This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience. Learn more

leaf

leaf

leaf Sentence Examples

  • He looked relieved and reached up, pulling a leaf from her hair.

    102
    49
  • There was evaporation of water from the leaf.

    72
    40
  • I hung up, my hand still shaking like a leaf in a windstorm.

    57
    19
  • A, Ordinary leaf of Cephalotus.

    56
    16
  • A golden leaf floated down in the cool morning mist and joined a carpet of others under the tree.

    32
    24
  • B, Monstrous leaf with spoon-shaped depression.

    25
    10
  • Sarah would say, "Seen one orange leaf, seen 'em all."

    24
    13
  • Hardly a leaf is visible to the height of one's head; but above, a crown of thick leather-like leaves shuts out the sunlight.

    18
    9
  • The oak in Europe is liable to injury from a great variety of insect enemies: the young wood is attacked by the larvae of the small stag-beetle and several other Coleoptera, and those of the wood-leopard moth, goat moth and other Lepidoptera feed upon it occasionally; the foliage is devoured by innumerable larvae; indeed, it has been stated that half the plant-eating insects of England prey more or less upon the oak, and in some seasons it is difficult to find a leaf perfectly free from their depredations.

    16
    10
  • The centre of the leaf is often occupied by a midrib consisting of several layers of cells.

    15
    8
  • The overhanging leaf sees here its prototype.

    14
    9
  • In other cases the trace passes inwards and joins the central hydrom strand, so that a connected water-conducting system between stem and leaf is established.

    13
    8
  • In other cases the trace passes inwards and joins the central hydrom strand, so that a connected water-conducting system between stem and leaf is established.

    13
    8
  • She shook like a leaf in a thunderstorm, her warm brown eyes wide and tears streaming down her cheeks.

    12
    6
  • I remember well one gaunt Nimrod who would catch up a leaf by the roadside and play a strain on it wilder and more melodious, if my memory serves me, than any hunting-horn.

    10
    3
  • Mr. Chamberlin initiated me into the mysteries of tree and wild-flower, until with the little ear of love I heard the flow of sap in the oak, and saw the sun glint from leaf to leaf.

    10
    9
  • After awhile he went nearer, and looking closely at the buds, found that they were folded up, leaf over leaf, as eyelids are folded over sleeping eyes, so that Birdie thought they must be asleep.

    10
    10
  • The whole tree itself is but one leaf, and rivers are still vaster leaves whose pulp is intervening earth, and towns and cities are the ova of insects in their axils.

    8
    3
  • He raised the leaf again, unable to take his eyes off it.

    8
    6
  • Laymen may read the book of nature, and Man himself is the most important " leaf " in it.

    7
    2
  • These are elongated in the direction of the length of the leaf, are always poor in chlorophyll and form a channel for conducting the products of assimilation away from the leaf into the stem.

    7
    2
  • Disturbed, he folded the leaf and placed it in his pocket.

    7
    3
  • The title, which is written on the first leaf, and is also in Robert Napier's writing, runs thus: "The Baron of Merchiston his booke of Arithmeticke and Algebra.

    7
    3
  • Among the Merchiston papers is a thin quarto volume in Robert Napier's writing containing a digest of the principles of alchemy; it is addressed to his son, and on the first leaf there are directions that it is to remain in his charter-chest and be kept secret except from a few.

    7
    3
  • The concept of something more was as foreign to him as peace, and yet he wanted the image on the leaf to be real.

    7
    4
  • A'Ran went to his quarters, the thin sheet of what felt like a leaf in his hand.

    7
    6
  • 2, A), which has distinct upper and lower faces, are placed mainly or exclusively on the lower side of the leaf, where the water vapour that escapes from them, being lighter than air, cannot pass away from the surface 01 the leaf, but remains in contact with it and thus tends to check further transpiration.

    6
    1
  • In the larger veins of the leaf especially in the midrib, in the petiole, and in the young stem, a1 extremely frequent type of mechanical tissue is collenchyma.

    6
    1
  • In Caulerpa the imitation of a higher plant by the differentiation of fixing, supporting and assimilating organs (root, stem and leaf) from different branches of the single cell is strikingly complete.

    6
    4
  • Alike in root, stem and leaf, we can.

    6
    4
  • "Thank you!" cried the Wizard, joyfully, and at once rubbed a leaf upon the soles of Dorothy's shoes and then upon his own.

    6
    4
  • He took out a notebook, hurriedly scribbled something in pencil, tore out the leaf, gave it to Kozlovski, stepped quickly to the window, and threw himself into a chair, gazing at those in the room as if asking, "Why do they look at me?"

    6
    6
  • They are characterized by the absence of that differentiation of the body into root, stem and leaf which is so marked a feature in the higher plants, and by the simplicity of their internal structure.

    5
    3
  • In many cases the cells bordering the leaf are produced into teeth, and very frequently they are thick-walled so as to form a supporting rim.

    5
    3
  • This is the first indication of a conducting foliar strand or leaf bundle and forms an approach to leptom, though it is not so specialized as the leptom of the higher Phaeophyceae.

    5
    3
  • epiphytic plants and desert plants) have absorptive hairs or scales on the leaf epidermis through which rain and dew can be absorbed.

    5
    3
  • What mysterious force guided the seedling from the dark earth up to the light, through leaf and stem and bud, to glorious fulfilment in the perfect flower?

    5
    3
  • Thus any twining plant with a heart-shaped leaf, white and green above and purple beneath, is called by them guaco (R.

    5
    4
  • Insects are attracted to the mouth of the pitcher by a series of glands, yielding a sweet excretion, which occurs on the stem and also on the leaf from the base of the leaf-stalk to the lid and peristome.

    4
    2
  • Insects, especially running insects, which have followed the track of honey glands upwards from the stem along the leaf, reach the mouth of the pitcher, and in their efforts to sip the attractive marginal glands fall over into the liquid.

    4
    2
  • The leaf has a broadly sheathing base succeeded by a short stalk bearing the pitcher, which represents a much enlarged midrib with a winglike lamina.

    4
    2
  • The surface of the leaf, especially the laminar wing, bears glands which in spring exude large glistening dr„ r, s of nectar.

    4
    2
  • The lid and mouth of the pitcher are brighter coloured than the rest of the leaf, which FIG.

    3
    2
  • Insects are attracted to the mouth of the pitcher by a series of glands, yielding a sweet excretion, which occurs on the stem and also on the leaf from the base of the leaf-stalk to the lid and peristome.

    3
    2
  • The leaf has a broadly sheathing base succeeded by a short stalk bearing the pitcher, which represents a much enlarged midrib with a winglike lamina.

    3
    2
  • The lid and mouth of the pitcher are brighter coloured than the rest of the leaf, which FIG.

    3
    2
  • Its broad pinnate tropical leaf was pleasant though strange to look on.

    3
    2
  • Ay, every leaf and twig and stone and cobweb sparkles now at mid-afternoon as when covered with dew in a spring morning.

    3
    2
  • What Champollion will decipher this hieroglyphic for us, that we may turn over a new leaf at last?

    3
    2
  • The short straight or curved process from the back of the pitcher behind the lid represents the organic apex of the leaf (A in fig.

    3
    4
  • Then she threw a leaf of alfalfa hay into her stall.

    3
    5
  • Then she threw a leaf of alfalfa hay into her stall.

    3
    5
  • They are shrubby plants climbing over surrounding vegetation by means of tendrillike prolongations of the midrib of the leaf beyond the leaf-tip.

    3
    8
  • They are shrubby plants climbing over surrounding vegetation by means of tendrillike prolongations of the midrib of the leaf beyond the leaf-tip.

    3
    8
  • The sporophyte is the plant which is differentiated into stem, leaf and root, which show a wonderful variety 01 form; the internal structure also shows increased complexity and variety as compared with the other group of vascular plants, the Pteridophyta.

    2
    1
  • T, Part of vertical section through blade of typical leaf of Phanerogam.

    2
    1
  • This differentiation is parallel with that between stem and leaf of the higher plants.

    2
    1
  • The leaf consists of a central midrib, several cells thick, and two wings, one cell thick.

    2
    1
  • These three concentric tissue mantles are evidently formed by the conjoined bases of the leaf traces, each of which is composed of the same three tissues.

    2
    1
  • The leaf consists of a central midrib, several cells thick, and two wings, one cell thick.

    2
    1
  • These three concentric tissue mantles are evidently formed by the conjoined bases of the leaf traces, each of which is composed of the same three tissues.

    2
    1
  • He would perhaps have placed alder branches over the narrow holes in the ice, which were four or five rods apart and an equal distance from the shore, and having fastened the end of the line to a stick to prevent its being pulled through, have passed the slack line over a twig of the alder, a foot or more above the ice, and tied a dry oak leaf to it, which, being pulled down, would show when he had a bite.

    2
    1
  • Perhaps I shall hear a solitary loon laugh as he dives and plumes himself, or shall see a lonely fisher in his boat, like a floating leaf, beholding his form reflected in the waves, where lately a hundred men securely labored.

    2
    1
  • Is not the hand a spreading palm leaf with its lobes and veins?

    2
    1
  • In the leaf-blade this sometimes aopears as a layer of thickened subepidermal cells, tht hypoderm, often also as subepidermal bundles of sclerenchymatou~ fibres, or as similar bundles extending right across the leaf from mu epidermis to the other and thus acting as struts.

    2
    2
  • He passed the oscillations to be detected through a fine wire or strip of gold leaf, and over this, but just not touching, suspended a loop of bismuth-antimony wire by a quartz fibre.

    2
    5
  • He passed the oscillations to be detected through a fine wire or strip of gold leaf, and over this, but just not touching, suspended a loop of bismuth-antimony wire by a quartz fibre.

    2
    5
  • It is a fine broad leaf to look on.

    2
    5
  • In a few cases the hydrom strand is continued into the cortex of the stem as a leaf-trace bundle (the anatomically demonstrable trace of the leaf in the stem).

    1
    1
  • Other hairs consist of a chain of cells; others, again, are branched in various ways; while yet others have the form of a flat plate of cells placed parallel to the leaf surface and inserted on a stalk.

    1
    1
  • In a few cases the hydrom strand is continued into the cortex of the stem as a leaf-trace bundle (the anatomically demonstrable trace of the leaf in the stem).

    1
    1
  • I'm turning over a new leaf.

    0
    0
  • "I will be there soon," he said, and lowered the leaf.

    0
    0
  • She wouldn't, not if he couldn't become the man on the leaf.

    0
    0
  • I'm shaking like a leaf!

    0
    0
  • You were soaking wet and shivering like a leaf.

    0
    0
  • a, Apex of leaf.

    0
    0
  • The stereom of the moss is found mainly in the outer cortex of the stem and in the midrib of the leaf.

    0
    0
  • Stomata are often situated at the bottom of pits in the surface of the leaf.

    0
    0
  • This last type of hydathode is usually situated on the edge of the leaf.

    0
    0
  • Some hydathodes are active glands, secreting the water they expel from the leaf.

    0
    0
  • A Dorsiventraf leaf.

    0
    0
  • Isobilateral leaf.

    0
    0
  • Isolated celh (idioblasts), thickened in various ways, are not uncommonly founc supporting the tissues of the leaf.

    0
    0
  • Soon a bundle goes off to ~ the first leaf.

    0
    0
  • In other cases the leaf-gaps are very broad and long, the meristeles separating them being reduced to comparatively slender strands, while there is present in each gap a network of fine vascular threads, some of which run out to the leaf, while others form cross-connections between these leaf-trace strands and also with the main cauline meristeles.

    0
    0
  • The vascular supply of the leaf (leaf-trace) consists of a single strand only in the haplostelic and some of the more primitive siphonostelic forms. In the microphyllous groups Leaf.trace of Pteridophytes (Lycopodiales and Equisetales) in and Petlolar which the leaves are small relatively to the stem, the Strands, single bundle destined for each leaf is a small strand whose departure causes no disturbance in the cauline stele.

    0
    0
  • they can be traced upwards from any given point till they are found to pass out of the cylinder, travel through the cortex of the stem and enter a leaf.

    0
    0
  • The leaf trace of any given leaf rarely consists of a single bundle only (unifascicular); the number of bundles of any given trace is always odd; they may either be situated all together before they leave the stele or they may be distributed at intervals round the stele.

    0
    0
  • The median bundles of the trace are typically the largest, and at any given level of the stem the bundles destined for the next leaf above are as a whole larger than the others which are destined to supply higher leaves.

    0
    0
  • In the blade of a typical leaf of a vascular plantessentially a thin plate of assimilating tissuethe vascular system takes the form of a number of separate, usually branching and anastomosing strands.

    0
    0
  • These, with their associated Stelar stereom, form a kind of framework which is of great Tissueol Leaf and importance in supporting the mesophyll; but also, and R~t.

    0
    0
  • chiefly, they provide a number of channels, penetrating every part of the leaf, along which water and dissolved salts are conveyed to, and elaborated food-substances from, the mesophyll cells.

    0
    0
  • ifA portion of a lactici- stematic cells, the walls separating the lerous coenocyte dissected out s cells breaking down, so that a network ihe leaf of a Euphorbia (Xi20).

    0
    0
  • In many Pteridophytes thi first leaf is formed very early, and the first vascular strand i!

    0
    0
  • developed at its base, usually becoming continuous with the cylinde of the root; the strand of the second leaf is formed in a similar wa~ and runs down to join that of the first, so that the stem stele is forme.

    0
    0
  • In this case also the differentiation of leaf-bundles, which typically begins at the base of the leaf and extends upwards into the leaf and downwards into the stem, is the first phenomenon in the development of vascular tissue, and is seen at a higher level than the formation of a stele.

    0
    0
  • A layer of cork is regularly formed in most Phanerogams across the base of the petiole before leaf fall, so as to cover the wound caused by the separation of the leaf from the stem.

    0
    0
  • Brown and Escombe have shown that the amount of solar energy taken up by a green leaf may often be fifty times as much as it can utilize in the constructive processes of which it is the seat.

    0
    0
  • What is not used in the constructive processes is employed in the evaporation of the water, the leaf being thus kept cool.

    0
    0
  • Whether the leaf is brightly or only moderately illuminated, the same relative proportions of the total energy absorbed are devoted to the purposes of composition and construction respectively.

    0
    0
  • The growth of the leaf is at first apical, but this is not very prolonged, and the subsequent enlargement is due to an intercalary growing region near the base.

    0
    0
  • If the member is one which shows a difference of structure on two sides, such as a leaf, the two sides frequently show a difference of degree of turgidity, and consequently of rate of growth.

    0
    0
  • If we consider a leaf of the common fern we find that in its young condition it is closely rolled up, the upper or ventral surface being quite concealed.

    0
    0
  • This is due to the fact that while young the turgidity and consequent growth are greater in the dorsal side of the leaf, so that it becomes rolled up. As it develops the maximum turgidity and growth change to its upper side, and so it becomes unfolded or expanded.

    0
    0
  • When the pinnate leaf of a Mimosa pudica, the so-called sensitive plant, is pinched or struck, the leaf droops rapidly and the leaflets become approximated together, so that their upper surfaces are in contact.

    0
    0
  • The mechanism is applied to the capture of insects alighting on the leaf.

    0
    0
  • When these are excited by the settling of an insect on the leaf they slowly bend over and imprison the intruder, which is detained there meanwhile by a sticky excretion poured out by the glands.

    0
    0
  • If the leaf of Mini osa or Desmodium be examined, it will be seen that at the base of each leaflet and each leaf, just at the junction with the respective axes, is a swelling known as a pulvinus.

    0
    0
  • In the erect position of the leaf the lower side has its cells extremely turgid, and the pulvinus thus forms a cushion, holding up the petiole.

    0
    0
  • On stimulation these cells part with their water, the lower side of the organ becomes flaccid and the weight of the leaf causes it to fall.

    0
    0
  • Similar turgescence changes, taking place with similar rapidity in the midrib of the leaf of Dionaea, explainthe closing of the lobes upon their hinge.

    0
    0
  • miners) tunnel into the leaf parenchyma, and so put the assimilating areas out of action in another way.

    0
    0
  • Schinzia, which forms galllike swellings on the roots of rushes; Gymnosporangium, causing excrescences on juniper stems; numerous leaf Fungi such as Puccinia, Aecidium, Sep/one, &c., causing yellow, brown or black spots on leaves; or Ustilago in the anthers of certain flowers.

    0
    0
  • Cecidia or galls arise by the hypertrophy of the subepidermal cells of a leaf, cortex, &c., which has been pierced by theovipositor of an insect, and in which the egg is deposited.

    0
    0
  • In such leaves, there are a well-marked cuticle, a thick epidermis, a thick hypodermis at least on the upper side of the leaf, well-developed palisade tissue, and a poorly developed system of air-spaces.

    0
    0
  • Such adaptations are well seen in the leaf of the holly (Ilex aquifolium).

    0
    0
  • Joachim Jung, in his Isagoge phytoscopica (1678), recognized that the plant-body consists of certain definite members, root, stem and leaf, and defined them by their different form and by their mutual relations.

    0
    0
  • The tisallus (thallome) is a plant-body which is not differentiated into the members root, stem and leaf; it is the morphologically simplest body, such as is of common occurrence in the lower plants (e~.

    0
    0
  • The leaf (phyllome) is an appendicular member only borne by a stem, but differing from it more or less obviously in form and development, though co-ordinate with it in complexity of structure.

    0
    0
  • Moreover, the abstract terms stem, leaf, root, &c., are absolutely indispensable; and are continually used in this sense by the most ardent organographers.

    0
    0
  • Thus, in a phanerogam, the sepals, petals, stamens and foliage-leaves all come under the category leaf, though some are parts of the perianth, others are spore-bearing organs (sporophylls), and others carry on nutritive processes.

    0
    0
  • The tendrils of a vetch and of a cucumber are analogous, and also homologous because they both belong to the category leaf; but they are only analogous to the tendrils of the vine and of the passion-flower, which belong to the category stem.

    0
    0
  • Metamorphosis.It has already been pointed out that each kind of member of the body may present a variety of forms. For example, a stem may be a tree-trunk, or a twining stem, or a tendril, or a thorn, or a creeping rhizome, or a tuber; a leaf may be a green foliage-leaf, or a scale protecting a bud, or a tendril, or a pitcher, or a floral leaf, either sepal, petal, stamen or carpel (sporophyll); a root may be a fibrous root, or a swollen tap-root like that of the beet or the turnip. All these various forms are organs discharging some special function, and are examples of what Wolff called modification, and Goethe metamorphosis.

    0
    0
  • The leaf of the higher plants will be taken as the illustrative case because it is the most plastic of the members, the one, that is, which presents the greatest variety of adaptations, and because it has been most thoroughly studied.

    0
    0
  • In this, as in all morphological inquiries, two lines of investigation have to be followed, the phylogenetic and the ontogenetic. Beginning with its phylogeny, it appears, so far as present knowledge goes, that the differentiation of the shoot of the sporophyte into stem and leaf first occurred in the Pteridophyta; and, in accordance with the views of Bower (Origin of a Land..

    0
    0
  • Flora), the primitive leaf was a reproductive leaf, a sporophyll, from which the foliage-leaf was derived by progressive sterilization.

    0
    0
  • Accepting this view of the phylogeny of the leaf, the perianthleaves (sepals and petals) and the foliage-leaves may be regarded as modified or metamorphosed sporophylls; that is, as leaves which are adapted to functions other than the bearing of spores.

    0
    0
  • For when the older morphologists spoke of a stamen as a metamorphosed leaf, it was implied that it originated as a foliage-leaf and subsequently became a stamen.

    0
    0
  • there is morphological differentiation, which can be traced in the distinction of the members of the body, root, stem, leaf, &c.; there is physiological differentiation, which can be traced in the adaptation of these members to various functions.

    0
    0
  • Since the introduction of printing, the Talmud is always cited by the number of the leaf in the first edition (Venice, 1520, &c.), to which all subsequent editions conform.

    0
    0
  • The wheels, called naoura, are of the most primitive construction, made of rough branches of trees, with palm leaf paddles, rude clay vessels being slung on the outer edge to catch the water, of which they raise a prodigious amount, only a comparatively small part of which, however, is poured into the aqueducts on top of the dams. These latter are exceedingly picturesque, often consisting of a series of well-built Gothic arches, and give a peculiar character to the scenery; but they are also great impediments to navigation.

    0
    0
  • A characteristic of the class is afforded by the complicated network formed by the leaf -veins, - well seen in a skeleton leaf, from which the soft parts have been removed by maceration.

    0
    0
  • - Polypodium vulgare, of leaf of Polypodium bearing common polypody (about a nat.

    0
    0
  • Group of spore-cases (sorus) on back of leaf (X 4).

    0
    0
  • The material universally used for writing on is the prepared leaf of the lontar palm.

    0
    0
  • That of Hydrophilus is attached to a floating leaf, and is provided with a hollow, tapering process, which projects above the surface and presumably conveys air to the enclosed eggs.

    0
    0
  • The frame is crossed by four metal horizontal rods passing through holes large enough to allow them to rattle when the sistrum is shaken, the rods being prevented from slipping out altogether by little metal stops in the shape of a leaf; sometimes metal rings are threaded over the rods to increase the jingling.

    0
    0
  • Other genera of South American ants - A pterostigma and Cyphomyrmex - make similar fungal cultivations, but they use wood, grain or dung as the substratum instead of leaf fragments.

    0
    0
  • The Monandreae have been subdivided into twenty-eight tribes, the characters of which are based on the structure of the anther and pollinia, the nature of the inflorescence, whether terminal or lateral, the vernation of the leaf and the presence or absence of a joint between blade and sheath, and the nature of the stem.

    0
    0
  • Pleurothallidinae, characterized by a thin stem bearing one leaf which separates at a distinct joint; the sepals are usually much larger than the petals and lip. Includes To genera, natives of tropical America, one of which, Pleurothallis, contains about 400 species.

    0
    0
  • The trees should be planted immediately before or after the fall of the leaf.

    0
    0
  • caused by Taphrina bullata, which forms swollen areas on 1, Leaf showing diseased areas.

    0
    0
  • Pear trees may 2, Section of leaf surface showing the also be attacked by a great spores or conidia, c, borne on long variety of insect pests.

    0
    0
  • 1, Leaf showing groups of cups or aecidia.

    0
    0
  • The female lays her eggs in a slit made by means of her "saw-like" ovipositor in the leaf or fruit of a tree.

    0
    0
  • All fruit and forest trees suffer from these curious insects, which in the female sex always remain apterous and apodal and live attached to the bark, leaf and fruit, hidden beneath variously formed scale-like coverings.

    0
    0
  • For insects provided with a biting mouth, which take nourishment from the whole leaf, shoot or fruit, the poisonous washes used are chiefly arsenical.

    0
    0
  • Lecaillon (1898) on various leaf beetles, tend to show that the organ " in the embryos of the lower Arthropoda corresponds with whole of the " mid-gut " arises from the proliferation of cells at the the region invaginated to form the serosa of the hexapod embryo.

    0
    0
  • Passing back from the centre of the web to the underside of an adjoining leaf or some other sheltered spot runs a single thread, the trap line affording passage to the spider to and from the sheltered spot and the snare itself.

    0
    0
  • Perfect orbicular webs are made by many genera of Argyopidae (Zilla, Meta, Gasteracantha), the best-known example being that of the common garden spider of England, Aranea or Epeira diademata; but these webs are not associated with any tubular retreat except such as are made under an adjoining leaf or in some nook hard by.

    0
    0
  • One genus of Thomisidae (Phognarachne), which inhabits the Oriental region, adopts the clever device of spinning on the surface of a leaf a sheet of web resembling the fluid portions of a splash of bird's dung, the more solid central portions being represented by the spider itself, which waits in the middle of the patch to seize the butterflies or other insects that habitually feed on birds' excrement and are attracted to the patch mistaking it for their natural food.

    0
    0
  • The chief points to be attended to are to have a plentiful supply of botanical drying paper, so as to be able to use about six sheets for each specimen; to change the paper at intervals of six to twelve hours; to avoid contact of one leaf or flower with another; and to increase the pressure applied only in proportion to the dryness of the specimen.

    0
    0
  • The strong, black perique of the delta - cultivated very generally in the lower alluvial region before the Civil War, but now almost exclusively in St James parish - is a famous leaf, grown since early colonial times.

    0
    0
  • Bright or yellow plug and smoking leaf are grown on the pine uplands and pine " flats," and a small amount of cigar tobacco on the flats, prairies and " bluffs."

    0
    0
  • tobacco of Cuba comes from Pinar del Rio province; Tobacco the rest mainly from the provinces of Havana and Santa Clara, - the description de partido being applied to the leaf not produced in Havana and Pinar del Rio provinces, and sometimes to all produced outside the vuelta abajo.

    0
    0
  • In recent years the growth of the leaf under cloth tents has greatly increased, as it has been abundantly proved that the product thus secured is much more valuable - lighter in colour and weight, finer in texture, with an increased proportion of wrapper leaves, and more uniform qualities, and with lesser amounts of cellulose, nicotine, gums and resins.

    0
    0
  • In 1904-1906 the yearly average sent to the United States was 234,063,652 cigars, 29,776,429 lb of leaf and 14,203,571 packages of cigarettes.

    0
    0
  • It is obliged also to form entrepots for the storage of the crops at reasonable distances from each other, and, on certain conditions, to grant advances to cultivators to aid them in raising the leaf.

    0
    0
  • In the case of the peach this peculiarity is in some way connected with the presence of small glandular outgrowths on the stalk, or at the base of the leaf.

    0
    0
  • milk, which is acid, is coagulated by 1, leaf; 2, twig with the addition of the alkaline juice of male flowers; 3, twig the ' ` achete " plant, or of another with female flowers; plant called " coasso."

    0
    0
  • size); 2, part of under side of leaf showing somatia at d d (about nat.

    0
    0
  • - Leaf of Viola tricolor (Pansy) showing the large leafy stipules (s).

    0
    0
  • TheLogia is the name given to the sayings contained in a papyrus leaf, by its discoverers Grenfell and Hunt.

    0
    0
  • every branch and leaf is lighted up with a silvery lustre of indescribable beauty....

    0
    0
  • Even Voltaire did not venture to publish this lampoon on a great official of a prince so touchy as the king of Prussia without some permission, and if all tales are true he obtained this by another piece of something like forgery - getting the king to endorse a totally different pamphlet on its last leaf, and affixing that last leaf to Akakia.

    0
    0
  • The incense sticks and pastils known all over India under the names of ud-buti (" benzoin-light") or aggar-ki-buti (" wood aloes light") are composed of benzoin, wood aloes, sandalwood, rock lichen, patchouli, rose-malloes, talispat (the leaf of Flacourtia Cataphracta of Roxburgh), mastic and sugar-candy or gum.

    0
    0
  • The surface of vessels may be spangled with gold or platinum by rolling the hot glass on metallic leaf, or iridescent, by the deposition of metallic tin, or by the corrosion caused by the chemical action of acid fumes.

    0
    0
  • The process of embedding gold and silver leaf between two layers of glass originated as early as the 1st century, probably in Alexandria.

    0
    0
  • The process consisted in spreading the leaf on a thin film of blown glass and pressing molten glass on to the leaf so that the molten glass cohered with the film of glass through the pores of the metallic leaf.

    0
    0
  • If before this application of the molten glass the metallic leaf, whilst resting on the thin film of blown glass, was etched with a sharp point, patterns, emblems, inscriptions and pictures could be embedded and rendered permanent by the double coating of glass.

    0
    0
  • They are the broken bases of drinking vessels containing inscriptions, emblems, domestic scenes and portraits etched in gold leaf.

    0
    0
  • The bases containing the embedded gold leaf must have been welded to the vessels to which they belonged, in the same way as the bases are welded to the Saracenic beakers.

    0
    0
  • In regard to gold this has been proved to be so; gold leaf, or thin films of gold produced chemically on glass plates, transmit light with a green colour.

    0
    0
  • To give an idea of what can be done in this way, it may be stated that gold can be beaten out to leaf of the thickness of - j g - mm.; and that platinum, by judicious work, can be drawn into wire 2?o o mm.

    0
    0
  • An oblate flattened body, like a disk or plate, has c 2 -c 1 negative, so that the medium steers the body axially; this may be verified by a plate dropped in water, and a leaf or disk or rocket-stick or piece of paper falling in air.

    0
    0
  • Labrusca there is a tendril opposite to each leaf, so that the podium bears only a single leaf.

    0
    0
  • The tendril or inflorescence, according to the views above explained, though in reality terminal, is bent to one side; hence it appears to be lateral and opposite to the leaf.

    0
    0
  • While the tendril is thus diverted from its original direct course, the axillary bud of the leaf opposite the tendril begins a new podium, by lengthening into a shoot which assumes the direction the tendril had prior to its deflexion.

    0
    0
  • Other authorities explain the formation of the tendril and its anomalous position opposite to a leaf by supposing that the end of the stem bifurcates during growth, one division forming the shoot, the other the tendril or inflorescence.

    0
    0
  • The leaf directly opposite the bunch must in all cases be preserved, and the young shoot is to be topped at one or two joints beyond the incipient fruit, the latter distance being preferable if there is plenty of room for the foliage to expand; the lateral shoots, which will push out after the topping, must be again topped above their first or second joints.

    0
    0
  • Vine leaf attacked by mildew, Uncinula necator (Erysiphe Tuckeri), which forms white patches on the upper face, reduced.

    0
    0
  • On the upper side of the leaf, where it is first visible, it forms pale green irregular spots, which become darker in colour.

    0
    0
  • On the under side of the leaf these patches are white and are composed of the spore-bearing hyphae.

    0
    0
  • The leaf ultimately becomes dried up and brittle.

    0
    0
  • They are unbranched and bear in the upper portion numerous long narrow grass-like leaves arranged in two rows; the leaf springs from a large sheath and has a more or less spreading blade 3 ft.

    0
    0
  • - Microscopic Structure of Tobacco Leaf.

    0
    0
  • Very slight differences in climate appear to cause very great differences in the quality of the tobacco, and ordinary meteorological records are of little use in determining the suitability or not of a region for a particular kind of leaf; this essential point must be determined by experiment.

    0
    0
  • Sandy soils produce tobaccos with a thin leaf, curing to a yellow or bright red colour.

    0
    0
  • A ripe leaf easily cracks or shows a crease when folded between the fingers.

    0
    0
  • It was noticed, however, that if the tobacco was grown under the shade of trees the character of the leaf was improved.

    0
    0
  • The yield of leaf is often much increased, the plants are protected from the weather, and the enhanced value of the crop much more than repays the very considerable expense involved in artificially shading whole fields.

    0
    0
  • Important changes take place in the tobacco leaf from the time it is cut until the finished product is ready for consumption.

    0
    0
  • The process, which requires great judgment and care, results in the bright yellow leaf so largely used for pipe tobacco, cigarettes and chewing tobacco.

    0
    0
  • The contents of the barn are therefore left till moist weather occurs, and then by the admission of atmospheric air the leaf blades absorb moisture and become soft and pliant.

    0
    0
  • Each bundle is tied round with a separate leaf, and in this condition the tobacco is ready for bulking for fermentation.

    0
    0
  • Fermentation is essentially a chemical process due apparently to the presence of enzymes, developed in the leaf during the earlier curing stages.

    0
    0
  • Recently, shade-grown tobacco in some localities has suffered considerably from the attacks of small sucking insects known as thrips, which produce " white veins " in the leaf.

    0
    0
  • " Frog's eye," or " leaf spot," denotes the occurrence of small white specks on the leaf.

    0
    0
  • Excessive humidity causes small dark spots to appear; these become confluent and the whole leaf may become dark and decay.

    0
    0
  • Too rapid drying of the outer tissue of the leaf leads to the formation of " white veins," which injure leaves required for wrapper purposes, otherwise it is not important.

    0
    0
  • Other tests show variability in burning quality, elasticity of leaf, texture, taste, &c. The United States Department of Agriculture has closely investigated this important question and the results attained are brought together by Messrs H.

    0
    0
  • Thus for wrapper tobaccos, amongst other points a broad, rounded leaf, which will yield perhaps eight wrappers, is much more valuable than a narrow pointed leaf which yields perhaps only four.

    0
    0
  • The leaf known as " Vuelta Abajo," produced in the province of Pinar del Rio, is perhaps the best cigar leaf of the world.

    0
    0
  • Mexico is an important tobacco-producing country, and Mexican leaf is largely used in Europe for cigar wrappers and other purposes.

    0
    0
  • The variety grown is usually of the Virginia type, and the leaf is coarse, dark and heavy, and suited to the manufacture of plug and snuff.

    0
    0
  • The leaf is of medium size, heavy, and is mainly used in the manufacture of cigars.

    0
    0
  • Hungary produces tobacco of a rich, dark brown colour, useful for cigars, and also a small, bright yellow leaf, of value as a cigarette and pipe tobacco.

    0
    0
  • In northern Russia the produce is mainly a large, coarse, heavy, dark leaf, of use only for the manufacture of plug and snuff.

    0
    0
  • The small Turkish leaf is famous throughout the world.

    0
    0
  • The produce is usually leaf of considerable size, of medium colour and suited only for cigarette and pipe smoking.

    0
    0
  • The exports of manufactured tobacco, such as Manila cheroots, find their principal market in China, British India, Australasia and the United Kingdom, whilst of the leaf tobacco fully three-quarters goes to Spain.

    0
    0
  • The interior of the roll consists of small and broken leaf of various kinds, called Roll " fillers "; and this is enclosed within an external Tobacco.

    0
    0
  • covering of large whole leaf of bright quality, such leaves being called " covers."

    0
    0
  • For the binder whole leaf of the same quality as the fillers is used, but for the wrapper only selected leaves of the finest quality and colour, free from all injury, are employed.

    0
    0
  • This quantity is wrapped in the inner cover, an oblong piece of leaf the length of the cigar to be made, and of width sufficient to enclose the whole material.

    0
    0
  • Other brands of home manufacture contain some proportion of Cuban tobacco; and very good cigars may be made in which the name only of that highly-prized leaf is employed.

    0
    0
  • When we come to the inferior classes of cigars, it can only be said that they may be made from any kind of leaf, the more ambitious imitations being treated with various sauces designed to give them a Havana flavour.

    0
    0
  • The highest class of Cuban-made cigars, called " vegueras," are prepared from the very finest Vuelta Abajo leaf, rolled when it is just half dry, and consequently never damped with water at all.

    0
    0
  • is thick fleshy leaf of a dark colour, but scraps and waste pieces resulting from the preparation of smoking mixtures and cigars, and the midribs of leaves are largely used.

    0
    0
  • The best time for performing this is in the autumn, just after the fall of the leaf.

    0
    0
  • He dwarfs trees so that they remain measurable only by inches after their age has reached scores, even hundreds, of years, and the proportions of leaf, branch and stem are preserved with fidelity.

    0
    0
  • Here is an example: Momiji-ha wo Kaze ni makasete More fleeting than the glint of Miru yori mo -withered leaf wind-blown, the Hakanaki mono wa thing called life.

    0
    0
  • It is nothing to a Japanese that a vase should be covered with profuse decoration of flowers and foliage: he requires that every blossom and every leaf shall be instinct with vitality, and the comparative costliness of fine workmanship does not influence his choice.

    0
    0
  • The veining of a cherry petal, for example, the tessellation of a carps scales, the serration of a leafs edgeall these lines remain intact, spared by the cutters tool, while the leaf itself, or the petal, or the scales of the fish, have the threads forming them cut so as to show the velvet nap and to appear in soft, low relief.

    0
    0
  • Acting upon that theory, the experts of TokyO and Nagoya have produced many very beautiful specimens of monochrome enamelyellow (canary or straw), rose du Barry, liquid-dawn, red, aubergine purple, green (grass or leaf), dove-grey and lapis lazuli bl,ue.

    0
    0
  • Yarnold's process, using corrugated glass plates coated on one side with gold or other metal leaf, is stated to have yielded as much as 2700 grains per e.h.p. hour.

    0
    0
  • The small flowers are densely crowded on thick fleshy spikes, which are associated with, and often more or less enveloped by, a large leaf (bract), the so-called spathe, which, as in cuckoo-pint, where it is green in colour, Richardia, where it is white, creamy or yellow, Anthurium, where it is a brilliant scarlet, is often the most striking feature of the plant.

    0
    0
  • Gold is dissipated by sending a powerful charge of electricity through it when in the form of leaf or thin wire.

    0
    0
  • 1, Leaf shoot.

    0
    0
  • The leaf, however, corresponded with the description given of the true cinnamon by Linnaeus.

    0
    0
  • 3), the Leaf Cactus family, consists of about a dozen species, found in Central and tropical South America.

    0
    0
  • c, yov, leaf, and rjpos, dry), a genus of insects belonging to the family of Aphidae, or Plant-lice, in the Homopterous section of the order Hemiptera.

    0
    0
  • By this means a gall is produced on the under side of the leaf.

    0
    0
  • of the leaf is protected by similar structures.

    0
    0
  • The first book with his imprint is The Psalms of David Imitated in For the prevention of counterfeiting continental paper money Franklin long afterwards suggested the use on the different denominations of different leaves, having noted the infinite variety of leaf venation.

    0
    0
  • A considerable native export trade in wood, charcoal, bamboo, medicines, paper umbrellas, oranges, otter skins and tobacco leaf is carried on.

    0
    0
  • When the ice breaks up in spring they always leave their embankments, and rove about until a little before the fall of the leaf, when they return to their old habitations, and lay in their winter stock of wood.

    0
    0
  • 2 The nests of the sun-birds, domed with a penthouse porch, and pensile from the end of a bough or leaf, are very neatly built.

    0
    0
  • - Leaf 3 of the Tonalamatl, or sacred cycle of 260 days, from the Aubin collection.

    0
    0
  • - Leaf 10 of Codex Borbonicus.

    0
    0
  • - Leaf 54 of Codex Borbonicus B.

    0
    0
  • - Leaf 44 of Codex Fejervdry- Mayer.

    0
    0
  • - Lower Portion of Leaf Go of Codex Dresdensis, with figures of four deities and groups of hieroglyphs on Agave paper.

    0
    0
  • could be done by noting the amount of deflection for each range and applying it by means of a sliding leaf carrying the notch, and it is so done in howitzers; in most guns, however, it is found more convenient and sufficiently accurate to apply it automatically by inclining the socket through which the tangent scale rises.

    0
    0
  • This was arranged for by a movable leaf carrying the sighting V, worked by means of a mill-headed screw provided with a scale in degrees and fractions to the same radius as the elevation scale, and an arrowb head for reading.

    0
    0
  • One end of the bar is slotted to take the sliding leaf; this end of the bar is graduated from o° to 6°, and in conjunction with the fore-sight affords a lateral scope of 6° on either side of the normal for picking up an auxiliary mark.

    0
    0
  • The leaf of the fore-sight has a pinhole, and that of the tangent sight cross-wires for fine reverse laying.

    0
    0
  • When the target is completely concealed it is necessary to lay the gun on an aiming point more or less out of the line of fire, or to lay on a " director " with a large amount of deflection, and to align aiming posts with the sights at zero to give the direction of the target, and afterwards perhaps to transfer the line of sight to some other distant object, all of which require a far greater scope of deflection than is afforded by the deflection leaf.

    0
    0
  • In this sight both hind and fore sights are fixed on a rigid bar pivoted about the centre; the rear end is raised or depressed by a rack worked by a hand-wheel; ranges are read from the periphery of a drum; the fore-sight and leaf of the hind-sight are provided with small electric glow lamps for night firing.

    0
    0
  • The fore-sight was a small globe, and in the original patterns this was placed on a movable leaf on which deflection for speed of one's own ship was given, while deflection for speed of enemy's ship and wind were given on the tangent sight.

    0
    0
  • In other cases small portions of the stem or leaves give rise to new plants by budding, as in Bryophyllum, where buds develop at the edges of the leaf and form new plants.

    0
    0
  • Dreiblatl and Dreiblattbogen), the term in Gothic architecture given to the ornamental foliation or cusping introduced in the heads of window-lights, tracery, panellings, &c., in which the centre takes the form of a three-lobed leaf, one of the earliest examples being in the plate tracery at Winchester (1222-1235);1235); See Quatrefoil.

    0
    0
  • 1); and the palm branches or cross of palm leaf, the badge of the " Palmers " pilgrimage to the Holy Land.

    0
    0
  • - The fortress draw-bridge is the original type, in which a single leaf, or bascule, turns round a horizontal hinge at one abutment.

    0
    0
  • The weight of each leaf including ballast is about 1070 tons.

    0
    0
  • The phenomena of movements of the organs of plants attracted the attention of John Ray (1693), who ascribed the movements of the leaf of Mimosa and others to alteration in temperature.

    0
    0
  • The soil should be a light and fairly rich compost, comprising about 2 parts loam, I part decayed manure or horse droppings that have been thoroughly sweetened, I part leaf mould and half a part of sand.

    0
    0
  • Leaf, Iliad (2nd ed.), on the phrase 410p6010s ibrvos (ii.

    0
    0
  • The two most important tobaccogrowing districts are: the Black Patch, in the extreme south-west corner of the state, which with the adjacent counties in Tennessee grows a black heavy leaf bought almost entirely by the agents of foreign governments (especially Austria, Spain and Italy) and called " regie " tobacco; and the Blue Grass Region, as far east as Maysville, and the hill country south and east, whose product, the red and white Burley, is a fine-fibred light leaf, peculiarly absorbent of licorice and other adulterants used in the manufacture of sweet chewing tobacco, and hence a peculiarly valuable crop, which formerly averaged 22 cents a pound for all grades.'

    0
    0
  • The blister if unbroken was heated, pricked, and then rubbed level with a burnisher; if, as sometimes happened, the silver had flaked away it was replaced by coatings of pure leaf silver rubbed in with a burnisher.

    0
    0
  • The betel nut is the fruit of the Areca or betel palm, Areca Catechu, and the betel leaf is the produce of the betel vine or pan, Chavica Betel, a plant allied to that which yields black pepper.

    0
    0
  • When chewed a small piece is wrapped up in a leaf of the betel vine or pan, with a pellet of shell lime or chunam; and in some cases a little cardamom, turmeric or other aromatic is added.

    0
    0
  • The mescalproducing magueys have a thinner leaf and are not cultivated, with the exception of the species producing the " tequila " mescal.

    0
    0
  • The number of factories reported for 1899 was 743, but as the consumption of leaf, tobacco increased from 5,546,677 to 8,587,356 kilogrammes, it may be assumed that the decrease in factories is due to the absorption or disappearance of the small shops using old-fashioned methods.

    0
    0
  • Cutting and binding take place in early winter after the fall of the leaf, the crop being known as green whole stuff.

    0
    0
  • " The Sayings," to which the term Logia is generally applied, consist of (a) a papyrus leaf containing seven or eight sayings of Jesus discovered in 1897, (b) a second leaf containing five more sayings discovered in 1903, (c) two fragments of unknown Gospels, the former published in 1903, the latter in 1907.

    0
    0
  • The second Gospel fragment discovered in 1907 " consists of z single vellum leaf, practically complete except at one of the lower corners and here most of the lacunae admit of a satisfactory solution."

    0
    0
  • Alexandrinus, in which a leaf near the end was missing, so that the great prayer (cc. lv.-Ixiv.) remained unknown.

    0
    0
  • Precious stones ($43,620,591); fruits and nuts; copper, iron and steel; tobacco (leaf $25,897,650; manufactured, $4,138,521); tin; spirits, wines and liquors; oils, paper, works of art, tea and leather ($16,270,406), being the remaining items in excess of $15,000,000 each.

    0
    0
  • Solovyov's Modern Priestess of Isis, translated by Walter Leaf (1895), in Arthur Lillie's Madame Blavatsk y and Her Theosophy (1895), and in the report made to the Society for Psychical Research by the Cambridge graduate despatched to investigate her doings in India.

    0
    0
  • Leaf, Proc. Anat.

    0
    0
  • The Spigelian (s) and caudate lobes (c) belong to the right half of the liver, the latter being usually a leaf shaped lobe attached by its stalk to the Spigelian, and having its blade flattened between the right lateral lobe and the right kidney.

    0
    0
  • It obviously makes a difference upon which side of a leaf, whether on the verso or the recto, a line was written.

    0
    0
  • In the "Timber Belt" the forests of long leaf pine have an estimated stand of 21,192 million ft.; and in 1905 the product of sawed lumber was valued at $13,563,815.

    0
    0
  • The bulk of the leaf tea, however, now goes to Russia by direct steamers to Odessa instead of to London as formerly, and a large quantity goes overland via Tientsin and Siberia in the form of brick tea.

    0
    0
  • The sugar-cane crop declined in value after 1890, and each year more of it was made into syrup. In 1908 the tobacco crop was 2,705,625 lb, and the average farm price was 35 cents, being nearly as high as that of the Florida crop; Sumatra leaf for wrappers is grown successfully..

    0
    0
  • The flowers are borne singly in the leaf-axils on a stalk about half the length of the leaf and jointed and bent in the middle; the corolla is blue-purple.

    0
    0
  • The soil in which the mulberry grows, and the age and condition of the trees, are important factors in the success of silkworm cultivation; and it has been too often proved that the mulberry will grow in situations where, from the nature of the leaf the trees put forth and from other circumstances, silkworms cannot be profitably reared.

    0
    0
  • Good ventilation is indispensable to allow the worm to give out by transpiration the great quantity of water that it absorbs with the leaf.

    0
    0
  • If this exhalation is stopped or lessened the digestion in its turn is also stopped, the leaf remains longer than usual in the intestines, the microbes multiply, invading the whole body, and this brings about the sudden death which surprises the rearers.

    0
    0
  • Laureola, spurge laurel, a small evergreen shrub with green flowers in the leaf axils towards the ends of the branches and ovoid black very poisonous berries, is found in England in copses and on hedge-banks in stiff soils.

    0
    0
  • The legs and lower part of the body are dark coloured, but the dorsal surface of the thorax and abdomen is coloured green and is raised so as to form a crest with jagged edges exactly reproducing the irregular margin of a fragment of leaf cut out by the mandibles of the ant.

    0
    0
  • Rice, areca-nuts, and betel-vine leaf are the chief agricultural products.

    0
    0
  • The Plant Stove differs in no respect from the greenhouse except in having a greater extent of hot-water pipes for the purpose, of securing a greater degree of heat, although, as the plants in stove houses often attain a larger size, and many of them require a bed of coco-nut fibre, tan or leaf mould to supply with bottom heat, b: !, b a somewhat greater elevation may perhaps be occasionally required in some of the houses.

    0
    0
  • Cuttings of deciduous plants should be taken off after the fall of the leaf.

    0
    0
  • - Leaf Cuttings.

    0
    0
  • In the case of plants with persistent leaves, the stem may be cut through just above and below the bud, retaining the leaf which is left on the cutting, the old wood and eye being placed beneath the soil and the leaf left exposed.

    0
    0
  • Many of the free-growing soft-wooded plants may also be grown from cuttings of single joints of the young wood, where rapid increase is desired; and in the case of opposite-leaved plants two cuttings may often be made from one joint by splitting the stem longitudinally, each cutting consisting of a leaf and a perfect bud attached to half the thickness of the stem.

    0
    0
  • Two laterals should be allowed to grow from the upper side of them, one from near the base, the other from near the middle, all others being pinched out beyond the second or third leaf during summer, but cut away to the last bud in winter.

    0
    0
  • Forcing is the accelerating, by special treatment, of the growth of certain plants, which are required to be had in leaf, in flower or in fruit before their natural season, - as, for instance, the leaves of mint at Eastertide or the leafstalks of sea-kale and rhubarb at Christmas, the flowers of summer in the depth of winter, or some of the choicest fruits perfected so much before their normal period as to complete, with the retarded crops of winter, the circle of the seasons.

    0
    0
  • Elegant liliaceous plants, with rhizomatous stems. P. multiflorum (Solomon's Seal), 2 to 3 ft., with arching stems, and drooping white flowers from the leaf axils, is a handsome border plant, doing especially well in partial shade amongst shrubs, and also well adapted for pot culture for early forcing.

    0
    0
  • The soil should consist of about 3 parts turfy loam, i part leaf mould, I part coarse silver sand, with enough chemical or other manure added to render the whole moderately rich.

    0
    0
  • For winter use the tops of the most useful kinds of herbs should be cut when in flower or full leaf and quite dry, and spread out in an airy but shady place so as to part slowly with the moisture they contain and at the same time retain their aromatic properties.

    0
    0
  • The hay or leaf mulching on the strawberry beds should be removed and the ground deeply hoed (if not removed in April in the more forward places), after which it may be placed on again to keep the fruit clean and the ground from drying.

    0
    0
  • Hyacinths, tulips and other spring bulbs may be dug up, dried and placed away for next fall's planting, and their places filled with bedding plants, such as coleus, achyranthes, pelargoniums, and the various white and coloured leaf plants.

    0
    0
  • - Strawberry beds should be covered (in cold sections) with hay, straw or leaf mulching, to a depth not exceeding 2 in.

    0
    0
  • Abraham Bennet, the inventor of the gold leaf electro e described a doubler or machine for multiplying Bennet'.

    0
    0
  • A, B, Section of Leaf of Potato F, G, H, J, Further development with sporangiophores of Phy- of the sporangia.

    0
    0
  • the under surface of the leaf.

    0
    0
  • A, Mass of teleutospores (t) on a leaf of couch-grass.

    0
    0
  • (After De Bary.) B, Part of vertical section through leaf of Berberis From Strasburger's Lehrbuch der Botanik, by permission of Gustav Fischer.

    0
    0
  • An epiphytic fungus is not necessarily a parasite, however, as many saprophytes (moulds, &c.) germinate and develop a loose mycelium on living leaves, but only enter and destroy the tissues after the leaf has fallen; in some cases, however, these saprophytic epiphytes can do harm by intercepting light and air from the leaf (Fumago, &c.), and such cases make it difficult to draw the line between saprophytism and parasitism.

    0
    0
  • If the membrane is of some impermeable substance, like gold leaf, the hyphae cannot dissolve its way through, but the tip finds the most minute pore and traverses the barrier by means of it, as it does a stoma on a leaf, We may hence conclude that a parasitic hyphae pierces some plants or their stomata and refuses to enter others, because in the former case there are chemotropically attractive substances present which are absent from the latter, or are there replaced by repellent poisonous or protective substances such as enzymes or antitoxins.

    0
    0
  • The effect of the abnormal conditions is probably to stop the production of, or weaken or destroy the protective enzymes or antitoxins, the presence of which normally confers immunity on the leaf.

    0
    0
  • LEAF (0.

    0
    0
  • leaf, cf.

    0
    0
  • Such are the scales of a bulb, and the various parts of the flower, and assuming that the structure ordinarily termed a leaf is the typical form, these other structures were designated changed or metamorphosed leaves, a somewhat misleading interpretation.

    0
    0
  • All structures morphologically equivalent with the leaf are now included under the general term phyllome (leaf-structure).

    0
    0
  • In the higher plants we can easily recognize the distinction between stem and leaf.

    0
    0
  • Amongst the lower plants, however, it is found that a demarcation into stem and leaf is impossible, but that there is a structure which partakes of the characters of both - such is a thallus.

    0
    0
  • The leaves always arise from the outer portion of the primary meristem of the plant, and the tissues of the leaf are continuous with those of the stem.

    0
    0
  • Every leaf originates as a simple cellular papilla (fig 1), which consists of a development from the cortical layers covered by epidermis; and as growth proceeds, the fibro-vascular bundles of the stem are continued outwards, and finally expand and terminate in the leaf.

    0
    0
  • The increase in length of the leaf by growth at the apex is usually of a limited nature.

    0
    0
  • It not unfrequently happens, especially amongst Monocotyledons, that after growth at the apex has ceased, it is continued at the base of the leaf, and in this way the length may be much increased.

    0
    0
  • In all cases the dimensions of the leaf are enlarged by interstitial growth of its parts.

    0
    0
  • The simplest leaf is found in some mosses, where it consists of a single layer of cells.

    0
    0
  • The typical foliage leaf consists of several layers, and amongst vascular plants is distinguishable into an outer layer (epidermis) and a central tissue (parenchyma) with fibro-vascular bundles distributed through it.

    0
    0
  • 2, es, ei), composed of cells more or less compressed, has usually a different structure and aspect on the two surfaces of the leaf.

    0
    0
  • The epidermis is continuous except where stomata or spaces bounded by specialized cells communicate with intercellular spaces in the interior of the leaf.

    0
    0
  • Below the epidermis of the upper side of the leaf there are one or two layers of cells, elongated at right angles to the leaf surface (fig.

    0
    0
  • - Apex of a shoot showing origin of leaves: f, leaf rudiment; g, rudiment of an axillary bud.

    0
    0
  • Section of a Melon leaf, perpendicular to the surface.

    0
    0
  • On the other side of the leaf the cells are irregular, often branched, and are arranged more or less horizontally (fig.

    0
    0
  • In leaves having a very firm texture, as those of Coniferae and Cycadaceae, the cells of the parenchyma immediately beneath the epidermis are very much thickened and elongated in a direction parallel to the surface of the leaf, so as to be fibre-like.

    0
    0
  • These constitute a hypodermal layer, beneath which the chlorophyll cells of the parenchyma are densely packed together, and are elongated in a direction vertical to the surface of the leaf, forming the palisade tissue.

    0
    0
  • Sometimes the arrangement of the cells on both sides of the leaf is similar, as occurs in leaves which have their edges presented to the sky.

    0
    0
  • In some cases the cellular tissue is deficient at certain points, giving rise to distinct holes in the leaf, as in Monstera Adansonii.

    0
    0
  • The fibro-vascular system in the leaf constitutes the venation.

    0
    0
  • The fibro-vascular bundles from the stem bend out into the leaf, and are there arranged in a definite manner.

    0
    0
  • When a leaf has a distinct stalk it is petiolate; when it has none, it is sessile, and if in this case it embraces the stem it is said to be amplexicaul.

    0
    0
  • The part of the leaf next the petiole or the axis is the base, while the opposite extremity is the apex.

    0
    0
  • The leaf is usually flattened and expanded horizontally, i.e.

    0
    0
  • In some cases leaves, as in Iris, or leaf-like petioles, as in Australian acacias and eucalypti, have their plane of expansion parallel to the axis of the shoot, there is then no distinction into an upper and a lower face, but the two sides are developed alike; or the leaf may have a cylindrical or polyhedral form, as in mesembryanthemum.

    0
    0
  • The upper angle formed between the leaf and the stem is called its axil; it is there that leaf-buds are normally developed.

    0
    0
  • The leaf is sometimes articulated with the stem, and when it falls off a scar remains; at other times it is continuous with it, and then decays, while still attached to the axis.

    0
    0
  • The laminar portion of a leaf is occasionally articulated with the petiole, as in the orange, and a joint at times exists between the vaginal or stipulary portion and the petiole.

    0
    0
  • A leaf with FIG.

    0
    0
  • - Multicostate leaf of Castoroil plant (Ricinus communis).

    0
    0
  • The petiole is inserted a little above the base, and hence the leaf is called peltate or shieldlike.

    0
    0
  • A leaf with only a single midrib is said to be unicostate and the venation is described as pinnate or feather-veined.

    0
    0
  • The leaf in this case is multicostate and the venation palmate.

    0
    0
  • The primary veins give off secondary veins, and these in their turn give off tertiary veins, and so on until a complete network of vessels is produced, and those veins usually project on the under surface of the leaf.

    0
    0
  • - Leaf of Elm (Ulmus).

    0
    0
  • Leaf unequal at the base.)

    0
    0
  • 6), or with veins coming off from it throughout its whole course, and running parallel to each other in a straight or curved direction towards the margin of the leaf, as in plantain and banana.

    0
    0
  • In vascular acotyledonous plants there is frequently a tendency to fork exhibited by the fibro-vascular bundles in the leaf; and when this is the case we have f ork-veined leaves.

    0
    0
  • The distribution of the system of vessels in the leaf is FIG.

    0
    0
  • - Leaf of a Fan Palm (Poa) with leaf.

    0
    0
  • The sheaths (Chamaerops), showing the veins ending in a process 1, called running from the base to the mara ligule; the blade of the gin, and not forming an angular leaf, f.

    0
    0
  • The function of the veins which consist of vessels and fibres is to form a rigid framework for the leaf and to conduct liquids.

    0
    0
  • The form and arrangement of the parts of a typical foliage leaf are intimately associated with the part played by the leaf in the life of the plant.

    0
    0
  • The flat surface is spread to allow the maximum amount of sunlight to fall upon it, as it is by the absorption of energy from the sun's rays by means of the chlorophyll contained in the cells of the leaf that the building up of plant food is rendered possible; this process is known as photo-synthesis; the first stage is the combination of carbon dioxide, absorbed from the air taken in through the stomata into the living cells of the leaf, with water which is brought into the leaf by the wood-vessels.

    0
    0
  • The wood-vessels form part of the fibro-vascular bundles or veins of the leaf and are continuous throughout the leaf-stalk and stem with the root by which water is absorbed from the soil.

    0
    0
  • The water taken up by the root from the soil contains nitrogenous and mineral salts which combine with the first product of photo-synthesis - a carbohydrate - to form more complicated nitrogen-containing food substances of a proteid nature; these are then distributed by other elements of the vascular bundles (the phloem) through the leaf to the stem and so throughout the plant to wherever growth or development is going on.

    0
    0
  • A large proportion of the water which ascends to the leaf acts merely as a carrier for the other raw food materials and is got rid of from the leaf in the form of water vapour through the stomata - this process is known as transpiration.

    0
    0
  • Hence the extended surface of the leaf exposing a large area to light and air is eminently adapted for the carrying out of the process of photo-synthesis and transpiration.

    0
    0
  • Their internal structure consists of cells, disposed irregularly, and sometimes leaving spaces which are filled with air for the purpose of floating the leaf.

    0
    0
  • In some cases there is only a network of filament-like cells, the spaces between which are not filled with parenchyma, giving a skeleton appearance to the leaf, as in Ouvirandra fenestralis (Lattice plant).

    0
    0
  • The cellular process from the axis which develops into a leaf is simple and undivided; it rarely remains so, but in progress of growth becomes segmented in various ways, either longitudinally or laterally, or in both ways.

    0
    0
  • By longitudinal segmentation we have a leaf formed consisting of sheath, stalk and blade; or one or other of these may be absent, and thus stalked, sessile, sheathing, &c., leaves are produced.

    0
    0
  • In this way two marked forms of leaf are produced - (I) Simple form, in which the segmentation, however deeply it extends into the lamina, does not separate portions of the lamina which become articulated with the midrib or petiole; and (2) Compound form, where portions of the lamina are separated as detached leaflets, which become articulated with the midrib or petiole.

    0
    0
  • 3); when they are rounded the leaf is crenate.

    0
    0
  • 8), it is cleft; when the divisions extend nearly to the base or to the midrib the leaf is partite.

    0
    0
  • These primary divisions may be again subdivided in a similar manner, and thus a feather-veined leaf will become bipinnatifid or bipinnatipartite; still further subdivisions give origin to tripinnatifid and laciniated leaves.

    0
    0
  • - Ovate acute leaf of Coriara myrtifolia.

    0
    0
  • The leaf is therefore tricostate.

    0
    0
  • - Runcinate leaf of Dandelion.

    0
    0
  • It is a pinnatifid leaf, with the divisions pointing towards the petiole and a large triangular apex.

    0
    0
  • - Pinnatifid leaf of Valeriana dioica.

    0
    0
  • taking place in a simple leaf with palmate or radiating venation, give origin to lobed, cleft and partite forms.

    0
    0
  • of parenchyma, like the palm of the hand, as in the sycamore, castoroil plant, &c. The divisions of leaves with radiating venation may extend to near the base of the leaf, and the names bipartite, tripartite, quinquepartite, &c., are given according as the partitions are two, three, five or more.

    0
    0
  • 11), the leaf is called pedate or pedatifid, from a fancied resemblance to the foot.

    0
    0
  • 11 - Pedate leaf of Stinking Hellebore (Helleborus foetidus).

    0
    0
  • It is a palmately-partite leaf, in which the lateral lobes are deeply divided.

    0
    0
  • When the leaf hangs down it resembles the foot of a bird, and hence the name.

    0
    0
  • The form of the leaf shows a very great variety ranging from the narrow linear form with parallel sides, as in grasses or the needle-like leaves of pines and firs to more or less rounded or orbicular - descriptions of these will be found in works on descriptive botany - FIG.

    0
    0
  • - Five-partite leaf of Aconite.

    0
    0
  • 17); when they proceed at right angles, as in Rumex Acetosella, the leaf is hastate or halbertshaped.

    0
    0
  • When a simple leaf is divided at the base into two leaf-like appendages, it is called auriculate.

    0
    0
  • - Peltate leaves of Indian Cress leaf of a species of (Tropaeolum majus).

    0
    0
  • Senna has separate leaves attached to it, but it is considered properly as one leaf, because in its earliest state it arises from the axis as a single piece, and its subsequent divisions in the form of leaflets are all in one plane.

    0
    0
  • 19), the leaf is unequally pinnate (imparipinnate); when the leaflets or pinnae are placed alternately on either side of the midrib, and not directly opposite to each other, the leaf is alternately pinnate; and when the pinnae are of different sizes, the leaf is interruptedly pinnate.

    0
    0
  • - Oblong leaf of a species of Senna.

    0
    0
  • - Emarginate leaf of a species of Senna.

    0
    0
  • The leaf in its contour is somewhat obovate, or inversely egg-shaped, and its base is oblique.

    0
    0
  • - Reniform leaf of.

    0
    0
  • - Sagittate leaf of Convolvulus.

    0
    0
  • When the division is carried into the second degree, and the pinnae of a compound leaf are themselves pinnately compound, a bipinnate leaf is formed.

    0
    0
  • The petiole or leaf-stalk is the part which unites the limb or blade of the leaf to the stem.

    0
    0
  • 20) a sensitiveness is located in the pulvinus which upon irritation induces a depression of the whole bipinnate leaf, a similar property exists in the pulvini at the base of the leaflets which fold upwards.

    0
    0
  • In aquatic plants the leafstalk is sometimes distended with air, as in Pontederia and Trapa, so as to float the leaf.

    0
    0
  • - Imparipinnate (unequally pinnate) leaf of Robinia.

    0
    0
  • At the base of the leaf the spiny stipules are seen.

    0
    0
  • Some plants appear with extremities of the phyllodes in a horizontal direction; but in many instances they are not developed, and the phyllode serves the purpose of a leaf.

    0
    0
  • In sedges the sheath forms a complete investment of the stem, whilst in Leaf grasses it is split on one side.

    0
    0
  • - Palmately compound leaf of the Horse-chestnut (Aesculus Hippocastanum).

    0
    0
  • - Leaf of FIG.

    0
    0
  • In the case of alternate leaves, the stipules at the base of each leaf are sometimes united to the petiole and to each other, so as to form an adnate, adherent or petiolary stipule, as in the rose, or an axillary stipule, as in Houttuynia cordata.

    0
    0
  • In the development of the leaf the stipules frequently play a most important part.

    0
    0
  • The stipules are sometimes so minute as to be scarcely distinguishable without the aid of a lens, and so fugacious as to be visible only in the very young state of the leaf.

    0
    0
  • At the base of the leaflets of a compound leaf, small stipules (stipels) are occasionally produced.

    0
    0
  • When two lobes at the base of a leaf are prolonged beyond the stem and unite (fig.

    0
    0
  • The formation of peltate leaves has been traced to the union of the lobes of a cleft leaf.

    0
    0
  • In the leaf of the Victoria regia the transformation may be traced during germination.

    0
    0
  • The parts of the leaf are frequently transformed into tendrils, with the view of enabling the plants to twine round others for support.

    0
    0
  • In Flagellaria indica, Gloriosa superba the two lobes at the base of the leaf are united, so that the stalk appears to come through the leaf.

    0
    0
  • and others, the midrib of the leaf ends in a tendril.

    0
    0
  • 22) and Heliamphora the pitcher is composed of the petiole of the leaf.

    0
    0
  • - Leaf of an Acacia (Acacia heterophylla), showing a flattened leaf-like petiole p, called a phyllode, with straight venation, and a bipinnate lamina.

    0
    0
  • The leaf of Venus's fly-trap (Dionaea muscipula) when cut off and placed in damp moss, with a pan of water underneath and a bell-glass for a cover, has produced buds from which young plants were obtained.

    0
    0
  • The same occurs in the verticillate arrangement, the leaves of each whorl rarely being super- posed on those of the whorl next it, but usually alterna ting so that each leaf in a whorl occupies the space be tween two leaves of the whorl next to it.

    0
    0
  • When a single leaf with opposite stem with alteris produced at a node, and leaves.

    0
    0
  • The pairs alternate leaves, and the nodes are separated so are placed at right ranged in a penthat each leaf is placed at angles alternately, tastichous or different height on the stem, or in what is called quincuncial manthe leaves are alternate

    0
    0
  • In the lowest leaf is directly the point of insertion of the pair one leaf is in above the first, leaf in the node, dividing front and the other and commences the leaf into similar halves, at the back; in the the second cycle.

    0
    0
  • is the median plane of the second pair the The fraction of leaf; and when the leaves are leaves are placed the circumference arranged alternately on an laterally, and so of the stem exaxis so that their median on.

    0
    0
  • 31, leaf 1 arises from a node n; leaf 2 is separated from it by an internode m, and is placed to the right or left; while leaf 3 is situated directly above leaf 1.

    0
    0
  • When the fourth leaf is directly above the first, the arrangement is tristichous.

    0
    0
  • The same arrangement continues throughout the branch, so that in the latter case the 7th leaf is above the 4th, the 10th above the 7th; also the 5th above the 2nd, the 6th above the 3rd and so on.

    0
    0
  • In a regularlyformed straight branch covered with leaves, if a thread is passed from one to the other, turning always in the same direction, a spiral is described, and a certain number of leaves and of complete turns occur before reaching the leaf directly above that from which the enumeration commenced.

    0
    0
  • 32, a, b, the cycle consists of five leaves, the 6th leaf being placed vertically over the 1st, the 7th over the 2nd and so on; while the number of turns between the 1st and 6th leaf is two; hence this arrangement is indicated by the fraction g.

    0
    0
  • In other words, the distance or divergence between the first and second leaf, expressed in parts of a circle, is of a circle or 360° In fig.

    0
    0
  • one turn and two leaves; the third leaf being placed vertically over the first, and the divergence between the first and second leaf being one-half the circumference of a circle, 360/2==180°.

    0
    0
  • Here the outermost circle represents a section of that portion of the axis bearing the lowest leaf, the innermost represents the highest.

    0
    0
  • But the divergence between leaf and leaf 2 is equal to tths of the circumference, and the same is the case between 2 and 3, 3 and 4, &c. The divergence, then, is and from this we learn that, starting from any leaf on the axis, we must pass twice round the stem in a spiral through five leaves before reaching one directly over that with which we started.

    0
    0
  • The; line which, winding round an axis either to the right or to the left, passes through the points of insertion of all the leaves on the axis is termed the genetic or generating spiral; and that margin of each leaf which is towards the direction from which the spiral proceeds is the kathodic side, the other margin facing the point whither the spiral passes being the anodic side.

    0
    0
  • These are often of a coarse nature, serving a temporary purpose, and then falling off when the leaf is expanded.

    0
    0
  • In considering vernation we must take into account both the manner in which each individual leaf is folded and also the arrangement of the leaves in relation to each other.

    0
    0
  • The different divisions of a cut leaf may be folded or rolled up separately, as in ferns, while the entire leaf may have either the same or a different kind of vernation.

    0
    0
  • At other times they are at different levels, and are applied over each other, so as to be imbricated, as in lilac, and in the outer scales of sycamore; and occasionally the margin of one leaf overlaps that of another, while it in its turn is overlapped by a third, so as to be twisted, spiral or contortive.

    0
    0
  • - Transverse section of a conduplicate leaf.

    0
    0
  • - Transverse section of a plicate or plaited leaf.

    0
    0
  • - Transverse section of a convolute leaf.

    0
    0
  • - Transverse section of an involute leaf.

    0
    0
  • - Transverse section of a revolute leaf.

    0
    0
  • The cause of the fall of the leaf in cold climates seems to be deficiency of light and heat in winter, which causes a cessation in the functions of the cells of the leaf.

    0
    0
  • The fall is directly caused by the formation of a layer of tissue across the base of the leaf-stalk; the cells of this layer separate from one another and the leaf remains attached only by the fibres of the veins until it becomes finally detached by the wind or frost.

    0
    0
  • Before its fall the leaf has become dry owing to loss of water and the removal of the protoplasm and food substances to the stem for use next season; the red and yellow colouring matters are products of decomposition of the chlorophyll.

    0
    0
  • The leaf scar is protected by a corky change (suberization) in the walls of the exposed cells.

    0
    0
  • Thomas Garway, the first English tea dealer, and founder of the well-known coffee-house, "Garraway's," in a curious broadsheet, An Exact Description of the Growth, Quality and Virtues of the Leaf Tea, issued in 1659 or 1660, writes, "in respect of its scarceness and dearness, it hath been only used as a regalia in high treatments and entertainments, and presents made thereof to princes and grandees."

    0
    0
  • In that year he purchased a quantity of the rare and much-prized commodity, and offered it to the public, in the leaf, at fixed prices varying from 15sto 50s.

    0
    0
  • The great size of leaf when fully developed (4 to q ins.

    0
    0
  • The under side of the young leaf is densely covered with fine one-celled thick-walled hairs, about i mm.

    0
    0
  • The structure of the epidermis of the under side of the leaf, with its contorted cells, is represented (X 160) in fig.

    0
    0
  • The minute structure of the leaf in section is illustrated in fig.

    0
    0
  • This tea is mostly prepared from exceedingly rough leaf, including even bush prunings, which would not be plucked for manufacturing purposes in India or Ceylon.

    0
    0
  • The mulberry leaf for the more profitable silk trade has taken its place.

    0
    0
  • In the third and fourth flushes only one large leaf, and after that - say during October, November and part of December - no soft leaf growth is left that can be harvested in good order.

    0
    0
  • In Ceylon, and to some extent in India, the careful and systematic application of chemical manures, compounded on scientific lines, has been found to increase largely the yield of leaf, and much interplanting of nitrogen-producing growths has been done with a view to restoring to the soil the most necessary constituents.

    0
    0
  • Should the leaf be intended to be cured as green tea, the fermenting process is omitted and some other processes applied, but in India very little green tea is manufactured.

    0
    0
  • Various applications of the same system are in use, but the most popular is to place the leaves on trays of wire network in a high temperature for about twenty minutes, after which they are firm and crisp. Up to this point of the manufacture the leaf has been in the stalk, the leaves and bud being unseparated.

    0
    0
  • In addition to these four classes, out of each are sifted all the smaller fragments of leaf broken in the process of manufacture, which are termed Broken Orange Pekoe, &c. These broken grades are frequently objected to by the consumer, under the impression that they are inferior in quality, but in the opinion of experts, the more the leaf is broken up, the better is the liquor upon infusion.

    0
    0
  • The effect of either is to destroy the possibility of fermentation by subjecting the leaf, as soon as it is plucked, to a brief period of great heat.

    0
    0
  • The city is the see of a Protestant Episcopal bishop. The principal industrial interests are trade in leaf tobacco and cotton raised in the vicinity, and the manufacture of cotton goods, phosphate fertilizers, foundry and machine-shop products, wooden-ware, &c. The Seaboard Air Line and the Raleigh & Southport railways have repair shops here.

    0
    0
  • To prevent the plant from running to leaf, Pliny (Nat.

    0
    0
  • The copper arrowheads appear in the XIXth Dynasty, of blade form with tang (70); the triangular form (72), and leaf form with socket (71), are of the XXVIth Dynasty.

    0
    0
  • Leaf in Journal of Hellenic Studies, v.; E.

    0
    0
  • The familiar duckweed which covers the surface of a pond consists of a tiny green "thalloid" shoot, one, that is, which shows no distinction of parts - stem and leaf, and a simple root growing vertically downwards into the water.

    0
    0
  • in the Aroid family, where in some genera the plant produces one huge, much-branched leaf each season.

    0
    0
  • A potential branch or bud, either foliage or flower, is formed in the axil of each leaf; sometimes more than one bud arises, as for instance in the walnut, where two or three stand in vertical series above each leaf.

    0
    0
  • Except where it is terminal it arises, like the leaf-shoot, in the axil of a leaf, which is then known as a bract.

    0
    0
  • Ovular characters determine the grouping in the Dicotyledons, van Tieghem supporting the view that the integument, the outer if there be two, is the lamina of a leaf of which the funicle is the petiole, whilst the nucellus is an outgrowth of this leaf, and the inner integument, if present, an indusium.

    0
    0
  • In this poem, which was written 593 A.H., at the request of Nur-uddin Arslan of Mosul, the son and successor of the abovementioned `Izz-uddin, Nizami returned once more from his excursion into the field of heroic deeds to his old favourite domain of romantic fiction, and added a fresh leaf to the laurel crown of immortal fame with which the unanimous consent of Eastern and Western critics has adorned his venerable head.

    0
    0
  • Myers and Walter Leaf in a prose version (1883) of the Iliad, both of them remarkable for accurate scholarship and excellence of style.

    0
    0
  • Each leaf has a slender stem-like axis, which twines round a support and bears leaflets at intervals; it goes on growing indefinitely.

    0
    0
  • The absence of differentiation into root, stem and leaf which prevails among seaweeds, seems, for example, to have led Linnaeus to employ the term in the Genera Plantarum for a sub-class of Cryptogamia, the members of which presented this character in a greater or less degree.

    0
    0
  • Fungi Algae Bryophyta Pteridophyta Phanerogamia Gymnosperms Angiosperms Algae in this wide sense may be briefly described as the aggregate of those simpler forms of plant life usually devoid, like the rest of the Thallophyta, of differentiation into root, stem and leaf; but, unlike other Thallophyta, possessed of a colouring matter;.

    0
    0
  • In Iridaea the thallus is an entire lamina; in Callophyllis a lobed lamina; in Delesseria it is provided with midrib and veins, simulating the appearance of a leaf of the higher plants; in Constantinea the axis remains cylindrical, and the lateral branches assume the form of leaves.

    0
    0
  • In some cases such as Delesseria, Neurymenia, Fucus, Alaria, the leaf-like structure is provided with a strengthening mid-rib, and when as in Delesseria it is also richly veined the resemblance to the leaf of a flowering plant is striking.

    0
    0
  • Thus a series of arrays of beech leaves, gathered, subject to the precautions indicated, from each of loo beech trees in Buckinghamshire by Professor Pearson, gave 16.1 as the mean number of veins per leaf, the standard deviation of the veins in the series being 1.735.

    0
    0
  • If a leaf from this series be chosen at random, it is clearly more likely to have sixteen veins than to have any other assigned number; but if a first leaf chosen at random should prove to have some number of veins other than sixteen, a second leaf, chosen at random from the same series, is still more likely to have sixteen veins than to have any other assigned number.

    0
    0
  • If, however, a series of leaves from the same tree be examined in pairs, the fact that one leaf from the tree is known to possess an abnormal number of veins makes it probable that the next leaf chosen from the same tree will also be abnormal-or, in other words, the fact that leaves are borne by the same tree establishes a correlation between them.

    0
    0
  • The pairs so formed were collected in a table, from which the correlation between the first leaf and the second leaf of a pair, chosen from one tree, could be determined by the methods indicated in the article Probability.

    0
    0
  • The mean and standard deviation of all first leaves or of all second leaves will clearly be the same as those already determined for the series of leaves; since every leaf in the series is used once as a first member and once as a second member of a pair.

    0
    0
  • On the following morning, finding no fruit on a fig-tree in full leaf, He said, " Let no man eat fruit of thee henceforth for ever."

    0
    0
  • The document is imperfect, owing probably to the accidental loss of its last leaf.

    0
    0
  • The literary beginnings he had made in Frankfort now seemed to him amateurish and trivial; he felt that he had to turn over a new leaf, and, under the guidance of E.

    0
    0
  • Hawthorn has been for many centuries a favourite park and hedge plant in Europe, and numerous varieties have been developed by cultivation; these differ in the form of the leaf, the white, pink or red, single or double flowers, and the yellow, orange or red fruit.

    0
    0
  • The durability and the extraordinary ductility and pliancy of gold, its power of being subdivided, drawn out or flattened into wire or leaf of almost infinite fineness, have led to its being used for works where great minuteness and delicacy of execution were required; while its beauty and rarity have, for the most part, limited its use to objects of adornment and luxury, as distinct from those of utility.

    0
    0
  • This great rise in the supply, unaccompanied by an equal expansion of the market for Indian tea, involved the industry in great difficulties, to meet which it became necessary to restrict the area under tea as far as possible, and to reduce the quantity of leaf taken from the plant, thus at the same time improving the quality of the tea.

    0
    0
  • There are three principal varieties: sinamay, which is made from selected hemp fibres and is worn by both men and women; jusi, which is made from a mixture of hemp and pineapple-plant fibres with or without the addition of some cotton and silk and is used for making women's dresses and men's shirts; pina, which is made from the fibres in the leaf of the pineapple-plant and is used for making women's garments, handkerchiefs and scarfs.

    0
    0
  • The foreign commerce of the Philippines consists chiefly in the exportation of Manila hemp, dried coco-nut meat (copra), sugar and tobacco, both in the leaf and in cigars and cigarettes; and in the importation of cotton goods, rice, wheat-flour, fresh beef, boots and shoes, iron and steel, illuminating oil, liquors, paper and paper goods.

    0
    0
  • Dr John Bevis of London suggested, in 1746, the use of sheet lead coatings within and without the jar, and subsequently the use of tin foil or silver leaf made closely adherent to the glass.

    0
    0
  • In other cases, Leyden jars or condensers take the form of sheets of mica or micanite or ebonite partly coated with tin foil or silver leaf on both sides; or a pile of sheets of alternate tin foil and mica may be built up, the tin foil sheets having lugs projecting out first on one side and then on the other.

    0
    0
  • It climbs by means of the long stalk of the peltate leaf which is sensitive to contact like a tendril.

    0
    0
  • Leaf (Iliad, London, 1886-1888; 2nd ed.

    0
    0
  • A long leaf (spathe) borne immediately below the spike forms an apparent continuation of the scape, though really a lateral outgrowth from it, the spike of flowers being terminal.

    0
    0
  • (3) In the modern language other vowel changes occur by a change of position; thus ai, au, aw in the ultima become ei, eu, o respectively in the penult, as dail, " leaves," deilen, " leaf "; haul, " sun," heulog, " sunny "; brawd, " brother," pl.

    0
    0
  • Ruskin considered that there was "nothing so perfect in its simplicity" as the west window, the design of which resembles a leaf.

    0
    0
  • This, like the excretion of the sundew and other insectivorous plants, contains a digestive ferment (or enzyme) which renders the nitrogenous substances of the body of the insect soluble, and capable of absorption by the leaf.

    0
    0
  • A, leaf of Butterwort (Pinguicula vulgaris) with left margin inflected over a row of small flies.

    0
    0
  • (After Darwin.) B, glands from surface of leaf (X300) by which the sticky liquid is secreted and by means of which the products of digestion are absorbed.

    0
    0
  • When a fly is captured, the viscid excretion becomes strongly acid and the naturally incurved margins of the leaf curve still further inwards, rendering contact between the insect and the leaf-surface more complete.

    0
    0
  • They grow slowly and flower but once after a number of years, when a tall stem or "mast" grows from the centre of the leaf rosette and bears a large number of shortly tubular flowers.

    0
    0
  • Agave americana, century plant, was introduced into Europe about the middle of the 16th century and is now widely cultivated for its handsome appearance; in the variegated forms the leaf has a white or yellow marginal or central stripe from base to apex.

    0
    0
  • Fechner introduced the important improvement of using only one pile, which he removed from the immediate neighbourhood of the suspended leaf.

    0
    0
  • to separate the tobacco leaf from the stems, to remove the overlying soil from a mineral deposit before opening and working it, to turn a gun-barrel in a lathe, &c. In architecture, a "strippilaster" is a narrow pilaster such as is found in Saxon work and in the Italian Romanesque churches.

    0
    0
  • The lobed shape of its leaf and its dense foliage caused it to be confused with the true sycamore - Ficus sycamorus - of scripture.

    0
    0
  • The fungus, which is chiefly within the leaves and stems, seldom emerges through the firm upper surface of the leaf; it commonly appears as a white bloom or mildew on the circumference of the diseasepatches on the under surface.

    0
    0
  • The letters A B show a vertical section through a fragment of a potato leaf, enlarged 1_00 diameters; A is the upper surface line, and B the lower; the lower surface of the leaf is shown at the top, A Fin.

    0
    0
Browse other sentences examples →