Connor now belonged in the same league physically as the other three.
He strongly opposed the League of Nations.
During the next twenty years the philo-laconian policy of Cimon secured Aegina, as a member of the Spartan league, from attack.
During the next twenty years the philo-laconian policy of Cimon secured Aegina, as a member of the Spartan league, from attack.
In the 5th century the three cities were enrolled in the Delian League, and democracies became prevalent.
December of the same year this league allied itself with the elder Veronese league, and received the addition.
This feeling was widespread throughout the Walloon provinces, and found expression in the League of Arras (5th of January 1579).
Irish in a league against the supporters of the parliament, and only a few scattered forts held out for the Commonwealth, while the young king was every day expected to land and complete the conquest of the island.
He was created a peer of France in 1458, and made governor of Paris during the war of the League of the Public Weal (1465).
By this instrument the deputies of Hainault, Artois and Douay formed themselves into a league for the defence of the Catholic religion, and, subject to his observance of the political stipulations of the Union of Brussels, professed loyal allegiance to the king.
But he could hardly be said seriously to have oppressed the subject cities, and technically all the League money was spent on League business, for Athena, to whom the chief monuments in Athens were reared, was the patron goddess of the League.
Leo at once formed a new league with the emperor and the king of Spain, and to ensure English support made Wolsey a cardinal.
in the peninsula, he signed the league of Venice in March 1495, and about the same time arranged a marriage between his son Philip and Joanna, daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella, king and queen of Castile and Aragon.
Having come to an understanding with his father-in-law Podébrad, he was able to turn his arms against the emperor Frederick, and in April 1462 Frederick restored the holy crown for 60,000 ducats and was allowed to retain certain Hungarian counties with the title of king; in return for which concessions, extorted from Matthias by the necessity of coping with a simultaneous rebellion of the Magyar noble in league with Podebrad's son Victorinus, the emperor recognized Matthias as the actual sovereign of Hungary.
The town was captured by the Swabian League in 1519, by Turenne in 1647, and again in 1688 by the French, who destroyed the walls.
The town was captured by the Swabian League in 1519, by Turenne in 1647, and again in 1688 by the French, who destroyed the walls.
In April 1167 a new league was formed between Cremona, Bergamo, Brescia, Mantua and Ferrara.
William, Egmont, and Hoorn therefore placed themselves at the head of a league of nobles against Granvelle (who had become cardinal in 1561) with the object of undermining his influence and driving him from power.
In his attitude towards the members of the Delian League Pericles likewise maintained a purely Athenian point of view.
His action in abolishing all tolls established on the Rhine since 1250, led to the formation of a league against him by the Rhenish archbishops and the count palatine of the Rhine; but aided by the towns, he soon crushed the rising.
Minor league baseball, biking, and golf are top pursuits.
Connor Poe was a handsome man by anyone's standards, however, the other three were in a league of their own.
Connor Poe was a handsome man by anyone's standards, however, the other three were in a league of their own.
While still an undergraduate he formed a league with John Herschel and Charles Babbage, to conduct the famous struggle of "d-ism versus dot-age," which ended in the introduction into Cambridge of the continental notation in the infinitesimal calculus to the exclusion of the fluxional notation of Sir Isaac Newton.
The WCTU and Anti-Saloon League were active and the churches sure didn't like the kind of business going on in Ouray.
The three cities founded by these settlers - Lindus, Ialysus and Camirusbelonged to the "League of Six Cities," by which the Dorian colonists in Asia Minor sought to protect themselves against the barbarians of the neighbouring mainland.
The main promoter of the league was Pope Pius V., but the bulk of the forces was supplied by the republic of Venice and Philip II.
The main promoter of the league was Pope Pius V., but the bulk of the forces was supplied by the republic of Venice and Philip II.
Civil war was raging in France, and Clement became an ardent partisan of the League; his mind appears to have become unhinged by religious fanaticism, and he talked of exterminating the heretics, and formed a plan to kill Henry III.
After a period of vacillation he deserted Louis and joined the Holy League, which had been formed to expel the French from Italy; but unable to raise troops, he served with the English forces as a volunteer and shared in the victory gained over the French at the battle of the Spurs near Therouanne on the 16th of August 1513.
It was captured in 191 by the Romans, but restored to the Aetolian League until 146.
The treaty of Blois had contained a secret article providing for an attack on Venice, and this ripened into the league of Cambray, which was joined by the emperor in December 1509.
The The national government and the twelve provinces forming the Cordoba League, were ranged on one side; the city and province of Buenos Aires and the province of Corrientes on the other.
The The national government and the twelve provinces forming the Cordoba League, were ranged on one side; the city and province of Buenos Aires and the province of Corrientes on the other.
The Albanian leaders, however, soon displayed a spirit of independence, which proved embarrassing to Turkish diplomacy and caused alarm at Constantinople; their forces came into conflict with a Turkish army under Dervish Pasha near Dulcigno (November 1880), and eventually the league was suppressed.
The conquest of Cyprus by the Turks, and their aggressions on the Christian powers, frightened the states of the Mediterranean into forming a holy league for their common defence.
The upset (reserve) price was go sterling per square league of 6669 acres, and, as the lands were quickly sold, an expansion of the pastoral industry immediately ensued.
But, in the interval between his second and third visit, a league was formed against him in north-eastern Lombardy.
This deed, however, was viewed with far different feelings in Paris and by the partisans of the League, the murderer being regarded as a martyr and extolled by Pope Sixtus V., while even his canonization was discussed.
With a lively arts district, a minor league hockey team and an active waterfront, this city draws many visitors from all over the country.
The name is generally applied not only to the order of Ku Klux Klan, but to other similar societies that existed at the same time, such as the Knights of the White Camelia, a larger order than the Klan; the White Brotherhood; the White League; Pale Faces; Constitutional Union Guards; Black Cavalry; White Rose; The '76 Association; and hundreds of smaller societies that sprang up in the South after the Civil War.
The Pan-Ionian sanctuary of Poseidon on the Asiatic promontory of Mycale was regarded as perpetuating a cult from Peloponnesian Achaea, and the league of twelve cities which maintained it, as imitated from an Achaean dodecapolis, and as claiming (absurdly, according to Herodotus i.
He soon took the field, but after his failure to capture Padua the league broke up; and his sole ally, the French king, joined him in calling a general council at Pisa to discuss the question of Church reform.
It was first employed by the Milanese in 1038, and played a great part in the wars of the Lombard league against the emperor Frederick Barbarossa.
of England, in return for which he entered the imperial league of Spain and England against France.
In 1 9 05 he was Democratic candidate for mayor of New York on the Municipal Ownership ticket, and four years later on the Independence League ticket; in 1906 he was candidate for governor of New York on the Democratic and Independence League tickets, in every instance being defeated.
I dated her a few times, but she was way out of my league.
So why did you think she was out of your league?
This is a little out of my league.
All this mind stuff is totally out of my league.
It was provided that England and the Swiss might join the league.
During the Macedonian supremacy the town passed in turn from Cassander and Demetrius Poliorcetes to Antigonus Gonatas, and finally was incorporated in the Achaean League.
It was one of the five Wendish towns whose alliance extorted from King Eric of Norway a favourable commercial treaty in 1284-1285; and in the 14th century it was second only to Lubeck in the Hanseatic League.
In compliment to King Philip, the general command of the league's fleet was given to his natural brother, Don John of Austria.
When Bedmar took up this appointment, Venice had just concluded an alliance with France, Switzerland and the Netherlands, to counterbalance the power of Spain, and the ambassador was instructed to destroy this league.
The famous league of Lombard cities, styled Concordia in its acts of settlement, was now established.
In the emperors absence, Raven.na, Rimini, Imola and Foril joined the league, which now called itself the Society of Venice, Lombardy, the March, Romagna and Alessandria.
The fortress town of Alessandria stopped his progress with those mud walls contemptuously named of straw, while the forces of the league assembled at Modena and obliged him to raise the siege.
Yet neither the acts by which their league was ratified nor the terms negotiated for them by their patron Alexander evince the smallest desire of what we now understand as national independence.
From the Tuscan league Pisa, consistently Ghibelline, stood aloof.
Already in 1218, the Guelphs of Lombardy had resuscitated their old league, and had been defeated by the Ghibellines in a battle near Ghibello.
Meanwhile Lodovico procured his nephews death, and raised a league against the French in Lombardy.
Quarrelling with the Venetians In 1508, he combined the forces of all Europe by the league of Cambray against them; and, when he had succeeded in his first purpose of humbling them even to the dust, he turned round in 1510, uttered his famous resolve to expel the barbarians from Italy, and pitted the Spaniards against the French.
Bona- The anathemas of the pope, the bravery of Piedmontese and Austrians, and the subsidies of Great Britain failed to keep the league of Italian princes against France intact.
Tuscany and Naples had both joined the Italian league; a Tuscan army started for Lombardy on the 3oth of April, and 17,000 Neapolitans commanded by Pepe (who had returned after 28 years of exile) went to assist Durando in intercepting the Austrian reinforce1irnts under Nugent.
In August Marco Minghetti succeeded in forming a military league and a customs union between Tuscany, Romagna and the duchies, and in procuring the adoption of the Piedmontese codes; and envoys were sent to Paris to mollify Napoleon.
But to Napoleons statement that he could not agree to the unification of Italy, as he was bound by his promises to Austria at Villafranca, Victor Emmanuel replied that he himself, after Magenta and Solferino, was bound in honor to link his fate with that of the Italian people; and Genetal Manfredo Fanti was sent by the Turin government to organize the army of the Central League, with Garibaldi under him.
Though aware of Bismarcks hostility towards Italy, of the conclusion of the Austro-German alliance of 1879, and of the undisguised ill-will of France, Italy not only made no attempt to crush an agitation as mischievous as it was futile, but granted a state funeral to General Avezzana, president of the Irredentist League.
Growing rivalry between Austria and Russia in the Balkans rendered the continuance of the League of the Three Emperors a practical impossibility.
The tsar, Alexander III., under the impression of the assassination of his father, desired, however, the renewal of the Dreikaiserbund, both as a guarantee of European peace and as a conservative league against revolutionary parties.
The German emperor shared this desire, but Bismarck and the Austrian emperor wished to substitute for the imperial league some more advantageous combination.
Simultaneously Danby guided through parliament a bill for raising money for a war against France; a league was concluded with Holland, and troops were actually sent there.
In the long struggle of the Netherlands against Spain, Ghent took a conspicuous part, and it was here that, on the 8th of November 1576, was signed the instrument, known as the Pacification of Ghent, which established the league against Spanish tyranny.
He helped to crush the rising of the peasants under Thomas Munzer in Thuringia in 1525; he was a member of the league of Schmalkalden, and took part in all the movements of the Protestants against Charles V.
The peace of Crepy in September 1544 deprived him of this employment, but he had won a considerable reputation, and when Charles was preparing to attack the league of Schmalkalden, he took pains to win Albert's assistance.
He then followed the fortunes of his friend Maurice, the new elector of Saxony, deserted Charles, and joined the league which proposed to overthrow the emperor by an alliance with Henry II.
These soon became so serious that a league was formed to crush him, and Maurice of Saxony led an army against his former comrade.
Henry II., duke of Brunswick, then took command of the troops of the league, and after Albert had been placed under the imperial ban in December 1553 he was defeated by Duke Henry, and compelled to fly to France.
In the, 4th century Aix, now a free city of the Holy Roman Empire, played a conspicuous part, especially in the league which, between 1351 and 1387, kept the peace between the Meuse and the Rhine.
It was destroyed by Joshua for joining the league against the Gibeonites (Joshua x 3 1 -33) and assigned to the tribe of Judah (xv.
The next important canal, the Dujayl (Dojail), left the Euphrates on the left, about a league above Ramadiya (Ar-Rabb), and flowed into the Tigris between Ukbara and Bagdad.
The king's encouragement seemed at first to point to a successful revival of flagellation; but the practice disappeared along with the other forms of devotion that had sprung up at the time of the league, and Henry III.'s successor suppressed the Paris brotherhood.
Since the days when Rurik had first chosen it as his headquarters, the little town on the Volkhov had grown into a great commercial of Nov- city and a member of the Hanseatic league, and it had brought under subjection a vast expanse of territory, stretching from the shores of the Baltic to the Ural Mountains, and containing several subordinate towns, of which the principal were Pskov, Nizhniy-Novgorod and Vyatka.
In response to this call some Russian princes formed a league and went out eastward to meet the foe, but they were utterly defeated in a great battle on the banks of the Kalka (1224), which has remained to this day in the memory of the Russian common people.
This tendency was already shown by Catherine when she created the League of Neutrals as an arm against the naval supremacy of England, and by Paul when he insisted that his peace negotiations with Bonaparte should be regarded as part of a general European pacification, in which he must be consulted.
One of his specially noteworthy performances was the settlement of the terms of peace after the defeat of the league of Schmalkalden at Miihlberg in 1547, a settlement in which, to say the least, some particularly sharp practice was exhibited.
'AXEa in Boeotia); and, most important of all, 'Aµqucrvovcs, at Anthela near Thermopylae, as patron-goddess of the Amphictyonic league, subsequently so well known in connexion with the temple at Delphi.
Of this monarch, known as Murkertagh MacNeill (Niall), and sometimes by reference to his mother as Murkertagh Mac Erca, the story is told, illustrating an ancient Celtic custom, that in making a league with a tribe in Meath he emphasized the inviolability of the treaty by having it written with the blood of both clans mixed in one vessel.
Panin was the inventor of the famous "Northern Accord," which aimed at opposing a combination of Russia, Prussia, Poland, Sweden, and perhaps Great Britain, against the Bourbon-Habsburg League.
Israel was once more in league with Damascus and Phoenicia, and the biblical records must be read in the light of political history.
He presented a draft of the famous " Solemn League and Covenant," which was received with great enthusiasm.
The " Solemn League and Covenant," which pledged both countries to the extirpation of prelacy, leaving further decision as to church government to be decided by the " example of the best reformed churches," after undergoing some slight alterations, passed the two Houses of Parliament and the Westminster Assembly, and thus became law for the two kingdoms. By means of it Henderson has had considerable influence on the history of Great Britain.
He strongly promoted the League of Nations in the early part of that year; he attended the International Socialist Conference at Berne; and in Dec. 1920 he paid an informal visit to Ireland in the hope of promoting peace.
It was during his control of the Erie that he and Fisk entered into a league with the Tweed Ring, they admitted Tweed to the directorate of the Erie, and Tweed in turn arranged favourable legislation for them at Albany.
State prohibition had been defeated in 1881 by a vote of 100,000; in 1902 the Anti-Saloon League organized in the state; in 1903 the Watts Law enacted rural prohibition, giving towns local option, under which many of the towns voted " no licence "; and in 1905 severe police regulations were provided for towns in which saloons were licensed.
About 1350 it joined the Hanseatic League.
In 1902 he became editor of the newspaper of the Agrarian League and later entered the Sobranje.
He had convinced the majority of the people that the government created by the Constitution was not a league or confederacy, but a Union, and had all the powers necessary to its maintenance and preservation.
The towns possessed the rights of Magdeburg, or (like Elbing) those of Lubeck; the most important of them soon came to join the Hanseatic League.
The discontented clergy, especially in Livonia; the towns, such as Danzig; the native aristocracy, organized in a league (the Eidechsenbund, or League of the Lizard), all sought to use their opportunity.
Above all, there arose in 1440 the Prussian League (Preussischer Bund), in which the nobles and towns joined together, nominally for common protection of their rights, but really against the Order.
The League naturally sympathized with Poland, not only because Poland was the enemy of the knights, but also because under Poland it hoped to enjoy the practical liberty which Polish anarchy already seemed to offer.
The ultimate result was that in 1454 an embassy of the League offered Prussia to the Polish king, and that, after many years of war, the Peace of Thorn (1466) gave to Poland West Prussia, with Marienburg, Thorn, Danzig and other towns, in full possession, and, while leaving East Prussia to the Order, made the Order the vassals of Poland for the territory which it retained.
Long before his death, Bright's references in public speeches to the achievements of the Anti-Corn Law League were received with respectful impatience, and Peel's famous speech on the repeal of the corn laws would not convince the German Reichstag or a modern House of Commons.
The new Franco-Russian entente helped on the formation of the Armed Neutrality League and led to the concoction of schemes for the driving of the British from India.
He therefore heard without dismay at the end of March that Prussia had joined Russia in a league in which Sweden was now an active participant.
Upon the Mons Albanus stood the temple of Jupiter Latiaris, where the annual festival of the Latin League was held.
In the 12th century we find Forli in league with Ravenna, and in the 13th the imperial count of the province of Romagna resided there.
In 1590 he sent an expedition to Provence in the interests of the Catholic League, and followed it himself later, but the peace of 1593, by which Henry of Navarre was recognized as king of France, put an end to his ambitions.
The most important work of his life was his co-operation in the production of the Satire Menippee (1593), which did so much to damage the cause of the League; the harangue of the Sieur d'Aubray is usually attributed to his pen.
A league against the Scala domination was formed, and the result was the fall of the family.
Venice took possession of Padua, but in the terms of the league she at once conferred the lordship on the Carraresi, retaining Treviso and Bassano for herself.
The rapid formation of this land empire, and the obvious intention to expand, called the attention not only of Italy but of Europe to this power which seemed destined to become supreme in north Italy, and eventually led to the league of Cambrai for the dismemberment of Venice.
The pope, having recovered the Romagna and secured the objects for which he had joined the league, was unwilling to see all north Italy in the hands of foreigners, and quitted the union.
The league broke up, and the mainland cities of the Veneto returned of their own accord to their allegiance to St Mark.
With the help of these troops the Phocian League at first carried the war into Boeotia and Thessaly, and though driven out of the latter country by Philip of Macedon, maintained itself for ten years, until the exhaustion of the temple treasures and the treachery of its leaders placed it at Philip's mercy.
During the 3rd century it passed into the power of Macedonia and of the Aetolian League, to which in 196 it was definitely annexed.
Under the dominion of the Roman republic its national league was dissolved, but was revived by Augustus, who also restored to Phocis the votes in the Delphic Amphictyony which it had lost in 346 and enrolled it in the new Achaean synod.
The Phocian League is last heard of under Trajan.
He was opposed to the Covenant of the League of Nations, holding that " either the Covenant involves a surrender of national sovereignty and submits our future destiny to the League, or it is an empty thing, big in name, and will ultimately disappoint all of humanity that hinge its hopes upon it."
He voted for the Lodge reservations and also for the Reed reservation that the United States alone should judge whether matters of direct interest to it should be brought before the League; and finally he voted against ratification of the Treaty as submitted by President Wilson.
While opposing the Covenant of the League of Nations, he gave to many of his supporters the impression that he desired an " association of nations " which, without the characteristics of a super-state (such as he believed the League to be), might safeguard peace.
President Harding made plain in his first message that the United States would not enter the League of Nations.
In rejecting the League Covenant, he said " we make no surrender of our hope and aim for an association to promote peace, in which we would most heartily join."
25 1921, a treaty with Germany was signed, embodying the President's plan of including most of the stipulations of the Versailles Treaty, but repudiating adherence by the United States to any clause referring to the League of Nations.
In 1509, at the outset of the war of the League of Cambray, the town gave itself voluntarily to the emperor Maximilian, to whom it was ceded formally by Venice in 1517, and next year incorporated with Tirol.
In 1464 the bishop joined the league of the Public Weal, and fell into disfavour with the king, who seized the temporalities of his see.
Led by Aristides and Cimon they rendered such prominent service as to receive in return the formal leadership of the Greek allies and the presidency of the newly formed Delian League.
With tolls, and the tribute of the Delian League, a fund of 9700 talents (2,30o,000) was amassed in the treasury.
In the wars of the period Athens took a prominent part with a view to upholding the balance of power, joining the Corinthian League in 395, and assisting Thebes against Sparta after 378, Sparta against Thebes after 369.
Her generals and admirals, Conon, Iphicrates, Chabrias, Timotheus, distinguished themselves by their military skill, and partially recovered their country's predominance in the Aegean, which found expression in the temporary renewal of the Delian League.
By her treacherous attack upon the frontier-town of Oropus (156) Athens indirectly brought about the conflict between Rome and the Achaean League which resulted in the eventual loss of Greek independence, but remained herself a free town with rights secured by treaty.
A consistent advocate of the protective tariff, he was one of the organizers, and for many years president, of the American Protective Tariff League.
An important event of his reign was the conclusion of an alliance with the Latins, whereby Rome and the cities of Latium became members of one great league, whose common sanctuary was the temple of Diana on the Aventine.
It is also suspicious that no list of the members of the league is given, contrary to the usual custom.
Della Rovere, feeling that Rome was a dangerous place for him, fortified himself in his bishopric of Ostia at the Tiber's mouth, while Ferdinand allied himself with Florence, Milan, Venice, and the pope formed a league against Naples (April 25, 1493) and prepared for war.
But a reaction against Charles soon set in, for all the powers were alarmed at his success, and on the 31st of March a league between the pope, the emperor, Venice, Lodovico it Moro and Ferdinand of Spain was formed, ostensibly against the Turks, but in reality to expel the French from Italy.
Most of the leading breeds have clubs or societies, which have been founded by admirers with a view to furthering the interests of their favourites; and such combinations as the Bulldog Club (incorporated), the London Bulldog Society, the British Bulldog Club, the Fox Terrier Club, the Association of Bloodhound Breeders - under whose management the first man-hunting trials were held, - the Bloodhound Hunt Club, the Collie Club, the Dachshund Club, the Dandie Dinmont Terrier Club, the English Setter Club, the Gamekeepers' Association of the United Kingdom, the International Gun Dog League, the Irish Terrier Club, the Irish Wolfhound Club, the St Bernard Club, the National Terrier Club, the Pomeranian Club, the Spaniel Club, the Scottish Terrier Club and the Toy Bulldog Club have done good work in keeping the claims of the breeds they represent before the dogowning public and encouraging the breeding of dogs to type.
The town joined the Hanseatic League in 1407.
It is said to have been an Alban colony: it was a member of the Latin league of 499 B.C. and became Volscian in 488.
During the 15th century the town suffered greatly from the Hussites, and it was captured by the imperial troops during the war of the league of Schmalkalden, and again in the Thirty Years' War.
One historic clash in New Orleans (on the 14th of September 1874) between the " White League " (" White Man's Party") and the Republican police is commemorated by a monument, and the day is regarded by Louisianans as a sort of state independenceday.
After the outbreak of the World War he endorsed the Administration's peace policy, supported the League to Enforce Peace, and urged that the national guard be tried fully before compulsory service be decided upon.
The losses inflicted on the Turks by Hunyadi Janos, and the attempt to organize a defensive league among the neighbouring Christian lands, temporarily averted the ruin of all the neighbouring lands were governed by Moslems or Roman Catholics; and at home the peasants were permitted to retain their creed and communal organization.
After a series of indecisive engagements Venice broke from the league and, under the mediation of France, concluded a treaty with the Porte practically on the basis of uti possidetis (March 7, 1 573).
During the religious wars of the 16th century Agen took the part of the Catholics and openly joined the League in 1589.
Many economic changes probably occurred in consequence of the variations in tide-generating force, as, for instance, the decline in the mediaeval Baltic herring fisheries controlled by the Hanseatic League.
The defensive alliance of the city with Lubeck in 1241, extended for other purpose by the treaty of 1255, practically laid the foundations of the Hanseatic League, of which Hamburg continued to be one of the principal members.
In 1536 Hamburg joined the league of Schmalkalden, for which error it had to pay a heavy fine in 1547 when the league had been defeated.
The Lombard League now included it among the allied cities and named it Alessandria, after Pope Alexander III.
The traditional account of its foundation by the Lombard League has been disproved by F.
A by no means unwarrantable fear of the king of Prussia, who was "to be reduced within proper limits," so that "he might be no longer a danger to the empire," induced Elizabeth to accede to the treaty of Versailles, in other words the Franco-Austrian league against Prussia, and on the 17th of May 1757 the Russian army, 85,000 strong, advanced against Konigsberg.
Elizabeth would not consent to any pacific overtures until the original object of the league had been accomplished.
In 1770 the Council of the Confederation was transferred from its original seat in Silesia to Hungary, from whence it conducted diplomatic negotiations with France, Austria and Turkey with the view of forming a league against Russia.
During the winter of 1916-7 these volunteers experienced heav y losses; after the Russian revolution in March 1917, Bolshevik sympathies spread among these troops and large sections of the people, while on the other hand national aspirations united the Farmers' Political League (40,000 members), headed by K.
The security offered by this treaty was further guaranteed by the formation of a regional league of the Baltic states against external aggression.
By the peace of Westphalia (1648) it was recognized as an independent ally of the Swiss League.
In Greyfriars' churchyard the Solemn League and Covenant was signed, and among its many monuments are the Martyrs' monument, recording the merits of the murdered covenanters, and the tomb of " Bluidy " Mackenzie.
c. as under Roman supremacy, but is not included in the list of the Latin league of 499 B.C. In 406 it was stormed by the Romans, lost in 402, recovered in 400, unsuccessfully attacked by the Volscians in 397, and finally secured by the establishment of a colony of Roman citizens in 329 B.C. As such it frequently appears in history.
Quinctius Flamininus, and became members of the Achaean League.
Augustus seems to have reorganized the league in some way, for Pausanias (iii.
Prentice, the historian of the Anti-Corn-Law League, who was then editor of the Manchester Times, describes how, in the year 1835, he received for publication in his paper a series of admirably written letters, under the signature of "Libra," discussing commercial and economical questions with rare ability.
In 1838 an anti-Corn-Law association was formed at Manchester, which, on his suggestion, was afterwards changed into a national association, under the title of the Anti-Corn-Law League (see Corn Laws).
During the seven years between the formation of the league and its final triumph, he devoted himself wholly to the work of promulgating his economic doctrines.
His labours were as various as they were incessant - now guiding the councils of the league, now addressing crowded and enthusiastic meetings of his supporters in London or the large towns of England and Scotland, now invading the agricultural districts and challenging the landlords to meet him in the presence of their own farmers, to discuss the question in dispute, and now encountering the Chartists, led by Feargus O'Connor.
In pursuance of the same object, he identified himself with a series of remarkable peace congresses - international assemblies designed to unite the intelligence and philanthropy of the nations of Christendom in a league against war - which from 1848 to 1851 were held successively in Brussels, Paris, Frankfort, London, Manchester and Edinburgh.
Hence the council of Constance to depose three rival popes; hence the council of Basel to pacify the Hussites, and promote another anti-Moslem league.
The king, who had just returned from the famous " long campaign " of 1443, willingly accepted the leadership of the Christian League.
He therefore supported Venice against her enemies, refused to enter the League of Cambray in 1508, and concluded a ten years' alliance with the Signoria, which obliged Hungary to defend Venetian territory without any equivalent gain.
But, stimulated by the representations of Pope Innocent XI., who, well aware of the internal weakness of the Turk, was bent upon forming a Holy League to drive them out of Europe, and alarmed, besides, by the danger of Vienna and the hereditary states, Leopold reluctantly contracted an alliance with John III.
What is not quite so generally known is the fact that Leopold slackened at once and would have been quite content with the results of these earlier victories had not the pope stiffened his resistance by forming a Holy League between the Emperor, Poland, Venice, Muscovy and the papacy, with the avowed object of dealing the Turk the coup de grace (March 5, 1684).
The second war, though undertaken in league with Russia, proved unlucky, and, at the peace of Belgrade (Sept.
The nobility and clergy favoured the League, and urged the king to force his subjects to profess the Catholic religion.
The latter part of Bodin's life was spent at Laon, which he is said to have persuaded to declare for the League in 1589, and for Henry IV.
- It was peculiarly unfortunate for AustriaHungary that the Cuvaj regime should have been at its very height when the Balkan League achieved its dramatic victory over the Turks.
Tardieu suggested a compromise by which the port and district of Fiume with most of eastern Istria and a total population of over 200,000 (mainly Yugosla y s) would form a small buffer state between Italy and Yugoslavia, under the guarantee of the League of Nations.
A commission of inquiry was then at last appointed by the Allies, and ordered elections under inter-Allied control and the dissolution of the terrorist " League of Volunteers."
As however Trumbic rallied the Yugoslav delegation to refuse the Franco-British project, Clemenceau the very next day introduced the important modification that Fiume should be an independent state under the League.
The corpus separatum became an independent unit under the League of Nations, the Croat suburb of Susak remaining in Yugoslavia and the Baros port being added as an outlet for Yugoslav trade.
A league was formed binding merchants not to deal in goods of British origin; patriotic associations were established for the purpose of defending Venezuela against British aggression, and the militia were embodied.
In its lower course, whatever is worthy of record clusters round the historical vicissitudes of Hamburg - its early prominence as a missionary centre (Ansgar) and as a bulwark against Slav and marauding Northman, its commercial prosperity as a leading member of the Hanseatic League, and its sufferings during the Napoleonic wars, especially at the hands of the ruthless Davotit.
Joining the league of Torgau in 1526, he acted in unison with the Protestants, and was among the princes who banded themselves together to overthrow Charles V.
In the war of the Lombard League against Barbarossa, Cremona, after having shared in the destruction of Crema in 1160 and Milan in 1162, finally joined the league, but took no part in the battle of Legnano, and thus procured itself the odium of both sides.
But if Lord Rosebery once more separated himself from the official Liberals, his principal henchmen in the Liberal League were included in the cabinet, Mr Asquith becoming chancellor of the exchequer, Sir Edward Grey foreign secretary, and Mr Haldane war minister.
On the death of Henry III., after having supported for some time the cardinal de Bourbon, the head of the league against the king, Duperron became a faithful servant of Henry IV., and in 1591 was created by him bishop of Evreux.
The League of Mercy, under royal charter, operates in conjunction with the Fund in the collection of small subscriptions.
Among other societies with similar objects in view are the "Thames Valley Legitimist Club" and the "Legitimist Jacobite League of Great Britain and Ireland."
In June 1754, in pursuance of a recommendation of the Lords of Trade, a convention of representatives of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, Connecticut, New York, Pennsylvania and Maryland met here for the purpose of confirming and establishing a closer league of friendship with the Iroquois and of arranging for a permanent union of the colonies.
The town was a member of the Hanseatic league.
It joined the Lombard league, and was independent after the peace of Constance (1183) until in 1339 it came under the Venetian sway.
In the end the Alberti, though not victorious, succeeded in getting occasionally admitted to the consulship. Florence now formed a league with the chief cities of Tuscany, made peace with the Guidi, and humbled the Alberti whose castle of Semifonte was destroyed (1202).
But, although greatly strengthened, the Guelphs, who now may be called the democrats as opposed to the Ghibelline aristocrats, were by no means wholly victorious, and in 1251 they had to defend themselves against a league of Ghibelline cities (Siena, Pisa and Pistoia) assisted by Florentine Ghibellines; the Florentine Uberti, who had been driven into exile after their plot of 1258, took refuge in Siena and encouraged that city in its hostility to Florence.
A fresh danger threatened the republic in 1367 when Charles IV., who had allied himself with Pope Urban V., Queen Joanna of Naples, and various north Italian despots to humble the Visconti, demanded that the Florentines should join the league.
But Ladislas still occupied the papal states, and Florence, alarmed at his growing power and ambition, formed a league with Siena, Bologna and Louis of Anjou who laid claim to the Neapolitan throne, to drive Ladislas from Rome.
A league between the pope, the emperor, Venice and Spain having been made against Charles VIII., the latter was forced to return to France.
On his way back he passed through Florence, and, although the republic had refused to join the league, it believed itself in danger, as Piero de' Medici was in the king's train.
At the same time League Charles violated his promise by giving aid to the Pisans against in their revolt against Florence, and did not restore the Charles other fortresses.
Italy, Piero de' Medici, encouraged by the league, enlisted a number of mercenaries and marched on Florence, but the citizens, fired by Savonarola's enthusiasm, flew to arms and prepared for an energetic resistance; owing to Piero's incapacity and the exhaustion of his funds the expedition came to nothing.
The league now attacked Florence, for Pope Alexander VI.
All this decreased Savonarola's popularity to some extent, but the enemy having been beaten at Leghorn and the league being apparently on the point of breaking up, the Florentines took courage and the friar's party was once more in the ascendant.
Pope Julius II., after having formed the league of Cambrai with France and Spain against Venice, retired from it in 1510, Schis- and raised the cry of "Fuori i Barbari" (out with the matic barbarians), with a view to expelling the French from council of Italy.
It was, therefore, the policy of Bestuzhev to bring about a quadruple alliance between Russia, Austria, Great Britain and Saxony, to counterpoise the Franco-Prussian league.
When, on the 16th of January 1756, the Anglo-Prussian, and on the 2nd of May the Franco-Austrian alliances were concluded, Vorontsov advocated the accession of Russia to the latter league, whereas Bestuzhev insisted on a subsidy treaty with Great Britain.
On the 18th of this month he moved that the Engagement, with the Solemn League and Covenant, should be burned by the hangman.
With the object of combating the duke of Burgundy's preponderant influence, a league was formed at Gien, including the duke of Orleans and his father-inlaw, the dukes of Berry, Bourbon and Brittany, the count of Alengon and all the other discontented nobles.
A Solemn League and Covenant was signed here in 1644 for the defence of the kingdom, and the document is preserved at Belfast.
The chronology of this expansion is entirely unknown, nor can we recover with certainty the names of the cities which constituted the two leagues of twelve founded in the conquered districts on the analogy of the original league in Etruria proper (below).
Nevertheless, a new league was formed against the duke of Burgundy in the following year, principally at the instance of Bernard, count of Armagnac, from whom the party opposed to the Burgundians took its name.
The town subsequently joined the Hanseatic League.
It is impossible to assign any precise date for the beginning of the Hanseatic League or to name any single factor which explains the origin of that loose but effective federation of North German towns.
While the political element in the development of the Hanseatic League must not be underestimated, it was not so formative as the economic. The foundation was laid for the growth of German towns along the southern shore of the Baltic by the great movement of German colonization of Slavic territory east of the Elbe.
Cologne and the Westphalian towns, the most important of which were Dortmund, Soest and Munster, had long controlled this commerce but now began to feel the competition of the active traders of the Baltic, opening up that direct communication by sea from the Baltic to western Europe which became the essential feature in the history of the League.
The necessity of seeking protection from the sea-rovers and pirates who infested these waters during the whole period of Hanseatic supremacy, the legal customs, substantially alike in the towns of North Germany, which governed the groups of traders in the outlying trading posts, the establishment of common factories, or "counters"(Komtors) at these points, with aldermen to administer justice and to secure trading privileges for the community of German merchants - such were some of the unifying influences which preceded the gradual formation of the League.
Though Lubeck's right as court of appeal from the Hanseatic counter at Novgorod was not recognized by the general assembly of the League until 1373, the long-existing practice had simply accorded with the actual shifting of commercial power.
The commercial relations with the North cannot be regarded as an important element in the union of the Hanse towns, but the geographical position of the Scandinavian countries, especially that of Denmark, commanding the Sound which gives access to the Baltic, compelled a close attention to Scandinavian politics on the part of Lubeck and the League and thus by necessitating combined political action in defence of Hanseatic sea-power exercised a unifying influence.
The defeat of the Germans at Helsingborg only called into being the stronger town and territorial alliance of 1367, known as the Cologne Confederation, and its final victory, with the peace of Stralsund in 1370, which gave for a limited period the four chief castles on the Sound into the hands of the Hanseatic towns, greatly enhanced the prestige of the League.
The assertion of Hanseatic influence in the two decades, 1356 to 1377, marks the zenith of the League's power and the completion of the long process of unification.
It rebelled at the authority of the counter at Bruges, and at the time of the war with England (1469-1474) openly defied the League.
In the East, the German Order, while enjoying Hanseatic privileges, frequently opposed the policy of the League abroad, and was only prevented by domestic troubles and its Hinterland enemies from playing its own hand in the Baltic. After the fall of the order in 1467, the towns of Prussia and Livland, especially Dantzig and Riga, pursued an exclusive trade policy even against their Hanseatic confederates.
Its headship of the League, hitherto tacitly accepted, was definitely recognized in 1418.
In 1469 the League declared that the English use of the terms "societas," "collegium" and "universitas" was inappropriate to so loose an organization.
It had no common seal, though that of Lubeck was accepted, particularly by foreigners, in behalf of the League.
Disputes between the confederate towns were brought for adjudication before the general assembly, but the League had no recognized federal judiciary.
Since the authority of the League rested primarily on the moral support of its members, allied in common trade interests and acquiescing in the able leadership of Lubeck, its only means of compulsion was the "Verhansung," or exclusion of a recalcitrant town from the benefits of the trade privileges of the League.
The decisive factor in determining membership in the League was the historical right of the citizens of a town to participate in Hanseatic privileges abroad.
The towns of the League, stretching from Thorn and Krakow on the East to the towns of the Zuider Zee on the West, and from Wisby and Reval in the North to GÃ¶ttingen in the South, were arranged in groups, following in the main the territorial divisions.
In the 15th century the League, with increasing difficulty, held a defensive position against the competition of strong rivals and new trade-routes.
By the peace of Copenhagen in 1441, after the unsuccessful war of the League with Holland, the attempted monopoly of the Baltic was broken, and, though the Hanseatic trade regulations were maintained on paper, the Dutch with their larger ships increased their hold on the herring fisheries, the French salt trade, and the Baltic grain trade.
Within the League itself increasing restiveness was shown under the restrictions of its trade policy.
Among the factors, economic, geographic, political and social, which combined to bring about the decline of the Hanseatic League, none was probably more influential than the absence of a German political power comparable in unity and energy with those of France and England, which could quell particularism at home, and abroad maintain in its vigour the trade which these towns had developed and defended with their imperfect union.
But no territorial power had as yet arisen in North Germany capable of subjugating and utilizing the towns, though it could detach the inland towns from the League.
The last wars of the League with the Scandinavian powers in the 16th century, which left it shorn of many of its privileges and of any pretension to control of the Baltic basin eliminated it as a factor in the later struggle of the Thirty Years' War for that control.
They and all the members of the Guelph league were freed from all imposts in Pisa and its port.
It certainly maintained strong Phoenician sympathies, for it was its refusal to join the phil-Hellene league of Onesilas of Salamis which provoked the revolt of Cyprus from Persia in 500-494 B.C. (Herod.
To this task was added that of trying to keep Pisa and Lucca from joining the Tuscan League against the pope.
The temporary success of the Lombard league helped to strengthen the towns; but their ineradicable jealousy of one another soon.
(6) Padua passed under Venetian rule in 1405, and so remained, with a brief interval during the wars of the League of Cambray, till the fall of the republic in 1797.
In 1244 certain rights of self-government were given to the citizens; and in 1254 Mainz was the centre and mainspring of a powerful league of Rhenish towns.
Founded in the 10th century as Lowenwold, Uelzen became in the middle ages an active member of the Hanseatic League.
of Macedon and the Epirotes against the Aetolian league (220-205) Ambracia passed from one alliance to the other, but ultimately joined the latter confederacy.
It refused to subscribe the Augsburg Recess, but at the same time it was not till 1536 that it was persuaded to join the League of Schmalkalden.
It had little chance of doing more than make speeches; the country was in the hands of an armed mob of civilians and mutinous soldiers; and, meanwhile, the grand-duke of Baden had joined with Bavaria in requesting the armed intervention of Prussia, which was granted on the condition that Baden should join the League of the Three Kings.
In 1571 the fleet fitted out by the Holy League against the Turk assembled at Messina, and in the same year its commander, Don John of Austria, celebrated a triumph in the city for his victory at Lepanto.
In the wars of religion Dijon sided with the League, and only opened its gates to Henry IV.
An amphictyonic league, meeting in common rites at the temple of Hera on the Lacinian promontory, fostered a feeling of unity among them.
Dionysius of Syracuse attacked them from the south; and after he defeated the Crotoniate league and destroyed Caulonia (389 B.C.), Tarentum remained the only powerful city.
Even then the new league would not fight and allowed Louis to retain his conquests by the truce of Regensburg (1685), but none the less these humiliations gave rise to a more closelyknit and aggressive coalition, which was organized in 1686 and known as the League of Augsburg.
He apparently tried to conciliate his father-in-law in the hope of bringing him into the League of Augsburg.
By November 1687 he had decided that it was hopeless to expect that James would join the league against Louis, and he therefore turned for support to the English opposition.
As king of England he concluded treaties of alliance with the members of the League of Augsburg and sent a large army to oppose the French in Flanders.
DELIAN LEAGUE, or Confederacy Of Delos, the name given to a confederation of Greek states under the leadership of Athens, with its headquarters at Delos, founded in 478 B.C. shortly after the final repulse of the expedition of the Persians under Xerxes I.
The second league is further interesting as the precursor of the Achaean and Aetolian Leagues.
To Aristides was mainly due the organization of the new league and the adjustment of the contributions of the various allies in ships or in money.
His assessment, of the details of which we know nothing, was so fair that it remained popular long after the league of autonomous allies had become an Athenian empire.
The general affairs of the league were managed by a synod which met periodically in the temple of Apollo and Artemis at Delos, the ancient centre sanctified by the common worship of the Ionians.
The league was, therefore, specifically a free confederation of autonomous Ionian cities founded as a protection against the common danger which threatened the Aegean basin, and led by Athens in virtue of her predominant naval power as exhibited in the war against Xerxes.
It is, therefore, a profound mistake to regard the history of the league during the first twenty years of its existence as that of an Athenian empire.
Of the first ten years of the league's history we know practically nothing, save that it was a period of steady, successful activity against the few remaining Persian strongholds in Thrace and the Aegean (Herod.
The Ionians were naturally averse from prolonged warfare, and in the prosperity which must have followed the final rout of the Persians and the freeing of the Aegean from the pirates (a very important feature in the league's policy) a money contribution was only a trifling burden.
The result was, however, extremely bad for the allies, whose status in the league necessarily became lower in relation to that of Athens, while at the same time their military and naval resources correspondingly diminished.
The result was that, in the cases of Naxos and Thasos, for instance, the league's resources were employed not against the Persians but against recalcitrant Greek islands, and that the Greek ideal of separate autonomy was outraged.
During the ensuing years, apart from a brief return to the Cimonian policy, the resources of the league, or, as it has now become, the Athenian empire, were directed not so much against Persia as against Sparta, Corinth, Aegina and Boeotia.
At all events, it is significant of the success of the main object of the Delian League, the Athenians resigning Cyprus and Egypt, while Persia recognized the freedom of the maritime Greeks of Asia Minor.
over so-called allies who were strangers to the old pan-Ionian assembly and to the policy of the league, and was practically equal to Sparta on land.
It is, however, equally noticeable on the one hand that the main body of the allies was not affected, and on the other that the Peloponnesian League on the advice of Corinth officially recognized the right of Athens to deal with her rebellious subject allies, and refused to give help to the Samians.
The succeeding events which led to the Peloponnesian War and the final disruption of the league are discussed in other articles.
Thus the great attempt on the part of Athens to lead a harmonious league of free Greek states for the good of Hellas degenerated into an empire which proved intolerable to the autonomous states of Greece.
The conditions which led to the second Athenian or Delian Confederacy were fundamentally different, not only in virtue of the fact that the allies had learned from experience the dangers to which such a league was liable, but because the enemy was no longer an oriental power of whose future action there could be no certain anticipation, but Sparta, whose ambitious projects since the fall of Athens had shown that there could be no safety for the smaller states save in combination.
The Athenians immediately fitted out a fleet under Chabrias, who gained a decisive victory over the Spartans between Naxos and Paros (battle of Naxos 376 B.C.), both of which were added to the league.
About the same time the successes of Timotheus in the west resulted in the addition to the league of Corcyra and the cities of Cephallenia, and his moderation induced the Acarnanians and Alcetas, the Molossian king, to follow their example.
The Thebans at first accepted the terms, but on the day after, realizing that they were thus balked of their pan-Boeotian ambition, withdrew and finally severed themselves from the league.
The peace of 371 may be regarded as the conclusion of the first distinct period in the league's existence.
The original purpose of the league - the protection of the allies from the ambitions of Sparta - was achieved.
Though her secession, therefore, meant very little loss of strength, there were not wanting signs that the league was not destined to remain a power in the land.
Some success in Macedonia roused the hostility of Thebes, and the subsequent attempts on Amphipolis caused the Chalcidians to declare against the league.
The last event of the period was a success, the recovery of Euboea (357), which was once more added to the league.
Alliances with various land powers, and an inability to understand the true relations which alone could unite the league, combined to alienate the allies, who could discover no reason for the expenditure of their contributions on protecting Sparta or Corinth against Thebes.
The /uvEoptov of the league is found taking action in several instances, but there is evidence (cf.
On the other hand, though the Athenian fleet became stronger and several cities were captured, the league itself did not gain any important voluntary adherents.
The league was further weakened by the secession of Corcyra, and by 355 was reduced to Athens, Euboea and a few islands.
of Macedon had begun his career of conquest, and had shattered an embryonic alliance between the league and certain princes of Thrace (Cetriporis), Paeonia (Lyppeius) and Illyria (Grabus).
In 355 his advance temporarily ceased, but, as we learn from Isocrates and Xenophon, the financial exhaustion of the league was such that its destruction was only a matter of time.
In 349 Euboea and Olynthus were lost to the league, of which indeed nothing remained but an empty form, in spite of the facts that the expelled Olynthians appealed to it in 348 and that Mytilene rejoined in 347.
In 346 the peace of Philocrates was made between the league and Philip on terms which were accepted by the Athenian Boule.
The victory of Philip at Chaeronea in 338 finally destroyed the league.
In spite of the precautions taken by the allies to prevent the domination of Athens at their expense, the policy of the league was almost throughout directed rather in the interests of Athens.
- The First League.
For the last years of the league see also Peloponnesian War.
The legend of an organized apportionment of Peloponnese amongst the Heracleid leaders appears first in the 5th-century tragedians, - not earlier, that is, than the rise of the Peloponnesian League, - and was amplified in the 4th century; the Aetolians' aid, and claim to Elis, appear first in Ephorus.
Zeligowski's so-called mutineers, the matter was taken up by the League of Nations, which strove to establish the fate of Vilna and other dispute I areas by means of a plebis:ite.
In the beginning of March 1921, direct negotiation between Poland and Lithuania under the aus p ices of the League of Nations, to be followed by arbitration on unsettled points, was proposed in lieu of the plebiscite and agreed to by all parties.
In 1898 he purchased the Dayton News and five years later the Springfield Press-Republic, subsequently named the Daily News, these papers being known thereafter as the Newspaper League of Ohio.
He was a strong supporter of President Wilson's policies and especially of the League of Nations.
Following his nomination he " stumped " the country, making the League of Nations the prominent issue but was overwhelmingly defeated by Warren G.
There are a number of subsidiary branches of work, such as the Young People's Legion, and the Naval and Military League for work among men in the military, naval and merchant services.
(b) Secondly, in war and peace Rome formed relations with her neighbours of Latium, and, as a sign of the Latin league which resulted, the cult of Diana was brought from Aricia and established on the Aventine in the "commune Latinorum Dianae templum" (Varro, Ling.
He strongly opposed the king's policy of alliance with France, advocating a league with the Dutch instead, and the refusal of supplies until the demands of the Commons should be complied with.
But his example and his zeal profoundly influenced for good the Irish poor forming the majority of his flock; and the "League of the Cross" which he founded, and which held annual demonstrations at the Crystal Palace, numbered nearly 30,000 members in London alone in 1874.
But the young duke, galled by Louis's overbearing arrogance, eventually asserted his independence and joined the league of Austria, Spain and Venice against him in r690.
The tax was abolished in 1267 by the Hanseatic League, but it was revived by the Swedes in 1688, and confirmed by Hanover.
Late in the 6th century Corinth joined the Peloponnesian league under Sparta, in which her financial resources and strategic position secured her an unusual degree of independence.
In 243 Corinth was freed by Aratus and incorporated into the Achaean league.
Quinctius Flamininus, after proclaiming the liberty of Greece at the Isthmus, restored Corinth to the league (196).
In 1154, however, it took advantage of the arrival of Barbarossa, and remained faithful to him throughout the whole war of the Lombard League.
During the Persian invasion the Tegeans displayed a readiness unusual among Peloponnesian cities; in the battle of Plataea they were the first to enter the enemy's camp. A few years later they headed an Arcadian and Argive league against Sparta, but by the loss of two pitched battles (Tegea and Dipaea) were induced to resume their former loyalty (about 468-467).
After the battle of Leuctra the philo-Laconian party was expelled with Mantineian help. Tegea henceforth took an active part in the revival of the Arcadian League and the prosecution of the war in alliance with Thebes against Sparta (371-362), and the ultimate defection of Mantineia confirmed it in its federalist tendencies.
It showed itself hostile to the Macedonians, and in 266 joined the Chremonidean League against Antigonus Gonatas.
To the incorporation of Mantineia into the Achaean League (233) Tegea replied by allying itself with the Aetolians, who in turn made it over to Cleomenes III.
From the latter it was transferred by Antigonus Doson to the Achaean League (222); in 218 it was again occupied by the Spartans but reconquered in 207 by the Achaean general Philopoemen.
At a very critical moment, when the Kaiser had actually mesmerized Nicholas II into the conclusion of a secret and personal convention at Bjdrko, which purported to aim at a defensive agreement, but would have led by necessity to the disruption of the FrancoRussian Alliance and to the vassalage of Russia in a continental league against England, Count Benckendorff was invited to Copenhagen and had an opportunity of serving as a confidential intermediary between Russia and Great Britain.
The duke unwillingly complied, but when the French entered Piedmont and demanded the cession of the fortresses of Turin and Verrua, he refused, and while still professing to negotiate with Louis, joined the league of Austria, Spain and Venice.
Still more ominously, the elector of Brandenburg, perceiving Sweden to be in difficulties, joined the league against her and compelled Charles to accept the proffered mediation of Cromwell and Mazarin.
Meanwhile the league of Cambray had disturbed the peace of Italy, and Florence found herself in a perilous position between Spain and France.
To the league of Cambray succeeded the Holy League.
In 1530 Constance (whose bishop had been forced to flee in 1527 to Meersburg, on the other side of the lake, and from that time the episcopal residence) joined, with Strassburg, Memmingen and Lindau, the Schmalkalden League.
in his wars in the Netherlands; aided the Catholic League in France; incited attacks upon Elizabeth by way of Ireland.
He negotiated an alliance with Parma, Romagna and Tuscany, when other provisional governments had been established, and entrusted the task of organizing an army for this central Italian league to General Fanti.
It joined the Hanseatic League, and was later the residence of the branch of the ducal house, which received the title of elector of Hanover and ascended the British throne in the person of George I.
At the congress of Vienna (1814-15) for the settlement of European affairs, Talleyrand, as the representative of the restored house of Bourbon in France, managed adroitly to break up the league of the Powers (framed at Chaumont in February 1814) and assisted in forming a secret alliance between England, Austria and France in order to prevent the complete absorption of Poland by Russia and of Saxony by Prussia.
The large church of St Mary, with a lofty tower, dating from the 14th century, the Renaissance castle of the 16th century, now used as a prison, and one of the ancient town-gates restored in 1872 are memorials of the time when Stolp was a prosperous member of the Hanseatic League.
From the r4th to the 16th century it was a member of the Hanseatic League.
Blanche had to bear the whole burden of affairs alone, to break up a league of the barons (1226), and to repel the attack of the king of England (1230).
The nobles were awed by her warlike preparations or won over by adroit diplomacy, and their league was broken up. St Louis owed his realm to his mother, but he himself always remained somewhat under the spell of her imperious personality.
About 235 B.C. Mantineia entered the Achaean League, from which it had obtained protection against Spartan encroachments, but soon passed in turn to the Aetolians and to Cleomenes III.
About 469 B.C. Mantineia alone of Arcadian townships refused to join the league of Tegea and Argos against Sparta.
In the subsequent years Mantineia still found opportunity to give the Athenians covert help, and during the Corinthian War (394387) scarcely disguised its sympathy with the anti-Spartan league.
The city was reconstituted after the battle of Leuctra and under its statesman Lycomedes played a prominent part in organizing the Arcadian League (370).
Mantineia regained its autonomous position in the Achaean League in 192, and its original name during a visit of the emperor Hadrian in A.D.
Since 1896 there has been a strong independent movement in politics, marked by the organization of a League for Better City Government (1896) and a Municipal League (1900), and by the organization of postal primaries to secure the co-operation of electors pledged to independent voting.
The conflicts between Catholics and Protestants speedily merged into the chronic political rivalries, domestic and foreign, which distracted the European states; and religious considerations played a very important part in diplomacy and war for at least a century and a half, from the diet of Augsburg in 1530 to the English revolution and the league of Augsburg, 1688-89.
The states in the Catholic League were permitted to retain for their own uses about one-fifth of the ecclesiastical revenue; the clergy was to be subjected to careful discipline; and only authorized preachers were to be tolerated, who based their teachings on the works of the four Latin Church fathers.
The terror inspired by the Peasant War led to a new alliance, the League of Dessau, formed by some of the leading rulers of central and northern Germany, to stamp out the accursed Lutheran sect."
In 1525 a religious and political league was arranged between Zurich and Constance, which in the following year was joined by St Gallen, Biel, Muhlhausen, Basel and Strassburg.
But the league arranged by Zwingli was directed against the house of Habsburg, and Luther did not deem it right to oppose a prince by force of arms.
In November the Protestants formed the Schmalkaldic League, which, after the death of Zwingli, in 1531, was joined by a number of the South German towns.
In 1 534 the Schmalkaldic League succeeded in restoring the banished duke of Wurttemberg, who declared himself in favour of the Lutheran reformation, and thus added another to the list of German Protestant states.
The emperor then succeeded in disrupting the Schmalkaldic League by winning over, on purely political grounds, Philip of Hesse and young Maurice of Saxony, whose father, Henry, had died after a very brief reign.
During the three or four years which followed the signing of the Augsburg Confession in 1530 and the formation of the Schmalkaldic League, England, while bitterly dep ouncing and burning Lutheran heretics in the name of the Holy Catholic Church, was herself engaged in severing the bonds which had for well-nigh a thousand of years bound her to the Apostolic See.
Henry, however, stoutly refused to go further in the direction of German Protestantism, even with the prospect of forwarding the proposed union between him and the princes of the Schmalkaldic League.
His conversion was hailed with great joy by the Protestants, and the league of Schmalkalden declared they were resolved to defend him; but the Reformation in the electorate received checks from the victory of Charles V.
He was a strong advocate of the League of Nations, but did not favour woman suffrage.
Subsequently the insurgents gathered in small bands in Berkshire county; but here, a league having been formed to assist the government, 84 insurgents were captured at West Stockbridge, and the insurrection practically terminated in an action at Sheffield on the 27th of February, in which the insurgents lost 2 killed and 30 wounded and the militia 2 killed and 1 wounded.
The city proved indeed a refractory member of the new league; and, after the death of William the Silent, the Utrechters, jealous of the influence of their old enemies the Hollanders, refused to recognize the authority of the council of state, and elected a stadtholder of their own.
He was one of the negotiators of the disastrous treaties of Blois (1504), and in 1508 of the League of Cambrai against Venice.
In 1340 Konigsberg entered the Hanseatic League.
Greenidge, Handbook of Greek Constitutional Antiquities (London, 1896); for the Periclean cleruchs see Pericles; Delian League.
Among the more important public buildings must be noticed the Evangelical Marienkirche (Oberkirche), a handsome brick edifice of the 13th century with five aisles, the Roman Catholic church, the Rathhaus dating from 1607, and bearing on its southern gable the device of a member of the Hanseatic League, the government offices and the theatre.
In 1379 it received from King Sigismund, then margrave of Brandenburg, the right to free navigation of the Oder; and from 1368 to about 1450 it belonged to the Hanseatic League.
The progress of the Reformation attracted the attention of all Switzerland, but there was a strong opposition to it, especially in the five Forest Cantons: Lucerne, Zug, Schwyz, Uri and Unterwalden; and the Zurichers felt it necessary to form a league in its defence.
The landgrave of Hesse brought the two Reformers together in vain at Marburg in October 1529, and the whole Protestant movement broke into two camps, with the result that the attempt made at Schmalkalden in 1530 to form a comprehensive league of defence against all foes of the Reformation was frustrated.
His advance to Paris was a series of triumphs, his power waxing with every league he covered, and when he reached Paris the Bourbons had fled.
Champion of the papacy and in secret league with the Lombard cities he was able to defy the common enemy, Frederick II.
In the 13th century Hildesheim became a free city of the Empire; in 1249 it received municipal rights and about the same time it joined the Hanseatic league.
It occurs among the thirty cities of the Latin League, and it is said to have joined the Aequi in 419 B.C. and to have been captured by the Romans in 418.
The native tribes, brave, intelligent and fairly well armed, tried, by means of a league against land-selling and the election of a king, to retain their hold over at least the central North Island.
He was a director in numerous corporations, and was a conservative Republican, opposing the League of Nations.
The assent of Lord Elgin to the bill provoked in Montreal a riot which ended in the burning of the houses of parliament, and so great was the indignation of the hitherto ultra-loyal Conservative party that many of its most prominent members signed a document favouring annexation to the United States; Macdonald on the other hand took steps, in conjunction with others, to form a British-American league, having for its object the confederation of all the provinces, the strengthening of the connexion with the mother country, and the adoption of a national commercial policy.
This was the celebrated "National Policy," which had been in his thoughts as long ago as the formation of the British-American League in 1850.
He pours scorn upon the exorcists - who were clearly in league with the demons themselves - and upon the excesses of the itinerant and undisciplined "prophets" who roam through cities and camps and commit to everlasting fire cities and lands and their inhabitants.
An unsuccessful attempt was also made to expel him from the Union League Club of New York.
Roosevelt's brother, the president's father, Theodore Roosevelt (1831-1878), was a glass importer, prominent in city charities, an organizer of the Union League Club, and the founder of the Orthopaedic Hospital.
After a period of tranquillity a reaction set in against Frankish influences, and in 840 the freemen and liti separated themselves from the nobles, formed a league, or stellinga, and obtained a promise from the emperor Lothair I.
The Saxon nobles refused to join the host until their grievances were redressed, and in 1073 a league was formed at Wormesleben.
He died in 1525 while the Peasants' War was desolating his land, and was succeeded by his brother John, who was an enthusiastic supporter of the reformed faith and who shared with Philip, landgrave of Hesse, the leadership of the league of Schmalkalden.
He took part in the war of the league of Schmalkalden, but in 154.7 he was captured at Miihlberg by the emperor Charles V.
He refused to join the other Protestant princes in the league of Schmalkalden, but made a secret treaty with Charles V.
In 1331 it was a member of the league of Swabian towns; in 1530 it was one of the four towns which presented the Confessio Tetrapolitana to the emperor Ferdinand I.; and a few years later it joined the league of Schmalkalden.
Still hoping to regain his former position, he took advantage of a league against Henry VI.
Louis fought a battle beneath the walls of Zara (July ist, 1346), which has been immortalized by Tintoretto, but was defeated and compelled to abandon the city to the republic. The struggle was renewed eleven years later when Louis, having formed, with infinite trouble, a league of all the enemies of Venice, including the emperor, the Habsburgs, Genoa and other Italian towns, attacked his maritime rival with such vigour that she sued for peace, and by the treaty of Zara (February 18th, 1358) ceded most of the Dalmatian towns and renounced the title of duke of Dalmatia and Croatia, hitherto borne by the doge.
By the terms of the same treaty, he acceded to the grand league against the Porte, but his two expeditions against the Crimea (1687 and 1689), "the First Crimean War," were unsuccessful and made him extremely unpopular.
Other institutions are Concordia College (1881, Lutheran), a state normal school (1880), the Wisconsin College of physicians and surgeons (1893), the national German-American teachers' seminary (normal), Milwaukee academy (1864), Milwaukee University school, Milwaukee school of engineering (1904), Milwaukee Turnverein school of physical culture, one of the largest schools of the sort in the United States, St John's Catholic institute, Our Lady of Mercy academy (Roman Catholic), Wisconsin academy of music, the Wisconsin school of art (art students' league), a Catholic normal school, St Rose's manual training school, the industrial chemical institute (the only technical school for brewers in the United States) and several business and commercial schools.
ANDREA MOCENIGO, who flourished in the 15th and 16th centuries, was a senator of the republic and a historian; he composed a work on the league of Cambrai entitled Belli memorabilis Cameracensis adversus Venetos historiae libri vi.
Born at Baltimore on the 9th of June 1851 and educated at Harvard University, he became a lawyer in 1874 and has been president of the National Municipal League and has filled other public positions.
League Of Nations >>
The Hanseatic and Flemish merchants largely increased its prosperity, but on the withdrawal of the Hanseatic League about 1470 and the break-up of the gild system Boston's prosperity began to wane, and for some centuries it remained almost without trade.
Anklam, formerly Tanglim, was originally a Slav fortress; it obtained civic rights in 1244 and joined the Hanseatic league.
Valdemar had indeed pledged it solemnly and irrevocably to King Magnus of Sweden, who had held it for twenty years; but profiting by the difficulties of Magnus with his Norwegian subjects, after skilfully securing his own position by negotiations with Albert of Mecklenburg and the Hanseatic League, Valdemar suddenly and irresistibly invaded Scania, and by the end of 1361 all the old Danish lands, except North Holland, were recovered.
But in the winter of 1367-68 a hostile league against him of all his neighbours threatened to destroy the fruits of a long and strenuous lifetime.
At a Hansetag held at Cologne on the 11th of November 1367, three groups of the towns, seventy in number, concerted to attack Denmark, and in January 1368 Valdemar's numerous domestic enemies, especially the Jutlanders and the Holstein counts, acceded to the league, with the object of partitioning the realm among them.
About this time Maurice seized the idea of securing for himself the electoral dignity held by John Frederick, and his opportunity came when Charles was preparing to attack the league of Schmalkalden.
As a youth he had joined the league of Schmalkalden, but this adhesion, as well as his subsequent declaration to stand by the confession of Augsburg, cannot be regarded as the decision of his maturer years.
In return the duke probably agreed to aid Charles in his proposed attack on the league as soon as he could gain the consent of the Saxon estates, or at all events to remain neutral during the impending war.
The place is said to date from the 9th century; it obtained civic rights in 1208, and later became a member of the Hanseatic League.
Luther League >>
But the old abuses continuing to multiply, the Prussian towns and gentry at last took their affairs into their own hands, and formed a so-called Prussian League, which demanded an equal share in the government of the country.
But provinces are not conquered by manifestoes, and Casimir's acceptance of the homage of the Prussian League at once involved him in a war with the desperate Teutonic Knights, which lasted twelve years, but might easily have been concluded in a twelvemonth had he only been loyally supported by his own subjects, for whose benefit he had embarked upon this great enterprise.
to accede to a general league against the Porte.
With his elder brother Wladislaus reigning over Bohemia and Hungary the credit of the Jagiellos in Europe had never been so great as it was now, and John Albert, bent upon military glory, eagerly placed himself at the head of what was to have been a great anti-Turkish league, but ultimately dwindled down to a raid upon Moldavia which ended in disaster.
The adhesion of the same monarch to the League of the Catholic Reaction certainly added to the difficulties of Polish diplomacy, and still further divided the already distracted diet, besides alienating from the court the powerful and popular chancellor Zamoyski.
He was full of the idea of a league of republics against the league of sovereigns; but he was unaware that the Jacobins themselves were already considering the best mode of detaching Prussia, Poland's worst enemy, from the anti-French coalition.
Nearly two years were passed in Geneva; visiting Italy in 1641, he remained during the winter of that year in Florence, studying the "paradoxes of the great star-gazer" Galileo, who died within a league of the city early in 1642.
He entered the army of Henry IV., and served in Brittany under Jean d'Aumont, Francois de St Luc and Charles de Brissac. When the army of the League was disbanded he accompanied his uncle, who had charge of the ships in which the Spanish allies were conveyed home, and on reaching Cadiz secured (1599) the command of one of the vessels about to make an expedition to the West Indies.
In that year, however, a League for Municipal Improvements was formed; in February 1902 a loan of $1,000,000 for municipal improvements was voted, landscape gardeners and sewage engineers were consulted, and a nonpartisan mayor was elected, under whom great advances were made in street cleaning and street paving, a new filtration plant was completed, the river front was beautified and protected from flood, sewage was diverted from Paxton Creek, and the development of an extensive park system was undertaken.
It was thus not properly an Ionic city, and for this reason, apparently, was not included in the Ionian league, though superior in wealth and prosperity to most of the members except Ephesus and Miletus.
He was imprisoned for seditious libel in 1840, and after his release became prominent for his attack on John Bright, and the anti-corn-law league.
Margaret and her friends formed the league of Macon against Charles of Anjou, but the king managed to keep them at peace.
He was among those who met at Dessau in July 1525, and was a member of the league established at Halle in November 1533.
When the Independents obtained the superiority Wallis adhered to the Solemn League and Covenant.
From the first he managed to combine his solicitor's work with politics, becoming secretary of the South Carnarvonshire Anti-tithe League; and his local reputation was made by a successful fight, carried to the High Court, in defence of the right of Nonconformists to burial in the parish churchyard.
Though on the edge of the Sabine mountains, it was a member of the Latin League.
The Gallic leuga, or league, is a different unit, being 1.59 British miles by the very concordant itinerary of the Bordeaux pilgrim.
In France the Jesuits joined, if they did not originate, the league against Henry of Navarre.
in the interests of the league and the wounding of Henry IV.
He endeavoured to avert the decision forced upon him, but, as Portugal joined the Bourbon league, and Maria Theresa with her son the emperor Joseph II.
below the mouth of the Gila river, thence northward to the mouth of the Gila, and thence, nearly due W., along the old line between Upper and Lower California to a point on the Pacific coast one marine league S.
In 1164 he joined a league of princes formed against Henry the Lion, and peace being made in 1169, Albert divided his territories among his six sons, and died on the 13th of November 1170, and was buried at Ballenstadt.
When the war broke out between Charles and the league of Schmalkalden in 1546 the elector at first remained neutral; but he afterwards sent some troops to serve under the emperor.
At an early period Halicarnassus was a member of the Doric Hexapolis, which included Cos, Cnidus, Lindus, Camirus and Ialysus; but one of the citizens, Agasicles, having taken home the prize tripod which he had won in the Triopian games instead of dedicating it according to custom to the Triopian Apollo, the city was cut off from the league.
Halicarnassus and other Dorian cities of Asia were to some extent absorbed by the Delian League, but the peace of Antalcidas in 387 made them subservient to Persia; and it was under Mausolus, a Persian satrap who assumed independent authority, that Halicarnassus attained its highest prosperity.
With the help of these allies Chalcis engaged the rival league of its neighbour Eretria in the so-called Lelantine War, by which it acquired the best agricultural district of Euboea and became the chief city of the island.
After the peace of Villafranca he was sent to organize the army of the Central Italian League (composed of the provisional governments of Tuscany, Modena, Parma and Romagna), and converted it in a few months into a well-drilled body of 45, 000 men, whose function was to be ready to intervene in the papal states on the outbreak of a revolution.
In January 1860 Fanti became minister of war and marine under Cavour, and incorporated the League's army in that of Piedmont.
He accepted the chairmanship of the Royal Commission on Ritualistic Practices in the Church, and he did valuable work as 'an arbitrator; and though when the fiscal controversy arose he became a member of the Free-food League, his parliamentary loyalty to Mr Balfour did much to prevent the Unionist free-traders from precipitating a rupture.
In 1816 it joined the German League, and redeemed with portions of its territory all rights of superiority claimed by Prussia.
It was a member of the Hanseatic League, and during the Thirty Years' War became a stronghold of the Imperialists.
From about 1276 it ranked as the most important place in the episcopal principality of Kamin, and from 1284 it was a member of the Hanseatic League.
At the end of 1920 he represented the Austrian Republic on the occasion of its reception into the League of Nations.
So by his counsel the queen, while nominally in league with De Retz and the parliamentary Fronde, laboured to form a purely royal party, wearied by civil dissensions, who should act for her and her son's interest alone, under the leadership of Mathieu Mole, the famous premier president of the parlement of Paris.
In Germany he, through Hugues de Lionne, formed the league of the Rhine, by which the states along the Rhine bound themselves under the headship of France to be on their guard against the house of Austria.
The "six towns" were severely punished for their share in the war of the league of Schmalkalden, and about this time the reformed teaching made very rapid progress in Lusatia, the majority of the inhabitants becoming Protestants.
She was a member of the International Council of Women; the International Suffrage Alliance; the National Society for Broader Education and the League to Enforce Peace.
Her last message was an appeal to women to use their influence for the ratification of the League of Nations.
He was a supporter of the League of Nations; he indorsed woman suffrage and was a strong advocate of civil-service reform for the post-office and consular appointments.
A league was formed to prevent any addition to the electoral college; France and Sweden were called upon for assistance; and the constitution of the Empire was reduced to a state of chaos.
Gainas entered into a close league with the latter; fomented a Gothic rebellion in Phrygia; and forced the emperor to put Eutropius to death.
When praetor (193 B.C.) he served with distinction in Spain, and as consul in 189 he completely broke the power of the Aetolian league.
No success met the apparently well-meaning efforts of the Central Japanese League which was organized in November and December 1903 to promote the observance of law and order by the Japanese in the islands, who assumed a too independent attitude and felt themselves free from governmental control whether Japanese or American; indeed, after the League had been in operation for a year or more, it almost seemed that it contributed to industrial disorders among the Japanese.
Meanwhile a reform league had been formed to stop the prevailing misrule and extravagance; it was supported by a volunteer military force, the " Honolulu Rifles."
He declared himself on the side of the Puritans by subscribing "The testimony of the ministers in Somersetshire to the truth of Jesus Christ" and "The Solemn League and Covenant," and assisted the commissioners of the parliament in their work of ejecting unsatisfactory ministers.
Acceptance of the Confession and Apology was made a condition of membership in the Schmalkalden League.
War Of The League Of Augsburg >>
The free-trade Unionists, with the duke of Devonshire, Lord Goschen, Lord James and Lord Hugh Cecil, as their chief representatives, started a Free Food league in opposition to Mr Chamberlain's Tariff Reform league; and at a great meeting at Queen's Hall, London, on the 24th of November their attitude was made plain.
In 1906 he supported William Randolph Hearst, the unsuccessful candidate for governor of New York on the Independence League.
Taking a strong line on the educational question which was then agitating Ireland, he took a leading part in the national movement of 1850-1852, and at first supported the Tenant Rights League.
For a time the presidency of the Boeotian League was taken away from Thebes, but in 457 the Spartans reinstated that city as a bulwark against Athenian aggression.
About this time the Boeotian League comprised eleven groups of sovereign cities and associated townships, each of which elected one Boeotarch or minister of war and foreign affairs, contributed sixty delegates to the federal council at Thebes, and supplied a contingent of about a thousand foot and a hundred horse to the federal army.
Boeotia took a prominent part in the war of the Corinthian League against Sparta, especially at Haliartus and Coronea (395-394) This change of policy seems due mainly to the national resentment against foreign interference.
Though enrolled for a short time in the Aetolian League (about 245 B.C.) Boeotia was generally loyal to Macedonia, and supported its later kings against Rome.
In return for the excesses of the democracies Rome dissolved the league, which, however, was allowed to revive under Augustus, and merged with the other central Greek federations in the Achaean synod.
While the French were marching on Naples there arose a hostile coalition which compelled them to beat a hasty retreat - the Holy League of March 1495.
The intrigues of Cardinal Soderini led to a breach with France and drove Adrian into the arms of the Imperial league.
On the 22nd of ' May 1526 Clement acceded to the League of Cognac, and joined the Italians in their struggle against the Spanish supremacy.
So pronounced an enemy of French preponderance did Innocent become that he approved the League of Augsburg, and was not sorry to see the Catholic James II., whom he considered a tool of Louis, thrust from the throne of England by the Protestant William of Orange.
To the Italian patriot the papacy seemed in league with the oppressor.
Changing front, in 1868, in league with the orthodox, they tried to make these denominational; but as the Liberals defeated their attempt, they founded schools of their own.
Gerash or Jerash), a city of Palestine, and a member of the league known as the Decapolis, situated amid the mountains of Gilead, about 1757 ft.
On the 19th of August 1704 he succeeded, at last, in bringing about a treaty of alliance between Russia and the Polish republic to strengthen the hands of Augustus, but he failed to bring Prussia also into the antiSwedish league because of Frederick I.'s fear of Charles and jealousy of Peter.
Since the so-called Lelantine War (7th century B.C.) against the coming league of Chalcis, it began to be overshadowed by its rivals.
Fire has destroyed several other old buildings in the city, notably in 1891 the house of the Hansa League on the northern quays.
But Elulaeus, according to Menander, suppressed the revolt of Citium, and early in the reign of Sennacherib joined the league of Philistia and Judah, which had considerable effect upon the' cities of Phoenicia (above, Justin xviii.
Olympia thus became the centre of an amphictyony, or federal league under religious sanction, for the west coast of the Peloponnesus, as Delphi was for its neighbours in northern Greece.
By enrolling it in the Achaean League he secured it against Macedonia, and with funds received from Ptolemy Philadelphus he pacified the returned exiles.
Ever anxious to extend the league, in which after 245 he was general almost every second year, Aratus took Corinth by surprise (243), and with mingled threats and persuasion won over other cities, notably Megalopolis (233) and Argos (229), whose tyrants abdicated voluntarily.
Rather than admit Cleomenes as chief of the league, where he might have upset the existing timocracy, Aratus opposed all attempts at mediation.
As plenipotentiary in 224 he called in Antigonus Doson of Macedonia, and helped to recover Corinth and Argos and to crush Cleomenes at Sellasia, but at the same time sacrificed the independence of the league.
To Aratus is due the credit of having made the Achaean League an effective instrument against tyrants and foreign enemies.
The ill-success of the old king in this war aggravated the disease from which he was suffering; and his heart was broken by the discovery that John, for whose sake he had alienated Richard, was in secret league with the victorious allies.
Sprengtporten was haunted by the fixed idea that the jeunesse doree of the court was in league with his old enemies to traduce and supplant him, and not all the forbearance of the king could open his eyes.
For a time, however, he stayed his hand, but the urgent solicitations of the western powers, and, above all, his fear lest Gustavus Adolphus should supplant him as the champion of the Protestant cause, finally led him to plunge into war against the combined forces of the emperor and the League, without any adequate guarantees of co-operation from abroad.
Elected commander of the League's cavalry on his return, he reorganized that force and defeated the Aetoliaris on the Elean frontier (210).
In Igo Philopoemen protected Sparta, which meanwhile had joined the League and thereupon seceded, but punished a renewed defection so cruelly as to draw the censure of Rome upon his country.
Philopoemen's great merit lies in his having restored to his compatriots that military efficiency without which the Achaean League for all its skilful diplomacy could never stand.
It joined the Hanseatic League, obtained many of the privileges of a free Imperial town, and endeavoured to assert its independence of the bishop. The citizens gladly accepted the reformed doctrines, but the supremacy of the older faith was restored in 1604 by Bishop Theodore von Fiirstenberg, who forcibly took possession of the city.
Herford was a member of the Hanseatic League, and its suzerainty passed in 1547 from the abbesses to the dukes of Juliers.
For the further growth of the commune, the action of the great archbishop, Heribert (1018-1045), the establishment of the carroccio, the development of Milanese supremacy in Lombardy, the destruction of Lodi, Como, Pavia and other neighbouring cities, the exhibition of free spirit and power in the Lombard league, and the battle of Legnano, see the articles Italy and Lombards.
It may be ascribed partly to the wealth and influence acquired by Aetolian mercenaries in Hellenistic courts, but chiefly to the formation of a national Aetolian league, the first effective institution of this kind in Greece.
The commemorative festival of the Soteria, which the league established at Delphi, obtained recognition from many leading Greek states.
Endeavouring next to expand into Peloponnesus, they allied themselves with Antigonus Gonatas of Macedonia against the Achaean league, and besides becoming protectors of Elis and Messenia won several Arcadian cities.
The league at its zenith had thus a truly imperial status.
After buying peace by the cession of Acarnania (217) the league concluded a compact with Rome, in which both states agreed to plunder ruthlessly their common enemies (211).
The Romans in return restored central Greece to the league, but by withholding its former Thessalian possessions excited its deep resentment.
Having thus isolated themselves the Aetolians stood at bay behind their walls against the Romans, who refused all compromises, and, after the general surrender in 189, restricted the league to Aetolia proper and assumed control over its foreign relations.
By the time of Sulla, when the league is mentioned for the last time, its functions were purely nominal.
The federal constitution closely resembled that of the Achaean league, for which it doubtless served as a model.
The general assembly, convoked every autumn at Thermon to elect officials, and at other places in special emergencies, shaped the league's general policy; it was nominally open to all freemen, though no doubt the Aetolian chieftains really controlled it.
The league's relation to outlying dependencies is obscure; many of these were probably mere protectorates or "allied states" and secured no representation.
The federal executive was certainly much more efficient than that of the Achaeans, and its councils suffered less from disunion; but its generals and admirals, official or otherwise, enjoyed undue licence; hence the league deservedly gained an evil name for the numerous acts of lawlessness or violence which its troops committed.
At this time the city was probably under the hegemony of Alba Longa, then the head of the Latin League.
In 499 B.C., according to Livy, Praeneste withdrew from the Latin League, in the list of whose members given by Dionysius (v.
LOMBARD LEAGUE, the name given in general to any league of the cities of Lombardy, but applied especially to the league founded in 1167, which brought about the defeat of the emperor Frederick I.
This league or concordia was soon joined by other cities, among which were Milan, Parma, Padua, Verona, Piacenza and Bologna, and the allies began to build a fortress near the confluence of the Tanaro and the Bormida, which, in honour of Pope Alexander III., was called Alessandria.
During the absence of Frederick from Italy from 1168 to 1174, the relations between the pope and the league became closer, and Alexander became the leader of the alliance.
Meetings of the league were held in 1172 and 1173 to strengthen the bond, and to concert measures against the emperor, the penalties of the church being invoked to prevent defection.
Subsequently Pope Alexander was detached from his allies, and made peace with Frederick, after which a truce for six years was arranged between the emperor and the league.
avowed his intention of restoring the imperial authority in Italy, the league was renewed, and at once fifteen cities, including Milan and Verona, were placed under the ban.
For a full account of the Lombard League see C. Vignati, Storia diplomata della Lega Lombarda (Milan, 1866); H.
It received municipal rights in 1256 and was a member of the Hanseatic League.
However, for the present the efforts of Gustavus Adolphus prevented the elector from deserting him, but the position was changed by the death of the king at Lutzen in 1632, and the refusal of Saxony to join the Protestant league under Swedish leadership. Still letting his troops fight in a desultory fashion against the imperialists, John George again negotiated for peace, and in May 1635 he concluded the important treaty of Prague with Ferdinand II.
Another but less probable explanation derives the name from a combination of the old high German word uudra, meaning league, and bai, a Gothic word for both.
obtained the help of the duke during the war of the league of Schmalkalden by promising him in certain eventualities the succession to the Bohemian throne, and the electoral dignity enjoyed by the count palatine of the Rhine.
He felt himself a foreigner among foreigners, and his favourite scheme, the subject of endless intrigues with the Austrian cabinet and the immediate cause of Frederick II.'s League of Princes (Fiirstenbund) of 1785, was to exchange Bavaria for the Austrian Netherlands and the title of king of Burgundy.
a league of the Rhenish states as a counterpoise to the preponderance of Austria and Prussia.
The city was again walled in 1255; before 1284 it had become a member of the Hanseatic league; and by the end of the 14th century it was practically a powerful independent republic, which exercised an effective control over the Frisian Ommelande between the Ems and the Lauwers Zee.
It joined the Hanseatic league in 1270, and about the same time began to engage in the linen manufacture, which was greatly extended during the 16th and 17th centuries by a number of refugees from the Netherlands.
In 1443 he formed a league directed mainly against Nuremberg, over which town members of his family had formerly exercised the rights of burgrave.
The sharp dissensions which existed among the princes over the question of reform culminated in open warfare in 1460, when Albert was confronted with a league under the leadership of the elector palatine, Frederick I., and Louis IX.
The Protestants of Germany were on the point of being crushed by the forces of the Austrian Habsburgs and the Catholic League.
The league of Augsburg (1686), which followed the revocation of the edict of Nantes, placed Orange at the head of the resistance to French domination.
The league was formed by the emperor, Spain, Sweden, and be known henceforth as the Austrian Netherlands.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.