Sending legates in 865 to quell disturbances and check evil practices in the island.
At the time of Rienzi's unfortunate enterprise it sent ten ambassadors to pay him honour; and, when papal legates sought to coerce it by foreign soldiers, or to exact contributions, they met with vigorous resistance.
Datory expeditions of Bertrand du Poiet and Robert of Geneva were as ineffective as the descents of the emperors; and, though the cardinal Albornoz conquered Romagna and the March in 1364, the legates who resided in those districts were not long able to hold them against their despots.
The pope received the appeal, absolved him and restored him to the rank of priest, and sent a bishop and two priests as legates to Africa with instructions to them to hear the cause of Apiarius anew and for execution of their sentence to crave the prefect's aid; moreover, they were to summon the bishop of Sicca to Rome and to excommunicate him, unless he should amend those things which the legates deemed wrong.
There was an alleged original jurisdiction of the pope, which he exercised sometimes by permanent legates, whom Gregory VII.
The occupants of certain sees by a kind of prescription became legates without special appointment, legati nati, as in the case of Canterbury.
After legates came special delegates appointed by the pope to hear a particular cause.
In response to the imperial summons, five to six hundred bishops, all Eastern, except the Roman legates and two Africans, assembled in Chalcedon on the Sth of October 451.
The bishop of Rome claimed for his legates the right to preside, and insisted that any act that failed to receive their approval would be invalid.
He thus superseded Warham, who was legatus flatus, in ecclesiastical authority; and though legates a latere were supposed to exercise only special and temporary powers, Wolsey secured the practical permanence of his office.
Popes had preached them; popes had financed them; popes had sent their legates to lead them.
He appeared on her behalf before the legates at Blackfriars; and wrote a treatise against the divorce that was widely read.
The fathers, who were filled with suspicion, would only allow the legates of the pope to preside over them on condition of their recognizing the superiority of the council; the legates ended by submitting to this humiliating formality, but in their own name only, thus reserving the judgment of the Holy See.
These articles, which contain the essence of the Hussite doctrine, were rejected by Sigismund, mainly through the influence of the papal legates, who considered them prejudicial to the authority of the Roman see.
In the latter case, the tribunal was to consist of bishops from the neighbouring provinces, assisted - if he so chose - by legates of the Roman bishop. The clauses thus made the bishop of Rome president of a revisionary court; and afterwards Zosimus unsuccessfully attempted to employ these canons of Sardica, as decisions of the council of Nice, against the Africans.
The imperial legates and the captains of the Spanish guard in Siena crushed both government and people by continual extortions and by undue interference with the functions of the balia.
Buda he endeavoured to make the worthy capital of a great realm, and the palace which he built there was pronounced by the papal legates to be superior to any in Italy.
He fought with success against the German tribes, but soon left the defence of the Upper Rhine to his legates and returned to Rome, where he abandoned himself to all kinds of debauchery and excess.
It was during his pontificate that the 6th oecumenical council was held at Constantinople, to which he sent his legates and those from a Roman council held in 679.
And the legates, who visited the courts of Europe as haughty representatives of the central government of Christendom.
Henry's next move was to bring a monstrous charge against the clergy, accusing them of having violated the ancient laws of praemunire in submitting to the authority of papal legates (although he himself had ratified the appoint m ent of Wolsey as legate a latere).
In the 13th century alone no fewer than forty-nine papal legates visited Poland, and thirty provincial synods were held by them to regulate church affairs and promote good government.
Gregory XIV., by the bull Ecclesiae Christi (July 28, 1591), again confirmed the Society, and granted that Jesuits might, for true cause, be expelled from the body without any form of trial or even documentary procedure, besides denouncing excommunications against every one, save the pope or his legates, who directly or indirectly infringed the constitutions of the Society or attempted to bring about any change therein.
Both the Austrian ambassadors and the papal legates testify to the care with which he controlled "this nation so difficult to lead."
He brought with him a secret document, the Decretal, which defined the law and left the legates to decide the question of fact; but this important letter was to be shown only to Henry and Wolsey.
The Churches of England and Germany, founded, far from all traditions of autonomy, by Roman legates, tendered their obedience voluntarily.
He took no pains to temper the zeal of his legates, but incited them to the struggle, and, not content with prohibiting lay investiture and simony, expressly forbade prelates and even priests to pay homage to the civil power.
He corresponded regularly with his legates and with the military leaders, who kept him accurately informed of the position of the troops and the progress of the operations.
And his successors, with their monks and legates, changed the constitution of that body, and changed it to their own advantage.
In 1122, the and protected by the legates, begged the pope to 1124-1130.
The custom prevailed of substituting legates a latere, simple priests or deacons of the Curia, for the regionary delegates, who had grown too independent; and that excellent instrument of rule, the Roman legate, carried the papal will into the remotest courts of Europe.
At that council wise and urgent measures were taken against the abuses that discredited the priesthood, but the principle of appeals and exemptions and the question of the increasing abuse of the power wielded by the Roman legates remained untouched.
Against the of g appeals to Rome, while others complained of the exactions of the legates, or, like John of Salisbury, animadverted upon the excessive powers of the bureaucracy at the Lateran.
But the preaching of the papal legates, even when supported by military demonstrations, had no effect; and the Albigensian question, together with other questions vital for the future of the papacy, remained unsettled and more formidable than ever when Innocent III.
John had committed his son to the protection of the Holy See; and a share in the government was accordingly allowed to the papal legates, Gualo and Pandulf, both during the civil war and for some time afterwards.
In 1853 the Roman Catholic Church, which before had been a mission in the hands of papal legates and vicars, was raised into an independent ecclesiastical province with five dioceses, namely, the archbishopric of Utrecht, and the suffragan bishoprics of Haarlem, Breda, 's Hertogenbosch and Roermond, each with its own seminary.
Visited Sicily to promote the union of the church, and he granted to the count those special ecclesiastical powers held by the counts and kings of Sicily as hereditary legates of the Holy See which grew into the famous Sicilian monarchy (Geoff.
He distinguished himself at the council of Ferrara-Florence, and in 1 444 was made bishop of Bologna by Pope Eugenius IV., who soon afterwards named him as one of the legates charged to negotiate at the convention of Frankfort an understanding between the Holy See and the Empire with regard to the reforming decrees of the council of Basel.
At last the pope - to his own bitter regret afterwards - gave what was desired on the express conditions named, that Campeggio was to show it to the king and Wolsey and no one else, and then destroy it, the two legates holding their court under the general commission.
All bishops were looked upon as in some sort vicars of the pope, but the title vicarius sedis apostolicae came especially to be applied as an alternative to legatus sedis apostolicae to describe papal legates to whom in certain places the pope delegated a portion of his authority.
Papal legates to Germany seldom failed to visit the university and by their magnificence bore witness to the majesty of the Roman church.
He distinguished himself as one of Julius Caesar's legates in the Gallic campaigns, served in Britain, and afterwards under his brother in Cilicia.
A Swedish archbishop, returning from Rome, had been seized by robbers, and as Frederick had not punished the offenders Adrian sent two legates to remonstrate.
The legates of Pope John VIII.
He disowned his legates, who had shown a tendency to yield, again excommunicated Photius, and thus aroused the open hostility which has never been appeased to this day.
In 1542 he had been appointed one of the presiding legates and had written in preparation his work De concilio; and now in 1545, after a brief visit to Rome, he went secretly, on account of fear of assassination by Henry's agents, to Trent, where he arrived on the 4th of May 1545.
In 1070 he was deposed by the papal legates and was imprisoned at Winchester, where he died, probably on the 22nd of February 107 2.
The legates arrived on the 22nd of November, but no council assembled.
At this council Adrian was represented by legates, who presided at the condemnation of Photius, but did not succeed in coming to an understanding with Ignatius on the subject of the jurisdiction over the Bulgarian converts.
The town remained in the possession of the popes, who governed it by means of legates, till its annexation by the National Assembly in 1791, though during this interval several kings of France made efforts to unite it with their dominions.
These constitutions are again divided into two classes: (a) provincial constitutions promulgated by provincial synods, usually in the name of the presiding archbishop or bishop; and (b) decrees of papal legates, Otho in 1236 and Othobon (Ottobuono de' Fieschi, afterwards Pope Adrian V.) in 1269.
He endeavoured to keep on the best term~ with the papacy: he welcomed legates and frequently consulted the pope on purely spiritual matters.
Fortunately the pope interfered for a moment to lighten the friction; being threatened with a new invasion by the emperor Frederick, he suspended the sentences and sent legates to patch up a peace.
In which he was placed that even after making his submission to the popes legates at Avranches in 1172, he thought it necessary to do penance before Beckets tomb in 1174, on which occasion he allowed himself to be publicly scourged by the monks of Canterbury, who inflicted on him three cuts apiece.
It was in 1173, the year after his return from Ireland and his submission to the papal legates at Avranches, that King Henry became- involved in the first of a series of trouble~ Rebellion which were to pursue him for the rest of his lifethe of ffeniy S rebellions of his graceless sons.
He had never forgotten the services of the legates Pandulf and Gualo to himself and his father, and was always ready to lend his aid to the political schemes of the popes, even when it was difficult to see that any English interests were involved in them.
Legates were despatched to Constantinople; the memorial of the schismatic patriarchs was condemned; and union was resumed with the Holy See.
In February i i i i legates of Paschal II.
At the diet of Besancon in October 1157, the legates presented to Barbarossa a letter from Adrian which alluded to the beneficia conferred upon the emperor, and the German chancellor translated this beneficia in the feudal sense.
In the storm which ensued the legates were glad to escape with their lives, and the incident at length closed with a letter from the pope, declaring that by beneficium he meant merely bonum factum.