden, 1887); E.
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    0
  • John (Johann Bockelson) of Leiden (1510-1536) took his place and the town became the scene of the grossest licence and cruelty, until in 1535 it was taken by the besieging bishop. Unhappily the Anabaptists have always been remembered by the crimes of John of Leiden and the revelry of Munster.
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  • The second part of this work, finished in 1617, was published, after the author's death, at Leiden in 1625 and in London in 1627.
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    0
  • The Latin version was published at Leiden in 1639 and 1677, and under the editorship of T.
    0
    0
  • Howorth, History of the Mongols (1876-1880); 6th Congress of Orientalists, Leiden, 1883 (Actes, part iv.
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    0
  • Early in 1661 Spinoza's host removed to Rhijnsburg near Leiden, the headquarters of the Collegiant brotherhood, and Spinoza removed with him.
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    0
  • There is a similar institution for women at Leiden.
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  • He wrote also treatises on the astrolabe (a copy of this is in the British Museum), on the abacus (three copies exist in the Vatican library, the library of Leiden University and the Bibliotheque Nationale in Paris), translations of the Kharismian Tables and an Arabic Introduction to Astronomy.
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  • van de Kerspelkerk van St Jacob to Utrecht (Leiden, 1882); S.
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    0
  • (Leiden, 1889).
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    0
  • (Leiden, 1888).
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    0
  • (Leiden, 1888); Sir H.
    0
    0
  • C. Hesseling, Bijdrage tot de geschiedenis der nederlandsche taal in Zuid-Afrika (Leiden, 18 99) H.
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    0
  • Like persecution awaited him elsewhere, and at last he passed over to Holland, being aided by certain wealthy English merchants who wished him to controvert the supporters of the English church in Leiden.
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    0
  • At Leiden, Ames became intimate with the venerable Mr Goodyear, pastor of the English church there.
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    0
  • A proposal to make him principal of a theological college at Leiden was frustrated by Archbishop Abbot; and when later invited by the state of Friesland to a professoriate at Franeker, the opposition was renewed, but this time abortively.
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    0
  • When in 1590 Lipsius retired from Leiden, the university and its protectors, the states-general of Holland and the prince of Orange, resolved to obtain Scaliger as his successor.
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    0
  • His reception at Leiden was all that he could wish.
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    0
  • Placed midway between The Hague and Amsterdam, he was able to obtain, besides the learned circle of Leiden, the advantages of the best society of both these capitals.
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  • For the first seven years of his residence at Leiden his reputation was at its highest point.
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  • From his throne at Leiden he ruled the learned world; a word from him could make or mar a rising reputation; and he was surrounded by young men eager to listen to and profit by his conversation.
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  • He studied at Geneva, Groningen and Leiden, and after visiting France and England was in 1642 appointed professor of church history in his native town.
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  • In 1667 he accepted an invitation to succeed Johann Hoornbeck (1617-1666) as professor in the university of Leiden, but he was drowned with three of his children by the upsetting of a boat while crossing the river Limmat.
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  • der Cellulosegdhrung (Leiden, 1890); van Tieghem, " Sur la fermentation de la cellulose," Bull.
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  • He studied at the university of Leiden, and entered the Dutch diplomatic service, being appointed to the legation at Madrid.
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  • existing in the Paris library and in the university of Leiden, and containing works attributed to Jaber, and had translations made of six treatises - two, of which he gives the titles as Livre de la royaute and Petit Livre de la misericorde,-from Paris, and four - Livre des balances, Livre de la misericorde, Livre de la concentration and Livre de la mercure orientale - from Leiden.
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  • de Goeje as Liber expugnationis regionum (Leiden, 1870; Cairo, 1901).
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  • Beer (Leiden, 1888); the Kitab ul-Munqid, giving an account of the changes in his philosophical ideas, ed.
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  • He studied law and history at Leiden from 1606 to 1609, and in June of the latter year received from Prince Maurice of Orange the appointment of steward of Muiden, bailiff of Gooiland, and lord of Weesp, a joint office of great emolument.
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  • Huydecoper (Leiden, 1738) and by van Vloten (Leiden, 4 vols., 1855).
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  • Amongst others may be noted honorary degrees by the universities of Oxford, Dublin, Edinburgh, Göttingen, Heidelberg, Leiden and Bologna.
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  • He was fellow or foreign corresponding member of the French Institute, the academies of Berlin, Göttingen, St Petersburg, Milan, Rome, Leiden, Upsala and Hungary; and he was nominated an officer of the Legion of Honour by President Carnot.
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  • He also received the De Morgan medal from the London Mathematical Society, and the Huygens medal from Leiden.
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  • Sedillot; other manuscripts are preserved in the Bodleian library at Oxford and in the library of Leiden.
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  • After travelling in Germany and Poland (where he learnt Polish), he began the study of law at Leiden, but he soon turned his attention to history and geography, which were then taught there by Joseph Scaliger.
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  • After campaigning in Bohemia and Hungary, suffering imprisonment, and travelling in England, Scotland and France, he finally settled in Holland, where (after 1616) he received a regular pension from Leiden Academy.
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  • He died at Leiden in 1623.
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  • In the 1 96th proposition of his work (De motu animalium, Leiden, 1685) he states that " If the expanded wings of a bird suspended in the air shall strike the undisturbed air beneath it with a motion perpendicular to the horizon, the bird will fly with a transverse motion in a plane parallel with the horizon."
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  • He learned Latin and Greek at Rochelle, and continued his studies at Leiden, subsequently removing to Paris.
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  • vi., Leiden, 1764), published under the auspices of Linnaeus, contains a remarkable picture which illustrates a discourse by his disciple Hoppius, and is here reproduced (see Plate, fig.
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  • pp. lxxiv-v (Leiden, 1888-89), which contains lists of the sovereigns of Abyssinia, Shoa and Harrar, from the earliest times, with brief notes.
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  • He then spent a short time in some Protestant families in England, and with their assistance went to Leiden University, to qualify for the dissenting ministry.
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  • Hook uprisings took place at Leiden and Dordrecht and had to be repressed by armed force.
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  • The sieges of Haarlem, Neth er- Alkmaar and Leiden saved Holland from being lands.
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  • The following eighteen towns sent representatives: South Quarter - (I) Dordrecht, (2) Haarlem, (3) Delft, (4) Leiden, (5) Amsterdam, (6) Gouda, (7) Rotterdam, (8) Gorinchem, (9) Schiedam, (10) Schoonhoven, (11) Brill; North Quarter: - (12) Alkmaar, (13) Hoorn, (14) Enkhuizen, (15) Edam, (16) Monnikendam, (17) Medemblik, (18) Purmerend.
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  • The more important - that for the south quarter - consisted of ten members, (1) the senior member of the nobility, who sat for life, (2) representatives (for periods of three years) of the eight towns: Dordrecht, Haarlem, Delft, Leiden, Amsterdam, Gouda, Rotterdam and Gorinchem, with a tenth member (usually elected biennially) for the towns of Schiedam, Schoonhoven and Brill conjointly.
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  • He then studied law at Leiden and at Orleans, and, returning to Holland, he settled at the Hague, where he began to practise as an advocate.
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  • In the seclusion of his villa of Sorgvliet (Fly-from-Care), near the Hague, he lived from this time till his death, occupied in the composition of his autobiography (Eighty-two Years of My Life, first printed at Leiden in 1734) and of his poems. He died on the 12th of September 1660, and was buried by torchlight, and with great ceremony, in the Klooster-Kerk at the Hague.
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  • Van de Wynpersse, De Xenocrate Chalcedonio (Leiden, 1822); C. A.
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  • (Leiden, 1890-1893) and R.
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  • For the pilgrimage see particularly Snouck-Hurgronje, Het Mekkaansche Feest (Leiden, 1880).
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  • of Leiden.
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  • Steam tramways connect it with the seaside villages of Scheveningen, Kykduin and 's Gravenzande, as well as with Delft, Wassenaar and Leiden, and it is situated on a branch of the main canal from Rotterdam to Amsterdam.
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  • He mentally constructed a system of universal law; and, when, at the end of his captivity, he accompanied his pupils, the sons of Coyet, to the university, of Leiden, he was enabled to publish, in 1661, the fruits of his reflections under the title of Elementa jurisprudentiae universalis, libri duo.
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  • A volume of his Opuscula was printed at Leiden in 1700.
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  • Other manuscripts are to be found at Rome in the Vatican, at Oxford in the Bodleian, at Vienna, at Leiden, at Upsala and at Munich; and Dr J.
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  • with Latin translation by Erpenius, Leiden, 1625); "Laws (Novellae) of Basil" (ed.
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  • (Leiden, 1889); also G.
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  • Dozy (Leiden, 1861).
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  • Yet he unquestionably ranks as the true founder of descriptive astronomy; while his splendid presentment of the laws of projectiles in his dialogue of the " New Sciences " (Leiden, 1638) lent potent aid to the solid establishment of celestial mechanics.
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  • (Leiden, 1893); A.
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  • CORNELIS PETRUS TIELE (1830-1902), Dutch theologian and scholar, was born at Leiden on the 16th of December 1830.
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  • Upon the removal of the seminary of the brotherhood from Amsterdam to Leiden in 1873, Tiele was appointed one of its leading professors.
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  • In 1877 followed his appointment at the university of Leiden as professor of the history of religions, a chair specially created for him.
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  • In 1901 he had resigned his professorship at Leiden University.
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  • Scholten, amongst others, he founded the "Leiden School" of modern theology.
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  • The reformers had now no leaders, and their situation seemed as perilous as that of their co-religionists in the Netherlands; while the sieges of La Rochelle and Leiden, the enforced exile of the prince of Orange, and the conversion under pain of death of Henry of Navarre and the prince of Cond, made the common danger more obvious.
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  • In 1531 the Haarlemmer Meer had an area of 6430 acres, and in its vicinity were three smaller sheets of water - the Leidsche Meer or Leiden Lake, the Spiering Meer, and the Oude Meer or Old Lake, with a united area of about 7600 acres.
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  • In 1854 the city of Leiden laid claim to the possession of the new territory, but the courts decided in favour of the nation.
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  • This journey, in which he saw Leiden, Amsterdam and Copenhagen, as well .as Stockholm, resulted chiefly in the discovery, in the Swedish royal library, of some fragments of Origen's Commentary on St Matthew, which gave Huet the idea of editing Origen, a task he completed in 1668.
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  • Philologie ii, p. 623 ff.); Ubbo Emmius, Rerum Frisicarum historic (Leiden, 1616); Pirius Winsemius, Chronique van Vriesland (Franoker, 1822); C. Scotanus, Beschryvinge end Chronyck van des Heerlickheydt van Frieslandt (1655); Groot Placaat en Charter-boek van Friesland (ed.
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  • Ostfrieslands (3 vols., Hanover, 1854-1858); Hooft van Iddekinge, Friesland en de Friezen in de Middeleeuwen (Leiden, 1881); A.
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  • He was educated at the university of Leiden, where he studied Plato.
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  • de Goeje's Edrisi, Leiden, 1866: Premier Climat, 1st 4 sections).
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  • This in many respects his most valuable work was printed by the Elzevirs at Leiden in 1638, and excited admiration equally universal and more lasting than that accorded to his astronomical treatises.
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  • FRANCIS ROUS (1579-1659), English Puritan, was born at Dittisham in Devon in 1579, and educated at Oxford (Broadgates Hall, afterwards Pembroke College) and at Leiden, graduating at the former in January 1596-97, and at the latter thirteen months afterwards.
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  • Dozy (4 vols., Leiden, 1861).
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  • (Leiden, 1888), and to The Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, vol.
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  • Viirtheim, De Ajacis Origine, Cultu, Patria (Leiden, 1907), according to whom he and Ajax Oileus, as depicted in epos, were originally one, a Locrian daemon somewhat resembling the giants.
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  • Schultens (Leiden, 1772), by B.
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  • Maurer, Die Nikobaren (Berlin, 1867); Dr Svoboda, Die Bewohner des Nikobaren-Archipels (Leiden, 18 93); F.
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  • Daille (Dallaeus), De imaginibus (Leiden, 1642, and in French, Geneva, 1641); Spanheim, Historia imaginum (Leiden, 1686).
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  • He served as a volunteer for the relief of Haarlem (1573) and again at Leiden (1574).
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  • Leiden, vol.
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  • Title The factor V Leiden mutation in Japanese couples with recurrent spontaneous abortion.
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  • APC resistance due to FV Leiden is the most important medical discovery of the last decade.
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  • In 1958 he was involved in a street accident in Leiden, which led to recurring bouts of ill health.
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  • computer science in 1990 at the University of Leiden, in the Netherlands.
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  • He received a PhD degree in computer science in 1990 at the University of Leiden, in the Netherlands.
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  • Work at Leiden University has shown considerable geographic variation across Europe in parasitoid virulence (ability to prevent encapsulation ).
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  • See MAHOMMEDAN Law; also Juynboll, De Mohammedaansche Wet (Leiden, 1903), pp. 287 ff.; Sachau, Muhammedanisches Recht (Berlin, 1897), pp. 687 ff.
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  • Friendly agents - chiefly Catholic priests - were the intermediaries who forwarded his correspondence from Dort, Haarlem, Amsterdam and Leiden to his proper address, which he kept completely secret; and Father Mersenne sent him objections and questions.
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  • " The work appeared anonymously at Leiden (published by Jean Maire) in 1637, under the modest title of Essais philosophiques; and the project of a universal science becomes the Discours de la methode pour bien conduire sa raison et chercher la verite dans les sciences.
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  • (-268.7° C.), the density of the liquid 0.154, the critical temperature 5° abs., and the critical pressure 2.3 atmospheres (Communications from the Physical Laboratory at Leiden, No.
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  • Of this there is other evidence; a Leiden papyrus names Etum as the wife of the Semitic fire-god Reshpu.
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  • But when at the very last extremity through famine, a tempestuous flood enabled the vessels of Orange to reach Leiden, and the investing force was driven to retreat (October 3, 1 574).
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  • Having given offence by his unorthodox views, he left Louvain, and took refuge in Leiden, where he appears to have been in the utmost distress.
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  • Bacchides-Truculentus; D, now in the Vatican, containing the Amphitruo, Asinaria, Aulularia, half of the Captivi and the last twelve plays: to the same family belong the following less important MSS.: E (at Milan), V (at Leiden), J (in the British Museum), 0 (in the Vatican).
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  • In Arabic we have fragments at Paris, of which Renan translated a specimen for the Spicilegium solesmense, and another version of thirty-seven chapters at Leiden, probably the work of a monk at Jerusalem, which Land translated and printed with the Syriac. The Latin MSS.
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  • Lane Poole, Mahommedan Dynasties (1894), pp. 131-133; Stockvis, Manuel d'histoire (Leiden, 1888), vol.
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  • In 1882 Kuenen went to England to deliver a course of Hibbert lectures, National Religions and Universal Religion; in the following year he presided at the congress of Orientalists held at Leiden.
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  • Several alchemistical treatises, written in Arabic, exist in manuscript in the National Library at Paris and in the library of the university of Leiden, and have been reproduced by Berthelot, with translations, in vol.
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  • Receipts given in the Leiden papyrus reappear in the Compositiones ad Tingenda and the Mappae Clavicula, both workshop receipt books, one known in an 8th-century MS. at Lucca, and the other in a loth-century MS. in the library of Schlettstadt; and again in such works as the De Artibus Romanorum of Eraclius and the Schedula Diversarum Artium of Theophilus, belonging to the 11th or 12th century.
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  • Kubary, Ethno- graphische Beitrdge zur Kentniss des Karolinen-Archipel (Leiden, 1889-1892); De Abrade, Historia del conflicto de las Carolinas, &c. (Madrid, 1886).
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  • Editions: Heinsius (Leiden, 1630); Fischer (Leipzig, 1783) � in Aldine Edition of Apuleius (Venice, 1521; Paris, 1532); Fell (Oxford, 1667).
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  • He is best known as a scholar by his notes on Martial, Ausonius, the Pervigilium Veneris; editions of the poems of Scaliger (Leiden, 1615), of the De re militari of Vegetius Renatus, the tragedies of Seneca (P. Scriverii collectanea veterum tragicorum, 1621), &c. His Opera anecdota, philologica, et poetica (Utrecht, 1738) were edited by A.
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  • Two collections of his works appeared during his life, one in Dutch (Leiden and Delft, 1685-1718), and the other in Latin (Opera amnia s.
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  • 513-526); Laurent P. C. van Bergh, Handboek der Middel Nederlandsche Geographie (Leiden, 1852); Karl Hegel, Stddte der Germanischen Vbiker im Mittelalter (Leipzig, 1891), vol.
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  • Ere long these were forced to seek refuge, in 1607 and 1608 respectively, at Amsterdam, whence the Scrooby ohurch moved to Leiden in 1609 (Bradford's History of Plymouth Plantation, chs.
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  • Sage, pp. 198-237 (Leiden, 1893); G.
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  • In 1733 he went to Leiden to study under Boerhaave, and in 1742 returned to Paris, where he obtained the appointment of surgeon to the guards.
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  • The opposition collapsed; the recalcitrant provincial states were purged; and the leaders of the party of state rights - the advocate himself, Hugo de Groot (see GROTIUs), pensionary of Rotterdam, and Hoogerbeets, pensionary of Leiden, were arrested and thrown into prison.
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  • Laurent (1626-1681) became a pastor, and was the author of Sonnets chretiens sur divers sujets (1677); Charles (1633-1697) was professor of physic at the university of Leiden, and physician to the prince of Orange; Peter (1644-1722) was ordained a priest in the Church of England, and became dean of Armagh.
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  • Martin, West-Indische Skizzen (Leiden, 1887); De Veer, La Colonie de Curacoa (Les Pays Bas, 1898).
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  • (5 vols., Schiedam, 1889-1906); P. Blok, Geschiedenis der Nederlandsche Volk (Leiden, 1908), vol.
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  • (XXth Dyn.) to the various temples of Egypt; the hymns to the gods preserved in Cairo and Leiden papyri; and the inscriptions of the Ptolemaic temples (Dendera, Edfu, &c.), which teem with good religious material.
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  • THEODOR NOLDEKE (1836-), German Semitic scholar, was born at Harburg on the 2nd of March 1836, and studied at Göttingen, Vienna, Leiden and Berlin.
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  • Klein, Jacobus Baradaeus (Leiden, 1882); Assemani, Bibl.
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  • His Essais de physique, four in number, of which the first three were published at Paris between 1676 and 1679, are his most important works, and form, together with a Traite de la percussion des corps, the first volume of the Ouvres de Mariotte (2 vols., Leiden, 1717).
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  • von Kleist of Kammin, and almost simultaneously by Cunaeus and Pieter van Musschenbroek (1692-1761) of Leiden (see Leyden Jar).
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  • In addition to the literature quoted see also the following: Rapport sur les recherches concernant l'huitre et l'ostreiculture public par la Commission de la Societe Neerlandaise de Zoologie (Leiden, 1883-1884); P. Brocchi, Traite de l'ostreiculture (Paris, 1883); Bashford Dean, European Oyster Culture, Bulletin U.S. Fish Commission, vol.
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  • It was sent to Schaaf at Leiden in 1720 by Mar Gabriel, the last Nestorian bishop in Malabar (see Germann, F.
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  • Amongst others may be noted honorary degrees by the universities of Oxford, Dublin, Edinburgh, Göttingen, Heidelberg, Leiden and Bologna.
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  • He was fellow or foreign corresponding member of the French Institute, the academies of Berlin, Göttingen, St Petersburg, Milan, Rome, Leiden, Upsala and Hungary; and he was nominated an officer of the Legion of Honour by President Carnot.
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  • But it was not till a furious hurricane in November 1836 drove the waters as far as the gates of Amsterdam, and another on Christmas Day sent them in the opposite direction to submerge the streets of Leiden, that the mind of the nation was seriously turned to the matter.
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