In practice it may be considerably less, owing to leakage at the valves and between the piston and cylinder.
The so-called oil air-pumps are much more efficient; the valve difficulty is avoided, and the risk of leakage minimized; whilst in addition there is no air clearance between the piston and the base of the cylinder as in the older mechanical forms. The Fleuss pump may be taken as an example.
If, however, there is leakage, the current received on the galvanometer will be less than the current sent out, and the result will be a deflection of the needle proportional to the amount of leakage.
Thus, while nothing but leakage occurs the uniform horizontal line is continued.
A small sluice placed in the side of the conductor opposite to the meadow, and at the upper end of it, will drain away the leakage that may have escaped from the head sluice.
The introduction of inductance coils into such circuits renders them more susceptible to trouble from atmospheric electricity and more sensitive to leakage variations.
In this case the electric charge exists at the point where the stem is attached, and there leakage by creeping takes place.
On setting the dynamo in operation, a current passes through the shunt coil of the ohmmeter proportional to the voltage of the dynamo, and, if there is any sensible leakage through the insulator to earth, at the same time another current passes through the series coil proportional to the conductivity of the insulation of the wiring under the electromotive force used.
But In Order To Obtain Trustworthy Results By This Method He Found It Necessary To Employ Very Rapid Stirring (2000 Revolutions Per Minute), And To Insulate The Wire Very Carefully From The Liquid To Prevent Leakage Of The Current.
The advantage of the high conducting power which copper possesses Over- is of especial value in moist climates (like that of the United Kingdom), since the effect of leakage over the surface of the damp insulators is much less noticeable when the conducting power of the wire is high than when it is low, especially when the line is a long one.
Connexion is made into the office (or to the underground system, as is often the case) from the aerial wire by means of a copper conductor, insulated with gutta-percha, which passes through a " leading in " cup, whereby leakage is prevented between the wire and the pole.
If the looped lines are both in good condition and free from leakage, the current sent out on line r will be exactly equal to the current received back on line 2; and as these currents will have equal but opposite effects on the galvanometer needle, no deflection of the latter will be produced.
When only one battery is used the current at the distant end may be considerably affected by the leakage to earth along the line.
The leakage through the insulator of the cable is compensated for by connecting high resistances between different points of the strip conductor and the earth coating.
If, therefore, a reservoir so formed survives the first few years without serious leakage, it is not likely, in the absence of artificial disturbance, to succumb owing to leakage at a later period.
Serious leakage at once began between c and b and washed out the clay, particle by particle, but did not wash out the sand associated with it, which remained rench.
The leakage a d in the pursued radioactivity Ernest.
In what is known as the " hybrid " form of recorder the permanent magnets are provided with windings of insulated copper wire; the object of these windings is to provide a means of " refreshing " the magnets by means of a strong current temporarily sent through the coils when required, as it has been found that, owing to magnetic leakage and other causes, the magnets tend to lose their power, especially in hot climates.
But this did not obviate the necessity for house - to-house inspection, and although the number of different points at which leakage occurred was still great, it was always small in relation to the number of houses which were necessarily entered by the inspector; moreover, when the best had been done that possibly could be done to suppress leakage due to domestic fittings, the leakage below ground in the mains, ferrules and service pipes still remained, and was often very great.
The galvanometer being so adjusted that a current of definite strength through one of the coils gives a definite deflection of the needle, the amount of leakage expressed in terms of the insulation resistance of the wires is given by the formula.
The climatic conditions in the British Islands are such that it is not possible to maintain, in unfavourable weather, a higher standard than that named, which is the insulation obtained when all the insulators are in perfect condition and only the normal leakage, due to moisture, is present.
It is interesting to find that a rude pipe-line formerly existed in this field for conveying the crude oil from the wells to the river; this was made of bamboos, but it is said that the loss by leakage was so great as to lead to its immediate abandonment on completion.
The improvements introduced in 1890 and 1891, whereby this state of affairs was put an end to, consisted in the introduction of the principle of supply by meter, and the adoption of a comprehensive system of reducing the initial pressure of the gas, so as to diminish loss by leakage.
In all departments there ensued, thus, an alarming leakage of revenue, amounting, it was credibly estimated, to quite 40%.
This type of pump is, however, not very efficient, for there is not only leakage about the valves and between the piston and cylinder, but at a certain degree of exhaust the air within the vessel is insufficient to raise the inlet valve; this last defect has been met in some measure by using an extension of the piston to open and close the valve.
If, however, we employ a hollow sphere and let the stem pass through a hole in the side larger than itself, and attach the end to the interior of the sphere, then leakage cannot take place.
The object of the test is to discover the resistance of the insulator I, that is, to determine how much current flows through this insulator by leakage under a certain electromotive force or voltage which must not be less than that which will be employed in practice when the electric lights supplied through these wires are in operation.
But there is always leakage of energy either through friction or through wave-emission, so that the vibration only increases up to the point at which the leakage of energy balances the energy put in by the applied force.
There is no reason to believe that the initial cause of such a leakage could be developed except during construction, and it is certain that once begun it must increase.
- Overhanging Rock Leakage.
water-tight to begin with, the alternate immersion and exposure to air and sunshine promotes expansion and contraction, and induces rapid disintegration, leakage and decay.
This steel septum was protected on either side by a thin wall of asphaltic concrete supported by rubble stone embankments, and owing to irregular settling of 'the embankments became greatly distorted, apparently, however, without causing leakage.
It is known that more or less leakage took place through the dam, and to moderate this the water face was from time to time coated and repaired with cement.
As a rule such pipes were not renewed: the leakage was enormous, and the difficulty was met by the very inefficient method of reducing the period of supply still farther.
The subliming apparatus consists of two parts: (I) a hemispherical stoneware basin placed within a closefitting iron one, or an enamelled iron basin, and (2) a hemispherical lead or stoneware lid, or dome, cemented on the top of the basin to prevent leakage.
Artificial membranes are seldom or never perfectly semi-permeable - some leakage of solute nearly always occurs, but the imperfections of actual membranes need no more prevent our use of the ideal conception than the faults of real engines invalidate the theory of ideal thermodynamics founded on the conception of a perfect, reversible, frictionless, heat engine.
If it were not for leakage in various ways, the electrification would go on everywhere increasing, but in practice a stationary state is soon attained.
Tudsbury that if an influence machine is enclosed in a metallic chamber containing compressed air, or better, carbon dioxide, the insulating properties of compressed gases enable a greatly improved effect to be obtained owing to the diminution of the leakage across the plates and from the supports.
Electric furnaces are at an advantage over others as regards the removal of sulphur and of iron oxide from the molten steel, because their atmosphere is free from the sulphur always present in the flame of coal-fired furnaces, and almost free from oxygen, because this element is quickly absorbed by the carbon and silicon of the steel, and in the case of arc furnaces by the carbon of the electrodes themselves, and is replaced only very slowly by leakage, whereas through the Bessemer converter and the open-hearth furnace a torrent of air is always rushing.
All the sluices should be substantially built at first with stones and mortar, to prevent the leakage of water; for, should water from a leak be permitted to find its way into the meadow, that portion of it will stagnate and produce coarse grasses.
After several reconnaissances in which fighting took place with Mahmuds outposts, it was ascertained from prisoners that their army was short of provisions and that great leakage was going on.
To employ the electroscope as a means of detecting radio-activity, we have first to test the leakage quality of the electroscope itself.
The published lists of " converts " are, however, no safe index to actual progress; for no equivalent statistics are available for " leakage " in the opposite direction.
Hence, as the survival of the fittest, there are many artificial waters, with low dams consisting exclusively of earth - and sometimes very sandy earth - satisfactorily performing their functions with no visible leakage.
Dams Any well-made earthen embankment of moderate height, and of such thickness and uniformity of construction as to ensure freedom from excessive percolation at any point, will in the course of time become almost impermeable to surface water standing against it; and when permeable rocks are covered with many feet of soil, the leakage through such soil from standing water newly placed above it generally diminishes rapidly, and in process of time often ceases entirely.
The loss of water by leakage through such joints or fissures below the puddle wall may or may not be a serious matter in itself; but if at any point there is sufficient movement of water across the base of the trench to produce the slightest erosion of the clay above it, that movement almost invariably increases.
Percolation toe and concrete t through this sand is thus added to the original leakage.
- Leakage due to improperly formed discharge culvert-through puddle wall of reservoir.
The clay roof, rather than the walls of this crevice of sand, gave way and pressed down to fill the vacancy, and the leakage worked up along the weakened plane of tangential strain bd.
On the appearance of serious leakage the overflow level of the water originally at of was lowered for safety to gh; and for many years the reservoir was worked with its general level much below gh.
Unless such faces are so far below the surface of the puddle, and so related to the lower parts of the trench, that no tension, and consequent tendency to separation of the puddle from the rock, can possibly take place, and unless abundant time is given, before the reservoir is charged, for the settlement and compression of the puddle to be completed, leakage with disastrous results may occur.
In other cases leakage and failure have arisen from allowing a part of the rock bottom or end of a puddle trench to overhang, as in fig.
These fissures are in vertical planes stretching entirely across the puddle trench, and reaching in one case, aa, nearly to the highest level at which the reservoir had been worked for seventeen years after the leakage had been discovered.
- Vertical Vein of Leakage.
But even in entirely new distributing systems the network is so extensive, and the number of joints so great, that the aggregate leakage is always considerable; the greatest loss being at the so-called " ferrules " connecting the mains with the house " communication " or " service " pipes, in the lead pipes, and in the household fittings.
Constant pressure being granted, constant leakage is inevitable, and being constant it is not surprising that its total amount often exceeds the aggregate of the much greater, but shorter, draughts of water taken for various household purposes.
Following upon the passing of the Waterworks Clauses Act 1847, a constant supply was attempted in many towns, with the result in some cases that, owing to the enormous loss arising from the prolongation of the period of leakage from [[[Distribution]] a fraction of an hour to twenty-four hours, it was impossible to maintain the supply.
changing their fittings to new and no doubt better types, though the old fittings were only in a fraction of the cases actually causing leakage.
Now, all the uses of water, of whatever kind they may be, produce some such irregular diagrams as these, which can never be confused with the uniform horizontal line of leakage, but are always superimposed upon it.
It is this leakage line that the waterworks engineer uses to ascertain the truth as to the leakage and to assist him in its suppression.
in a certain district of 2000 persons, the meter of which records at the time a uniform flow of 2000 gallons an hour, showing the not uncommon rate of leakage of 24 gallons per head per day.
He finds, for example, from the diagram that the initial leakage of 2000 gallons an hour has in the course of a 41 hours' night inspection fallen to 400 gallons an hour, and that the 1600 gallons an hour is accounted for by Distribution The earliest water supplies in Great Britain were generally distributed at low pressure by wooden pipes or stone or brick conduits.
Each of these drops is located by the time and place records in the book and the time records on the diagram as belonging to a particular service pipe; so that out of possibly 300 premises the bulk of the leakage has been localized in or just outside fifteen.
To each of these premises he goes with the knowledge that a portion of the total leakage of 2000 gallons an hour is almost certainly there, and that it must be found, which is a very different thing from visiting three or four hundred houses, in not one of which he has any particular reason to expect to find leakage.
Even when he enters a house with previous knowledge that there is leakage, its discovery may be difficult.
In these cases, without some such system of localization, the leakage might go on for years or for ever.
Similar examinations by means of the stop-valves on the mains are also made, and it often happens that the residual leakage (400 gallons an hour in the last case) recorded on the diagram, but not shut off by the house stop - cocks, is mentioned by the inspector as an " outside waste," and localized as having been heard at a stop-cock and traced by sounding the pavement to a particular position under a particular street.
If this work is properly organized, nearly the whole of the leakage so detected is suppressed within a month.
If, for example, in the case of a hundred such districts we watch the result of leaving them alone, a gradual growth of leakage common to most of the districts, but not to all, is observed, while here and there a sudden increase occurs, often doubling or trebling the total supply to the district.
Upon the original installa - tion of the system in any town, the rate of leakage and consequent total supply to the different districts is found;to vary greatly, and in some districts it is usually many times as great per head as in others.
By the adoption of this method great reductions in the quantity of water used and wasted are in some cases effected, and the water tenant pays for the leakage or waste he permits to take place, as well as for the water he uses.
The system, however, does not assist in the detection of the leakage which inevitably occurs between the reservoir and the consumer's meter; thus the whole of the mains, joints and ferrules connecting the service pipes with the mains, and the greater parts of the service pipes, are still exposed to leakage without any compensating return to the water authority.
In the organization of the best municipal water undertakings in the United Kingdom the free use of water is encouraged, and it is only the leakage or occasional improper employment of the water that the water authority seeks, and that successfully, to suppress.
The question of the distribution of water, rightly considered, resolves itself into a question of delivering water to the water tenant, without leakage on the way, and of securing that the fittings employed by the water tenant shall be such as to afford an ample and ready supply at all times of the day and night without leakage and without any unnecessary facilities for waste.
The difficulty about weighing in vacuo is that it is found almost impossible to exhaust the case entirely, or even to maintain a constant degree of exhaustion, by reason of the leakage connected with the weighing operations, and in consequence weighing in vacuo is not much in favour.
Leakage due to bladder spasm irritation: The catheter and inflated balloon is a foreign body to the lower urinary tract.
The options for eliminating risk of gland leakage is to use bellows sealed valves.
I finally read her trip switch: it says: ' earth leakage circuit breaker ' / current op / 30 mA trip.
capillary, the view of the choroidal vessels and retinal capillaries is soon obscured by the rapid leakage of fluorescein from the choroidal vasculature.
The studies on marginal leakage were the first indications that secondary caries was not always caused by incomplete cavity preparation.
LEAKAGE: The current that originates from but does return to the source on the primary current carrying conductors (i.e.
dengue shock syndrome (DSS) results from leakage of plasma into the extravascular compartment.
The spectral leakage increases since zero padding introduces a discontinuity in the data stream.
exacerbaterauma setting, however, the blood-brain barrier may be disrupted allowing leakage of the mannitol thereby exacerbating the problem.
Diffuse or focal leakage can be identified by fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA ).
We are working flat-out to bring reduce water losses as fast as we can without causing gridlock in London, where leakage is highest.
The resonant charging properties depend on the chosen tank capacitor value and the leakage or ballast inductance of the supply.
This being the value which will resonate at 50Hz with the 159 Henry leakage inductance of the transformer.
The night wrap has a thicker layer of pul (polyurethane laminate) to prevent leakage.
For example, landfill sites have to be specially lined to prevent any leakage of toxic leachate.
leakage of urine from the bladder.
leakage of the PD fluid up to surround her lungs.
Place the wireless router or access point away from outside walls to minimize signal leakage.
The vertical storage of the iron prevents leakage from its water tank.
Thames Water has replaced 250 miles of London's oldest mains, in a huge project to reduce leakage across the capital.
The accuracy of Aircrete blocks used in thin joint construction helps minimize air leakage.
The primary outcome in the review was the overall anastomotic leakage.
Urinary incontinence is the involuntary leakage of urine from the bladder.
The benefit is a dramatic reduction in spectral leakage, enabling any measure of zero padding to be used.
If you have noticed accidental leakage from your bladder or bowel, see your doctor.
Glossary Useful addresses Index What is urinary incontinence Urinary incontinence is defined as bothersome urinary leakage causing a social or hygiene problem.
leakage circuit breaker ' / current op / 30 mA trip.
leakage detection teams equipped with the latest leak detection technology.
No leakage or a reduction in urine leakage would occur on coughing, laughing or sneezing.
The solution delivered included the PRIME revenue integrity monitoring engine which identifies multiple areas of revenue leakage.
Such defects could cause air leakage around the filter.
She is pleased with how he is doing and the mitral valve leakage has not changed.
The redevelopment will improve pedestrian linkages throughout the town, attract quality retailers, and reduce leakage to nearby centers such as Newcastle.
loudspeaker enclosures, air leakage from points close to the speaker units themselves must be minimized.
Individuals with wet macular degeneration may see a dark spot or spots within their central vision due to the blood leakage under the retina.
Leakage in interconnect costs operators millions every month & often goes un-checked because Fraud & Revenue Assurance Teams do not understand the problem.
oxyacetylene equipment, leakage of acetylene from faulty hoses or hose connections is the most common cause of fires.
Proper lubrication of the gland packing requires a certain leakage rate.
Nystatin however, binds to ergosterol and alters membrane permeability and hence allows leakage of intracellular contents.
On a daily basis we are deploying 100 personnel on leakage detection.
Low air leakage plenum floors for underfloor air delivery are standard.
rafter pitches close to the minimum pitch for the tiles water leakage problems will occur.
spectral leakage to other bins will reduce the power reported for each component.
Telcora Interconnect Fraud & Revenue Leakage Training hailed a great success by Cable & Wireless.
Fuel Most resorts use large underground storage tanks to fuel lifts, which poses a risk to the environment through a potential for leakage.
Secondly, that the polymer tantalum type has higher leakage currents than traditional capacitors.
tenseiety on its own can also lead to leakage by tensing the muscles.
Indeed surgically creating adhesions between adjacent viscera is an excellent technique to prevent leakage into the abdominal cavity from defects.
At the blade tip, a similar leakage induces a vortex about the blade tip.
opposed by the leakage through imperfect insulation, or natural dissipation, and this may introduce a fictitious element into the apparent annual or diurnal variation.
The deflection observed on the galvanometer when the lines are leaky is d, while D is the deflection obtained through one coil of the galvanometer with all the other resistances in circuit; and assuming that no leakage exists on the lines, this deflection is calculated from the " constant " of the instrument, i.e., from the known deflection obtained with a definite current.
The apparatus consists of a sending battery B, a reversing transmitting key K, a slide of small resistance 5, three condensers C1, C2, C3, an artificial cable AC, the receiving instruments I and G, and one or more resistances R for adjusting the leakage current.
Stones in the gall-bladder should be removed by operation, as, if left, there is a great risk of their trying to escape with the bile into the intestine and thus causing a blockage of the common bile-duct, and perhaps a fatal leakage of bile into the peritoneum through a perforating ulcer of the duct.
nearly over the leakage, and thus sometimes gives the first warning of impending danger.
However at rafter pitches close to the minimum pitch for the tiles water leakage problems will occur.
Note that spectral leakage to other bins will reduce the power reported for each component.
The impervious nature of the material ensures that there is no leakage or spillage of body fluids during removal.
Anxiety on its own can also lead to leakage by tensing the muscles.
It reduces air leakage between the conditioned house and the unconditioned attic space.
A simple nylon cup will produce a droopy effect; molded cotton shapes your chest, while disguising nursing pads or any leakage at the same time.
A traditionally-built home loses 15 to 20 percent of its heat or air-conditioning from leakage in the ducts alone.
Before the greenhouse effect was more widely understood, one of the most common problems with landfills reported was toxic leakage.
They are practical because they add more space inside the tub or shower area, and they help stop water leakage.
Chances are there has been some water leakage over the years and some parts of the wall may need to be patched, replaced or skim coated.Remove any damaged tiles and cut out damp or wet drywall.
Are machine washable and dryable - You will find yourself needing to wash your gown frequently between breast leakage and baby accidents.
Selecting the best mask for your needs really centers on how well the mask fits (so there is no air leakage) and how comfortable it is to wear while sleeping.
Facial muscle reflexes - Facial muscle movement during sleep can create pressure leakage points.
Most CPAP mask problems center around air leakage and skin irritation.
Be sure that you select a nasal mask that covers your entire nasal area and leaves room at the bottom for you to comfortable inhale and exhale without air leakage.
A mask that fits too loosely may feel comfortable but it may slip or cause air leakage.
This page provides all sorts of information related to seizure risk, repetitive motion injuries, motion sickness, console damage, and battery leakage.
Purpura, a purplish or reddish-brown rash or discoloration of the skin, and petechiae, small round pinpoint hemorrhages, are both caused by the leakage of blood from tiny capillaries under the skin.
Purpura comes from the Latin word for "purple" and refers to the reddish-purple spots on the skin caused by leakage of blood from inflamed capillaries.
Skin rash: The type of skin rash associated with the TORCH syndrome is usually reddish-purple or brown and is caused by the leakage of blood from broken capillaries into the baby's skin.
A major leakage can lead to enlargement of the heart and failing circulation.
An increasingly common form of chemical injury to the nasal membranes in toddlers is alkali burns caused by leakage from small batteries placed in the nose.
Bruises, or ecchymoses, are a discoloration and tenderness of the skin or mucous membranes due to the leakage of blood from an injured blood vessel into the tissues.
The damage appears to be caused by leakage of fluid from the spinal cord and exposure of the cord to amniotic fluid.
About 25 percent of women undergoing prenatal surgery lose some amniotic fluid, often because of leakage at the uterine incision.
Signs of infection include leakage of pus from the blisters or excessive redness, warmth, tenderness, or swelling around the blisters.
This leakage creates abnormally high levels of AFP in amniotic fluid and in maternal blood.
Leakage stains can be embarrassing and can easily be prevented with pads.
There also can be slight leakage of amniotic fluid or minimal blood loss, but providing that the woman rests for a few hours afterwards and avoids strenuous activity for 24 hours afterwards, this can be kept to a minimum.
These problems involve leakage, problems with the plastic jar and that the motor has a tendency to run hot when used for frozen items.
For example, yoga mats should offer thick cushioning and yoga sandbags should have strong stitching with a zippered lining to avoid leakage.
Over time as the leakage continues, the buildup grows and hardens resembling feathery limestone crystals.
Since potassium hydroxide is a base, an acid must be used to clean the leakage.
Although alkaline batteries do have leakage at times, they typically do not leak with normal usage and storage conditions.
If your battery is an acid-based battery and there is a leakage, clean it using baking soda (a base) mixed with a small amount of water.
While the puncturing or eruption of the water or inserts is unlikely, it is possible that leakage can occur if the lining is severed with a sharp object or pressure is applied to the point of bursting.
In the rare case of leakage or enhancement, the materials in most bras will not be harmful, although they should be disposed of.
It goes without saying that waterproof undergarments are, of course, going to protect you from embarrassing leakage.
There is also a danger of information leakage.
Total insulation resistance of looped lines = 2 R(D/d - 1); in which R is the total resistance of the looped wires, including the resistance of the two coils of the galvanometer, of the battery, and of the two resistance coils r and r' (inserted for the purpose of causing the leakage on the lines to have a maximum effect on the galvanometer.
These attempts were, however, unsuccessful, on account of the excessive leakage at the joints of the pipes.
To prevent leakage over the surface of the insulating covering of the wire which projects above the surface of the water, it is necessary to employ a " guard wire P, which consists of a piece of fine copper wire, twisted round the extremity of the insulated wire and connected to the battery.
Its action is based upon the following considerations: When water is passing through a main and supplying nothing but leakage the flow of that water is necessarily uniform, and any instrument which graphically represents that flow as a horizontal line conveys to the mind a full conception of the nature of the flow, and if by the position of that line between the bottom and the top of a diagram the quantity of water (in gallons per hour, for example) is recorded, we have a full statement, not only of the rate of flow, but of its nature.
It is not always possible to prevent any leakage whatever through the strata below the bottom or beyond the ends of the trench, but it is always possible to render such leakage entirely harmless to the work above it, and to carry the water by relief-pipes to visible points at the lower toe of the dam.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.