It's the lessons we learned from the past.
I had no plans to share with Howie what I'd learned of his previous life.
Life sometimes got in the way of their goals, but they learned to be resilient.
I learned a song about spring.
You finally learned how to smile again.
I just learned this recently.
Some time later, the shepherd went to the city and told the king that the children had learned to speak one word, but how or from whom, he did not know.
I learned the hard way.
And the Woggle-Bug shall be the Public Accuser, because he is so learned that no one can deceive him.
He learned many languages and became known all over the world as "The Learned Blacksmith."
"It's blue," the woman whom I learned was called Nancy answered.
In those days, people had not learned to be kind to their enemies.
Taken altogether, it was a dreadfully long name to weigh down a poor innocent child, and one of the hardest lessons I ever learned was to remember my own name.
These children are learning it just as the first people who lived on the earth learned it in the beginning.
I've learned my lesson, though.
The lesson you have learned to-day is never to pay too dear for a whistle.
The next day, all the priests and learned men went out to beg for mercy.
They learned that Chilon was a very quiet man, that he never spoke about himself, and that he spent all his time in trying to make his country great and strong and happy.
He soon learned all that his teacher could teach; for he was bright and quick, and had a good memory.
There was enough material there to enable him to prepare several new tricks which he had learned from some of the jugglers in the circus, and he had passed part of the night in getting them ready.
I updated him on all we'd learned, with the only good news that baby Claire was alive and apparently well.
I had related to the detective what I'd learned from Willard Humphries, Grasso's cell mate, that he had a hide out somewhere away from Santa Barbara.
I stopped using it only after I had learned to spell the word on my fingers.
Though I've learned none of you will listen to that advice.
I have learned to know him, and he will not deceive me any more....
But after he had learned to read, she taught him to look in books for that which he wished to know.
He learned to endure hunger and cold.
Maybe they had inherited or learned it from their mother, not his father.
The natives are all Christians, and the majority have learned to read and write, and to speak a little English, under the tuition of the London Missionary Society.
It was in the spring of 1890 that I learned to speak.
I learned later the facility was the largest between Los Angeles and San Francisco and contained five hundred and ten beds and a fully equipped trauma center.
While imprisoned in the shed Pierre had learned not with his intellect but with his whole being, by life itself, that man is created for happiness, that happiness is within him, in the satisfaction of simple human needs, and that all unhappiness arises not from privation but from superfluity.
The tip covers only a few minutes, like she has to leave quickly, even though there must be more to be learned if she stayed.
He reminded her of Jonny when her brother had learned of his father's death last summer.
She'd learned self-defense by the age of eleven and how to shoot a gun when she was twelve.
In the early 1900s, we learned about blood types, vitamins, and Alzheimer's disease, and invented the electrocardiograph.
In the First World War, we learned to treat wounds by washing them with a germicide.
By the time you were fifteen, you learned everything you needed to know to be a good farmer.
Again, this is because without compelling, widely accepted facts, we use things we've learned from other parts of our lives to make our decisions.
I ceased making the sound "wah-wah" only when I learned to spell the word.
I learned a great many new words that day.
I related in detail what I'd learned on line.
I learned what I know of the world from reading in his library, and I learned to fight.
So these former farmers got jobs in factories, learned to repair equipment, solved problems, became line managers, suggested improvements to processes, and got paid for their effort.
Maybe I've learned to hide my anxiety better.
A young couple whose life dream was owning a Bird Song look-alike learned from Fred the principals would be absent for the day and offered to stick around playing temporary innkeepers.
While the warm sun drenched them and there wasn't a cloud in sight, they'd learned from recent experience that mountain weather could blow in misery at a moment's notice and replace the sunshine with drenching, chilling rain.
Walking back to Bird Song, Dean mulled over what he'd learned.
There followed a call from Groucho, whose name Dean learned was Coleridge, telling of a report that the Boyd pair was sighted in Kansas, stopped for a tail light violation on Sunday afternoon.
You don't suppose she's learned something about Martha and her mother, do you?
Grandfather Ed Plotke learned Josh worked for Paul Dawkins and he wrote to Paul in California.
Before leaving, Jennifer Radisson explained that Josh had learned of Edith's new address in California—perhaps through some common friend—and had written his teenage sweetheart.
You didn't wonder how past-Deidre learned of the loophole that let her become mortal?
You learned to use the portals.
She's learned to appreciate life and those around her, following a diagnosis of a terminal illness.
The more she learned of this place, the angrier she became.
At the head of the learned and scientific societies stands the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, founded in 1830; the Kisfaludy Society, the Petofi Society, and numerous societies of specialists, as the historical, geographical, &c., with their centre at Budapest.
His palace was the centre of all that was best in the literary and learned society of the capital.
Terentius Varro,the most learned not only of the Romans but of the Greeks, as he has been called.
The conditions which led to the second Athenian or Delian Confederacy were fundamentally different, not only in virtue of the fact that the allies had learned from experience the dangers to which such a league was liable, but because the enemy was no longer an oriental power of whose future action there could be no certain anticipation, but Sparta, whose ambitious projects since the fall of Athens had shown that there could be no safety for the smaller states save in combination.
The museum of the Accademia Etrusca, a learned body founded by Ridolfino Venuti in 1726, is situated in the Palazzo Pretorio; it contains some Etruscan objects, among which may be specially noted a magnificent bronze lamp with 16 lights, of remarkably fine workmanship, found in 1740, at the foot of the hill, two votive hands and a few other bronzes, and a little gold jewellery.
By that time, as we know from many sources, Aramaic was not only the language in common use, but had also received official recognition,' despite the fact that Hebrew still remained the learned and sacred tongue.
I had learned a new lesson--that nature "wages open war against her children, and under softest touch hides treacherous claws."
Miss Sullivan tried to teach me to count by stringing beads in groups, and by arranging kintergarten straws I learned to add and subtract.
Some of the girls learned to speak to me, so that Miss Sullivan did not have to repeat their conversation.
Helen is learning adjectives and adverbs as easily as she learned nouns.
One large bundle held their all--bed, coffee-mill, looking-glass, hens--all but the cat; she took to the woods and became a wild cat, and, as I learned afterward, trod in a trap set for woodchucks, and so became a dead cat at last.
We never learned meanness of them.
How strange, how extraordinary, how joyful it seemed, that her son, the scarcely perceptible motion of whose tiny limbs she had felt twenty years ago within her, that son about whom she used to have quarrels with the too indulgent count, that son who had first learned to say "pear" and then "granny," that this son should now be away in a foreign land amid strange surroundings, a manly warrior doing some kind of man's work of his own, without help or guidance.
The balloon was not yet ready, but Pierre learned that it was being constructed by the Emperor's desire.
Learned military authorities quite seriously tell us that Kutuzov should have moved his army to the Kaluga road long before reaching Fili, and that somebody actually submitted such a proposal to him.
Having learned that there were many charitable institutions in Moscow he mentally decided that he would shower favors on them all.
Princess Mary, having learned of her brother's wound only from the Gazette and having no definite news of him, prepared (so Nicholas heard, he had not seen her again himself) to set off in search of Prince Andrew.
Maybe she couldn't make the ugly beast go away completely, but she had learned to control it.
Then when she learned about Tessa's son, she was furious because he might inherit - even though I hadn't said anything to father.
Long ago she had learned to ignore the second glances, open stares, and sometimes even suggestive leers of men.
Maybe he figured she had learned her lesson.
When Sarah learned of her plan to go to the house and pick up some things, she insisted there was no reason to stay.
The more she learned about the way he thought, the more she was convinced that people around him were the strange ones, not Cade.
I was raised on a farm, and being an only child, I learned not to depend on others for entertainment.
Everything turned out fine and you learned a lesson.
Once she had been unaware of his love, but now she had learned to read the signs.
From what I've learned his entire brain structure is distorted.
Howie would toss in towel once he learned he'd been deceived by this woman, his first love.
By some means, however, he learned to read; and after that he loved nothing so much as a good book.
I learned a great many words that day.
I have learned that the swiftest traveller is he that goes afoot.
With her attention locked on Claire, I had time to fill in both women with what I'd learned.
Jule was right; she'd learned who he was in the alley, when she'd first touched his soul.
And I learned the hard way.
She had checked off three of the seven exercises she'd learned from the books she read.
She glanced toward the door, mind on what she'd learned earlier.
Shall we review what you've learned?
She took his hand and kissed his palm, then ran to her library, mind racing with what she'd learned about him.
If there's one thing I've learned about humans, it's that you can't control them.
As I learned, my deals hold the same power of enforcement as his.
The greatest lesson I've learned this life is survival.
It's strange, but I've learned from Darkyn not to be ashamed of my nature.
"Wow. Okay," she murmured, alarmed every time she learned more about why people feared Darkyn.
The Deans were devastated and knew when Fred O'Connor returned and learned the news, he too would be crushed that his young pal was leaving.
They say it's where he learned his baseball.
Cynthia talked him out of it until more was learned of Fitzgerald's present whereabouts.
Perhaps if they learned further details from Martha in the morning that would help.
Eyes widened when she learned someone had pilfered the small finger bone from Cynthia's bureau and she shivered when told the Deans had been followed into the mine.
I learned a long time ago that nice guys are predictable.
I've learned this altogether unpleasant lesson myself.
If she hadn't learned anything yet, she would soon.
If what Tymkyn learned was true, the underworld itself was at war.
She mourned the loss of all she'd ever learned or known.
In the course of three days, the goddess had almost learned to see him as an equal while her human side no longer in denial about her destiny.
Instead, he reviewed what little he'd learned from Darkyn about the deals Deidre made and the issue of his death-dealers.
He'd only learned the woman he fell for last week was still alive and now he had to let her go.
Long ago he'd learned to let her do things by herself.
I'd like to say I learned something about jealousy and trust, but sometimes I feel so...
Maybe she was spooked tonight, but long ago she had learned to listen to that instinct... gut feeling, some might call it.
But then, Lori didn't know about the way Alex reacted when he learned of the pregnancy.
I learned it in school and I taught him some while we did chores.
She'd thought him cold and distant at first, until she learned his background.
He'd helped build the bridge between the two who were sworn together as mates after they barely learned each other's' names.
"I learned a few things recently," Gabe replied.
She settled into the luxe penthouse and learned her way around the neighborhood.
Every time she learned a new one, her life went to shit.
She thought hard about all she'd learned since arriving to Hell.
As far as he was concerned, he'd do nothing else, even if he learned how to counter it.
It's something immortals learned long ago.
We learned that those outside of this circle are less likely to be concerned about the appearance of the child.
You learned what you needed to.
She had learned her lesson.
You've learned a lot but not everything.
Have you learned some control of that demon power, little brother?
Have you learned any sort of discipline?
In four hundred thousand years, he hadn't learned to answer a phone right?
Thought you'd learned something after all those years in Hell.
I learned in Hell how you can un-mate her.
I have to warn you, I.ve learned some things since you saw me.
Most who challenged him soon learned just how wild and deep his power ran.
He.d use the tricks of manipulation he.d learned from Kris and Sasha both to get Sasha to do what he wanted.
I learned that lesson when Sasha tossed me in a pit with full-blooded demons and were-things.
He.d learned this the hard way when Andre refused to do more than send Rhyn to Hell for killing Lilith.
She'd learned how to lock and unlock the doors and entered the conference room, locking it.
He'd spoken to his sisters in depth and learned quickly just how different she was, their tales ranging from those that ought to anger him to those that amused him.
He remembered the look on Ne'Rin's face fifteen sun-cycles ago, when they'd learned what happened.
No nishani in his bloodline had learned to defend herself or been exiled from her planet.
I am impressed you learned it.
It was what nishani asked him the day prior: if she learned duty, what would he learn?
If she learned duty, then he must learn this.
In the past few days, he'd learned just how unready he was to be the lifemate of his own nishani.
She'd learned the parts of a warship inside and out while learning the battle planning and looked for the configuration button among her options popping up on the screen.
They'd been right to use force over reason with the Council, a lesson he'd learned almost too late.
She was surprised to recognize the Council members, from tall, thin Opal to the Council members whose names she'd never learned.
Fred asked the question like a learned professor, speculating on a universal problem of time, space and the creation of the universe.
"That's nice," said Fred O'Connor, who had zero tradition, at least as far has Dean had learned in the fifteen years he'd lived with the old man.
I learned a long time ago, that anyone who asks that question can't understand my answer anyway.
Fred took on the air of a learned professor as he explained.
The others beat a hasty retreat as soon as they learned there were no fatalities, finally leaving Dean and his wife alone, with only Janet obliviously scrubbing away somewhere above.
They took their time over the ice cream, making soup of the last few spoons full, but Dean learned nothing further.
"Edith's version is as far-out fiction as some of Gladys Turnbull's stuff," Fred said like the learned professor.
I'd guess he learned from the notebook, after she was dead.
In Dean's mind, her attitude and actions eliminated any thought that she might have read or learned of Annie's final hours earlier.
But he thought he'd learned what he wanted.
He had never experienced this intimacy with a lady of breeding, and knew that if her family ever learned of their actions, they would demand restitution for his behavior.
He had learned under Gabriel's tutelage how to influence them to forget.
He knew she really wanted to tell him everything she had learned about Elisabeth, which was probably a great deal.
Yah dude, I learned I'm totally crushing on the professor.
Alex had learned that.
She'd never learned to lie; in fact, she would never dare lie to Mr. Tim, not with his rigid sense of integrity.
Something we learned in my training: survive then worry about fighting another day.
She'd expected his voice to cause more confusion after she learned what he was, but she felt only comfort and hope.
All Darkyn had to do was wait and watch for his opportunity. While he did so, he had a new plan: To pursue a certain deity who'd left her position to her lover. In all his dealings with Immortals and mortals, Darkyn long ago learned the weakness Immortals and mortals had for a beautiful woman. Gabriel would be no different.
Dean continued to question Mayer but learned nothing more of substance.
Fred's level of interest was sky-high when he learned Dean had been assigned the Byrne disappearance.
He ticked off the items he had learned about Jeffrey Byrne during the course of the day, as much for his own review as to answer Fred's rapid-fire questions.
Dean detailed what he'd learned from speaking with Cynthia Byrne and meeting with Byrne's boss in Philadelphia and gave the detective a written copy of his interviews.
Hunter pointed out where Byrne's things were found but Dean learned nothing from the excursion.
Reluctantly, he agreed to waste his Sunday with Vinnie and learned from Sackler that a uniformed officer had delivered Vinnie's clothes earlier.
The principal located the boy, who willingly answered Dean's questions once he learned his own activities were of no interest to the police.
Sackler brought Dean up to date on his recent stay with Baratto but nothing of importance was learned.
He and Burgess learned they'd both biked in the same 100-mile fund raiser two years earlier, before Dean caught a case of the lazies.
While he reluctantly acknowledged his growing feelings for the lady, he couldn't help but wonder: What would she think if she learned her loving husband was a toad who'd dropped her like a rock for a measly 2.8 mil?
It took a pot and a half of coffee and a lot of patience before Dean learned just how complicated the Scranton excursion and return trip had been.
Dean learned why Fred was mum on the subject when he discovered an airline ticket in the old man's jacket.
Although the route was relatively flat by Colorado standards, Dean learned that a body unaccustomed to elevation in the 7,000foot range needed more oxygen to fuel its muscles.
Chances are our guy skipped out yesterday when he learned we were interested in him.
But then out in Colorado when I learned he'd been murdered, I still blamed him, in a different way.
It was strange how a person got to thinking that way after they learned to love someone.
It crossed her mind not to answer it at all, but maybe he had learned something from the last call and would get to the point.
No, he hadn't learned a thing.
Had he learned nothing yesterday?
Long ago she had learned that many people didn't subscribe to her morals.
That's what Alex says, but I don't want to adopt a baby and then have the mother change her mind after we've learned to love it.
Carmen said she was afraid of adopting because the mother could take the child back after they learned to love it.
His square toed boots clicked across the floor with that quick step she had learned to recognize.
They'd quickly learned to keep their distance after she killed two who thought they'd get in her way.
They were like burrs in his shoes, but he couldn't yet go after them until he'd learned to control his new power.
She'd learned the hard way what happened if she left her weapons in her room.
She'd learned to stop thinking when in the ring with him and listen to her senses, to include the mind control talent.
"You've learned a few things," he said.
I learned to move differently so I could survive.
"Jenn, you remember what we learned when we went through training together, about how, when you realize how thirsty you are …" "… you've already reached the point of dehydration," she finished.
He'd learned a few things about killing from the previous Black God, lessons that would now serve him well.
She was lucky to be in one piece after all he'd learned.
"I thought you learned that lesson," she reminded him.
I learned that from you.
"I also learned the best time to take advantage of someone is when they're off-center," he said, joining her with another plate of cheeseburgers.
"Ikir Damian avenged you when he finally learned of what happened," Jenn said quietly.
We've both learned important lessons about ourselves.
We both learned and grew, she said.
If I've learned anything from watching Sofi and Damian, it's that the mate of a god is truly the one with rank.
"I learned to fight in the dark," was all he said, not wanting to invite more questions by mentioning his time in the catacombs.
Through the mistresses Memon kept and shared with his men, Taran had learned of nothing but a desire for gold and magic waters.
He was too wise to risk losing her before he learned her secrets.
There were no lessons to be learned, except what the creature taught me.
"I learned of your desire for your father's kingdom," she started.
I have only just learned there is more than my selfish anger that matters.
I forbade her from learning to read, so she never learned of the demon.
I learned to survive where no one else can.
I've learned your secrets well enough not to fall for your tricks again!
Carmen said he had learned the gift of gab from his Dad, but Jonathan had always been perceptive about people.
Maybe he had learned it from his mother, or maybe he had inherited the tendency.
He had created her dependency on his judgment and now it was up to him to make sure she learned to defend herself.
That was the summer he learned a third language – sign language.
They had learned a lot since they came, and they were obviously proud of it.
At first she had been infatuated with Denton, but in the last year she had learned a lot about him.
I've learned my lesson.
And when had Denton learned about the stipulations on the money?
You haven't yet learned how to cloak yourself.
He learned his lesson about sharing information with Sofi.
With her thoughts spinning from what she'd learned, she wasn't sure what she'd do if his instructions took her to her home.
I've learned how to wait until I'm home in bed to have a meltdown, Jessi replied.
When I was ten, I learned to use my unique set of skills to steal money for us.
"I learned a few things from him," Jonny replied.
She had long since learned that trying to talk them down didn't really work.
He was a learned man and a patron of scholars, and during his reign the Northumbrian kingdom partially recovered its prosperity.
These Hebrew translations were, in their turn, rendered into Latin (by Buxtorf and others) and in this form the works of Jewish authors found their way into the learned circles of Europe.
It also has a lycee, training-colleges, a school of artillery, a library and several learned societies.
From his sixth to his ninth year he was given over to the care of learned foreigners, who taught him history, geography, mathematics and French.
According to Shafi`ite law, such a cadi must be a male, free, adult Moslem, intelligent, of unassailed character, able to see, hear and write, learned in the Koran, the traditions, the Agreement, the differences of the legal schools, acquainted with Arabic grammar and the exegesis of the Koran.
When Roland heard of his wife's condemnation, he wandered some miles from his refuge in Rouen; maddened by despair and grief, he wrote a few words expressive of his horror at those massacres which could only be inspired by the enemies of France, protesting that "from the moment when I learned that they had murdered my wife I would no longer remain in a world stained with enemies."
Dr Ginsburg had one predecessor in the field, the learned Jacob ben Chajim, who in 1524-1525 published the second Rabbinic Bible, containing what has ever since been known as the Massorah; but neither were the materials available nor was criticism sufficiently advanced for a complete edition.
But he was known as a humorist, and the public, which had learned to expect jokes from him, rejected this little book almost entirely.
On that occasion all Europe united to do him honour, many learned societies sent delegates to express their congratulations, the king of Italy gave him his own portrait on a gold medallion, and among the numerous addresses he received was one from Kaiser Wilhelm II., who took the opportunity of presenting him with the Grand Gold Medal for Science.
The first public teacher of Cartesian views was Henri Renery, a Belgian, who at Deventer and afterwards at Utrecht had introduced the new philosophy which he had learned Spread of from personal intercourse with Descartes.
Attempts have been made, principally founded on some remarks of Huygens, to show that Descartes had learned the principles of refraction from the manuscript of a treatise by Willebrord Snell, but the facts are uncertain; and, so far as Descartes founds his optics on any one, it is probably on the researches of Kepler.
of Paris - its learned professors not more than the courtiers and the fair sex, flocked to hear the new doctrines explained, and possibly discuss their value.
He learned and practised several small handicrafts, and devoting his nights to study of the most miscellaneous description earned a pittance by teaching.
Her early years were clouded by the execution of the duc de Montmorency, her mother's only brother, for intriguing against Richelieu in 1631, and that of her mother's cousin the comte de Montmorency-Boutteville for duelling in 1635; but her parents made their peace with Richelieu, and being introduced into society in 1635 she soon became one of the stars of the Hotel Rambouillet, at that time the centre of all that was learned, witty and gay in France.
Bartolommeo learned from the younger artist the rules of perspective, in which he was so skilled, while Raphael owes to the frate the improvement in his colouring and handling of drapery, which was noticeable in the works he produced after their meeting.
The learned commentary of Marckius may be specially mentioned.
Lydgate's most doughty and learned apologist is Dr Schick, whose preface to the Temple of Glass embodies practically all that is known or conjectured concerning this author, including the chronological order of his works.
"He learned to spell and to philosophize at the same time" (Graetz).
At all events, during the first months of the reign of Artaxerxes I., he was the ruling power in the state (therefore the chronographers wrongly reckon him as king, with a reign of seven months), until Artaxerxes, having learned the truth about the murder of his father and his brother, overwhelmed and killed Artabanus and his sons in open fight.
Although the first definite endeavour to locate the Golden Chersonese thus dates from the middle of the 2nd century of our era, the name was apparently well known to the learned of Europe at a somewhat earlier period, and in his Antiquities of the Jews, written during the latter half of the 1st century, Josephus says that Solomon gave to the pilots furnished to him by Hiram of Tyre commands " that they should go along with his stewards to the land that of old was called Ophir, but now the Aurea Chersonesus, which belongs to India, to fetch gold."
He summoned experienced teachers, Protestant as well as Catholic, from Germany, established middle and higher schools in all parts of the empire, superseded the antiquated textbooks and methods of instruction, and encouraged the formation of learned societies and the growth of a professional spirit and independence among the teachers.
The writer of Acts ii., anxious to prove that Providence from the first included the Gentiles in the Messianic Kingdom, assumes that the gift of tongues was a miraculous faculty of talking strange languages without having previously learned them.
The Portuguese were expelled by Fasilidas, but his castle was built, by Indian workmen, under the superintendence of Abyssinians who had learned something of architecture from the Portuguese adventurers, helped possibly by Portuguese still in the country.
Operators who used the recorder soon learned to read the message by the click of the armature against its stop, and as this left the hands and eyes free to write, reading by sound was usually preferred.
His tutors were the learned Janos Vitez, bishop of Nagyvarad, whom he subsequently raised to the primacy, and the Polish humanist Gregory Sanocki.
Thus a large all-round increase in secondary and higher education is shownsatisfactory in many respects, but showing that more young men devote themselves to the learned professions (especially to the law) than the economic condition of the country will justify.
Split up into numerous and mutually hostile communities, they never, through the fourteen centuries which have elapsed since the end of the old Western empire, shook off the yoke of foreigners completely; they never until lately learned to merge their local and conflicting interests in the common good of undivided Italy.
Plebeian handicrafts assert their right to be represented on an equality with learned professions and wealthy corporations.
As the companies grew in size and improved their discipline, it was seen by the Italian nobles that this kind of service offered a good career for men of spirit, who had learned the use of arms. To leave so powerful and profitable a calling in the hands of foreigners seemed both dangerous and uneconomical.
These three bodies were to be chosen by three electoral colleges consisting of (a) landed proprietors, (b) learned men.
The Mamiani ministry having failed to achieve anything, Pius summoned Pellegrino Rossi, a learned lawyer who had long been exiled in France, to form a cabinet.
On his return to Germany, the emperor learned that Gregory had been driven from Rome, which was again in the power of John Crescentius, patrician of the Romans, and that a new pope, John XVI., had been elected.
Canon 127 of 1603 provided that the judges must be learned in the civil and ecclesiastical laws and at least masters of arts or bachelors of laws.
The inscriptions are at present scattered through a number of learned periodicals; a complete list of all those that can be approximately dated between the 3rd century B.C. and the 2nd century A.D.
From his earliest youth he had learned to identify the ritual of the Roman religion with the very essence of the imperial idea.
William Learned Marcy >>
PUBLIUS NIGIDIUS FIGULUS (c. 98-45 B.C.), Roman savant, next to Varro the most learned Roman of the age.
Diseases am] SymptomsThe symptoms of plant diseases are, as already said, apt to be very general in their nature, and are sometimes so vaguely defined that little can be learned from them as to the causes at work.
caused him to recount to his chamberlain, Felipe Pigafetta, all he had learned during the nine years he had been in Africa, from 1578 to 1587.
Palestrina) and then marched upon Rome, where again, just before his defeat of Marius, there had been a great massacre of his adherents, in which the learned jurist Q.
The work contains nothing that cannot be learned from Ptolemy, whom he follows in calling the promontory of the Novantae (Mull of Galloway) the most northern point of Britain.
In neither department did any Saracen, strictly speaking, invent anything; but they learned much both from Constantinople and from Persia, and what they learned they largely developed and improved.
Even in land-warfare he cast aside the weapons of his forefathers; but he soon learned to handle the weapons of his new land with greater prowess than they had ever been handled before.
In England, English, French, Latin, were the three tongues of a single nation; they were its vulgar, its courtly and its learned speeches, of which three the courtly was fast giving way to the vulgar.
Zeno was a pupil of Crates, from whom he learned the moral worth of self-control and indifference to sensual indulgence.
When emperors became converts, the church, so lately a victim and a pleader for liberty, readily learned to persecute.
Bayle, the historical sceptic, lectured and published his learned Dictionnaire (1696) at Rotterdam.
This question has given rise to an enormous amount of discussion among learned men, and some of the disputants have not yet laid down their arms; but for impartial outsiders who have carefully studied the evidence there can be little doubt that 1 See Researches into the State of Fisheries in Russia (9 vols.), edited by Minister of Finance (1896, Russian); Kusnetzow's Fischerei and Thiererbeutung in den Gewassern Russlands (1898).
Byzantine territory, threatened Constantinople with a fleet of small craft, obtained as consort for one of their princes, Vladimir I, (q.v.), a sister of the Byzantine emperor on condition of the prince becoming a Christian, adopted Christianity for themselves and their subjects, learned to hold in check the nomadic hordes of the steppe, and formed matrimonial alliances with the reigning families of Poland, Hungary, Norway and France.
That is known only to God, and perhaps to wisemen learned in books."
p p These had been detected and pointed out by learned ecclesiastics of Kiev, where some of the ancient learning of Byzantium had been preserved, and Nikon determined to make the necessary corrections.
This army, it is true, was so inefficient that it was completely routed by the Swedish king with a most inferior force, but it was improved gradually until it learned to conquer its Swedish opponents.
Wylie's minute and learned Hist.
Of Kirkby, from whom he learned the rudiments of English and Latin grammar, he speaks gratefully, and doubtless truly, so far as he could trust the impressions of childhood.
Ockley's book on the Saracens " first opened his eyes " to the striking career of Mahomet and his hordes; and with his characteristic ardour of literary research, after exhausting all that could be learned in English of the Arabs and Persians, the Tatars and Turks, he forthwith plunged into the French of D'Herbelot, and the Latin of Pocock's version of Abulfaragius, sometimes understanding them, but oftener only guessing their meaning.
He soon learned to call to his aid the subsidiary sciences of geography and chronology, and before he was quite capable of reading them had already attempted to weigh in his childish balance the competing systems of Scaliger and Petavius, of Marsham and Newton.
He took a prominent part in the dispute in 1671 between the two Houses concerning the right of the Lords to amend money bills, and wrote a learned pamphlet on the question entitled The Privileges of the House of Lords and Commons (1702), in which the right of the Lords was asserted.
5 He was a learned and cultivated man and collected a celebrated library, which was dispersed at his death.
The charitable and benevolent institutions are numerous, and there are also a library and several learned associations.
Panin was one of the most learned, accomplished and courteous Russians of his day.
Already the Jews of the Dispersion had learned to supplement the Temple by the synagogue, and even the Jews of Jerusalem had not been free to spend their lives in the worship of the Temple.
When the governor learned that a second Provincial Congress was called to meet in April 1775 he resolved to convene the assembly on the same day.
The latter, according to Petahiah, had a learned daughter who "gave instruction, through a window, remaining in the house while the disciples were below, unable to see her."
In western Asia we have learned the exact value of the mountain barrier which lies between Mery and Herat, and have mapped Indian its connexion with the Elburz of Persia.
And in regard to Reid's favourite proof of the principles in question by reference to "the consent of ages and nations, of the learned and unlearned," it is only fair to observe that this argument assumes a much more scientific form in the Essays, where it is almost identified with an appeal to "the structure and grammar of all languages."
"He is," wrote the Venetian ambassador Giustiniani, "very handsome, learned, extremely eloquent, of vast ability and indefatigable.
He was not only one of the most learned, but also one of the most statesmanlike sovereigns of the earlier middle ages.
This suspicion seems to have arisen chiefly from his intimacy with Christopher Davenport, better known as Francis a Sancta Clara, a learned Franciscan friar who became chaplain to Queen 1 An obviously erroneous entry in the Admission Book states that he had been at school under Mr. Lovering for ten years, and was in his fifteenth year.
(fn3) Every house of the Order had two learned brethren, one learned in the law, one in theology.
To the transactions of various learned societies he contributed from first to last between three and four hundred papers, and few of his contemporaries wrote so much for the various reviews.
The furniture seemed to have been unmoved since the days of his fathers, for I learned that it was a patrimony.
Dumont, the learned Genevan, once the associate of Mirabeau, were all who sat down to table.
One of the most learned men of his day, he devoted his spare time to history, and discovered that many of the oldest and most cherished Scandinavian MSS.
In the former treatise we have a clear and minute description of the rural practices of that period, and from the latter may be learned a good deal of the economy of the feudal system in its decline.
During the last years of the Sassanid dynasty the work was resumed, the former collection being revised and greatly added to by the Dihkan Danishwer, assisted by several learned mobeds.
On the Arab invasion this work was in great danger of perishing at the hands of the iconclastic caliph Omar and his generals, but it was fortunately preserved; and we find it in the 2nd century of the Hegira being paraphrased in Arabic by Abdallah ibn el Mokaffa, a learned Persian who had embraced Islam.
The entire poem (which only existed in MS. up to the beginning of the 19th century) was published (1831-1868) with a French translation in a magnificent folio edition, at the expense of the French government, by the learned and indefatigable Julius von Mohl.
But this is just where his epoch-making importance lies, that all the later parties in the church learned from him.
23), showing how even the most learned and most eminent of church teachers might become a misleading light.
He also enjoyed the society of learned men, especially of " those who could talk with him concerning ancient monuments and their history!'
The chief authority for the bishop's life is William de Chambre (printed in Wharton's Anglia Sacra, 1691, and in Historiae Dunelmensis scriptores tres, Surtees Soc. 1839), who describes him as an amiable and excellent man, charitable in his diocese, and the liberal patron of many learned men, among these being Thomas Bradwardine, afterwards archbishop of Canterbury, Richard Fitzralph, afterwards archbishop of Armagh, the enemy of the mendicant orders, Walter Burley, who translated Aristotle, John Mauduit the astronomer, Robert Holkot and Richard de Kilvington.
A notice of Richard de Bury by his contemporary Adam Murimuth (Continuatio Chronicarum, Rolls Series, 1889, p. 171) gives a less favourable account of him than does William de Chambre, asserting that he was only moderately learned, but desired to be regarded as a great scholar.
Elliot, Gallinaceous Game Birds of North America (New York, 1897) and Wild Fowl of the United States and British Possessions (1898), and Robert Ridgway's learned and invaluable Birds of North and Middle America, published by the Smithsonian Institution, Bull.
Apart from its intrinsic merits as a learned and valuable addition to classification, this work is interesting in the history of ornithology because of the wholesale changes of nomenclature it introduced as the result of much diligence and zeal in the application of the strict rule of priority to the names of birds.
Among other learned institutions we may mention the Ateneo Veneto, the Deputazione per la Storia Patria, and the Royal Institute of Science, Letters and Art, which has its seat in the Palazzo Loredan at Santo Stefano.
The Arabian tribes began to take possession of the partly cultivated lands east of Canaan, became masters of the Eastern trade, gradually acquired settled habits, and learned to speak and write in Aramaic, the language which was most widely current throughout the region west of the Euphrates in the time of the Persian Empire (6th-4th century B.C.).
In his holidays he learned Hebrew 'from Mr Kirkby, a dissenting minister at Heckmondwike, who subsequently took entire charge of his education.
An uncle having promised him a place in a counting-house at Lisbon, he also learned French, German and Italian to fit himself for the post.
In other words, the Druids constituted the learned and the priestly class, and they were in addition the chief expounders and guardians of the law.
His learned wanderings ended (1486) at Rome, where he set forth for public disputation a list of nine hundred questions and conclusions in all branches of philosophy and theology.
Colenso, and learned to regard the prophetic narrative of Genesis, Exodus, and Numbers as older than what was by the Germans denominated Grundschrift (" Book of Origins").
At Rome, as he said, he learned to see events from the inside.
Some who were priests and were learned in the divine law preached earnestly in the church."
The Latin kingdom of Jerusalem was the meeting-place of two civilizations: on its soil the East learned from the West, and - perhaps still more - the West learned from the East.
The date of the redaction (which was probably made by some learned burgess) may well have been the reign of Baldwin III., as Kugler suggests: he was the first native king, and a king learned in the law; but Beugnot would refer the assizes to the years immediately preceding Saladin's capture of Jerusalem.
It was from his Sicilian predecessors, who had made trade treaties with Egypt, that he had learned to make even the Crusade a matter of treaty.
Partly by contact with the Byzantines, partly by conflict with the Mahommedans, the Franks learned new methods 1 Authors like Heeren (Versuch einer Entwickelung der Folgen der Kreuzziige) and Michaud (in the last volume of his Histoire des croisades) fall into the error of assigning all things to the Crusades.
2 The art of the sapper and miner, the use of siege instruments like the mangonel, and the employment of various "fires" as missiles, were all known among the Mahommedans; and in all these respects the Franks learned from their enemies.
of Lucretius, Columella, Silius Italicus, Manilius and Vitruvius were unearthed, copied by his hand, and communicated to the learned.
Hadrian was fond of the society of learned men - poets, scholars, rhetoricians and philosophers - whom he alternately humoured and ridiculed.
It is supposed in the Black Book of the Admiralty to have been founded in the reign of Edward I.; but it would appear, from the learned discussion of R.
While the Malays were famous almost exclusively for their piratical expeditions they naturally bore an evil reputation among Europeans, but now that we have come into closer Character, contact with them,, and have learned to understand aca them better, the old opinions concerning them have been greatly modified.
But he abused the divine favour by revealing to mankind the secrets he had learned in heaven (Diod.
ALPHONSO X., El Sabio, or the learned (1252-1284), is perhaps the most interesting, though he was far from being the most capable, of the Spanish kings of the middle ages.
He was the author of over 70 papers on mechanics and physics published in the transactions of learned societies, notably Sub-Mechanics of the Universe, issued by the Royal Society, whose gold medal he won in 1888.
From his works it is evident that he was deeply learned in all the philosophy of the time.
Creighton's History of the Papacy (London, 1897) is very learned and accurate, but the author is more lenient towards Alexander; F.
Circular maps, however, remained in the popular favour long after their erroneousness had been recognized by the learned.
The map, apparently of the 3rd century, was copied by a monk at Colmar, in 1265, who fortunately contented himself with adding a few scriptural names, and having been acquired by the learned Conrad Peutinger of FIG.
The doctrine of the sphericity of the earth was still held by the more learned, but the heads of the church held it to be unscriptural.
Pope Zachary, when in 741 he condemned the views of Virgilius, the learned bishop of Salzburg, an Irishman who had been denounced as a heretic by St Boniface, declares it to be perversa et iniqua doctrina.
The learned Cardinal Nicolaus Krebs, of Cusa (Cues) on the Moselle, who died 1464, drew a map of Germany which was first published in 1491; D.
But from a comparison of prophetic passages of the Old Testament learned apocalyptic writers came to the conclusion that a distinction must be drawn between the earthly appearance of the Messiah and the appearance of God Himself amongst His people and in the Gentile world for the final judgment.
The training takes place during the first year, and the work is learned with extreme facility.
He was taught first by his father Spintharus, a pupil of Socrates, and later by the Pythagoreans, Lamprus of Erythrae and Xenophilus, from whom he learned the theory of music. Finally he studied under Aristotle at Athens, and was deeply annoyed, it is said, when Theophrastus was appointed head of the school on Aristotle's death.
Parallel with this great production of learned and imaginative works, Dahn published some twenty small volumes of poetry.
She was received with great consideration at foreign courts, and her literary and scientific reputation procured her the entree to the society of the learned in most of the capitals of Europe.
only, there is a learned edition by Professors Mayor and Lumby of Cambridge (3rd ed., 1881).
Only in familiar letters, prolegomena, and prefaces do we find the man Ficino, and learn to know his thoughts and sentiments unclouded by a mist of citations; these minor compositions have therefore a certain permanent value, and will continually be studied for the light they throw upon the learned circle gathered round Lorenzo in the golden age of humanism.
It was at that time that he learned from J.
The best and most effective mode of drying specimens is learned only by experience, different species requiring special treatment according to their several peculiarities.
is adopted by Irenaeus, who tells us that, according to the learned among the Hebrews, the name Jesus contains two letters and a half, and signifies that Lord who contains heaven and earth [rr' = rim ?
The better to understand the point of view of the Cape Dutch and the burghers of the Transvaal and Orange Free State, Milner also during this period learned both Dutch and the South African "Taal."
Lucke, who was one of the most learned, many-sided and influential of the so-called "mediation" school of evangelical theologians (Vermittelungstheologie), is now chiefly known by his Kommentar fiber die Schriften d.
Independent of the government are various schools and learned societies in Havana (q.v.).
It was the most piquant feature of his life that he, one of the gilded youth, a connoisseur in wines, and a learned man to boot, had become agitator and the champion of the working man.
Bismarck coquetted with him as the representative of a force that might help him to combat the Prussian liberals; in 1878, in a speech before the Reichstag, he spoke of him with deep respect, as a man of the greatest amiability and ability from whom much could be learned.
In an unsuccessful war against the Croats (1322-26), from which Venice derived the sole advantage, the ban appears to have learned the value of sea-power; immediately afterwards he occupied the principality of Ilium and the Dalmatian littoral between Spalato and the river Narenta.
The Serb and Moslem delegates, who had started on the same day for Budapest, to present their petition to the emperor, learned from the rescript that the government intended to concede to their compatriots "a share in the legislation and administration of provincial affairs, and equal protection for all religious beliefs, languages and racial distinctions."
From Emerson he gained more than from any man, alive or dead; and, though the older philosopher both enjoyed and learned from the association with the younger, it cannot be said that the gain was equal.
His marriage with Mal Khatun, the daughter of the learned sheikh Edbali, has been surrounded by poetical legend; he married his son Orkhan to the beautiful Greek Nilofer, daughter of the lord of Yar Hissar, whom he carried off from her destined bridegroom on her marriage-day; the fruits of this union were Suleiman Pasha and Murad.
He died in 1658 (1068), having written a great number of learned works on history, biography, chronology, geography and other subjects.
On the 26th of September, its deployment beyond the mountains was complete, and as Napoleon did not know of Mack's intention to stay at Ulm and had learned that the Russian advance had been delayed, he directed his columns by the following roads on the Danube, between Donauworth and Ingolstadt, so as to be in a position to intervene between the Austrians and the Russians and beat both in detail.
The severe actions of Diirrenstein (near Krems) ors the iith, and of Hollabriinn on the 26th of November, in which Napoleon's marshals learned the tenacity of their new opponents, and the surprise of the Vienna bridge (November 14) by the French, were the chief incidents of this period in the campaign.
Towards the close of the armistice he learned the general situation of the allies.
In 1202 he was again in Italy and published his great work, Liber abaci, which probably procured him access to the learned and refined court of the emperor Frederick II.
He had mastered his manner and, as one may say, learned his trade, in the exercise of criticism and the reflective parts of literature, before he surrendered himself to that powerful creative impulse which had long been tempting him, so that when, in mature life, he essayed the portraiture of invented character he came to it unhampered by any imperfection of language.
Here Schlozer learned Russian and devoted himself to the study of Russian history.
His daughter Dorothea, born on the 10th of August 1770, was one of the most beautiful and learned women of her time, and received in 1787 the degree of doctor.
Although the Peterborough Chronicle accuses Henry of oppression in his early years, the nation soon learned to regard him with respect..
The Portuguese being in his rear, and Wellesley closing with him, the only good road of retreat available lay through Amarante, but he now learned that Beresford had taken this important point from Silveira; so he was then compelled, abandoning his guns and much baggage, to escape, with a loss of some s000 men, over the mountains of the Sierra Catalina to Salamonde, and thence to Orense.
Before the days of the "higher criticism" and the rise of the modern scientific views as to the origin of species, there was much discussion among the learned, and many ingenious and curious theories were advanced, as to the number of the animals and the space necessary for their reception, with elaborate calculations as to the subdivisions of the ark and the quantities of food, &c., required to be stored.
A little farther away are the headquarters of the Patriotic Society (Patriotische Gesellschaft), founded in 1765, with fine rooms for the meetings of artistic and learned societies.
He brought out in 1865 an edition of Wheaton's International Law, his notes constituting a most learned and valuable authority on international law and its bearings on American history and diplomacy; but immediately after its publication Dana was charged by the editor of two earlier editions, William Beach Lawrence, with infringing his copyright, and was involved in litigation which was continued for thirteen years.
There were deep marshes, where even the bear has learned to tread carefully.
They were acquainted with iron, and learned from their subjects the art of bronze-casting, which they used for decorative purposes only, and to which they gave a still higher artistic stamp. Their pottery is much more perfect and more artistic than that of the Bronze period, and their ornaments are accounted among the finest of the collections at the St Petersburg museum of the Hermitage.
He was cordially received, but in February learned that his nomination had been rejected by the Senate on the 25th of January.
He published in 1803 a learned work, Sabina, oder Morgenszenen im Putzzimmer einer reichen Romerin, a description of a wealthy Roman lady's toilette, and a work on ancient art, Griechische Vasengemalde.
He studied at Venice, where he became acquainted with Erasmus and Aldus Manutius, and at an early age was reputed one of the most learned men of the time.
Each discovery in turn was, according to the prevailing custom, announced to the learned world under the veil of an anagram - removed, in the case of the first, by the publication, early in 1656, of the little tract De Saturni luna observatio nova; but retained, as regards the second, until 1659, when in the Systema Saturnium the varying appearances of the so-called "triple planet" were clearly explained as the phases of a ring inclined at an angle of 28° to the ecliptic. Huygens was also in 1656 the first effective observer of the Orion nebula; he delineated the bright region still known by his name, and detected the multiple character of its nuclear star.
Crippled and distorted by gout from his childhood, he was deprived of the use of his legs; but, in spite of this, he became one of the most learned men of his time, and exercised a great personal and intellectual influence on the numerous band of scholars he gathered round him.
Literature - modern as well as ancient - occupied his attention; one of his works was a translation of four parts of Clarissa; and translations of some of the then current English paraphrases on biblical books manifested his sympathy with a school which, if not very learned, attracted him by its freer air.
Andrew Sparrman, the Swedish naturalist, when exploring in the Sneeuwberg in 1776, learned from the Hottentots that eight or ten days' journey north there was a large perennial stream, which he rightly concluded was the groote-rivier of Hop. The next year Captain (afterwards Colonel) R.
His earliest tastes were literary rather than scientific, and he learned the rudiments of geometry during his first year at the college of Turin, without difficulty, but without distinction.
(2) A Biographical Dictionary ('OvogaroX6yos or Illva) of Learned Men, arranged according to classes (poets, philosophers), the chief sources of which were the Mou6u07 ivTopia of Aelius Dionysius and the works of Herennius Philo.
Coutinho had, however, learned in India to be an oppressor, and the Tupinambas were the fiercest and most powerful of the native tribes.
The capital rose rapidly in importance, and the captaincies learned to regard it as a common head and centre of wealth.
The northern provinces had fallen into the power of Holland; the southern, peopled in a great measure by the hardy descendants of the successive colonists who had issued on all sides from the central establishment of Sao Paulo, had learned from their habits of unaided and successful enterprise to court independence.
The Royal College of Physicians is another learned body organized, with special privileges, by a charter of incorporation granted by Charles II.
Of these Reports he published altogether four volumes, with learned notes; they extend from Michaelmas 1807 to Hilary 1816.
In a temperate and learned speech, based on Fox's declaration against constitution-mongering, he supported both the enfranchising and the disfranchising clauses, and easily disposed of the cries of "corporation robbery," "nabob representation," "opening for young men of talent," &c. The following year (1832) found Campbell solicitor-general, a knight and member for Dudley, which he represented till 1834.
He was a learned, though not a scientific lawyer, a faithful political adherent, thoroughly honest as a judge, dutiful and happy as a husband.
Together with these historians we must mention the learned scholars Celso Cittadini (d.
By far the most noteworthy is the Patrology, which was superintended by the learned Benedictine J.
It is built round a square interior court surrounded by arcades, and is occupied by learned societies.
During this period he published his poetical satire called Metamorphosis (1726), his Epistolae ad virum perillustrem (1727), his Description of Denmark and Norway (1729), History of Denmark, Universal Church History, Biographies of Famous Men, Moral Reflections, Description of Bergen (1737), A History of the Jews, and other learned and laborious compilations.
He was in correspondence with all the most learned men of the day.
Sydney has a great number of learned, educational and charitable institutions; it possesses a Royal Society, a Linnean Society and a Geographical Society, a women's college affiliated to the university, an astronomical observatory, a technical college, a school of art with library attached, a bacteriological institute at Rose Bay, a museum and a free public library.
Scholasticism had been the expression of a universal church and a common learned language.
Beyond appearing at the meetings of learned societies he took little part in public affairs; he lived alone, conducting his investigations in a deliberate and exhaustive manner, but in the most rigid seclusion, no person being admitted to his laboratory on any pretext.
There are besides a number of learned societies in the various provinces for the fostering of special provincial or national aims. There are also a number of societies for the propagation of culture, both amongst the Hungarian and the non-Hungarian nationalities.
It appears, moreover, that up to that date public business was transacted in period, Hungarian, for the decrees of King Coloman the Learned (1095-1114) were translated from that language into Latin.
Caussin was sent into Brittany, and the judicious and learned Jesuit, Jacques Sirmond, who succeeded him, kept clear of politics.
The last is a philosophy of naturalism in the form of a conversation between seven learned men - a Jew, a Mahommedan, a Lutheran, a Zwinglian, a Roman Catholic, an Epicurean and a Theist.
There was a certain learned mathematician who sent his algebra, written in the Syriac language, to Alexander the Great, and he named it almucabala, that is, the book of dark or mysterious things, which others would rather call the doctrine of algebra.
To this day the same book is in great estimation among the learned in the oriental nations, and by the Indians, who cultivate this art, it is called aljabra and alboret; though the name of the author himself is not known."
It was the cardinal Louis de Rohan, formerly ambassador at Vienna, whence he had been recalled in 1774, having incurred the queen's displeasure by revealing to the empress Maria Theresa the frivolous actions of her daughter, a disclosure which brought a maternal reprimand, and for having spoken lightly of Maria Theresa in a letter of which Marie Antoinette learned the contents.
The pursuit of the learned physician, - anatomy and physiology: exemplified by Harvey, Haller, Hunter, Johann Miller.
99 sqq.), in connexion with the tale of the invasion of Darius, makes of Scythia a kind of chessboard 4000 stades square on which the combatants can make their moves quite unhindered by the great rivers: the other (16-20), founded on what he learned from Greeks of Olbia and supplemented by the tales of the 7th century traveller Aristeas of Proconnesus, is not very far removed from first-hand information and can be made more or less to tally with the lie of the land.
Having learned to speak good German, he took command at Benghasi in the Italo-Turkish War.
On returning to the Vet, Potgieter learned that a hunting party of Boers which had crossed the Vaal had been attacked by the Matabele, who had also killed Boer women and children.
The son of a potter who had removed to Syracuse, he learned his father's trade, but afterwards entered the army.
He remained in opposition, distinguishing himself by the courtly bitterness of his attacks on George II., who learned to hate him violently.
At Waterloo he was wounded in the right arm and had to undergo amputation, but he quickly learned to write with his left hand, and on the conclusion of the war resumed his duties as secretary to the embassy at Paris.
This reconciliation of the internal and the external evidence, countenanced as it is by Theophrastus, one of the best informed of the ancient historians, and approved by Zeller, one of the most learned of the modern critics, is more than plausible; but there is something to be said on the contrary part.
The learned hold the doctrine of Confucius, and Buddhism, alloyed with much popular superstition, has some influence.
Plautus, though, like Terence, he takes the first sketch of his plots, scenes and characters, from the Attic stage, is yet a true representative of his time, a genuine Italian, writing before the genius of Italy had learned the restraints of Greek art.
This council had brought to Rome the learned monk Jerome, for whom Damasus showed great esteem.
The dispersion of Greek science and intellectual activity through the world by the conquests of Alexander and his successors led to the formation of more than one learned centre, in which medicine among other sciences was represented.
The movement of reform started, of necessity, with scholars rather than practising physicians - more precisely with a group of learned men, whom we may be permitted, for the sake of a name, to call the medical humanists, equally enthusiastic in the cause of letters and of medicine.
To this work several learned physicians, chiefly Italians, applied themselves with great ardour.
He began his lectures at Basel by burning the books of Avicenna and others; he afterwards boasted of having read no books for ten years; he protested that his shoe-buckles were more learned than Galen and Avicenna.