Baal of Tyre, of Lebanon, &c., are frequent; see G.
Cedrus Libani, the far-famed Cedar of Lebanon, is a tree which, on account of its beauty, stateliness and strength, has always been a favourite with poets and painters, and which, in the figurative language of prophecy, is frequently employed in the Scriptures as a symbol of power, prosperity and longevity.
On the north, where the mountain bears the special name of Jebel Akkar, the main ridge of Lebanon rises gradually from the plain.
The name Coelesyria (n KmXrt /vpia), no doubt, was applied originally to the valley (" hollow ") between Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon, but was afterwards extended to the district stretching eastwards from the latter range.
He died in Lebanon, Ohio, on the 17th of June 1871.
It still grows on Lebanon, though for several centuries it was believed to be restricted to a small grove in the Kadisha valley at 6000 ft.
The wood of the cedar of Lebanon is fragrant, though not so strongly scented as that of the juniper or red-cedar of America.
Among other missionary labours of his later years, he helped the Free Church mission on Lake Nyassa, travelled to Syria to inspect a mission at Lebanon, and assisted Lady Aberdeen and Lord Polwarth to establish the Gordon Memorial Mission in Natal.
Towards the close of the 13th century the Egyptian king Merneptah (Mineptah) records a successful campaign in Palestine, and alludes to the defeat of Canaan, Ascalon, Gezer, Yenuam (in Lebanon) and (the people or tribe) Israel.3 Bodies of aliens from the Levantine coast had previously threatened Egypt and Syria, and at the beginning of the 12th century they formed a coalition on land and sea which taxed all the resources of Rameses III.
Nummulitic limestone (Eocene) overlies the Cretaceous in Philistia, and north of Lebanon Eocene and Miocene deposits cover the greater part of the country.
Gudea was also a great builder, and the materials for his buildings and statues were brought from all parts of western Asia, cedar wood from the Amanus mountains, quarried stones from Lebanon, copper from northern Arabia, gold and precious stones from the desert between Palestine and Egypt, dolerite from Magan (the Sinaitic peninsula) and timber from Dilmun in the Persian Gulf.
The district west of Lebanon, averaging about 20 m.
At a few points, such as Nikita near Livadia and Alupka, where plants have been acclimatized by human agency, the Californian Wellingtonia, the Lebanon cedar, many evergreen trees, the laurel, the cypress, and even the Anatolian palm (Chamaerops excelsa) flourish.
chiefs of Lebanon thus Officer.
The cedar of Lebanon is cultivated in Europe for ornament only.
PHOENICIA; PALESTINE; LEBANON; HITTITES; CRUSADES; TURKEY; PERSIA: Ancient History.
Canaan (Palestine and the south Phoenician coast land) and Amor (Lebanon district and beyond) were under the constant supervision of Egypt, and Egyptian officials journeyed round to collect tribute, to attend to complaints, and to assure themselves of the allegiance of the vassals.
confronted Antiochus at Raphia and inflicted a defeat upon him which nullified all Antiochus's successes and compelled him to withdraw north of the Lebanon.
al-Gharbi or Libnan (see Lebanon).
The political status of the country is controlled by the Ottoman Empire, of which Syria makes part, divided into the vilayets of Aleppo, Sham or Syria (Damascus), the Lebanon (q.v.) and Beirut, and the separate sanjaks or mutessarifliks of Zor and Jerusalem.
The Lebanon district is well supplied with both roads and made mule-tracks.
In 1798 his father, Matthias Corwin (1761-1829), removed to what later became Lebanon, Ohio, where the son worked on a farm, read much, and in 1817 was admitted to the bar.
Osiris and Isis are closely connected with Syria and the Lebanon in legend; the Ded or sacred pillar of Osiris is doubtless really a representation of a great cedar with its horizontally outspreading branches; 8 another of the sacred Egyptian trees is obviously a cypress; corn and wine are traditionally associated with Osiris, and it is probable that corn and wine were first domesticated in Syria, and came thence with the gods Osiris and Re (the sun god of Heliopolis) into the Delta.
The subjugation of such districts could only be by a system of effective military occupation and would be a work of time; but Alexander made a beginning by punitive expeditions, as occasion offered, calculated to reduce the free tribes to temporary quiet; we hear of such expeditions in the case of the Pisidians, the tribes of the Lebanon, the Uxii (in Khuzistan), the Tapyri (in the Elburz), the hill-peoples of Bajaor and Swat, the Cossaei (in Kurdistan); an expedition against the Arabs was in preparation when Alexander died.
15), and especially for oaks, which are coupled with the cedars of Lebanon (Isa.
Here also, with the unimportant exception of the islands of Samos and Cyprus and the somewhat privileged district of Lebanon, all the Turkish possessions constitute vilayets directly controlled by the Porte.
It cannot indeed be said that complete tranquillity prevailed throughout the country meanwhile; disturbances in the principalities and in the Lebanon gave serious trouble, while in 1842 the unsettled state of the Turco-Persian frontier nearly led to war.
The immediate local result was the institution, by a reglement,' signed at Constantinople on the 6th of September 1864, of autonomy for the Lebanon under a Christian governor appointed by the powers with the concurrence of the Porte, an arrangement which has worked satisfactorily until the present day.
In the latter part of the 18th century and the first years of the 19th it was constantly the scene of bloody dissensions between two rival parties, one led by the local janissaries, the other by the sherifs (religious); and the Ottoman governors took the side, now of one, now of the other, in order to plunder a distracted city, too far removed from the centre to be controlled by the sultans, and too near the rebellious pashalik of Acre and the unsettled district of Lebanon not to be affected by the disorders natural to a frontier province.
What the event should be was determined by the government and notified to all its officials; one of these notices, sent to the Babylonian officials in Canaan in the reign of Samsuiluna, the son of Khammurabi, has been found in the Lebanon.
conquerors of Assyria, who carried his arms towards Armenia on the north and Cappadocia on the west; he hunted wild bulls in the Lebanon and was presented with a crocodile by the Egyptian king.
Lebanon, chiefly on the western slopes, not forming a continuous forest, but in groves, some of which contain several thousands of trees.
The term arz is applied by the Arabs to the cedar of Lebanon, to the common pine-tree, and to the juniper; and certainly the "cedars" for masts, mentioned in Ezek.
LEBANON (from Semitic laban, " to be white," or "whitish," probably referring not to snow, but to the bare white walls of chalk or limestone which form the characteristic feature of the whole range), in its widest sense is the central mountain mass of Syria, extending for about loo m.
To the south Lebanon ends about the point where the river Litany bends westward, and at Banias.
Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon have many features in common; in both the southern portion is less arid and barren than the northern, the western valleys better wooded and more fertile than the eastern.
Lebanon, in the 1Vlaronite districts of Kesrawan and Bsherreh, where the gorges are veritable canyons, and the villages are often very picturesquely situated.
Most of the mountain spurs run from east to west, but in northern Lebanon the prevailing direction of the valleys is north-westerly, and in the south some ridges run parallel with the principal chain.
A number of valleys run to the north and north-east, among them that of the Nahr el-Kebir, the Eleutherus of the ancients, which rises in the Jebel el-Abiaei on the eastern slope of Lebanon, and afterwards, skirting the district, flows westward to the sea.
the broad valley which separates Lebanon from Anti-Lebanon is watered by two rivers having their watershed near Baalbek, at an elevation of about 3600 ft., and separated only by a short mile at their sources.
The Anti-Lebanon chain has been less fully explored than that of Lebanon.
The western slope of Lebanon has the common characteristics of the flora of the Mediterranean coast, but the Anti-Lebanon belongs to the poorer region of the steppes, and the Mediterranean species are met with only sporadically along the water-courses.
is the region of the two most interesting forest trees of Lebanon, the cypress and the cedar.
But the chief ornament of Lebanon is the Rhododendron ponticum, with its brilliant purple flower clusters; a peculiar evergreen, Vinca libanotica, also adds beauty to this zone.
The alpine flora of Lebanon thus connects itself directly with the Oriental flora of lower altitudes, and is unrelated to the glacial flora of Europe and northern Asia.
There is nothing of special interest about the fauna of Lebanon.
In the following sections the Lebanon proper will alone be considered, without reference to Anti-Lebanon, because the peculiar political status of the former range since 1864 has effectually differentiated it; whereas the Anti-Lebanon still forms an integral part of the Ottoman province of Syria (q.v.), and neither its population nor its history is readily distinguishable from those of the surrounding districts.
The total population in the Lebanon proper is about 400,000, and is increasing faster than the development of the province will admit.
Lebanon (Metn and Kurah districts).
They are among the most progressive of the Lebanon elements.
They are called Metawali and are strongest in North Lebanon (Kesrawan and Batrun), but found also in the south, in Buka`a and in the coast-towns from Beirut to Acre.
of Lebanon, but outside the limits of the privileged province.
Lebanon on its way to Damascus, and the excellent roads and mule-paths made since 1883.
Lebanon has thick deposits of lignite coal, but of inferior quality owing to the presence of iron pyrites.
Lebanon was included within the ideal boundaries of the land of Israel, and the whole region was well known to the Hebrews, by whose poets its many excellences are often praised.
In the Roman period the district of Phoenice extended to Lebanon.
Remains of the Roman period occur throughout Lebanon.
At all times Lebanon has been a place of refuge for unpopular creeds.
The subsequent history of Lebanon to the middle of the 19th century will be found under Druses and Maronites, and it need only be stated here that Latin influence began to be felt in N.
Lebanon during the Frank period of Antioch and Palestine, the Maronites being inclined to take the part of the crusading princes against the Druses and Moslems; but they were still regarded as heretic Monothelites by Abulfaragius (Bar-Hebraeus) at the end of the 13th century; nor is their effectual reconciliation to Rome much older than 1736, the date of the mission sent by the pope Clement XII., which fixed the actual status of their church.
The events of 1860 led to the formation of the privileged Lebanon province, finally constituted in 1864.
The Lebanon has now been constituted a sanjak or mutessariflik, dependent directly on the Porte, which acts in this case in consultation with the six great powers.
The Lebanon is under a military governor (mushir)who must be a Christian in the service of the sultan, approved by the powers, and has, so far, been chosen from the Roman Catholics owing to the great preponderance of Latin Christians in the province.
Nothing now remains of the former French predominance in the Lebanon, except a certain influence exerted by the fact that the railway is French, and by the precedence in ecclesiastical functions still accorded by the Maronites to official representatives of France.
In the Lebanon, as in N.
Lebanon, Illinois >>
Joseph Simon, a Maronite of Mount Lebanon, was born in 1687.
At this period, also, under its patesis, Ur-bau and Gudea, Lagash had extensive commercial communications with distant realms. According to his own records, Gudea brought cedars from the Amanus and Lebanon mountains in Syria, diorite or dolorite from eastern Arabia, copper and gold from central and southern Arabia and from Sinai, while his armies, presumably under his over-lord, Ur-Gur, were engaged in battles in Elam on the east.
SAMUEL JONES TILDEN (1814-1886), American statesman, was born at New Lebanon, New York, on the 9th of February 1814.
In the Lebanon both the Christian clans and the Druses are ruled by hereditary amirs.
With the treaty of London (1840) Baalbek became really Ottoman, and since the settlement of the Lebanon (1864) has attracted great numbers of tourists.
LEBANON, a city and the county-seat of Lebanon county, Pennsylvania, U.S.A., in the fertile Lebanon Valley, about 25 m.
It is served by the Philadelphia & Reading, the Cornwall and the Cornwall & Lebanon railways.
About 1760 the town became known as Lebanon, and under this name it was incorporated as a borough in 1821 and chartered as a city in 1885.
Silver was regarded as stones; the precious cedars of Lebanon as sycamores.
In eastern Pennsylvania the Great Valley was accessible by reason of a broad gateway between the end of South Mountain and the Highlands, and here in the Lebanon Valley settled German Moravians, whose descendants even now retain the peculiar patois known as "Pennsylvania Dutch."
The science that treats of them dates back to the days of Solomon, who "spake of trees, from the cedar of Lebanon to the hyssop on the wall."
It is served by the Baltimore & Ohio South Western and the Cincinnati, Lebanon and Northern railways, and by interurban electric railways.
the Erie, the Baltimore & Ohio South-Western (Baltimore & Ohio system), the Chesapeake & Ohio, the Norfolk & Western, the Louisville & Nashville, the Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton, the Cincinnati Northern (New York Central system), the Cincinnati & Muskingum Valley (Pennsylvania system), and the Cincinnati, Lebanon & Northern (Pennsylvania system).
In July 1860, when the Moslems of that city, taking advantage of disturbances among the Druses of Lebanon, attacked the Christian quarter and killed over 3000 persons, Abd-el-Kader helped to repress the outbreak and saved large numbers of Christians.
In 1814 he went to Constantinople as a student interpreter, and afterwards travelled in Asiatic Turkey, spending a year with the Maronites in the Lebanon, and finally becoming dragoman at Aleppo.
The township was incorporated in 1719, was named Litchfield, after Lichfield in England, and was settled by immigrants from Hartford, Windsor, Wethersfield, Farmington and Lebanon (all within the state) in 1720-1721.
It has a publishing house (1834) and Bonebrake Theological Seminary (1871) at Dayton, Ohio; and supports Otterbein University (1847) at Westerville, O.; Westfield College (1865) at Westfield, Illinois; Leander Clark College (1857) at Toledo, Iowa; York College (1890) at York, Nebraska; Philomath College (1867) at Philomath, Oregon; Lebanon Valley College (1867) at Annville, Pa.; Campbell College (1864) at Holton, Kansas, and Central University (1907) at Indianapolis, Indiana.
Lying within the rich agricultural region of the Lebanon and Schuylkill valleys and near vast fields of anthracite coal and iron ore, Reading possesses unusual business and industrial advantages.
This was followed in 1828 by the Union Canal, running westward to Lebanon and Middletown, and in 1838 by the entrance into Reading of the Philadelphia & Reading railway.
But the state's iron foundries moved rapidly westward after the first successful experiments in making pig-iron with bituminous coal, in 1845, and the discovery, a few years later, that rich ore could be obtained there at less cost from the Lake Superior region resulted in a decline of iron-mining within the state until, in 1902, the product amounted to only 822,932 long tons, 72.2% of which was magnetite ore from the Cornwall mines in Lebanon county which have been among the largest producers of this kind of ore since the erection of the Cornwall furnace in 1742.
Nearly 20% of the iron and steel was produced by Pittsburg together with Allegheny,with which it has since been consolidated, and the production of these is the leading industry of New Castle, Johnstown, Duquesne, McKeesport, Sharon, Braddock and Dubois, also in the west part of the state and of Reading, Harrisburg, Steelton, South Bethlehem, Pottstown, Lebanon, Phoenixville and Danville in the east part.
The populations of the principal cities in 1900 were as follows: Philadelphia, 1,293,697 Pittsburg, 321,616; Allegheny, 129,896 (subsequently annexed to Pittsburg); Scranton, 102,026; Reading, 78,961; Erie, 52,733 Wilkes-Barre, 51,721; Harrisburg, 50,167; Lancaster, 4 1, 459; Altoona, 38,973; Johnstown, 35,936; Allentown, 35,416; McKeesport, 34, 22 7; Chester, 33,988; York, 33,708; Williamsport, 28,757; New Castle, 28,339; Easton, 25,238; Norristown, 22,265; Shenandoah, 20,321; Shamokin (borough), 18,202; Lebanon, 17,628.
Formed partly by alluvium carried down by perennial streams from the mountains of Lebanon and Galilee, and fringed by great sand-dunes which the sea throws up, Phoenicia is covered with a rich and fertile soil.
From the flanks of Lebanon, especially from the heights which lie to the north of the Qasimiyeh or IKasimiya (Litany) River, the traveller looks down upon some of the finest landscape in the world; in general features the scenery is not unlike that of the Italian Riviera, but surpasses it in grandeur and a peculiar depth of colouring.
With regard to natural products the country has few worth mentioning; minerals are found in the Lebanon, but not in any quantity; traces of amber-digging have been discovered on the coast; and the purple shell (murex trunculus and brandaris) is still plentiful.
Citium), " servant of Hiram king of the Sidonians to Baal of Lebanon."
18) the reference was probably to the felling of timber in Lebanon for Hiram's temples; Josephus then misinterpreted this by 1 Kings v.
3, 2), and Arab robbers plundered their territories from strongholds in the Lebanon.
A deposit of amber has also been found in the Lebanon, and perhaps the Phoenicians worked this and concealed its origin.
The Phoenicians spent much care on their burial-places, which have furnished the most important 1 Traces of ancient mining for iron have been found in the Lebanon; cf.
LEBANON, a city of Saint Clair county, Illinois, U.S.A., on Silver Creek, about 24 m.
Lebanon is the seat of McKendree College, founded by Methodists in 1828 and one of the oldest colleges in the Mississippi valley.
It was called Lebanon Seminary until 1830, when the present name was adopted in honour of William McKendree (1757-1835), known as the "Father of Western Methodism," a great preacher, and a bishop of the Methodist Church in 1808-1835, who had endowed the college with 480 acres of land.
There are coal mines and excellent farming lands in the vicinity of Lebanon.
Lebanon was chartered as a city in 1874.
Lebanon, Pennsylvania >>
9), appears to be identical with Saniru in the Lebanon, mentioned by Shalmaneser II.
by the north end of the Lebanon at the Nahr el-Kebir (Eleutherus), on the N.
Alexandretta), Samaria, Pella (the later Apamea), Carrhae, &c. Antigonus founded Antigonia, which was absorbed a few years later by Antioch, and after the fall of Antigonus in 301, the work of planting Syria with Greek cities was pursued effectively north of the Lebanon by the house of Seleucus, and, less energetically, south of the Lebanon by the house of Ptolemy.
For boatbuilding papyrus stems and acacia wood were employed, and for the best work cedar-wood was imported from Lebanon.
Cedar wood was brought from the forests of Lebanon, ivory, leopard skins and gold from the south, all kinds of spices and ingredients of incense from Somaliland and Arabia, fine linen and beautifully worked vessels from Syria and the islands.
This task was quickly accomplished and Seti pushed onward to the Lebanon.
The bordering regions, moreover, are as varied in character as is the country itself - sea to the west, a mountainous and sandy desert to the south, a lofty steppe plateau to the east, and the great masses of Lebanon to the north.
Western Palestine is a region intersected by groups of mountain peaks and ranges, forming a southern extension of the Lebanon system and running southward till they finally lose themselves in the desert.
The Maritime Plain, which, with a few interruptions, extends along the Mediterranean coast from Lebanon to Egypt, is a strip of land of remarkable fertility.
The northern region (Upper Galilee) is virtually an outlier of the Lebanon Mountains.
Amorite), lay north of Lebanon and behind Phoenicia; but the term fluctuates (Weber, op. cit., 1132 sqq.).
At any rate they came into line with the rest of Syria and were included in the province of Coele-Syria, which extended from the Taurus and Lebanon range to Egypt.
In 1840 Lebanon revolted; and in the same year the Turks, with the aid of France, England and Austria, regained Palestine and expelled the Egyptian governor.
In 1860 occurred a sudden antiChristian outbreak in Damascus and the Lebanon, in which 14,000 Christians were massacred.
Churchill, Mount Lebanon (1853, for modern history).
The deodar (Cedrus Deodara), which is indigenous to the mountains of Afghanistan and the north-west Himalaya, is nearly allied to the Atlantic cedar and to the cedar of Lebanon, a form of which is found in Cyprus.
The accession of Abdalmalik was attended with no difficulty, but the first years of his reign were occupied by troubles in northern Syria, where, instigated by the Greeks, the Mardaites of the Amanus, called Jarajima by the Arabs, penetrated into the Lebanon.
The Armenian patriarch, whose jurisdiction embraces the Catholic Armenians in the Balkan Peninsula, in Russian Armenia and in Asiatic Turkey, formerly resided in Lebanon, but has had his seat since 1867 at Constantinople.
The patriarch resides in the monastery of Ain-Traz in the Lebanon and has jurisdiction over all the Uniats of Greek nationality in the Turkish Empire, who number about 120,000.
(b) The Maronites (Patriarchatus Antiochenus Syro-Maronitarum), whose seat is in the Lebanon.
Other Conifers Cedar Of Lebanon 0..edrus Libani).
The Monothelites refused to submit, and the result was the formation of another schismatic church - the Maronite Church of the Lebanon range.
A few monasteries (Mt Sinai and some on Lebanon) follow the rule of St Anthony.
across the state through Pompton, Morristown, Lebanon and Highbridge to the Delaware; its S.E.
The original seat and present home of the nucleus of the Maronites is Mt Lebanon; but they are also to be found in considerable force in Anti-Lebanon and Hermon, and more sporadically in and near Antioch, in Galilee, and on the Syrian coast.
The Lebanon community numbers about 300,000, and the total of the whole denomination cannot be much under half a million.
But nothing sure is known of him, and not much more about a more historical personage, Yuhanna Marun (John Sirimensis of Suedia), said to have been patriarch of Antioch, to have converted Lebanon from Monothelism, and to have died in A.D.
It seems most probable that the Lebanon offered refuge to Antiochene Monothelites flying from the ban of the Constantinopolitan Council of A.D.
But it is evident that the local particularism of the Lebanon was adverse to this union, and that even Gregory XIII., who sent the gallium to the patriarch Michael, and Clement VII.
It has, like the Greek Church, two kinds of clergy - parochial and monastic. The former are supported by their parishes; the latter by the revenues of the monasteries, which own about one-sixth of the Lebanon lands.
The Maronites are most numerous and unmixed in the north of Lebanon (districts of Bsherreh and Kesrawan).
Fund Quarterly Statement (1892); and authorities for DRUSES and LEBANON.
The same is the case with the Eastern Churches united to the Holy See; following the example of the famous council of Lebanon for the Maronites, held in 1730, and that of Zamosc for the Ruthenians, in 1720, these churches, at the suggestion of Leo XIII., have drawn up in plenary assembly their own local law: the Syrians at Sciarfa in 1888; the Ruthenians at Leopol in 1891; and a little later, the Copts.
The view from Hermon is very extensive, embracing all Lebanon and the plains east of Damascus, with Palestine as far as Carmel and Tabor.
The first group, which has been greatly increased by migrants from the second, since the establishment of the privileged Lebanon province (1861) under Christian auspices, lives apart from other peoples in semi-independence.
The second is now confined to the southern Lebanon, and even there is greatly outnumbered by Maronites, who, in the whole "Mountain," stand to Druses as 9 to 2.
The people showed such bitter hostility to the new gospel that Darazi was compelled to seek safety in flight; but even in absence he was faithful to his god, and succeeded inwinning over certain ignorant inhabitants of Lebanon.
Lebanon, under Khalid ibn Walid in the 9th century, as the beginning of Druse distinctiveness and power; but it also accepts Turkoman and Kurdish elements in the original Druse state.
The state of the Lebanon went from bad to worse, and at last, in January 1842, the Turkish government appointed Omar Pasha as administrator of the Druses and Maronites, with a council of four chiefs from each party; but the pasha, attempting to effect a disarming, was besieged in November in the castle of Beit ed-Din by the Druses under Shibli el-Arrian.
A superficial pacification effected by Shekib Effendi, the Ottoman commissioner, lasted only till his departure; and the Porte was obliged to despatch a force of 12,000 men to the Lebanon.
The European powers now determined to interfere; and, by a protocol of the 3rd of May 1860, it was decided that the Lebanon should be occupied by a force of 20,000 men, of whom half were to be French.
In spite of many difficulties, and especially the ambitious conduct of the Maronite Jussuf Karam, he succeeded in restoring order; and by the formation of a military force from the inhabitants of the Lebanon he rendered unnecessary the presence of the Turkish soldiery.
The privileged province of Lebanon was finally constituted by the Organic Statute of the 6th of September 1864, and the subsequent history of the Lebanon Druses is one of gradual withdrawal from the jurisdiction of that state, in which they see their ancient independence irretrievably compromised, and their religion subordinated to Christian supremacy.
Towards the close of the 18th century some 600 families left Lebanon for the Hauran, in discontent with the rule of the Shehab dynasty, and their place and property were taken by 1500 families driven out of Jebel Ansarieh by Topal Ali in 1811.
Churchill, Ten Years' Residence in Mount Lebanon (3 vols., 1853); G.
Chasseaud, The Druzes of the Lebanon (1855); E.
To this period probably belong an inscription of Nebuchadrezzar on the north bank of the Nahr el-Kelb near Beirut, and another the Wadi Brissa in the Lebanon.
Though the population is diminished and the cities ruinous, the country is still remarkable for fertility, thanks to the copiousness of its water-supply draining from the Lebanon mountains.
2-6 (now D) expresses the view that the conquest was incomplete, and numbers districts chiefly in the south-west and in the Lebanon.
(2) The chief town of the vilayet (anc. Berytus), the most important seaport town in Syria, situated on the south side of St George's Bay, on rising ground at the foot of Lebanon.
Since the pacification of the Lebanon after the massacre of the Christians in 1860 (for later history, see LEBANON), Beirut has greatly increased in extent, and has become the centre of the transit trade for all southern Syria.
In 1895 a French company completed a railway across the Lebanon to Damascus, and connected it with Mezerib in the Hauran, whence now starts the line to the Hejaz.
The steepness of the Lebanon railway, and the break of gauge at Rayak, the junction for Aleppo, have prevented the diversion of much of the trade of North Syria to Beirut.
In summer most of the richer residents reside on the Lebanon, and in winter the governor of the Lebanon and many Lebanon notables inhabit houses in Beirut.
This is confirmed by coins of the city of Laodicea by the Lebanon, which bear the legend, " Of Laodicea, a metropolis in Canaan "; these coins are datedunderAntiochus IV.
Bernhard von Breydenbach, 8 Ausonius, Florus and others, arguing, it would seem, from its Hebrew and Greek names, concluded that olibanum came from Mount Lebanon; and Chardin (Voyage en Perse, &c., 1711) makes the statement that the frankincense tree grows in the mountains of Persia, particularly Caramania.
He wished to complete his exploration of the upper range of Lebanon; he remained, therefore, with Henriette to affront the dangerous miasma of a Syrian autumn.
Other institutions of higher learning, not under the control of the state, are: the University of Nashville (non-sect., 1785); Washington and Tusculum College (non-sect., 1794), at Greenville; Maryville College (Presbyterian, 1819), at Maryville; Cumberland University (Presbyterian, 1842), at Lebanon; Burritt College (non-sect., 1848), at Spencer; Hiwassee College (non-sect., 1849), at Sweetwater; Bethel College (Presbyterian 1850), at McKenzie; Carson and Newman College (Baptist, 1851), at Jefferson City; Walden University (Methodist, 1866), at Nashville; Fisk University (Congregational, 1866), at Nashville; University of Chattanooga (Methodist, 1867), at Chattanooga; University of the South (Protestant Episcopal, 1868), at Sewanee; King College (Presbyterian, 1869), at Bristol; Christian Brothers College (Roman Catholic, 1871), at Memphis; Knoxville College (United Presbyterian, 1875), at Knoxville; Milligan College (Christian, 1882), at Milligan; South-western Presbyterian College (1885), at Clarkville; and Lincoln Memorial University (non-sect., 1895), at Cumberland Gap.
atrocitythat stayed silent during the atrocities inflicted upon Gaza have voiced a little more concern in the assault on Lebanon.
The actions of those attacking Lebanon will seriously backfire.
Top Chapter 11 1 Open thy doors, O Lebanon, that the fire may devour thy cedars.
The voice of the lord breaketh the cedars; yea, the Lord breaketh the cedars of Lebanon.
The Phoenician homeland was a loose confederation of half a dozen cities along the coast of Lebanon.
Three Things You Never Knew 1. Despite his surfer dude type image, he was actually born in Beirut, Lebanon.
This caused great exasperation among all communities in Lebanon.
Obaid's plight and that of other hostages and abductees from Lebanon remains largely forgotten or unheard of.
The maps provided are the best available estimates of seismic hazards in Lebanon and are recommended for use in risk assessment.
held hostage for some years in the Lebanon, in conditions similar to those in the play.
I think he's already there, it's pretty hellish in Lebanon right now.
They were both held hostage for some years in the Lebanon, in conditions similar to those in the play.
Four days later the last western hostages were released from Lebanon.
Rating * * * * Rabih Abou Khalil plays the oud, a fretless lute originating from the Lebanon.
A senior Scottish Labor MP said the prime minister must stop defying public opinion over the crisis in Lebanon.
Lebanon 6 Which island acquired the nickname of George Cross Island?
The Lebanon situation looks parlous despite an apparent ceasefire.
plight of the refugees in Lebanon is well known.
prime minister must stop defying public opinion over the crisis in Lebanon.
public opinion over the crisis in Lebanon.
Some believe Lebanon's fragile, deeply sectarian society may not even be ready for it.
sentry on duty in Lebanon did not have a magazine in his M16.
Shia leaders in lebanon and is financed and supplied by iran.
Nearly a million civilians who fled southern Lebanon are now returning to find they have lost homes, possessions, and livelihoods.
Lebanon's Daily Star has warned that " any temptation to exact vengeance must be resisted.
vieormer warlords, themselves representatives of various Lebanon sects were all vying for dominance.
Poplars, willows, lime, mountain-ash, maples, are favourite habitats, and it is also found on many other trees, including cedar of Lebanon and larch.
The section dealing with Egypt is one of remarkable imaginative power and rhetorical vigour: the king of Egypt is compared to a magnificent cedar of Lebanon (in xxxi.
when mature, with a habit suggesting that of cedar of Lebanon,, and C. Joveniana and C. Macnabiana, smaller trees generally from 20 to 30 ft.
On the lowest levels the southern forms, the Ficus sycomorus and the date-palm, appear, and increase in the direction of Egypt (see Lebanon and Palestine).
Mid-Syria shows a medley of populations of more or less mixed origin, in large part alien, for which see Druses; Maronites and Lebanon.
Ottoman control is imperfect in Lebanon, the Houran, and over the Armenian mountain region of Zeitun and over the eastern steppe-lands, whose nomadic populations can withdraw themselves out of reach.
This company has the absolute monopoly of the manufacture and of the purchase and sale of tobacco throughout the Ottoman Empire, with the exception of the Lebanon and Crete, but exportation remains free.
For six years (672-677) the Arabs under the caliph Moawiya (see CALIPHATE) besieged Constantinople, but the ravages caused amongst them by the so-called "Greek fire," heavy losses by land and sea, and the inroads of the Christian Mardaites (or Maronites, q.v.) of Mount Lebanon, obliged Moawiya to make peace and agree to pay tribute for thirty years.
Lebanon, are tending to emigrate or conform to Sunni Islam.
No longer armed or wearing their former singular dress, the remnant of them in Lebanon seems likely ere long to be assimilated to the "Osmanli" Moslems. Their feud with the Maronites, whose accentuation in the middle of the 19th century was largely due to the tergiversations of the ruling Shehab family, now reduced to low estate, is dying away, but they retain something of their old clan feeling and feudal organization, especially in Shuf.
Lebanon, chiefly by the immigration of various more or less heretical elements, Kurd, Turkoman, Persian and especially Arab, the latter largely after the break-up of the kingdom of Hira; and early in the i ith century these coalesced into a nationality (see Druses) under the congenial influence of the Incarnationist creed brought from Cairo by Ismael Darazi and other emissaries of the caliph Hakim and his vizier Hamza.
But Ottoman jurisdiction was merely nominal in the Lebanon district, and Baalbek was really in the hands of the Metawali (see Lebanon), who retained it against other Lebanon tribes, until "Jezzar" Pasha, the rebel governor of the Acre province, broke their power in the last half of the 8th century.
This madman caused the church of the Holy Sepulchre to be entirely destroyed: and giving himself out to be the incarnation of Deity, his cult was founded by two Persians, Darazi and Hamza ibn Ali, in the Lebanon; where among the Druses it still persists (see Druses).
It is, however, certain that the Lebanon Christians as a whole were not orthodox in the time of Justinian II., against whose supporters, the Melkites, they ranged themselves after having co-operated awhile with the emperor against the Moslems. They were then called Mardaites or rebels, and were mainly Monothelite in the 12th century, and remained largely so even a century later.
The Maronites have four members on the provincial council, two of whom are the sole representatives of the two mudirats of Kesrawan; and they have derived benefit from the fact that so far the governor of the privileged province has always been a Catholic (see Lebanon).
Ignorance is the mother of suspicion as well as of superstition; and accordingly the Christian inhabitants of the Lebanon have long been persuaded that the Druses in their secret assemblies are guilty of the most nefarious practices.
Saladin retook it in 1187, and thenceforward, for six centuries and a half, whoever its nominal lords may have been, Saracen, Crusader, Mameluke or (from the 16th century) Turk, the Druse emirs of Lebanon dominated it (see DRUSES).
From the fact that Egyptian (though not Hebrew) scribes constantly prefix the article, we may suppose that it originally meant " the country of the Canaanites," just as the Hebrew phrase " the Lebanon " may originally have meant " the highlands of the Libnites "; and we are thus permitted to group the term " Canaan " with clan-names such as Achan, Akan, Jaakan, Anak (generally with the article prefixed), Kain, Kenan.
Some believe Lebanon 's fragile, deeply sectarian society may not even be ready for it.
A possible cause for that disaster was the fact that the sentry on duty in Lebanon did not have a magazine in his M16.
Hezbollah was founded by iran and shia leaders in lebanon and is financed and supplied by iran.
Lebanon 's Daily Star has warned that any temptation to exact vengeance must be resisted.
Former warlords, themselves representatives of various Lebanon sects were all vying for dominance.
If feasting on food from the eastern coast of the Mediterranean is your goal, your meal may have its roots in Egypt, Greece, Israel, Lebanon, Turkey or Syria.
3 read: " there was a cedar in Lebanon ") and to the dragon of the Nile, and the picture of his 1 In viii.
Schraufite is a reddish resin from the Carpathian sandstone, and it occurs with jet in the cretaceous rocks of the Lebanon; ambrite is a resin found in many of the coals of New Zealand; retinite occurs in the lignite of Bovey Tracey in Devonshire and elsewhere; whilst copaline has been found in the London clay of Highgate in North London.
A Phoenician dedication to "Baal of Lebanon" found here, and dated also to the 7th century, suggests that Citium may have belonged to Tyre.
It is served by the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis, the Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton, the Cincinnati Northern (New York Central system), and a branch of the Cincinnati, Lebanon & Northern (Pennsylvania system) railways.
In northern Syria the mountains of Lebanon rise to about to,000 ft., and with a more copious water supply the country becomes more productive.
The emperor, in acknowledgment, gave him the government of Judea, while the kingdom of Chalcis in Lebanon was at his request given to his brother Herod.
Under the present Ottoman distribution " Syria " is the province of Sham or Damascus, exclusive of the vilayets of Aleppo and Beirut and the sanjaks of Lebanon and Jerusalem, which all fall in what is called Syria is the wider geographical sense.
Cretaceous limestones cover the greater part of Palestine and rocks of the same period form Mt Lebanon, the Casius Mons, &c., farther north.
The Lebanon and the hills of north Galilee offer the greatest number of mammals.
4) is promised " from the wilderness and this Lebanon even unto the great river, the river Euphrates, all the land of the Hittites."
1-3): fire seizes the cedars of Lebanon and the oaks of Bashan.3 (2) The difficult passage about the shepherds follows.
The range has not so many offshoots as occur on the west side of Lebanon; under its precipitous slopes stretch table-lands and broad plateaus, which, especially on the east side looking towards the steppe, steadily increase in width.
The inhabitants of Lebanon have at no time played a conspicuous part in history.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.