You are learning about them today.
I want you to start learning what it means to be in charge of something.
I'm learning a lot.
She had always feared learning to love a child, only to have the mother change her mind.
He reiterated his concern about anyone outside our group learning of what we were doing.
Learning about Ed Plotke is still the best lead we have on finding the identity of Martha's bones.
I started learning to shoot a laser gun today, she said.
Learning which ones probably took experience – a lot of it.
"He's learning what it means to be a deity," she said.
I forbade her from learning to read, so she never learned of the demon.
"I'm actually learning from him, Sirian," was Rissa's arch response.
What about learning something about me no one else knows?
The hour from twelve to one is devoted to the learning of new words.
We never will have the opportunity to learn from the details of their lives and the trillions upon trillions of trial-and-error learning that humankind has repeated again and again.
These children are learning it just as the first people who lived on the earth learned it in the beginning.
He began to understand her reluctance to be involved with him and how thick the walls around her heart were, if she spent the years since the Schism learning how to shut people and emotion out.
If I didn't keep learning how insane this world is every second of the day, I wouldn't have to drink!
The Deans were learning the sport of ice climbing is critically dependent on equipment, unique and not inexpensive.
"That's not quite what I'm saying. I know you understand that great sacrifice is sometimes warranted for a greater good. And what you might be learning is that the greater good also sometimes requires doing what might be called evil," she said.
I never knew she existed until a day ago, and I'm only now learning how awful of a person she was.
She placed a checkmark next to the first of her ideas for learning to use her power.
Then he added, You might have better luck learning who's been trying to buy the worthless mine and who at Bird Song swiped the itsy-bitsy bone you found.
Absolute power for learning mercy.
He was always reading, learning, inquiring.
I'm just learning my way around the internet at this level but Brennan's people could do it in a minute.
She gripped the hourglass, a symbol of her hope at leaving, even after learning that there was no real hope.
I know it's not easy for you, but there's bound to be a learning curve.
The next morning, she went to the game room after her sparring session and sat the entire day, learning more and more about the game and experimenting with how the symbols on the keyboard interacted with the images before her.
She'd been learning how to defend herself and watching how his people operated for a few days before the accident.
He saw the disappointment in her face, and wondered if she had hoped, as he had, that they would spend a lazy day learning all about each other's bodies.
She's had centuries of learning to control it because ultimately she is the one who will suffer for any poor decisions.
I was only just learning to speak, and had previously repeated her name until I could say it perfectly.
Jule looked around Yully's room, trying to digest everything he was learning about himself.
Yully spent the drive north learning how to manipulate her father's magics with his patient tips as guidance.
Helen is learning adjectives and adverbs as easily as she learned nouns.
Our self-imposed prohibition against pursuing our tips once given limited our learning which sources produced the best results.
He is very happy indeed at the kindergarten, and is learning something every day.
It was a moment that had gone too far, and yet it had turned into a learning experience.
His tact was equal to his learning.
He couldn't help but remember her agitated state of mind after learning of Fitzgerald's death.
But he was a patron of learning and, like most prelates of his age, a great architect.
He was also a man of learning and culture.
The ability to read the lips helps Miss Keller in getting corrections of her pronunciation from Miss Sullivan and others, just as it was the means of her learning to speak at all, but it is rather an accomplishment than a necessity.
I was never angry after that because I understood what my friends said to me, and I was very busy learning many wonderful things.
But when the several nations of Europe had acquired distinct though rude written languages of their own, sufficient for the purposes of their rising literatures, then first learning revived, and scholars were enabled to discern from that remoteness the treasures of antiquity.
It will be soon enough to forget them when we have the learning and the genius which will enable us to attend to and appreciate them.
Then he began to imagine that the Russians were running away and that he himself was killed, but he quickly roused himself with a feeling of joy, as if learning afresh that this was not so but that on the contrary the French had run away.
But someday I shall have finished learning, and then I will do something.
Through Brennan's subtle urging, the authorities, ultimate recipients of our tips, were learning to deny them outright or down playing their importance.
I'm learning that with Gabriel.
She concentrated hard, intent on distracting herself as well as learning something new.
Over a period of a week, the tactics had gone from infantile to novice to advanced, as if someone were learning the intricacies of battle planning.
She'd learned the parts of a warship inside and out while learning the battle planning and looked for the configuration button among her options popping up on the screen.
"Insomnia or excitement at learning all about your great-aunt?" he asked.
"You're not here this early to bitch at me about that," she said with some of the moodiness he'd come to expect from her since learning of her pregnancy.
Burmann was rather a compiler than a critic; his commentaries show immense learning and accuracy, but are wanting in taste and judgment.
Even into his mythological learning he breathes a life to which these dry scholars are strangers.
Imagine what you could do with the combined learning of a quadrillion life experiences.
Given his experience and lauding as one of the most capable strategic battle planners in the Five Galaxies-- the only reason he hadn't been driven out by the Yirkin despite his tiny army-- he found himself learning a tidbit here and there.
"After this, you'll forbid me from learning?" she demanded.
I don't know much about the plants and wildlife out here, but I'm learning.
He seems then or later to have acquired some tincture of learning.
The reputation of his learning led Majorianus to treat him with the greatest respect.
And yet, though Rembrandt's " Nightwatch " is dated the very year after the publication of the Meditations, not a word in Descartes breathes of any work of art or historical learning.
In the universities of the Netherlands and of lower Germany, as yet free from the conservatism of the old-established seats of learning, the new system gained an easy victory over Aristotelianism, and, as it was adapted for lectures and examinations, soon became almost as scholastic as the doctrines it had supplanted.
At Leiden, Utrecht, Groningen, Franeker, Breda, Nimeguen, Harderwyk, Duisburg and Herborn, and at the Catholic university of Louvain, Cartesianism was warmly expounded and defended in seats of learning, of which many are now left desolate, and by adherents whose writings have for the most part long lost interest for any but the antiquary.
Fortified by this exhaustive preparation, Aquinas began his Summa Theologiae, which he intended to be the sum of all known learning, arranged according to the best method, and subordinate to the dictates of the church.
His passion for wine and women was almost as well known as his learning.
The doctors were to teach the faithful in sound learning, to guard purity of doctrine, and to be amenable to discipline.
It was a council created by parliament to give advice in church matters at a great crisis in the nation's history; but its acts, though from the high character and great learning of its members worthy of deepest respect, did not per se bind parliament or indeed anyone.
Through his learning and his manner of discussion, he co-operated with S.
A monastery founded here by St Carthagh in 633 became so celebrated as a seat of learning that it is said no fewer than twenty churches were erected in its vicinity.
He encouraged learning to the extent of admitting Sir Thomas More into his household, and writing a Latin history of Richard III., which More translated into English.
He also studied the first six books of Euclid and some algebra, besides reading a considerable quantity of Hebrew and learning the Odes of Horace by heart.
His high social position, his influence at court, his character, as well as his undoubted abilities and learning, not often in Austria found in a man of his rank, gave him great influence.
He appointed visitors for the universities and great public schools, and defended the universities from the attacks of the extreme sectaries who clamoured for their abolition, even Clarendon allowing that Oxford "yielded a harvest of extraordinary good and sound knowledge in all parts of learning."
He patronized learning.
After the revival of learning Plautus was reinstated, and took rank as one of the great dramatists of antiquity; cf.
Although Cairoli, upon learning of the Anglo-Ottoman convention in regard to Cyprus, had advised Count Corti of the possibility that Great Britain might seek to placate France by conniving at a French occupation of Tunisia, neither he nor Count Corti had any inkling of the verbal arrangement made between.
The course taken by Cranmer in promoting the Reformation exposed him to the bitter hostility of the reactionary party or " men of the old learning," of whom Gardiner and Bonner were leaders, and on various occasions - notably in 1543 and 1 545 - conspiracies were formed in the council or elsewhere to effect his overthrow.
It was immediately answered from the side of the " old learning " by Gardiner.
His vehicle (vahana) is a goose or swan (hamsa), whence he is also called Harnsavahana; and his consort is Sarasvati, the goddess of learning.
modern Roman Catholic learning, which owes a great debt to Aristotle through the schoolmen, includes Natural Theology in philosophy, not in theology properly so called.
Throughout the middle ages the sancta civitas Trevirorum abounded in religious foundations and was a great seat of monastic learning.
The period of the revival of learning, which was also that of a renewed study of nature, is marked by a considerable amount of speculation respecting the origin of the universe.
Comparative anatomists have been learning to refrain from basing the diagnosis of a species, or the description of the condition of an organ, on the evidence of a single specimen.
It should be remembered that, from the latter part of the 3rd century, the leading bishops had generally been trained in secular learning.
Qaro's son married Luria's daughter, and Qaro rejoiced at the connexion, for he had a high opinion of Luria's learning.
150) concentrated in his writings the final outcome of all Greek geographical learning, and passed it across the gulf of the middle ages by the hands of the Arabs, Ptolemy.
After the division of the Roman empire, Constantinople became the last refuge of learning, arts and taste; while Alexandria continued to be the emporium whence were imported the commodities of the East.
Alfred the Great, king of the Salons in England, not only educated his people in the learning of the past ages; he inserted in the geographical works he translated many narratives of the travel of his own time.
The soldiers became discontented and deposed Enciso, who was a man of learning and an accomplished cosmographer.
Other institutions of learning are the Capital University and Evangelical Lutheran Theological Seminary (Theological Seminary opened in 1830; college opened as an academy in 1850), with buildings just east of the city limits; Starling Ohio Medical College, a law school, a dental school and an art institute.
Under Arnold's superintendence the school became not merely a place where a certain amount of classical or general learning was to be obtained, but a sphere of intellectual, moral and religious discipline, where healthy characters were formed, and men were trained for the duties, and struggles and responsibilities of life.
These superbly invented and designed compositions, gorgeous with all splendour of subject-matter and accessory, and with the classical learning and enthusiasm of one of the master-spirits of the age, have always been accounted of the first rank among Mantegna's works.
It is probable that notes or selections were from time to time written down to help in teaching and learning the immense mass of material, in spite of the fact that even in Sherira's time (11th century) such aids to memory were not officially recognized.
All these writers, however, are entirely eclipsed by the commanding personality of the most famous of the Geonim, Seadiah ben Joseph (q.v.) of Sura, often called al-Fayyumi (of the Fayum in Egypt), one of the greatest representatives of Jewish learning of all times, who died in 942.
1038), a man of wide learning, wrote 1 For the history of the very extensive literature of this class, Zunz, Literaturgeschichte der synagogalen Poesie (Berlin, 1865), is indispensable.
From the 12th century onward the sect gradually declined, being ultimately restricted mainly to the Crimea and Lithuania, learning disappeared and their literature became merely popular and of little interest.
As vizier to the Moorish king at Granada, he was not only a patron of learning, but himself a man of wide knowledge and a considerable author.
Unlike his contemporaries in Spain, he seems to have confined himself wholly to Jewish learning, and to have known nothing of Arabic or other languages except his native French.
After completing these reductions, Airy made inquiries, before engaging in any theoretical investigation in connexion with them, whether any other mathematician was pursuing the subject, and learning that Hansen had taken it in hand under the patronage of the king of Denmark, but that, owing to the death of the king and the consequent lack of funds, there was danger of his being compelled to abandon it, he applied to the admiralty on Hansen's behalf for the necessary sum.
He everywhere shows himself a man of the most varied learning.
The contemporaries of Boetius regarded him as a man of profound learning.
Ideas as well as learning are largely Montaigne's.
(Whether one calls the unknowable a revealed mystery or an unexplained and inexplicable fact makes little difference.) William Paley (1743-1805) borrows from many writers; he borrows Lardner's learning and Butler's " particular evidence for Christianity," viz.
p p These had been detected and pointed out by learned ecclesiastics of Kiev, where some of the ancient learning of Byzantium had been preserved, and Nikon determined to make the necessary corrections.
GUARINO [GUARINUS] DA VERONA (1370-1460), one of the Italian restorers of classical learning, was born in 1370 at Verona, and studied Greek at Constantinople, where for five years he was the pupil of Manuel Chrysoloras.
Such statistics are studied mainly with the object of learning the lessons which they may afford as to preventive measures for the future; and from this point of view the most important element is the single item of passengers killed in train accidents (a 1).
The characteristic of the 18th and 19th centuries is the endeavour, connected with the name of Moses Mendelssohn, to bring Judaism more into relation with external learning, and in using the Hebrew language to purify tend- and develop it in accordance with the biblical standard.
Granvella was a man of great learning, which was equalled by his industry, and these qualities made him almost indispensable both to Charles V.
" Unprovided with original learning, unformed in the habits of thinking, unskilled in the arts of composition, I resolved to write a book "; but the discovery of his own weakness, he adds, was the first symptom of taste.
This theory Gibbon completely exploded in his Critical Observations (1770) - no very difficult task, indeed, but achieved in a style, and with a profusion of learning, which called forth the warmest commendations both at home and abroad.
Their crude productions, for the most part, were conspicuous rather for insolence and abusiveness than for logic or learning.
The most foolish and discreditable was certainly that of Davies; his unworthy attempt to depreciate the great historian's learning, and his captious, cavilling, acrimonious charges of petty inaccuracies and discreditable falsification gave the object of his attack an easy triumph.
He had previously written his commentaries on the epistles to the Galatians (1865), Philippians (1868) and Colossians (1875), the notes to which were distinguished by sound judgment and enriched from his large store of patristic and classical learning.
On the other hand, he was famed for his engaging manners, eloquence and theological learning.
He then moved to London, married a lady of wealth, and devoted himself to learning and philosophy.
those on the Germanic mark and on the allodium and beneficium) were models of learning and sagacity, all were dominated by his general idea and characterized by a total disregard for the results of such historical disciplines as diplomatic. From this crucible issued an entirely new work, less well arranged than the original, but richer in facts and critical comments.
But, in France at least, these critics were the first to render justice to his learning, his talents and his disinterestedness.
Rhetorical accomplishments were considered to be the chief object of a liberal education, and to this end every kind of learning was made subservient.
On learning of this, the Jews repaired to Caesarea and besought Pilate to remove these offensive images.
Before this date the Jews had been learning the rOle they afterwards filled, that of the chief promoters of international commerce.
Soon after Gershom's death, Rashi (1040-1106) founded at Troyes a new school of learning.
These men often rendered great services to their fellow-Jews, and one of the results was the growth in Jewish society of an aristocracy of wealth, where previously there had been an aristocracy of learning.
Many Jews have been members of the Reichsrath, some have risen to the rank of general in the army, and Austrian Jews have contributed their quota to learning, the arts and literature.
He was accurate in learning, and effective in delivery, and his character stood deservedly high in general estimation.
1241), on learning that Oedipus was her son she immediately hanged herself; but in Euripides (Phoenissae, 1 455) she stabs herself over the bodies of her sons Eteocles and Polynices, who had slain each other in single combat before the walls of Thebes.
He was a man of learning, writing in favour of Henry's divorce, and with Cuthbert Tunstall, bishop of Durham, a treatise against Cardinal Pole.
(medresseh), the place being as much celebrated for learning as for commerce.
senses of "clerkship" and "learning" have long since fallen obsolete.
An outbreak of war, meanwhile, diverted the king's attention from learning, and in 1471 Regiomontanus settled at Nuremberg.
But, though his De la monarchie prussienne sous Frederic le Grand (London, 1788) gave him a general reputation for historical learning, he had in the same year lost a chance of political employment.
This combination of the contemplative life and the life of learning had already developed in the Egyptian monasteries.
He was elected a Perse scholar in 1628, and fellow of his college in 1633, but the best evidence of his diligence as a student is the enormous learning of which he showed so easy a command in after years.
His immense learning served him rather as a storehouse of illustrations, or as an armoury out of which he could choose the fittest weapon for discomfiting on opponent, than as a quarry furnishing him with material for building up a completely designed and enduring edifice of systematized truth.
His special work was the exposition of the Old and New Testaments in the light of his great Oriental learning and according to his characteristic principle of "natural explanation."
But if the economist, while studying one side of man's activities, must also cultivate all other branches of human learning, it is obvious that no substantial progress can be made.
Mahmud ibn Sabuktagin, the second of the dynasty (998-1030), continued to make himself still more independent of the caliphate than his predecessors, and, though a warrior and a fanatical Moslem, extended a generous patronage to Persian literature and learning, and even developed it at the expense of the Arabic institutions.
With the assistance of neighbouring princes and of many of the influential Dihkans, Mahmud collected a vast amount of materials for the work, and after having searched in vain for a man of sufficient learning and ability to edit them faithfully, and having entrusted various episodes for versification to the numerous poets whom he had gathered round him, he at length made choice of Firdousi.
Firdousi directed his steps to Mazandaran, and took refuge with Kabus, prince of Jorjan, who at first received him with great favour, and promised him his continued protection and patronage; learning, however, the circumstances under which he had left Ghazni, he feared the resentment of so powerful a sovereign as Mahmud, who he knew already coveted his kingdom, and dismissed the poet with a magnificent present.
With grammatical precision, antiquarian learning and critical discernment Origen combines the allegorical method of interpretation - the logical corollary of his conception of the inspiration of the Scriptures.
In this school, in which Robespierre was also a bursar and a distinguished student, Camille Desmoulins laid the solid foundation of his learning.
GEMISTUS PLETHO [or [[Plethon], Georgius]] (c. 1355-1450), Greek Platonic philosopher and scholar, one of the chief pioneers of the revival of learning in Western Europe, was a Byzantine by birth who settled at Mistra in the Peloponnese, the site of ancient Sparta.
His writings, which include some Latin poems, prove him a man of learning, and he appears to have been acquainted not only with the Latin classics, but also with Greek, and even Hebrew.
The revival of learning was at hand, and William Turner, a Northumbrian, while residing abroad to avoid persecution at home, printed at Cologne in 1544 the first commentary on the birds mentioned by Aristotle and Pliny conceived in anything like the spirit that moves modern naturalists.'
This anonymous writer,' he says, acquired his learning by teaching others, and adopted a dogmatic tone, which has caused him to be received at Paris with applause as the equal of Aristotle, Avicenna, or Averroes.
The work, which is thus a pragmatical chronicle of the calamities that have happened to mankind from the fall down to the Gothic period, has little accuracy or learning, and even less of literary charm to commend it; but it was the first attempt to write the history of the world as a history of God guiding humanity.
Cathbu (Cathbad), the Druid connected with Conchobar, king of Ulster, in the older cycle is accompanied by a number of youths (Ioo according to the oldest version) who are desirous of learning his art, though what this consisted in we are not told.
Resolute in recognizing erudition as the chief concern of man, he sighed over the folly of popes and princes, who spent their time in wars and ecclesiastical disputes when they might have been more profitably employed in reviving the lost learning of antiquity.
He does not consider the possibility of deriving enjoyment from wealth by helping the poor or encouraging learning (this latter, indeed, he looks on as vanity), and in general he recognizes no obligation on the part of a man to his fellows.
He studied the various branches of Arabic learning with great success.
The goddess Irnina (a form of Ishtar, q.v.) in revenge kills Eabani, and the balance of the epic is taken up with Gilgamesh's lament for his friend, his wanderings in quest of a remote ancestor, Ut-Napishtim, from whom he hopes to learn how he may escape the fate of Eabani, and his finally learning from his friend of the sad fate in store for all mortals except the favourites of the god, like Ut-Napishtim, to whom immortal life is vouchsafed as a special boon.
When very young she became famous for her beauty, her learning, and the looseness of her conduct.
Athens has thus become a centre of learning, a meeting-place for scholars and a basis for research in every part of the Greek world.
Owing to the numbers and activity of its institutions, both native and foreign, for the prosecution of research and the encouragement of classical studies, Athens has become Scientific once more an international seat of learning.
Learning by his own experience and errors, he wisely developed a sovereign prudence which nicely adjusted means to the end in view.
While he did not reject any approved learning, he abhorred any intellectual culture that destroyed or lessened piety.
The revival of learning had led many away from Christ; intellectual culture must be used as a means of bringing them back.
The new learning in religion had divided Christendom; the old learning of the faith, once delivered to the saints, was to reconcile them.
When very young he showed his interest in the past history of his native land, and in 1617, at the age of twenty-three, he had set to work looking through archives, copying charters, and corresponding with the principal men of learning of his time, the brothers Dupuy, Andre Duchesne and Jean Besly, whom he visited in Poitou.
Her son, Mahommed, commonly called Baha-uddin Walad, was famous for his learning and piety, but being afraid of the sultan's jealousy, he emigrated to Asia Minor in 1212.
He took orders; and his reputation for learning and piety attracted the notice of Margaret Beaufort, mother of Henry VII., who made him her confessor and chaplain.
His reputation for learning was very high, and in 1302 he was summoned to Rome by Boniface VIII., to assist in the controversy then being carried on with Philip of France.
Gilgamesh is artificially brought into contact with Ut-Napishtim, to whom he pays a visit for the purpose of learning the secret of immortal life and perpetual youth which he enjoys.
In the 10th tablet the goddess Sabitu, who, as guardian of the sea, first bolts her gate against Gilgamesh, after learning of his quest, helps him to pass in a ship across the sea.
He was also a man of learning and culture, and widely esteemed for his honourable, kindly and straightforward character.
Bagdad early became a famous seat of learning.
Several isolated efforts were made earlier than this; it is evident that there was a school at Lothersdale near Skipton in 1800 " for the preservation of the youth of both sexes, and for their instruction in useful learning"; and another at Nottingham.
Meanwhile, and throughout his long episcopate of thirty-two years, he foreshadowed the zeal and the enlightened policy later to be displayed in the prolonged period of his pontificate, building and restoring many churches, striving to elevate the intellectual as well as the spiritual tone of his clergy, and showing in his pastoral letters an unusual regard for learning and for social reform.
Even as its main historical importance had formerly sprung from pagan learning, so now it acquired fresh importance as a centre of Christian theology and church government.
As a little boy he would take his place among the pupils of the monastic school, though he would soon pass to the ranks of the teachers, and the fact that he was ordained deacon at nineteen, below the canonical age, shows that he was regarded as remarkable both for learning and goodness.
Indeed it may be said that his works, scientific, historical and theological, practically sum up all the learning of western Europe in his time, which he thus made available for his countrymen.
And not for them only; for in the school of York, founded by his pupil Archbishop Ecgberht, was trained Alcuin (Ealhwine) the initiator under Charles the Great of the Frankish schools, which did so much for learning on the continent.
It is a monument of learning and scholarship. The most recent edition is that with notes and introduction by the present writer, u.s. It includes also the History of the Abbots, and the Epistle to Egbert.
Vigour of reasoning and originality of view were not his characteristics as a writer; nor will the student who has raked these dust-heaps of miscellaneous learning and oldfashioned mysticism discover more than a few sentences of genuine enthusiasm and simple-hearted aspiration to repay his trouble and reward his patience.
This was republished in a Latin translation with considerable alterations and omissions by Paolo Aringhi in 1651; and a century after its first appearance the plates were reproduced by Giovanni Bottari in 1737, and illustrated with great care and learning.
Though he failed to rise to real distinction he earned a place by his criticism of the Talmud among those who prepared the way for the new learning in Judaism.
There was a tradition of learning (Job viii.
A university, founded in 1825, three colleges, one of them dating from colonial times, a medical school, and a public library, founded in 1821, are distinguishing features of the city, which has always taken high rank in Peru for its learning and liberalism, as well as for its political restlessness.
Lassalle's Die Philosophie Herakleitos des Dunklen von Ephesos (Berlin, 1858), and the System der erworbenen Rechte (Leipzig, 1861) are both marked by great learning and intellectual power.
paOiµarLK1), sc. TEXvn or E7rio'7-)µ17; from AecO a, "learning" or "science"), the general term for the various applications of mathematical thought, the traditional field of which is number and quantity.
But long before this he had become apprenticed to the learning of nature in preference to that of man: when only twelve years of age he had made collections for Agassiz, who had then just arrived in America, and already the meadows and the hedges and the stream-sides had become cabinets of rare knowledge to him.
St Augustine had earlier introduced the custom into the English Church, learning it on his way through Gaul.
The institution of the Janissaries holds a prominent place among the most remarkable events of Orkhan's reign, which was notable for the encouragement of learning and the foundation of schools, the building of roads and other works of public utility.
He is said to have been of a merry and even jocular disposition, to have afforded a generous patronage to learning, and, strange to say for a sultan, to have been master of six languages.
Learning, however, that these were still beyond striking radius, he determined to deal with Mack's army first, having formed the fixed conviction that a threat at the latter's communications would compel him to endeavour to retreat southwards towards Tirol.
Soult and Murat attacked his rearguard on the 3rd, and learning from his Cossacks that the French corps were being directed so as to swing round and enclose him, he withdrew by a night march and ultimately succeeded in getting his whole army, with the exception of von Lestocq's Prussians, together in the strong position along the Alle, the centre of which is marked by Preussisch-Eylau.
Bennigsen, however, learning that his right was threatened by the III.
Learning of his approach, Napoleon again withdrew to Bautzen.
206), while blaming the diffuseness of these commentaries, praises the writer's learning and style, which, however, he considers too ornate for the purpose.
He went to school, mainly in Edinburgh, from 1858 to 1867, but his ill-health prevented his learning much, and his teachers, as his mother afterwards said, "liked talking to him better than teaching him."
The new archbishop, without being one of the English divines who have made notable contributions to theological learning, already had a great reputation for ecclesiastical statesmanship; and in subsequent years his diplomatic abilities found ample scope in dealing not only with the difficulties caused in the church by doctrinal questions, but pre-eminently with the education crisis, and with the new problems arising in the enlarged Anglican Communion.
Commercially it was of considerable importance, but it was not distinguished in art or learning.
About the age of twenty the desire of increasing his stock of knowledge (c. 679) drew him to Ireland, which had so long been the headquarters of learning in western Europe.
He was associated with the promoters of the New Learning within Judaism, and wrote on the history of the Kabbala.
He published some 200 sermons, in most of which are displayed unobtrusive learning, fresh application of old sayings, and a high conception of Judaism and its claims. Jellinek was a powerful apologist and an accomplished homilist, at once profound and ingenious.
During their dominion Merv, like Samarkand and Bokhara, was one of the great schools of learning, and the celebrated historian Yaqut studied in its libraries.
Eclecticism gained great popularity, and, partly owing to Cousin's position as minister of public instruction, became the authorized system in the chief seats of learning in France, where it has given a most remarkable impulse to the study of the history of philosophy.
His intellect was active in many directions; universal learning indeed was perhaps one of his foibles.
His oriental studies were reshaped by diligent perusal of the works of Schultens; for the Halle school, with all its learning, had no conception of the principles on which a fruitful connexion between Biblical and Oriental learning could be established.
His Litterarischer Briefwechsel (1794-1796) contains much that is interesting for the history of learning in his time.
The second article says that the Tribonian to whom it refers was of Side (in Pamphylia), was also Core) Suo ybpwv Twv uirap X wv, was a man of learning and wrote various books, among which are mentioned certain astronomical treatises, a dialogue On Happiness, and two addresses to Justinian.
Meanwhile the progress of letters, science and learning manifested the recovery of the city.
Intended to evolve a history of jurisprudence from the truthful portraits of England's greatest lawyers, it merely exhibits the ill-digested results of desultory learning, without a trace of scientific symmetry or literary taste, without a spark of that divine imaginative sympathy which alone can give flesh and spirit to the dead bones of the past, and without which the present 1 See thereon J.
Herculano had greater book learning than Scott, but lacked descriptive talent and skill in dialogue.
He made himself master of practically every branch of medieval learning, and had a thorough knowledge of the sources and the bibliography of his subject.
His learning was not drawn from books only; he was also an archaeologist, and frequently went on expeditions in France, always on foot, in the course of which he examined the monuments of architecture and sculpture, as well as the libraries, and collected a number of notes and sketches.
He endeavoured to attract to his court the best scholars of Britain and Ireland, and by imperial decree (787) commanded the establishment of schools in connexion with every abbey in his realms. Peter of Pisa and Alcuin of York were his advisers, and under their care the opposition long supposed to exist between godliness and secular learning speedily disappeared.
learning and faith and, as it were, reconquered Aristotle for the church.
Palacky's father was a schoolmaster and a man of some learning.
Learning, indeed, was often ridiculed as pedantry in a gentleman of good family.
Some of the prelates - notably Janos Csezmeczey, better known as Janus Pannonius (4331 47 2) - had a European reputation for learning.
His learning, genial disposition, and conversational powers won him the favor of Henry III.
The literary world marvelled at the encyclopaedic learning displayed by the author, and supposed that the French Academy, or some other society of scholars, must have combined their powers in its production.
Under the rule of the Abbasids, Bagdad became the centre of scientific thought; physicians and astronomers from India and Syria flocked to their court; Greek and Indian manuscripts were translated (a work commenced by the Caliph Mamun (813-833) and ably continued by his successors); and in about a century the Arabs were placed in possession of the vast stores of Greek and Indian learning.
Turning to the Arabs in the West we find the same enlightened spirit; Cordova, the capital of the Moorish empire in Spain, was as much a centre of learning as Bagdad.
Owing to the connexion of medicine with these seats of learning, it was natural that the study of the structure and functions of the human body and of the animals nearest to man should take root there; the spirit of inquiry which now for the first time became general showed itself in the anatomical schools of the Italian universities of the 16th century, and spread fifty years later to Oxford.
For some years he lived in Jurjan, and then went to India, where he remained some years teaching Greek philosophy and learning Indian.
This theory, which he set forth with all his accustomed learning and force, is still accepted in many quarters, many other passages of the Old Testament being likewise assigned to the same date.
as regards his attitude to the Church of Rome and the learning of his age.
2Ethelma r and his father ZEthelweard were both enlightened patrons of learning, and became Ã†thic's faithful friends.
In the preface to the first volume he regrets that except for Alfred's translations Englishmen had no means of learning the true doctrine as expounded by the Latin fathers.
The appearance of this book, which traces the development of the English constitution from the Teutonic invasions of Britain till 1485, marks a distinct step in the advance of English historical learning.
The learning and insight which this book displays are unquestionable: it is well planned, and its contents are well arranged; but constitutional history is not a lively subject, and, in spite of the skill with which Stubbs handled it and the genius displayed in his narrative 04 chapters, the book does not afford an adequate idea of his place as a writer of history.
Stubbs was a High Churchman whose doctrines and practice were grounded on learning and a veneration for antiquity.
Thirdly, when Xenophanes himself says that theories about gods and about things are not knowledge, that his own utterances are not verities but verisimilitudes, and that, so far from learning things by revelation, man must laboriously seek a better opinion, he plainly renounces the "disinterested pursuit of truth."
Annamese learning goes no farther.
He did something for the furtherance of learning by establishing schools in every town and by giving privileges to serfs who adopted a scholastic life.
In the description of surgical operations the vagueness of the language seems sometimes to show that the author had not performed such himself; but in other parts, and especially in his historical introduction, he speaks with more confidence; and everywhere he compares and criticizes with learning and judgment.
These poor compilations, together with Latin translations of certain works of Galen and Hippocrates, formed a medical literature, meagre and unprogressive indeed, but of which a great part survived through the middle ages till the discovery of printing and revival of learning.
It is important to remember that this obscure stream of tradition flowed on, only partially affected by the influx of Arabian, or even the early revival of purer classical learning.
The Islamite rulers in Spain were not long behind those of the East in encouraging learning and medical science, and developed culture to a still higher degree of perfection.
A continuous thread of learning and practice must have connected the last period of Roman medicine already mentioned with the dawn of science in the middle ages.
The chief homes of medical as of other learning in these disturbed times were the monasteries.
It is known that Salerno, a Roman colony, in a situation noted in ancient times for its salubrity, was in the 6th century at least the seat of a bishopric, and at the end of the 7th century of a Benedictine monastery, and that some of the prelates and higher clergy were distinguished for learning, and even for medical acquirements.
Although it cannot be said that the science of medicine was advanced at Salerno, still its decline was arrested at a time when every other branch of learning was rapidly falling into decay; and there can be no doubt that the observation of patients in hospitals, and probably clinical instruction, were made use of in learning and teaching.
For some time the Salernitan medicine held its ground, and it was not till the conquest of Toledo by Alphonso of Castile that any large number of Western scholars came in contact with the learning of the Spanish Moors, and systematic efforts were made to translate their philosophical and medical works.
At the same time, through the rise of the universities, medical learning was much more widely diffused, and the first definite forward movement was seen in the school of Montpellier, where a medical faculty existed early in the 12th century, afterwards united with faculties of law and philosophy.
The supremacy of Arabian medicine lasted till the revival of learning, when the study of the medical classics in their original language worked another revolution.
Himself well trained in the learning and medical science of the day, he despised and trampled upon all traditional and authoritative teachings.
Others, of more learning and better repute, were distinguished from the regular physicians chiefly by their use of chemical remedies.
Van Helmont (1578-1644) was a man of noble family in Brussels, who, after mastering all other branches of learning as then understood, devoted himself with enthusiasm to medicine and chemistry.
Mead, a man of great learning and intellectual activity, was an ardent advocate of the mathematical doctrines.
"It is very evident," he says, "that all other means of improving medicine have been found ineffectual, by the stand it was at for two thousand years, and that, since mathematicians have sot themselves to the study of it, men already begin to talk so intelligibly and comprehensibly, even about abstruse matters, that it is to be hoped that mathematical learning will be the distinguishing mark of a physician and a quack."
But his two chief works, posthumously published, are his Cyprian (London, 1897), a work of great learning, which had occupied him at intervals since early manhood; and The Apocalypse, an Introductory Study (London, 1900), interesting and beautiful, but limited by the fact that the method of study is that of a Greek play, not of a Hebrew apocalypse.
Here Jacques Davy received his education, being taught Latin and mathematics by his father, and learning Greek and Hebrew and the philosophy then in vogue.
to science, in which Lutheranism is expounded "nervose, solide, et copiose," in fact with a fulness of learning, a force of logic and .a minuteness of detail that had never before been approached.
What it lost in trade it partially recovered as a seat of learning, for in 1423, Duke John IV.
The original Studio Fiorentino was founded in the 14th century, and acquired considerable fame as a centre of learning under the Medici, enhanced by the presence in Florence of many learned Greeks who had fled from Constantinople after its capture by the Turks (1453).
In 1859 after the annexation of Tuscany to the Italian kingdom it was revived and reorganized; since then it has become to some extent a national centre of learning and culture, attracting students from other parts of Italy, partly on account of the fact that it is in Florence that the purest Italian is spoken.
It has long ranked as one of the great centres of Chinese commerce and Chinese learning.
These articles attracted much attention, and were distinguished by those qualities of solid learning, thorough investigation and candour of judgment which characterized all his writings.
From these we judge that he had great narrative power, with much clear and exact learning, and must be placed high as a critical historian.
It is only of late years, under the influence of the different missions, that education, ruined by centuries of persecution, has revived amongst the Nestorians; and even now the mountaineers, cut off from the outer world, are as a rule destitute of learning, and greatly resemble their neighbours, the wild and uncivilized Kurds.
If it is obviously the outcome of immense learning on the part of its author, it is no less manifestly the result of the speculations and researches of many laborious predecessors in all departments of history, theology and philosophy.
But his work remains a storehouse of learning and is increasingly.
Innocent was also a notable patron of learning; he encouraged Alexander of Hales to write his Summa universae theologiae, did much for the universities, notably the Sorbonne, and founded law schools at Rome and Piacenza.
In 1431 he was deputed by John II., king of Castile, to attend the council of Basel, in which he made himself conspicuous by his learning.
the Polyglot Bible is a great monument of industry and of capacity for directing a vast undertaking, and the Prolegomena (separately reprinted by Dathe, 1777, and by Francis Wranghan, 1825) show judgment as well as learning.
His superiority over all his Muscovite contemporaries was due to the fact that he was already a statesman, in the modern sense, while they were still learning the elements of statesmanship. His death was an irreparable loss to the tsar, who wrote upon the despatch announcing it, the words "Peter filled with grief."
The primary schools are divided into two grades: a free elementary course of two years, and a higher course of three years, in a school called the " scholastic centre," in which learning a trade is included.
Its purpose is to foster learning and literary effort, and it is a popular and prominent feature in the intellectual life of the country.
He was the author of a Greek translation of a Latin grammar, intended to assist the Greekspeaking inhabitants of the empire in learning Latin.
The place of Padua in the history of art is nearly as important as its place in the history of learning.
Girolamo was a precocious child, with an early passion for learning.
Soon, at a Dominican council at Reggio, Savonarola had occasion to display his theological learning and subtlety.
His efforts were successful; religion and learning made equal progress; St Mark's became the most popular monastery in Florence, and many citizens of noble birth flocked thither to take the vows.
There is no proof that any book or painting of real merit was sacrificed, and Savonarola was neither foe to art nor to learning.
Fuhr (1841), a work of great learning; see also a dissertation by F.
On the 30th the Americans, learning of the approach of Lord Howe's fleet with 5000 troops under Clinton, decided to abandon the island.
Although himself a stranger to letters he welcomed scholars to his court and eagerly seconded the efforts of his brother Bruno to encourage learning; and while he neither feared nor shirked battle, he was always ready to secure his ends by peaceable means.
Quitting Oxford in the spring of 1832, Gladstone spent six months in Italy, learning the language and studying art.
His learning was greater than his originality, and he was one of the least heterodox of the Italian divines who rejected Roman Catholicism.
Edmund Naumann was the discoverer of these facts, and his attention was first drawn to them by learning that an edible sea-weed, which flourishes only in salt water, is called Asakusanon, from the place (Asakusa) of its original provenance, which now lies some 3 m.
The Japanese then recognized a lofty civilization and placed themselves as pupils at its feet, learning its script and deciphering its hooks.
Every branch of learning can thus be equipped with a vocabulary.
English at once became the language of learning.
There had not yet been any real escape from the tradition which assigned the crown of scholarship to whatever author drew most largely upon the resources of the Chinese language and learning.
The new learning was not destined to make its way without opposition.
30), but, urged by Origen, and at last almost compelled by Phaedimus of Amasia, his metropolitan, neither of whom was willing to see so much learning, piety and masculine energy practically lost to the church, he, after many attempts to evade the dignity, was consecrated bishop of his native town (about 240).
From that time he gave up all worldly learning and laboured solely to expound spiritual things.
The most prominent members of the family were Mircea (1386-1418), who accepted Turkish suzerainty; Neagoe, the founder of the famous cathedral at Curtea de Argesh; Michael, surnamed the Brave (1592-1601); and Petru Cercel, famous for his profound learning, who spoke twelve languages and carried on friendly correspondence with the greater scholars and poets of Italy.
Montaigne said of him,"I give the palm to Jacques Amyot over all our French writers, not only for the simplicity and purity of his language in which he surpasses all others, nor for his constancy to so long an undertaking, nor for his profound learning.
Of the History of Learning (1691)-another with the same title came out in 1694-only a few numbers appeared, as the conductor, De la Crose, started the monthly Works of the Learned (Aug.
counsellor of the parliament of Paris and a man of rare merit and learning, to actually carry the project into effect.
After editing about thirty volumes Mencke died, leaving the publication to his son, and the Acta remained in the possession of the family down to 1745, when they extended to 117 volumes, which form an extremely valuable history of the learning of the period.
Nearly all departments of learning possessed their several special periodical organs about the close of the 17th or the beginning of the 18th century.
Its learning and impartiality gave it much authority.
When quite a boy he checked his own tendency to fits of passion on learning that his father trusted him to cure his defects.
Holstenius was a man of unwearied industry and immense learning, but he lacked the persistency to carry out the vast literary schemes he had planned.
The imperial university of Tokyo, which consists of the colleges of law, medicine, literature, science, engineering and agriculture, is the principal institution of learning in the empire.
He bought and resided at the estate of La Source near Orleans, studied philosophy, criticized the chronology of the Bible, and was visited amongst others by Voltaire, who expressed unbounded admiration for his learning and politeness.
While more richly endowed with sensibility to all native influences, he was more deeply imbued than any of his contemporaries with the poetry, the thought and the learning of Greece.
The reign of Claudius was a time in which antiquarian learning, grammatical studies, and jurisprudence were cultivated, but no important additions were made to literature.
A more commanding figure is that of Aurelius Augustinus or St Augustine (354-430), bishop of Hippo, who for comprehensiveness and dialectical power stands out in the same way as Hieronymus or St Jerome (c.33 I or 340-420), a native of Stridon in Dalmatia, does for manysided learning and scholarship.
On the 1st of January 1860 the "State Seminary of Learning and Military Academy" was opened, and here Sherman remained until the spring of 1861, when it was evident that Louisiana would join the states seceding from the Union.
He was patronized by Robert, earl of Gloucester, and by two bishops of Lincoln; he obtained, about 1140, the archdeaconry of Llandaff "on account of his learning"; and in 1151 was promoted to the see of St Asaph.
Some of the old cults passed away altogether, others survived in name and form, but were so wholly devoid of inner meaning that even the learning of a Varro could not tell their intention or the character of the deity with whom they were concerned.
Then, in addition to this, Christians were already found in all ranks and occupations - in the Imperial palace, among the officials, in the abodes of labour and the halls of learning, amongst slaves and freemen.
Soon afterwards he returned to England to recruit his shattered health, but on learning that Pitt desired him to continue in America he at once offered to return.
In judicial impartiality Parkman may be compared with Gardiner, and for accuracy of learning with Stubbs.
During the rule of the Paramara dynasty Dhar was famous throughout India as a centre of culture and learning; but, after suffering various vicissitudes, it was finally conquered by the Mussulmans at the beginning of the 14th century.
They exhibit a traditional character, a compromise between the old and the new learning.
The parents and guardians were called upon to select whether each child should learn English or Italian next after learning reading, writing and arithmetic in Maltese.
8vo, a colossal monument of the learning and labours of various members of the Benedictine Congregation of Saint-Maur.
In the first chapter of the Literature, which is to a great extent supplementary to the last chapter of the Middle Ages, Hallam sketches the state of literature in Europe down to the end of the 14th century: the extinction of ancient learning which followed the fall of the Roman empire and the rise of Christianity; the preservation of the Latin language in the services of the church; and the slow revival of letters, which began to show itself soon after the 7th century - "the nadir of the human mind" - had been passed.
For the first century and a half of his special period he is mainly occupied with a review of classical learning, and he adopts the plan of taking short decennial periods and noticing the most remarkable works which they produced.
Not less worthy of notice in a literary history is the good sense by which both his learning and his tastes have been held in control.
A complete summary of the great developments of mathematical learning, which the members of this family effected, lies outside the scope of this notice.
The conclusion of the treaties of Westphalia prevented him from winning the military laurels he so ardently desired, but as the Swedish plenipotentiary at the executive congress of Nuremberg, he had unrivalled opportunities of learning diplomacy, in which science he speedily became a past-master.
In the revival of learning, scholarship supplanted scholasticism, and the old ways of medieval thinking were forgotten.
The rough surroundings of the Frankish court were unfavourable to the acquisition of learning, and Charles grew up almost ignorant of letters, but hardy in body and skilled in the use of weapons.
The most attractive feature of his character, however, was his love of learning.
Learning (1694), has given rise to a literature of its own; see, especially, Tollin's Die Entdeckung des Blutkreislaufs, &c. (1876); Huxley, in Fortnightly Rev. (February 1878); Tollin's Kritische Bemerkungen fiber Harvey and seine Vorganger (1882).
He was not a man of learning, nor had he many books; for his knowledge of early Christian writers he was partly indebted to the Chronica or compilations of Sebastian Franck.
He early distill': guished himself in the learning of traditions by heart, and when, in his sixteenth year, his family made the pilgrimage to Mecca, he gathered additions to his store from the authorities along the route.
Sententiarum has proved that he was a man of profound learning.
In 1873 President Grant nominated him for chief justice of the United States, but in spite of his great learning and eminence at the bar, his ante-war record and the feeling of distrust experienced by many members of the senate on account of his inconsistency, aroused such vigorous opposition that his nomination was soon withdrawn.
He was a man of strong will, of great aptitude for controversy, and considerable learning, and thus exercised a decided influence on, the Reformation.
A man of deep learning and originality, proud and a victim to the odium theologicum, lie could brook no rivalry.
Recognizing the value of an intellectual centre, he made Reykjavik not only the political, but the spiritual capital of Iceland by removing all the chief institutions of learning to that city; he was the soul of many literary and political societies, and the chief editor of the Ny Felagsrit, which has done more than any other Icelandic periodical to promote the cause of civilization and progress in Iceland.
The subjects of the historical epics were generally some of the well-known myths, in the exposition of which the writer could exhibit the full extent of his learning and his perfect command of verse.
are many reasons for believing that the older estimate of the influence of the so-called Renaissance, or " new learning," in promoting the Protestant revolt was an exaggerated one.
Much truer than the common estimate of the character of the Anabaptists is that given in Sebastian Franck's Chronicle: " They taught nothing but love, faith and the crucifixion of the flesh, manifesting patience and humility under many sufferings, breaking bread with one another in sign of unity and love, helping one another with true helpfulness, lending, borrowing, giving, learning to have all things in common, calling each other ` brother.'
It is pretty clear that the common accounts of the Renaissance and of the revival of learning grossly exaggerate the influence of the writers of Greece and Rome, for they produced no obvious rationalistic movement, as would have been the case had Plato and Cicero, Lucretius and Lucian, been taken really seriously.
The university (Collegium Albertinum) was founded in 1544 by Albert duke of Prussia, as a "purely Lutheran" place of learning.
Bokhara has for ages been a centre of learning and religious life.
Of works undertaken by his instructions the most important were the Encyclopaedic Excerpts from all available treatises on various branches of learning.
His learning made him the equal and the friend of Grotius, and of the foremost contemporary scholars.
About 1450, at the time of the revival of learning, a Latin version was made and published by Laurentius Valla.
He was a precocious boy, learning Latin at three, reading Greek at four, and writing sermons at seven.
Reaping the benefits of the revival of learning brought about by Charlemagne, he was on intimate terms with Alcuin, was well versed in Latin literature, and knew some Greek.
Even before that, however, owing partly to the impulse given by the university of London after 1836, the standard of learning in some of the colleges had been rising; and the last generation has seen marked advance in this respect.
In January 1784 Governor George Clinton recommended legislation for the " revival and encouragement of seminaries of learning," with the result that the legislature passed an act establishing a state university of which Columbia College, formerly King's, was the " mother " portion.
Among the institutions of higher learning in the state, besides.
of Bavaria, a wise and generous patron of learning, hoped to establish a school of history.
He was a man of ability, enthusiasm and learning, a considerable Oriental scholar, and also a keen controversialist.
This was the work of the remainder of Trench's life; it exposed him at times to considerable misconstruction and obloquy, but he came to be appreciated, and, when in November 1884 he resigned his archbishopric from infirmity, clergy and laity unanimously recorded their sense of his "wisdom, learning, diligence, and munificence."
MARIA CUNITZ (c. 1610-1664), Silesian astronomer, was the eldest daughter of Dr Heinrich Cunitz of Schweinitz, and the wife (1630) of Dr Elias von ',Oven, of Pitschen in Silesia - both of them men of learning and distinction.
Any pagan who wished to understand and criticize Christianity intimately had to begin by learning from the Jews, and this accounts for the opening chapters of his argument.
In his Life on the Mississippi he has recorded graphically his experiences while "learning the river."
The public school system is administered by a state superintendent of public instruction, a state board of education, regents or trustees of higher institutions of learning, a superintendent of the common schools and a board of education in each county, and a board of directors in each school district.
Whitman College (Congregational, 1866) at Walla Walla, Gonzaga College (Roman Catholic, 1887) at Spokane, Whitworth College (Presbyterian, 1890) at Tacoma and the University of Puget Sound (Methodist Episcopal, 1903) at Tacoma are institutions of higher learning maintained and controlled by their respective denominations.
On learning of the invasion President Boshof proclaimed martial law throughout the country.
Many of the burghers would have at this time welcomed union with the Transvaal, but learning from Sir George Grey that such a union would nullify the conventions of 1852 and 1854 and necessitate the reconsideration of Great Britain's policy towards the native tribes north of the Orange and Vaal rivers, the project dropped.
The abbey of Corvey, where rested the bones of St Vitus, the patron saint of Saxony, soon became a centre of learning for the country, and the Saxons undertook with the eagerness of converts the conversion of their heathen neighbours.
Towns were walled, where it was decreed markets and assemblies should be held, churches and monasteries were founded, civilization was extended and learning encouraged.
The Sla y s were driven back, the domestic policy of Henry the Fowler was continued, the Saxon court became a centre of learning visited by Italian scholars, and in 968 an archbishopric was founded at Magdeburg for the lands east of the Elbe.
The conditions were, however, not observed and Harun, learning that 'Abbasa had borne a son, caused Ja`far suddenly to be arrested and beheaded, and the rest of the family except Mahommed, Yahya's brother, to be imprisoned and deprived of their property.
In the 15th century it was the seat of a celebrated academy, founded by the humanist Rodolphus Agricola, which contributed not a little to the revival of learning in this part of Germany; Erasmus of Rotterdam was one of its students.
Kircher was a man of wide and varied learning, but singularly devoid of judgment and critical discernment.
It was said of him at the time that he gave up all his energies to love, friendship and learning.
of Jewish learning was supreme.
As a presbyter of the church at Rome under Bishop Zephyrinus (199-217), Hippolytus was distinguished for his learning and eloquence.
The work is throughout characterized by an abundant supply of learning and of information as to the history and the state of the Church of England at that time, and by great dialectical acuteness.
Nestorian philosophers and medical practitioners became the teachers of the great Arabian natural philosophers of the middle ages, and the latter obtained their knowledge of Greek learning from Syriac translations of the works of Greek thinkers.
Their object had been to purify the Church of medieval accretions, and to restore the primitive model in the light of the new learning; the idea of rival " churches," differing in their fundamental doctrines and in their principles of organization, existing side by side, was as abhorrent to them as to the most rigid partisan of Roman centralization.
By the king's desire he undertook the vindication of the practices of confirmation, absolution, private baptism and lay excommunication; he urged, but in vain, the reinforcement of an ancient canon, "that schismatics are not to be heard against bishops"; and in opposition to the Puritans' demand for certain alterations in doctrine and discipline, he besought the king that care might be taken for a praying clergy; and that, till men of learning and sufficiency could be found, godly homilies might be read and their number increased.
Maurice was a friend to learning, and devoted some of the secularized church property to the advancement of education.
During their term of service the men are given not only military training but also educational advantages, as well as the opportunity of learning some handicraft.
He established a library at Salzburg, furthered in other ways the interests of learning, and presided over several synods called to improve the condition of the church in Bavaria.
Aix, which during the middle ages was the capital of the county of Provence, did not reach its zenith until after the 12th century, when, under the houses of Aragon and Anjou, it became an artistic centre and seat of learning.
Proceeding to the earlier history of Poland, Lelewel's Poland in the Middle Ages (4 vols., Posen, 1846-1851) is still a standard work, though the greatest authority on Polish antiquities is now Tadeusz Wojciechowski, who unites astounding learning with a perfect style.
In 1582 was also published the Chronicle of Stryjkowski, full of curious learning, and still of great use to the student of history.
His great admiration for Erasmus first led him to Greek and biblical studies, and his election in May 1519 as rector of the university was regarded as a triumph for the partisans of the New Learning.
Arise, and begone !") The bodies are sent to Cornwall, and Mark, learning the truth, has a fair chapel erected and lays them in tombs, one at each side of the building, when a sapling springs from the heart of Tristan, and reaching its boughs across the chapel, makes its way into the grave of Iseult.
In the patronage of learning and in the exercise of authority over the morals and education of youth Laud was in his proper sphere, many valuable reforms at Oxford being due to his activity, including the codification of the statutes, the statute by which public examinations were rendered obligatory for university degrees, and the ordinance for the election of proctors, the revival of the college system, of moral and religious discipline and order, and of academic dress.
Although a type of the austere monk in his private life, he was a sincere friend of art and learning, and in 1431 re-established finally the university at Rome.
But the headquarters of the opposition was Germany, and its leader was Dollinger, whose high reputation and vast stores of learning placed him far above any other member of the band of the theological experts who now gathered around him.
There he remained for four years, learning something of the art of poetry from his patron; some of the poems he contributed later (1557) to Songes and Sonettes may well date from this early period.
The son, who was distinguished for his learning, personal beauty and engaging qualities, gained the favour of Alexius I.
Under the rule of Ptolemy Philadelphus (285-247 B.C.), learning found a home in the Alexandrian Museum and in the great Alexandrian Library.
Apart from his special interest in the history of the Old Attic comedy, he was a man of vast and varied learning; the founder of astronomical geography and of scientific chronology; and the first to assume the name of 4aX6Xo a yos.
He is the industrious compiler who gathered up the remnants of the learning of his predecessors and transmitted them to posterity.
Pergamum was a home of learning for a large part of the 150 years of the Attalid dynasty, 283-133 B.C.
The general state of learning in this century is illustrated by Ausonius (c. 310-393), the grammarian and rhetorician of Bordeaux, the author of the Mosella, and the probable inspirer of the memorable decree of Gratian (376), providing for the appointment and the payment of teachers of rhetoric and of Greek and Latin literature in the principal cities of Gaul.
An interest in Latin literature lived longest in Gaul, where schools of learning flourished as early as the 1st century at Autun, Lyons, Toulouse, Nimes, Vienne, Narbonne and Marseilles; and, from the 3rd century onwards, at Trier, Poitiers, Besancon and Bordeaux.
More than ten years before Cassiodorus founded his monasteries in the south of Italy, Benedict of Nursia (480-543) had rendered a more permanent service to the cause of scholarship by building, amid the ruins of the temple of Apollo on the crest of Monte Cassino, the earliest of those homes of learning that have lent an undying distinction to the Benedictine order.
Meanwhile, during the " dark age " of secular learning at Constantinople (641-850), the light of Greek learning had spread eastwards to Syria and Arabia.
In the 12th century Toledo was the centre of the study of Aristotle in the West, and it was from Toledo that the knowledge of Aristotle spread to Paris and to other seats of learning in western Europe.
The scholars of these times are the natural precursors of the earliest representatives of the Revival of Learning in the West.
While Latin was declining in Gaul, even Greek was not unknown in Ireland, and the Irish passion for travel led to the spread of Greek learning in the west of Europe.
636) produced in his Origines an encyclopaedic work which gathered up for the middle ages much of the learning of the ancient world.
709), "the first Englishman who cultivated classical learning with any success."
Nine years after the death of Bede (735), Boniface, "the apostle of Germany," sanctioned the founding of Fulda (744), which soon rivalled St Gallen as a school of learning.
Through the invitation of Charles the Great, he became associated with the revival of learning which marks the reign of that monarch, by presiding over the School of the Palace (782-790), and by exercising a healthy influence as abbot of St Martin's at Tours (796-804).
In the 10th century learning flourished at Aachen under Bruno, brother of Otto I.
In Italy, where the study of Latin literature seems never to have entirely died out, young nobles and students preparing for the priesthood were not infrequently learning Latin together, in private grammar schools under liberal clerics, such as Anselm of Bisate (fl.
Learning flourished at Monte Cassino under the rule of the Abbot Desiderius (afterwards Pope Victor III.).
This was partly due to the recovery of some of the lost works of ancient literature, and the transition from the middle ages to the revival of learning was attended by a general widening of the range of classical studies and by a renewed interest in Plato.
The classical learning of the middle ages was largely secondhand.
- (a) Our fourth period is ushered in by the age of the Revival of Learning in Italy (c. 1350-1527).
Eight years later, he was learning Greek from Chrysoloras.
He here urges that the foundation of all true learning is a " sound and thorough knowledge of Latin," and draws up a course of reading, in which history is represented by Livy, Sallust, Curtius, and Caesar; oratory by Cicero; and poetry by Virgil.
By the fall of Constantinople in 1 453, " Italy (in the eloquent phrase of Carducci) became sole heir and guardian of the ancient civilization," but its fall was in no way necessary for the revival of learning, which had begun a century before.
In producing Plato, Athenaeus and Aristophanes, the scholar-printer was largely aided by Musurus, who also edited the Aldine Pausanias (1516) and the Etymologicum printed in Venice by another Greek immigrant, Callierges (1499) The Revival of Learning in Italy ends with the sack of Rome (1527).
At Canterbury he inspired with his own love of learning his nephew, Linacre, who joined him on one of those visits, studied Greek at Florence under Politian and Chalcondyles, and apparently stayed in Italy from 1485 to 1499.
We must here be content with simply recording the names of a few of the more prominent representatives of the 19th century in some of the most obvious departments of classical learning.
Scholars have been enabled to realize in their own experience some of the enthusiasm that attended the recovery of lost classics during the Revival of Learning.
Symonds, Revival of Learning (1877, &c.); R.
Sandys, Harvard Lectures on the Revival of Learning (1905); also P. de Nolhac, Pe'trarque et l'humanisme (2nd ed., 1907).
and iii., From the Revival of Learning to the Present Day (1908), including the history of scholarship in all the countries of Europe and in the United States of America.
(B) THE Study Of The Classics In Secondary Education After the Revival of Learning the study of the classics owed much to the influence and example of Vittorino da Feltre, Budaeus, Erasmus and Melanchthon, who were among the leading representatives of that revival in Italy, France, England and Germany.
When Latin grammar has been mastered, he bids the teacher lead his pupil " into the sweet fountain and spring of all Arts and Science," that is, Greek learning which is " as profitable for the understanding as the Latin tongue for speaking."
Bacon in his Advancement of Learning (1605) notes it as " the first distemper of learning when men study words and not matter " (I.
3); he also observes that the Jesuits " have much quickened and strengthened the state of learning " matter, and with a view to their bearing on practical life.
The range of studies was widened, however, at Rugby in 1828-1842 by Thomas Arnold, whose interest in ancient history and geography, as a necessary part of classical learning, is attested by his edition of Thucydides; while his influence was still further extended when those who had been trained in his traditions became head masters of other schools.
The aim of that association is " to promote the development, and maintain the well-being, of classical studies, and in particular (a) to impress upon public opinion the claim of such studies to an eminent place in the national scheme of education; (b) to improve the practice of classical teaching by free discussion of its scope and methods; (c) to encourage investigation and call attention to new discoveries; (d) to create opportunities of friendly intercourse and co-operation between all lovers of classical learning in this country."
To meet that dissatisfaction, the teachers had accepted new subjects of study, had improved their methods, and had simplified the learning of the dead languages.
In 1863, under Napoleon III., Victor Duruy encouraged the study of history, and also did much for classical learning by founding the Ecole des Hautes Etudes.
In the second cycle (of three years) those who have been learning both Greek and Latin, and those who have been learning neither, continue on the same lines as before; while those who have been learning Latin only may either (1) discontinue it in favour of modern languages and science, or (2) continue it with either.
The history of education in Germany since 1500 falls into three periods: (a) the age of the Revival of Learning and the Reformation (1500-1650), (b) the age of French in- Germany.
Pirckheimer in 1528, exclaims: " Wherever the spirit of Luther prevails, learning goes to the ground."
Latin continued to be the living language of learning and of literature, and a correct and elegant Latin style was regarded as the mark of an educated person.
Siivern recognized four principal co-ordinated branches of learning: Latin, Greek, German, mathematics.
The leading principle in both is the postponement of the time for learning Latin.
The number learning Latin had increased from 100,144 in 1890 to 314,856 in 1899-1900, and those learning Greek from 12,869 to 24,869.
Thus the number learning Latin at the later date was three times, and the number learning Greek twice, as many as those learning Latin or Greek ten years previously.
But the total number in 1900 was 630,048; so that, notwithstanding this proof of progress, the number learning Greek in 1900 was only about one twenty-fifth of the total number, while the number learning Latin was as high as half.
Joachim, who was a patron of learning; established the university of Frankfort-on-the-Oder in 1506.
Still in the end it was due in large measure to the learning and argumentative power devoted to this subject by the French Protestant scholar, Louis Capell, and, amongst others, by the English Protestant scholar, Brian Walton, that by the end of the 77th century this particular controversy was practically at an end; criticism had triumphed, and the later origin of the vowels was admitted.
But the next distinct stage is reached when we come to De Wette, whose contributions to Biblical learning were many and varied, but who was pre-eminent in historical criticism.
By the force of his wide learning and even more of his personality, Ewald exercised for long an all-pervading and almost irresistible influence.
Pusey indeed studied under Eichhorn, and in his Historical Enquiry into the probable causes of the Rationalist Character lately predominant in German Theology (1828-1830) speaks sympathetically of the attitude of the Reformers on the question of Scripture and in condemnation of the later Protestant scholastic doctrine; but even in this book he shows no receptivity for any of the actual critical conclusions of Eichhorn and his successors, and subsequently threw the weight of his learning against critical conclusions - notably in his Commentary on Daniel (1864).
with " extreme self-suppression " and " willingness to concede to tradition all that could with any plausibility be conceded " (Cheyne, Origin of the Psalter, p. 15); more especially is his influence observable after 1890, when he published his Bampton Lectures, the Origin of the Psalter, a work of vast learning and keen penetration, without restraint on the freedom of his judgment - always stimulating to students and fellow-workers, though by no means always carrying large numbers with him.
Moreover, some of the " authorities " used by the Schoolmen had been discovered by the New Learning of the Renaissance to be no authorities at all, such as the writings falsely attributed to Dionysius the Areopagite.
It is a rhyming description of the province of Nordland, its natural features, its trades, its advantages and its drawbacks, given in dancing verse of the most breathless kind, and full of humour, fancy, wit and quaint learning.
It was called Sughd, and contained the two great cities of Samarkand and Bokhara, of which the former was generally the seat of government, while the latter had a high reputation as a seat of religion and learning.
Eberhard stated the arguments for the broader view with dignity, acuteness and learning, but the liberality of the reasoning gave great offence to the strictly orthodox divines, and is believed to have obstructed his preferment in the church.