Lead sentence example

lead
  • "Lead the way, Romeo," she said dryly.
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  • Lead the way my subject.
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  • He's sought out anyone he thinks might lead him in the right direction.
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  • It can lead us to victory.
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  • Slipping her hand through his extended elbow, she let him lead her into the center of the room.
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  • He's singing like the choir lead at a church revival.
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  • Friends tried to discourage this tendency, fearing lest it would lead to disappointment.
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  • Each team has three members, a lead person and two back-ups.
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  • I'm immune to lead! he said and laughed.
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  • She stepped into the clammy, wet world of fog and darkness, pausing to focus on the portal that would lead to her sister.s house.
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  • She was annoyed because she feared it would lead to unhappiness.
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  • What would lead them to suspect that?
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  • You want to lead another deity through my domain without my permission.
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  • She scoured each side of the hall for signs labeling what doors might lead to what.
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  • "Well, old fellow," said he to the peasant guide, "lead us to Shamshevo."
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  • As the maître d' lead them to their table, he was acutely aware of the heads turning to watch them.
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  • Maybe a bad piece of information did lead to the deaths of millions.
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  • I have done nothing, I didn't lead him on at all.
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  • The shout went unnoticed until the panicked bartender grabbed the mike of the lead rocker.
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  • They are but improved means to an unimproved end, an end which it was already but too easy to arrive at; as railroads lead to Boston or New York.
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  • I will lead you to it.
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  • He had done it every day he served her as her lead assassin and he was doing it now as Death.
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  • Those rights lead to prosperity and security, and wars serve no use.
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  • They lead me about and show me the things they are interested in.
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  • You have profited by their toil to lead a profligate life.
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  • The police sometimes don't even hear the entire tip... just enough to lead them in the right direction, and find the person.
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  • Speck shifted away from him, a response Dusty was accustomed to after thousands of years as Damian's lead executioner.
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  • The leading products of the blast-furnace are argentiferous lead (base bullion), matte, slag and flue-dust (fine particles of charge and volatilized metal carried out of the furnace by the ascending gas current).
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  • Thus the level of the lead is kept approximately constant, and the silver becomes concentrated in the lead.
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  • I simply want to follow his lead.
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  • That was one way Alex had followed her lead.
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  • She relaxed in his arms, comfortable in surrendering to his lead.
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  • Maybe that was a lead Howard could use.
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  • Canals lead from Milan to the Ticino, Adda and P0.
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  • If nitrogen be present, a boat containing dry lead peroxide and heated to 320° is inserted, the oxide decomposing any nitrogen peroxide which may be formed.
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  • The industries of the Lake District include slate quarrying and some lead and zinc mining, and weaving, bobbin-making and pencil-making.
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  • recovers from the primary shock of the operation, the disease may reappear in the stump, and lead to a fatal result.
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  • The information which it furnishes, in spite of a legend intended to lead us to believe that it presents us with the results of Portuguese explorations up to the year 1493, is of more ancient date.
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  • In regard to the ancients' knowledge of lead compounds, we may state that the substance described by Dioscorides as, uoXv,3Saiva was undoubtedly litharge, that Pliny uses the word minium in its present sense of red lead, ana that white lead was well known to Geber in the 8th century.
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  • Occurrence.-Metallic lead occurs in nature but very rarely and then only in minute amount.
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  • The chief lead ores are galena and cerussite; of minor importance are anglesite, pyromorphite and mimetesite (qq.v.).
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  • Galena (q.v.), the principal lead ore, has a world-wide distribution, and is always contaminated with silver sulphide, the proportion of noble metal varying from about o of or less to o 3%, and in rare cases coming up to 2 or i %.
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  • The principal English lead mines are in Derbyshire; but there are also mines at Allandale and other parts of western Northumberland, at Alston Moor and other parts of Cumberland, in the western parts of Durham, in Swaledale and Arkendale and other parts of Yorkshire, in Salop, in Cornwall, in the Mendip Hills in Somersetshire, and in the Isle of Man.
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  • The native carbonate or cerussite (q.v.) occasionally occurs in the pure form, but more frequently in a state of intimate intermixture with clay ("lead earth," Bleierde), limestone, iron oxides, &c. (as in the ores of Nevada and Colorado), and some times also with coal ("black lead ore").
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  • All native carbonate of lead seems to be derived from what was originally galena, which is always present in it as an admixture.
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  • The crude ore contains about 30% lead and 0.2 to 0.3% silver.
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  • The Colorado lead district is in the Rocky Mountains, a few miles from the source of the Arkansas river.
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  • The Leadville ore contains from 24 to 42% lead and o I to 2% silver.
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  • Anglesite, or lead sulphate, PbSO 4, is poor in silver, and is only exceptionally mined by itself; it occurs in quantity in France, Spain, Sardinia and Australia.
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  • Of other lead minerals we may mention the basic sulphate lanarkite, PbO PbSO 4; leadhillite, PbSO 4.3PbCO 3; the basic chlorides matlockite, PbO PbC12j and mendipite, PbC1 2.2PbO; the chloro-phosphate pyromorphite, PbC12.3Pb3(P04)2, the chloro-arsenate mimetesite, PbC12.3Pb3(As04)2; the molybdate wulfenite, PbMoO 4; the chromate crocoite or crocoisite, PbCrO 4; the tungstate stolzite, PbW04.
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  • -At the beginning of the 19th century the bulk of the world's supply of lead was obtained from England and Spain, the former contributing about 17,000 tons and the latter 10,000 tons annually.
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  • heated in the presence of atmospheric oxygen) until all the sulphur is burned away and the lead left.
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  • The first effect of the roasting is the elimination of sulphur as sulphurdioxide, with formation of oxide and sulphate of lead.
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  • The heat is then raised in (relative) absence of air, when the two elements named unite into sulphur-dioxide, while a regulus of molten lead remains.
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  • The use of the first two is restricted, as they are suited only for galena ores or mixtures of galena and carbonate, which contain not less than 58% lead and not more than 4% silica; further, ores to be treated in the ore-hearth should run low in or be free from silver, as the loss in the fumes is excessive.
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  • In the blast-furnace all lead ores are successfully smelted.
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  • Some of the roasted ore is strewed upon it, and, after a quarter of an hour's working, the whole is taken out on the work-stone, where the lead produced runs off.
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  • While he also prevents interruption of the operation by means of water-jackets, he uses hot-blast, and produces, besides metallic lead, large volumes of lead fumes which are drawn off by fans through long cooling tubes, and then forced through suspended bags which filter off the dust, called "blue powder."
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  • Thus, a mixture of lead sulphate (45%) and oxide (44%) with some sulphide (8%), zinc and carbonaceous matter, is agglomerated by a heap-roast and then smelted in a slag-eye furnace with grey slag from the ore-hearth.
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  • This is drawn off, cooled and filtered, and forms a white paint of good body, consisting of about 65% lead sulphate, 26% lead oxide, 6% zinc oxide and 3% other substances.
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  • While the furnace is running the crucible and channel remain filled with lead; all the lead reduced to the metallic state in smelting collects in the crucible, and rising in the channel, overflows into the basin, whence it is removed.
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  • The slag and matte formed float upon the lead in the crucible and are tapped, usually together, at intervals into slag-pots, where the heavy matter settles on the bottom and the light slag on the top. When cold they are readily separated by a blow from a hammer.
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  • Lead Blast-Furnace.
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  • The yield in lead is over 90%, in silver over 97% and in gold 100%.
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  • The lead produced in the reverberatory furnace and the ore-hearth is of a higher grade than that produced in the blast-furnace, as the ores treated are purer and richer, and the reducing action is less powerful.
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  • The following analysis of blast-furnace lead of Freiberg, Saxony, is from an exceptionally impure lead: Pb =95.088, Ag = 0.470, Bi = 0.019, Cu = 0.225, As = I.
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  • The lead is melted down slowly, when the impurities separate in the form of a scum (dross), which is easily removed.
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  • The purification by liquation is assisted by poling the lead when it is below redness.
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  • To remove tin, arsenic and antimony, the lead has to be brought up to a bright-red heat, when the air has a strongly oxidizing effect.
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  • Tin is removed mainly as a powdery mixture of stannate of lead and lead oxide, arsenic and antimony as a slagged mixture of arsenate and antimonate of lead and lead oxide.
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  • They are readily withdrawn from the surface of the lead, and are worked up into antimony (arsenic) - tin-lead and antimony-lead alloys.
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  • Liquation, if not followed by poling, is carried on as a rule in a reverberatory furnace with an oblong, slightly trough-shaped inclined hearth; if the lead is to be poled it is usually melted down in a cast-iron kettle.
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  • If the lead is to be liquated and then brought to a bright-red heat, both operations are carried on in the same reverberatory furnace.
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  • Silver is extracted from lead by means of the process of cupellation.
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  • Formerly all argentiferous lead had to be cupelled, and the resulting litharge then reduced to metallic lead.
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  • In 1833 Pattinson invented his process by means of which practically all the silver is concentrated in 13% of the original lead to be cupelled, while the rest becomes market lead.
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  • The base bullion is imperfectly Pattinsonized, giving lead rich in silver and bismuth, which is cupelled, and lead low in silver, and especially so in bismuth, which is further desilverized by the Parkes process.
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  • Most kettles at present hold 30 tons of lead; some, however, have double that capacity.
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  • When zinc is placed on the lead (heated to above the melting-point of zinc), liquefied and brought into intimate contact with the lead by stirring, gold, copper, silver and lead will combine with the zinc in the order given.
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  • In the beginning of the operation enough argentiferous lead is charged to fill the cavity of the test.
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  • After it has been melted down and brought to a red heat, the blast, admitted at the back, oxidizes the lead and drives the litharge formed towards the front, where it is run off.
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  • At the same time small bars of argentiferous lead, inserted at the back, are slowly pushed forward, so that in melting down they may replace the oxidized lead.
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  • The crystals of impoverished lead which fall process.
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  • to the bottom, upon coaling the charge, are taken out with a skimmer and discharged into the neighbouring kettle (say to the right) until about two-thirds of the original charge has been removed; then the liquid enriched lead is ladled into the kettle on the opposite side.
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  • To the kettle, two-thirds full of crystals of lead, is now added lead of the same tenor in silver, the whole is liquefied, and the cooling, crystallizing, skimming and ladling are repeated.
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  • The plant consists of two tilting oval metal pans (capacity 7 tons), one cylindrical crystallizing pot (capacity 22 tons), with two discharging spouts and one steam inlet opening, two lead moulds (capacity 31 tons), and a steam crane.
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  • Supposing the pot to be filled with melted lead to be treated, the fire is withdrawn beneath and steam introduced.
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  • This cools and stirs the lead when crystals begin to form.
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  • As soon as two-thirds of the lead has separated in the form of crystals, the steam is shut off and the liquid lead drained off through the two spouts into the moulds.
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  • The fire underneath the pot is again started, the crystals are liquefied, and one of the two pans, filled with melted lead, is tilted by means of the crane and its contents poured into the pot.
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  • Quinn resided in his own world, immersed in the science of things and not suited to lead.
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  • More of where the relationship might lead.
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  • He and the others followed his lead.
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  • He's about to lead my demons to the underworld.  With the Immortals in disarray and Death's … mistake, I can own the underworld before Rhyn can control his power enough to stop me.
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  • Rhyn paced.  He still felt the need to find Death, that if he found her, she'd lead him to Katie.  They could wander the underworld for millennia without finding Katie, but Death … Death would know where she was.
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  • Toby took the lead, and the demons, Death and Gabe disappeared as Katie rounded the corner of the palace.  The angel released her and raced into the palace and up a set of stairs.  They ascended several floors, until Katie was sucking wind bad enough to stop.  Toby didn't wait for her, and she stumbled forward.  The interior of the palace was unlit, and the darkness of evening crept into the hallways.
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  • And for once, we've got a lead they haven't overheard.
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  • There was little conversation but at one point when they were exchanging the lead and Betty pedaled ahead, she called to him over her shoulder.
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  • They rolled past South Fork, and 20 miles later, Del Norte, where the lead cadre of bikers hummed their way toward Monte Vista, 14 miles further, and then the final 17 miles to Alamosa.
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  • You might as well accept the fact that I'm a whole lot easier to lead than I am to push.
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  • There Alex took the lead as they rode into rough country, his shoulders swaying with the movement of the horse.
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  • He was simply trying to lead the subject away.
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  • There were too many paths and factors, though all seemed to lead to one of two futures.
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  • You came with me here, and you've taught me how to lead, he replied.
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  • I was told you are a man with a heart meant to lead his people away from their pain.
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  • If it does not, I will lead the attack into your kingdom, he warned.
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  • I was left a kingdom with no idea how to lead.
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  • You didn't say those words, but you implied I would lead them on.
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  • At first he expected Carmen to lead the tour, but she reminded him that he was equally responsible for the business.
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  • Although he started this by leaving, the children would follow her lead in reacting to the situation.
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  • Her tone could have cut through a six-foot thick lead wall.
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  • But a few of the settlers under the lead of Colonel John Franklin (1749-1831) attempted to form a separate state government.
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  • He will therefore devote all his care to examine and distinguish these three means of knowledge; and seeing that truth and error can, properly speaking, be only in the intellect, and that the two other modes of knowledge are only occasions, he will carefully avoid whatever can lead him astray."
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  • Serious efforts to organize the game were made in the last quarter of the 19th century, but this time the lead came from Australia.
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  • Its central tower carries a remarkable twisted spire of wood covered with lead, 230 ft.
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  • The industries of the town include manufactures of cotton, silk, earthenware, machinery and tobacco, with brass and iron founding; while slate and stone are quarried, and there are coal, iron and lead mines in the neighbourhood.
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  • A.) Fleche (French for "arrow"), the term generally used in French architecture for a spire, but more especially employed to designate the timber spire covered with lead, which was erected over the intersection of the roofs over nave and transepts; sometimes these were small and unimportant, but in cathedrals they were occasionally of large dimensions, as in the fleche of Notre-Dame, Paris, where it is nearly ioo ft.
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  • Suitable proportions of materials to form a rust joint are 90 parts by weight of iron borings well mixed with 2 parts of flowers of sulphur, and I part of powdered sal-ammoniac. Another joint, less rigid but sound and durable, is made with yarn and white and red lead.
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  • The white and red lead are mixed together to form a putty, and are filled into the socket alternately with layers of well-caulked yarn, starting with yarn and finishing off with the lead mixture.
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  • The principal industry is the smelting and refining of lead, and the smelting works are among the most interesting sights of the city.
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  • Choirs of male and female voices now lead the church praise.
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  • Following the lead of the Independents, who set up Mansfield College at Oxford, the Presbyterian Church has founded Westminster College at Cambridge as a substitute for its Theological Hall in London.
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  • Silver, gold, lead and copper ores occur in many localities.
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  • The successful defence of Buenos Aires accentuated the growing feeling of dissatisfaction with the Spanish connexion, which was soon to lead to open insurrection.
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  • The table below gives the average production of zinc, argentiferous lead, iron-pyrites and other ores during the quinquennial period 1901f 905.
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  • Lead - - - 18.5 100,424
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  • There are important zinc works at Auby and St Amand (Nord) and Viviez (Aveyron) and Noyelles-Godault (Pas-de-Calais); there are lead works at the latter place, and others of greater irirportance at Couron (Loire-Infrieure).
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  • He now took the lead in the reform of the pronunciation of Greek, his views after considerable controversy being universally adopted.
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  • It reduces many metallic oxides, such as lead monoxide and cupric oxide, and decomposes water at a red heat.
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  • It is also formed when ortho-aminodiphenylamine is distilled over lead peroxide (0.
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  • In the Phaedo the main argument up to which all the others lead is that the soul participates in the idea of life.
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  • iodide and chloro-bromide of silver, and argentiferous Silver lead ores, the largest deposits of the metal being found in the last-mentioned form.
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  • The fields of New South Wales have proved to be of immense value, the yield of silver and lead during 1905 being £2,500,000, and the total output to the end of the year named over £40,000,000.
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  • Lead is found in all the Australian states, but is worked only when associated with silver.
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  • In Western Australia the lead occurs in the form of sulphides and carbonates of great richness, but the quantity of silver mixed with it is very small.
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  • The principal items of export are wool, skins, tallow, frozen mutton, chilled beef, preserved meats, butter and other articles of pastoral produce, timber, wheat, flour and fruits, gold, silver, lead, copper, tin and other metals.
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  • The choice of governor-general of the new Commonwealth fell upon Lord Hopetoun (afterwards Lord Linlithgow), who had won golden opinions as governor of Victoria a few years before; Mr (afterwards Sir Edmund) Barton, who had taken the lead among the Australian delegates, became first prime minister; and the Commonwealth was inaugurated at the opening of 1901.
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  • In the absence, however, of any relics of a kind which might lead to the identification of the ancient miners, their nationality and origin are matters which must continue to be mere questions of speculation and conjecture.
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  • 4468 of 1908), and by lead azoimide (Hyronimus, Brit.
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  • Two inclined roads lead from the centre of the boulevard to the quay 40 ft.
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  • In 1854-1855, when it became evident that the Whig party in the North was moribund, Seward helped to lead its scattered remnants into the Republican fold.
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  • In 1826 he described the prismatically-coloured films of metal, known as Nobili's' rings, deposited electrolytically from solutions of lead and other salts when the anode is a polished iron plate and the cathode is a fine wire placed vertically above it.
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  • He supported stoutly the extreme party of opposition to the king, but did not take the lead except on a few less important occasions, and was apparently silent in the debates on the Petition of Right, the Grand Remonstrance and the Militia.
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  • If he would not forthwith come and lead them,"they had told him," they would go their own way without him."The supremacy of the army without a guiding hand meant anarchy, that of the Presbyterians the outbreak of another civil war.
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  • He was still but a centurion when chosen by the army of the Danube to lead it against Constantinople.
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  • In the next experiment the air was compressed as before, and then allowed to escape through a long lead tube immersed in the water of a calorimeter, and finally collected in a bell jar.
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  • While the majority of the Nematodes are parasites, there are many that are never at any period of their life parasitic. These free-living forms are found everywhere - in salt and fresh water, in damp earth and moss, and among decaying substances; they are always minute in size, and like many other lower forms of life, are capable of retaining their vitality for a long period even when dried, which accounts for their wide distribution; this faculty is also possessed by certain of the parasitic Nematodes, especially by those which lead a free existence during a part of their life-cycle.
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  • Copper and lead are found in several parts of the Aravalli range and of the minor ridges in Alwar and Shaikhawati, and iron ores abound in several states.
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  • The paper cables consist of a number of wires, each enveloped in a loose covering of well-dried paper, and loosely laid up together with a slight spiral " lay " in a bundle, the whole being enclosed in a stout lead pipe.
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  • As many as 1200 wires are sometimes enclosed in one lead pipe.
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  • The conductors are enclosed in a lead pipe, 24 in.
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  • In some cases, such as that of peroxide of lead, an increase of resistance takes place.
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  • Also several contacts, such as that of galena (sulphide of lead) and 1 See J.
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  • The mines near the city are very productive, and thousands of men and beasts are employed in transporting lead, iron, copper, zinc and sulphur to the coast.
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  • Vessels go to Porman to land coke and coal, and to load iron ore and lead.
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  • In the types of cable that were first used, the wires, usually with a cotton insulation, were drawn into lead tubes, and the tubes filled with paraffin or other similar compound, which kept the wires from the injurious effects of any moisture which might penetrate the lead tube.
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  • The cable is then placed in an oven, and, after all moisture has been driven off, it is passed through a lead press whence it emerges protected by a continuous lead pipe.
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  • Another method of distribution, largely adopted, is to run the lead cables into the interior of blocks of buildings, and to terminate them there in iron boxes from which the circuits are distributed to the surrounding buildings by means of rubber-covered wires run along the walls.
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  • The lid is especially attractive to insects from its bright colour and honey secretion; three wings lead up to the mouth of the pitcher, on the inside of which a row of sharp spines points downwards, and below this a circular ridge (r, fig.
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  • Emigration has, however, recently assumed such proportions as to lead to scarcity of labor and rise of wages in Italy itself.
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  • The chief minerals are sulphur, in the production of which Italy holds one of the first places, iron, zinc, lead; these, and, to a smaller extent, copper of an inferior quality, manganese and antimony, are successfully mined.
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  • The bulk of the sulphur mines are in Sicily, while the majority of the lead and zinc mines are in Sardinia; much of the lead smelting is done at Pertusola, near Genoa, the company formed for this purpose having acquired many of the Sardinian mines.
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  • Chemicals sulphate of copper, employed chiefly as a preventive 01 certain maladies of the vine; carbonate of lead, hyper.
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  • daughter of ancient Rome, assumes the lead.
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  • Italy seemed to lie prostrate before the emperor, who commanded her for the first time from the south as well as from the north, In 1227 Frederick, who h1d promised to lead a crusade, was excommunicated by Gregory IX.
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  • The contest being carried on by warfare, it followed that these captains in the burghs were chosen on account of military skill; and, since the nobles were men of arms by profession, members of ancient houses took the lead again in towns where they had been absorbed into the bourgeoisie.
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  • The conduct of Italy in declining the suggestions received from Count Andrssy and General Ignatiev on the eve of the RussoTurkish Warthat Italy should seek compensation in Tunisia for the extension of Austrian sway in the Balkansand in subsequently rejecting the German suggestion to come to an arrangement with Great Britain for the occupation of Tunisia as compensation for the British occupation of Cyprus, was certainly due to fear lest an attempt on Tunisia should lead to a war with France, for which Italy knew herself to be totally unprepared.
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  • At the end of 1889 Crispi abolished the differential duties against French imports and returned to the general Italian tariff, but France declined to follow his lead and maintained her prohibitive dues.
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  • 2 Any attempt to treat " cause " as pointing to a truth here, but inadequately, would lead us beyond intuitionalism into some phase of idealism.
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  • And the other man does not know the way, as you can soon see; therefore I must ' - should we answer, `Lead on, I follow'?"
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  • Alterna- Empiricism may lead to this conclusion; or it may lead to materialism..
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  • Once again, empiricism may lead to some qualified and restricted form of agnosticism, religious or antireligious.
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  • The fossil shells, pottery and rude stone implements, found alike at the base and at the surface of these middens, prove that the habits of the islanders have not varied since a remote past, and lead to the belief that the Andamans were settled by their present inhabitants some time during the Pleistocene period, and certainly no later than the Neolithic age.
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  • As already stated, there occur in the Hydromedusae two distinct types of person, the polyp and the medusa; and either of them is capable of non-sexual reproduction by budding, a process which may lead to the formation of colonies, composed of more or fewer individuals combined and connected together.
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  • It is no "fugitive and cloistered virtue" that Aurelius seeks to encourage; on the contrary, man must lead the "life of the social animal," must "live as on a mountain"; and "he is an abscess on the universe who withdraws and separates himself from the reason of our common nature through being displeased with the things which happen."
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  • It is with a full message that Paul has been entrusted, the message of Christ, who alone can lead to all the riches of fulness of knowledge.
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  • Saturn for lead, Venus for copper, and Mars for iron, and the belief that the colours of flowers ' The Egyptians believed that the medicinal virtues of plants were due to the spirits who dwelt within them.
    0
    0
  • Any poisonous substance that is not included in the schedules can be sold by anyone, as, for instance, red lead, sulphate of copper, &c. The duty of the Pharmaceutical Society is a purely legal one, and relates only to the schedules of poisons framed by the government to protect the public by rendering it a difficult matter to obtain the poisons most frequently used for criminal purposes.
    0
    0
  • yOXv13Sos, lead, and was originally employed to denote many substances containing or resembling lead; ultimately the term was applied to graphite and to molybdenum sulphide.
    0
    0
  • Ann., 1826, 8, p. 23), by converting lead molybdate into lead nitrate, obtained the value 95.
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    0
  • Steps lead from this temple to an enclosed flight of stairs, which in the cold season descend to the water, but in the rains are covered almost to the top. This is the ghat where some 600 helpless people were slain, in spite of a promise of safe-conduct from the Nana.
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  • Later writers, Posidonius, Diodorus, Strabo and others, call them smallish islands off (Strabo says, some way off) the north-west coast of Spain, which contained tin mines, or, as Strabo says, tin and lead mines - though a passage in Diodorus derives the name rather from their nearness to the tin districts of north-west Spain.
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  • He distinguished himself in the field and found time to lead a body of troops to aid the king of France against the Huguenots.
    0
    0
  • The Nature of the Organization of Ilte Plant, and the Relations of the Cell-Membrane and the Protoplasm.This view of the structure of the plant and this method of investigation lead us to a greatly modified conception of its organization, and afford more completely an explanation of the peculiarities of form found in the vegetable kingdom.
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  • We have the formation of numerous mechanisms which have arisen in connection with the question of food supply, which may not only involve particular cells, but also lead to differentiation in the protoplasm of those cells, as in the development of the chloroplastids of the leaves and other green parts.
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  • It may lead to an incipient asphyxiation, as the supply of oxygen may be greatly interfered with and the escape of carbon dioxide may be almost stopped.
    0
    0
  • It may at other times lead to great difficulties in the supply of the gaseous constituents which are used in the manufacture of food.
    0
    0
  • The steps which lead from the appearance of formaldehyde to that of the first well-defined carbohydrate are again matters of speculation.
    0
    0
  • As, however, we can easily see that the constructive processes are much greater than those which lead to the disappearance of material from the plant-body, there is generally to be seen a conspicuous increase in the substance of the plant.
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    0
  • Pythium, Peronospore, Completoria, Vol utelta, Botrytis, &c. That such overturgescence should lead to the bursting of fleshy fruits, such as gooseberries, tomatoes and grapes, is not surprising, nor can we wonder that fermentation and mould Fungi rapidly spread in such fruits; and the same is true for bulbs and herbaceous organs generally.
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    0
  • General attacks of leaf-diseases invariably lead to starvation and necrosis of twigs, and similarly with the ravages of caterpillars and other insects.
    0
    0
  • In India proper, with a dryer climate, grasses and Leguminosae take the lead in the number of species.
    0
    0
  • from the coast rise the chains of the mountains, through which some steep passes lead into the interior valleys (called Kock)) Ilepais, Strabo xv.
    0
    0
  • The Portuguese, following the lead of Prince Henry, continued to look for the road to India by the Cape of Good Hope.
    0
    0
  • When distilled over lead oxide, it forms diphenylene oxide, (C 6 H 4) 2 O: and when heated with oxalic acid and concentrated sulphuric acid, it forms aurin, C19H1403.
    0
    0
  • Hantzsch (Ber., 1901, 34, p. 3337) has shown that in the action of alcohols on diazonium salts an increase in the molecular weight of the alcohol and an accumulation of negative groups in the aromatic nucleus lead to a diminution in the yield of the ether produced and to the production of a secondary reaction, resulting in the formation of a certain amount of an aromatic hydrocarbon.
    0
    0
  • In the year 91, which brought with it the imminent prospect of sweeping political change, with the enfranchisement of the Italian peoples, Sulla returned to Rome, and it was generally felt that he was the man to lead the conservative and aristocratic party.
    0
    0
  • Valladolid was then the capital, and in due course eminent dignities were offered to him, but he gave signs of a determination to lead the sinple life of a Friar Preacher.
    0
    0
  • There are many pleasant drives along the shore of the bay or the banks of rivers, and some of these lead to popular resorts, such as Riverton Park, on the Presumpscot; Cape Cottage Park, at the mouth of the harbour; and Falmouth Foreside, bordering the inner bay.
    0
    0
  • To compare the Palaearctic genera with those of the Australian and Neotropical regions would be simply a waste of time, for the points of resemblance are extremely few, and such as they are they lead to nothing.
    0
    0
  • Giovanni Bellini, in his earlier works, obviously followed the lead of his brother-in-law Andrea.
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    0
  • Below the junction of the two arms the Euphrates flows south-west past the lead mines of Keban Maden, where it is 120 yds.
    0
    0
  • Iron, zinc and lead are found in the vicinity, and some coal is mined.
    0
    0
  • The other minerals found are silver, lead, copper, magnesium and lignite coal.
    0
    0
  • In the deltas of shoal rivers, with a strong tide or current and no land visible, a 5 lb lead is substituted for the log-ship; the lead rests on the bottom, and the speed is obtained in a manner similar to that previously described.
    0
    0
  • GERMANIUM (symbol Ge, atomic weight 72.5); one of the metallic elements included in the same natural family as carbon, silicon, tin and lead.
    0
    0
  • copper pyrites (copper), galena (lead), blende (zinc), cinnabar (mercury), &c. Of the sulphates we notice gypsum and anhydrite (calcium), barytes (barium) and kieserite (magnesium).
    0
    0
  • Some of these relatives lead almost insensibly to the greenfinch (ut supra) and its allies, others to the goldfinch (ut supra), the redpolls and so on.
    0
    0
  • The plan of the Propylaea consists of a large square hall, from which five steps lead up to a wall pierced by five gateways of graduated sizes, the central one giving passage to a road suitable for beasts or possibly for vehicles.
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  • We see indeed faint traces of distinction among the patricians themselves, which may lead us to guess that the equality of all patricians may have been won by struggles of unrecorded days, not unlike those which in recorded days brought about the equality of patrician and plebeian.
    0
    0
  • But the result did not lead to the abolition of all distinctions between the orders.
    0
    0
  • In the third book Philosophy promises to lead him to true happiness, which is to be found in God alone, for since God is the highest good, and the highest good is true happiness, God is true happiness.
    0
    0
  • Lead has been reported from the Nidi or Niete Mountains.
    0
    0
  • Almost all the traffic is conveyed through Hu-nan by water-ways, which lead northward to Han-kow on the Yangtsze Kiang, and Fan-cheng on the Han River, eastward to Fu-kien, southward to Kwang-tung and Kwang-si and westward to Sze-ch'uen.
    0
    0
  • It would only lead to confusion, however, if we called this method " apologetic."
    0
    0
  • He was pastor of the Thein Church (1444), preached Peter's doctrines, recommended his works to his hearers, and finally, when these hearers asked him to lead them, he laid their case before King George Podiebrad, and obtained permission for them to settle in the deserted village of Kunwald, in the barony of Senftenberg.
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    0
  • When Admetus was attacked by an illness that threatened to lead to his premature death, Apollo persuaded the Moerae (Fates) to prolong his life, provided any one could be found to die in his place.
    0
    0
  • The glands occur in groups, and lead into common ducts which open usually so much reduced that the foremost apparent ventral sclerite of the abdomen represents the third sternite.
    0
    0
  • Carried to the bee's nest, it undergoes a moult, and becomes a fat-bodied grub, ready to lead a quiet life feeding on the bee's rich food-stores.
    0
    0
  • (3) It was under his auspices that Athens began to take the lead in literature.
    0
    0
  • Machinery, coal, iron, woollens, ships, lead and copper are the commodities supplied by the United Kingdom.
    0
    0
  • 59), he ordered Batum to be transformed into a fortified naval port, but in the Balkan Peninsula he persistently refrained, under a good deal of provocation, from any intervention that might lead to a European war.
    0
    0
  • At first it had seemed that the new birth of Russia would lead to a revival of pan-Slavism, directed not, Neo-Slav as in the middle of the i 9th century, against Austria and pan= but against Germany.
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  • this difficulty was overcome by paving or " causewaying " the road up to the level of the top of the flanges, but 1 " Another thing that is remarkable is their way-leaves; for, when men have pieces of ground between the colliery and the river, they sell leave to lead coals over their ground " (Roger North).
    0
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  • 309,974 Australia 17,766 Asia 56,181 Table II., classifying the mileage of Europe, shows that Russia has taken the lead, instead of Germany, as in former years.
    0
    0
  • America is now following the lead thus set, and all the most important lines in the United States have adopted block working and interlocking, but a great deal still remains to be done.
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    0
  • The roadway, tracks and rolling stock are so well maintained that those causes which lead to the worst derailments have been eliminated almost completely, and the record of serious collisions has been reduced nearly to zero by the universal use of the block system and by systematic precautions at junctions.
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  • These in turn converge to a pair of single lines which lead to two groups of marshalling sidings, called " gridirons " from their shape, and these again converge to single lines leading to " lower reception and departure lines " at the bottom of the slope.
    0
    0
  • The lead is variable in the Stephenson link motion, whilst in the Walschaert and the Joy gears it is constant.
    0
    0
  • The leading industry of Udine is silk-spinning, but it also possesses manufactures of linen, cotton, hats and paper, tanneries and sugar refineries, and has a considerable trade in flax, hemp, &c. Branch railways lead to Cividale del Friuli and S.
    0
    0
  • A close survey of the facts, however, would lead us to regard it as probable that some at least of the Hebrew clans had patrondeities of their own.
    0
    0
  • Between the two aeons there would take place the advent of the Messiah, who would lead the struggle with evil powers which was called " the agonies of the Messiah."
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  • In the production of silver Nye county ranked first in 1907 ($3,667,973, of which $3,544,7 88 was from Tonopah), Churchill county second ($432,617, from Fairview, Wonder and Stillwater), and Eureka county (with lead silver ores) and Storey county were third and fourth respectively.
    0
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  • Copper, lead and zinc are produced in small quantities, being found in fissure veins with gold and silver.
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    0
  • The output of lead in 1907 was 6,271,341 lb (valued at $322,381).
    0
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  • Considerable quantities of the following minerals have been found: barytes (heavy spar), magnetite (magnetic iron ore), and pyrolusite (manganese dioxide) in Humboldt county; roofing slate in Esmeralda county; cinnabar (ore containing quicksilver) in Washoe county; haematite in Elko and Churchill counties; cerussite and galena (lead ores) in Eureka county; and wolframite (a source of tungsten) at Round Mountain, White Pine county.
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  • It is met at several points by lines which serve the rich mining districts to the south; at Cobre by the Nevada Northern from Ely in White Pine county in the Robinson copper mining district; at Palisade by the Eureka & Palisade, a narrow-gauge railway, connecting with the lead and silver mines of the Eureka District; at Battle Mountain by the Nevada Central, also of narrow gauge, from Austin; at Hazen by the Nevada & California (controlled by the Southern Pacific) which runs to the California line, connecting in that state with other parts of the Southern Pacific system, and at Mina, Nevada, with the Tonopah & Goldfield, which runs to Tonopah and thence to Goldfield, thus giving these mining regions access to the Southern Pacific's transcontinental service; and at Reno, close to the western boundary, by the Virginia & Truckee, connecting with Carson City, Minden, in the Carson Valley, and Virginia City, in the Comstock District, and by the Nevada-California-Oregon, projected to run through north-eastern California into Oregon, in 1910, in operation to Alturas, California.
    0
    0
  • He was one of the three Hanoverians, Windthorst and Miquel being the other two, who at once won for the representatives of the conquered province the lead in both the Prussian and German parliaments.
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  • Aedh (Hugh) O'Neill, chief of the Cinel Eoghain, or lord of Tir-Eoghain (Tir-Owen, Tyrone) at the end of the 12th century, was the first of the family to be brought prominently into conflict with the Anglo-Norman monarchy, whose pretensions he took the lead in disputing in Ulster.
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  • At a later period, when the Church had learnt to look with suspicion upon devotional books likely to provoke the scoffing of some and lead others into heresy, a work of this kind could hardly meet with her approval.
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  • One of the neighbouring mines, the Proprietary, is the richest in the world; gold is associated with the silver; large quantities of lead, good copper lodes, zinc and tin are also found.
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  • Bazard himself was at the head of the central body, and, while taking a general lead, contributed extensively to the Carbonarist journal, L'Aristarque.
    0
    0
  • The elders of these groups possessed some influence, and tended to form an aristocracy, which took the lead in social life, although their authority generally depended merely upon custom.
    0
    0
  • " The expectation that he would lead Israel in triumph to the Holy Land was doomed to end in disappointment.
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    0
  • Recent experiments lead to the conclusion that iron, lead, manganese, lignite and sulphur exist in considerable abundance.
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  • But besides these three, there were many other independent cities, which, though they generally followed the lead of one or other of these more powerful rivals, enjoyed complete autonomy, and were able to shift at will from one alliance to another.
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  • In this Assembly he proposed that " a confession of faith, a catechism, a directory for all the parts of the public worship, and a platform of government, wherein possibly England and we might agree," should be drawn up. This was unanimously approved of, and the laborious undertaking was left in Henderson's hands; but the " notable motion " did not lead to any immediate results.
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  • Michoacan is essentially a mining region, producing gold, silver, lead and cinnabar, and having rich deposits of copper, coal, petroleum and sulphur.
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    0
  • Minor, or merely formal, needs of the state might lead to the creation of other types of this office.
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  • Later in the century he was much studied by the members of the Philadelphian Society, John Pordage, Thomas Bromley, Jane Lead, and others.
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    0
  • The older history repeatedly indicates that David's kingship was predicted by a divine oracle, but would hardly lead us to place the prediction so early (I Sam.
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  • David's daring spirit might very well lead him to visit his wife even after his first flight.
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  • The harbour of Cagliari (along the north side of which runs a promenade called the Via Romo) is a good one, and has a considerable trade, exporting chiefly lead, zinc and other minerals and salt, the total annual value of exports amounting to nearly 12 million sterling in value.
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  • Lead ore was found and worked on Knaresborough Common in the 16th century.
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  • Most of these were simple records of patient and laborious analytical operations, and it is perhaps surprising that among all the substances he analysed he only detected two new elements - beryllium (1798) in beryl and chromium (1797) in a red lead ore from Siberia.
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  • The country has a great wealth of minerals, silver having been found, and copper, lead, iron, coal and rock-salt being wrought with profit.
    0
    0
  • A few problems lead to indeterminate equations of the third and fourth degrees, an easy indeterminate equation of the sixth degree being also found.
    0
    0
  • Often assumptions are made which lead to equations in x which cannot be solved "rationally," i.e.
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  • would give negative, surd or imaginary values; Diophantus then traces how each element of the equation has arisen, and formulates the auxiliary problem of determining how the assumptions must be corrected so as to lead to an equation (in place of the "impossible" one) which can be solved rationally.
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  • recoiled from this as being too great a leap in the dark, and such a fundamental difference of opinion between king and minister was bound to lead to a breach sooner or later.
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  • There are soap and flour mills and metallurgic factories in the town, and iron, copper and lead mines in the neighbouring Sierra de Almenara.
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    0
  • Galena and other lead ores are abundant in veins in the limestone, but they are now only worked on a large scale at Mill Close, near Winster; calamine, zinc blende, barytes, calcite and fluor-spar are common.
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    0
  • Galena and other lead ores are abundant in veins in the limestone, but they are now only worked on a large scale at Mill Close, near Winster; calamine, zinc, blende, barytes, calcite and fluor-spar are common.
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    0
  • Besides lead, gypsum and zinc are raised, to a small extent; and for the quarrying of limestone Derbyshire is one of the principal English counties.
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    0
  • The lead mines were worked by the Romans, and the Domesday Survey mentions lead mines at Wirksworth, Matlock, Bakewell, Ashford and Crich.
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    0
  • Thomas Fuller writing in 1662 mentions lead, malt and ale as the chief products of the county, and the Buxton waters were already famous in his day.
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    0
  • The two most useful arsenical sprays are Paris green and arsenate of lead.
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    0
  • of acetate of lead in a little water, then 1 oz.
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    0
  • The neglect of it in the domain of private business can now only lead to disastrous results.
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    0
  • Soon after her marriage miners had been brought from Lorraine to dig for gold at Crawford Moor, and she now carried on successful mining enterprises for coal and lead, which enabled her to meet the expenses of her government.
    0
    0
  • The Eolid-like Nudibranchs, amongst other specialities of structure, possess (in some cases at any rate) apertures at the apices of the " cerata " or dorsal papillae, which lead from the exterior into the hepatic caeca.
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    0
  • Its results indeed were not only astounding at the time, but were such as to lead up to a new cycle of wars.
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    0
  • In the neighbourhood are lead, zinc and silver mines, and some 20 m.
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    0
  • The neighbourhood is rich in zinc and lead; and copper is also found.
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    0
  • It also possesses a remarkable Norman font of lead.
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    0
  • The difference between schists and gneisses is mainly that the latter have less highly developed foliation; they also, as a rule, are more coarse grained, and contain far more quartz and felspar, two minerals which rarely assume platy or acicular forms, and hence do not lead to the production of a fissile character in the rocks in which they are important constituents.
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  • They lead into chambers, formed by inpushing of the cuticle, whose delicate inner walls are in contact with air-tubes; on the outer surface of these latter are ridges, along which the special nerveendings are arranged.
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  • While furnishing - almost unconsciously, however - additional evidence for overthrowing that classification, there is, nevertheless, no attempt made to construct a better one; and the elaborate tables of dimensions, both absolute and proportional, suggestive as is the whole tendency of the author's observations, seem not to lead to any very practical result, though the systematist's need to look beneath the integument, even in parts that are so comparatively little hidden as birds' feet, is once more made beyond all question apparent.
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    0
  • Crystals of barytes are orthorhombic and isomorphous with the strontium and lead sulphates (celestite and anglesite); they are usually very perfectly developed and present great variety of form.
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    0
  • It is known as cawk in the Derbyshire lead mines.
    0
    0
  • Barytes is of common occurrence in metalliferous veins, especially those which yield ores of lead and silver; some of the largest and most perfect crystals of colourless barytes were obtained from the lead mines near Dufton in Westmorland.
    0
    0
  • The finely powdered and washed mineral is too crystalline and consequently of insufficient opacity to be used alone as a paint, and is therefore mixed with "white lead," of which material it is also used as an adulterant.
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    0
  • The next few years were filled with negotiations and intrigues with Spain and France which did not lead to any particular result, but on the death in 1612 of Duke Francesco Gonzaga of Mantua, who was lord of Monferrato, Charles Emmanuel made a successful coup de main on that district.
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  • It is then converted into the lead salt, which is decomposed by sulphuretted hydrogen and the solution is carefully concentrated (Th.
    0
    0
  • At some distance from the shaft a square water-tight wall was built, and the space between it and the shaft was filled in with sand, which was purified of all saline matter by repeated washings; on the ground-level perforated stones set at the four corners of the basin admitted the rain-water, which was discharged from the roofs by lead pipes; this water filtered through the sand and percolated into the shaft of the well, whence it was drawn in copper buckets.
    0
    0
  • During the War of 1812 the Indians under the lead of Tecumseh were again on the side of the British.
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    0
  • The two great orders, Franciscans and Dominicans, were in the vigour of youth, and had already begun to take the lead in theological discussion.
    0
    0
  • He certainly describes a method of constructing a telescope, but not so as to lead one to conclude that he was in possession of that instrument.
    0
    0
  • The mineral wealth of Carinthia is great, and consists in lead, iron, zinc and coal.
    0
    0
  • About two-thirds of the total production of lead in Austria is extracted in Carinthia, the principal places being Bleiberg and Raibl.
    0
    0
  • The metallurgic industries are well developed, and consist in the production of iron, steel, machinery, small-arms, lead articles, wire-cables and rails.
    0
    0
  • Hence as a very general rule the coloration makes for concealment under natural conditions of existence, and the instincts which lead to concealment are very highly developed.
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    0
  • - Xx.), when Thebes took the lead.
    0
    0
  • The impurities occasionally present in commercial citric acid are salts of potassium and sodium, traces of iron, lead and copper derived from the vessels used for its evaporation and crystallization, and free sulphuric, tartaric and even oxalic acid.
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    0
  • As a parliamentarian he was very clear-headed, and thoroughly understood how to lead a party.
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    0
  • It is interesting to find that a rude pipe-line formerly existed in this field for conveying the crude oil from the wells to the river; this was made of bamboos, but it is said that the loss by leakage was so great as to lead to its immediate abandonment on completion.
    0
    0
  • While the subject of the testing of petroleum for legislative purposes has been investigated in Great Britain by committees of both branches of the legislature, with a view to change in the law, the standard has never been raised, since such a course would tend to reduce the available supply and thus lead to increase in price or deterioration in quality.
    0
    0
  • A shepherd boy named Stephen had appeared, in France, and had induced thousands to follow his guidance: with his boyish army he rode on a wagon southward to Marseilles, promising to lead his followers dry-shod through the seas.
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  • That, too, had begun with a shepherd boy: the leader of the Pastoureaux, like the leader of the children, promised to lead his followers dry-shod through the seas; and tradition even said that this leader, "the master of Hungary," as he was called, was the Stephen of the Children's Crusade.
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  • Already in 1267 St Louis had taken the cross a second time, moved by the news of Bibars' conquests; and though the French baronage, including even Joinville himself, refused to follow the lead of their king, Prince Edward of England imitated his example.
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  • Popes had preached them; popes had financed them; popes had sent their legates to lead them.
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    0
  • Viewed from a distance the mountains appear as dark perpendicular barriers, quite impenetrable; but narrow paths lead round the precipitous face of the hills, and when the inner side is gained a wonderful panorama opens out.
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    0
  • The transubstantiation doctrine seemed to him full of evil, from its tendency to lead men to overvalue what was sensuous and transitory.
    0
    0
  • In a scientific definition the compounds of fatty acids with basic metallic oxides, lime, magnesia, lead oxide, &c., should also be included under soap; but, as these compounds are insoluble in water, while the very essence of a soap in its industrial relations is solubility, it is better to speak of the insoluble compounds as " plasters, " limiting the name " soap " as the compounds of fatty acids with soda and potash.
    0
    0
  • In preparing lead plaster by boiling olive oil with oxide of lead and a little water - a process palpably analogous to that of the soap-boilerhe obtained a sweet substance which, called by himself " Olsiiss " (" principium dulce oleorum "), is now known as " glycerin."
    0
    0
  • Two preparations of hard soap (sodium oleate), made by acting on olive oil with caustic soda, are used in medicine: (1) Emplastrum saponis, made with lead plaster; (2) Pilula saponis cornposita, which contains one in five parts of opium.
    0
    0
  • The bulk lead really excellent lives in monasteries, which are centres of education and poor-relief; while others go out to visit the poor as Gurus or teachers.
    0
    0
  • These orders are of very ancient date, owing their establishment to the ancient Hindu rule, followed by the Buddhists, that each "twice-born" man should lead in the woods the life of an ascetic. The second class of Fakirs are simply disreputable beggars who wander round extorting, under the guise of religion, alms from the charitable and practising on the superstitions of the villagers.
    0
    0
  • The principal industry of Villach consists in the fabrication of various lead wares, and is mostly dependent on the lead mines of Bleiberg, which is situated about 9 m.
    0
    0
  • The finest agricultural land in the United States is near the lake, and there is an immense trade in all grains, fruits, livestock and lumber, and in products such as flour, pork, hides, leather goods, furniture, &c. Rich lead and copper mines abound, as also salt, iron and coal.
    0
    0
  • Thus in the Speculum Naturale of Vincent of Beauvais (c. 1250) it is said that there are four spirits - mercury, sulphur, arsenic and sal ammoniac - and six bodies - gold, silver, copper, tin, lead and iron.
    0
    0
  • Having purified the soul from sin and obtained a detestation thereof, the second week treats of the kingdom of Christ, and is meant to lead the soul to make an election of the service of God.
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    0
  • The mines, chiefly the property of the state and of the corporation, yield silver, gold, lead, copper and arsenic. The town contains also flourishing potteries, where well-known tobacco pipes are manufactured.
    0
    0
  • There are large slaughtering establishments, and factories for the refining of sugar and for the manufacture of tobacco goods, soap and perfumery, lead pencils, iron and steel, railway cars, chemicals, rubber goods, silk goods, dressed lumber, and malt liquors.
    0
    0
  • In addition to the Melghat mountain tract which walls it in on the north, Berar is divided into two sections, the Payanghat or lowland country, bounded on the north by the Gawilgarh hills, and on the south by the outer scarps of the Ajanta range, and the Balaghat or upland country above the Ajanta ridge, sloping down southwards beyond the ghats or passes which lead up to it.
    0
    0
  • In the view of some alchemists, the ultimate principles of matter were Aristotle's four elements; the proximate constituents were a " sulphur " and a " mercury," the father and mother of the metals; gold was supposed to have attained to the perfection of its nature by passing in succession through the forms of lead, brass and silver; gold and silver were held to contain very pure red sulphur and white quicksilver, whereas in the other metals these materials were coarser and of a different colour.
    0
    0
  • From an analogy instituted between the healthy human being and gold, the most perfect of the metals, silver, mercury, copper, iron, lead and tin, were regarded in the light of lepers that required to be healed.
    0
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  • Gold, the most perfect metal, had the symbol of the Sun, 0; silver, the semiperfect metal, had the symbol of the Moon, 0j; copper, iron and antimony, the imperfect metals of the gold class, had the symbols of Venus Mars and the Earth tin and lead, the imperfect metals of the silver class, had the symbols of Jupiter 94, and Saturn h; while mercury, the imperfect metal of both the gold and silver class, had the symbol of the planet,.
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  • 4 The following are the symbols employed by Dalton: which represent in order, hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon, oxygen, phosphorus, sulphur, magnesia, lime, soda, potash, strontia, baryta, mercury; iron, zinc, copper, lead, silver, platinum, and gold were represented by circles enclosing the initial letter of the element.
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  • The bases upon which Gerhardt and Laurent founded their views were not sufficiently well grounded to lead to the acceptance of their results; Gerhardt himself returned to Gmelin's equivalents in his Lehrbuch der Chemie (1853) as they were in such general use.
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  • The Egyptians obtained silver, iron, copper, lead, zinc and tin, either pure or as alloys, by smelting the ores; mercury is mentioned by Theophrastus (c. 300 B.C.).
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  • Many substances were used as pigments: Pliny records white lead, cinnabar, verdigris and red oxide of iron; and the preparation of coloured glasses and enamels testifies to the uses to which these and other substances were put.
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  • Sefstrom definitely proved the existence of a metallic element vanadium, which had been previously detected (in 1801) in certain lead ores by A.
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  • BdXXo, a green bud, on account of a brilliant green line in its spectrum) in the selenious mud of the sulphuric acid manufacture; the chemical affinities of this element, on the one hand approximating to the metals of the alkalis, and on the other hand to lead, were mainly established by C. A.
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  • to mix the substance with an oxidizing agent - mercuric oxide, lead dioxide, and afterwards copper oxide - and absorb the carbon dioxide in potash solution.
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  • A sublimate may be formed of: sulphur - reddish-brown drops, cooling to a yellow to brown solid, from sulphides or mixtures; iodine - violet vapour, black sublimate, from iodides, iodic acid, or mixtures; mercury and its compounds - metallic mercury forms minute globules, mercuric sulphide is black and becomes red on rubbing, mercuric chloride fuses before subliming, mercurous chloride does not fuse, mercuric iodide gives a yellow sublimate; arsenic and its compounds - metallic arsenic gives a grey mirror, arsenious oxide forms white shining crystals, arsenic sulphides give reddish-yellow sublimates which turn yellow on cooling; antimony oxide fuses and gives a yellow acicular sublimate; lead chloride forms a white sublimate after long and intense heating.
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  • If the substance does not melt but changes colour, we may have present: zinc oxide - from white to yellow, becoming white on cooling; stannic oxide - white to yellowish brown, dirty white on cooling; lead oxide - from white or yellowish-red to brownish-red, yellow on cooling; bismuth oxide - from white or pale yellow to orange-yellow or reddish-brown, pale yellow on cooling; manganese oxide - from white or yellowish white to dark brown, remaining dark brown on cooling (if it changes on cooling to a bright reddishbrown, it indicates cadmium oxide); copper oxide - from bright blue or green to black; ferrous oxide - from greyish-white to black; ferric oxide - from brownish-red to black, brownish-red on cooling; potassium chromate - yellow to dark orange, fusing at a red heat.
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  • If the hot bead is colourless and remains clear on cooling, we may suspect the presence of antimony, aluminium, zinc, cadmium, lead, calcium and magnesium.
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  • When present in sufficient quantity the five last-named give enamel-white beads; lead oxide in excess gives a yellowish bead.
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  • The black films of tin, lead and cadmium dissolve at once in the acid, the lead film being also soluble in bleaching-powder.
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  • The oxide films of antimony, arsenic, tin and bismuth are white, that of bismuth slightly yellowish; lead yields a very pale yellow film, and cadmium a brown one; mercury yields no oxide film.
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  • For this purpose the cold solution is treated with hydrochloric acid, which precipitates lead, silver and mercurous salts as chlorides.
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  • The solution is filtered and treated with an excess of sulphuretted hydrogen, either in solution or by passing in the gas; this precipitates mercury (mercuric), any lead left over from the first group, copper, bismuth, cadmium, arsenic, antimony and tin as sulphides.
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  • Any lead chloride dissolves, and may be identified by the yellow precipitate formed with potassium chromate.
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  • The precipitate formed by sulphuretted hydrogen may contain the black mercuric, lead, and copper sulphides, dark-brown bismuth sulphide, yellow cadmium and arsenious sulphides, orange-red antimony sulphide, brown stannous sulphide, dull-yellow stannic sulphide, and whitish sulphur, the last resulting from the oxidation of sulphuretted hydrogen by ferric salts, chromates, &c. Warming with ammonium sulphide dissolves out the arsenic, antimony and tin salts, which are reprecipitated by the addition of hydrochloric acid to the ammonium sulphide solution.
    0
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  • Any residue consists of black mercuric sulphide (and possibly white lead sulphate), in which mercury is confirmed by its usual tests.
    0
    0
  • Lead and manganese are partially separated as peroxides, but the remaining metals are not deposited from acid solutions.
    0
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  • Lead chromate is sometimes used, and many other substances, such as platinum, manganese dioxide, &c., have been suggested.
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  • After having previously roasted the tube and copper oxide, and reduced the copper spiral a, the weighed calcium chloride tube and potash bulbs are put in position, the boat containing the substance is inserted (in the case of a difficultly combustible substance it is desirable to mix it with cupric oxide or lead chromate), the copper spiral (d) replaced, and the air and oxygen supply connected up. The apparatus is then tested for leaks.
    0
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  • Neumann, who, in 1831, deduced from observations on many carbonates (calcium, magnesium, ferrous, zinc, barium and lead) that stoichiometric quantities (equimolecular weights) of compounds possess the same heat capacity.
    0
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  • Calcium carbonate separates as hexagonal calcite from cold solutions (below 30°), and as rhombic aragonite from solutions at higher temperatures; lead and strontium carbonates, however, induce the separation of aragonite at lower temperatures.
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  • received the Copley medal from the Royal Society "for his various memoirs on electricity, and particularly for those on the production of metallic sulphurets and sulphur by the long-continued action of electricity of very low tension," which it was hoped would lead to increased knowledge of the "recomposition of crystallized bodies, and the processes which may have been employed by nature in the production of such bodies in the mineral kingdom."
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  • The Pennsylvanian Quakers advised their members against the trade in 1696; in 1754 they issued to their brethren a strong dissuasive against encouraging it in any manner; in 1774 all persons concerned in the traffic, and in 1776 all slave holders who would not emancipate their slaves, were excluded from membership. The Quakers in the other American provinces followed the lead of their brethren in Pennsylvania.
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  • From the landing-stage, by the customs house, roads lead to the Place Mehemet Ali, the centre of the life of the city and the starting-point of the electric tramways.
    0
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  • A number of short streets lead from the square to the eastern harbour.
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  • From the south end of the square the rue Sherif Pasha - in which are the principal shops - and the rue Tewfik Pasha lead to the boulevard, or rue, de Rosette, a long straight road with a general E.
    0
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  • Thence roads lead to the E.
    0
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  • Therefore it is that Ormazd in his grace determined to open the eyes of mankind by sending a prophet to lead them by the right way, the way of salvation.
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  • A flat sheet of lead or some other suitable weight should be laid upon the top of the pile of specimens, so as to keep up a continuous pressure.
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  • Ten steps lead down to a basin of sufficient depth for immersion, supplied by a spring.
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  • Romanes in the 9th edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica runs as follows: "Instinct is a generic term comprising all those faculties of mind which lead to the conscious performance of actions that are.
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  • In 1697, after Ryswick, Pierre le Moyne d'Iberville (1662-1706) was chosen to lead another colony, which reached the Gulf coast early in 1699.
    0
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  • silver oxide is reduced to metallic silver at 170° C., lead dioxide to the monoxide and manganese dioxide to sesquioxide.
    0
    0
  • Nitrogen peroxide is also prepared by heating lead nitrate and passing the products of decomposition through a tube surrounded by a freezing mixture, when the gas liquefies.
    0
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  • Sodium nitrite, the most commonly used salt of the acid, is generally obtained by heating the nitrate with metallic lead; by heating sodium nitrate with sulphur and sodium hydroxide, the product then being fractionally crystallized;(Read, Holliday & Sons): 3NaNO 3 +S+2NaOH = Na2S04+3NaN02+H20; by oxidizing atmospheric nitrogen in an electric arc, keeping the gases above 300° C., until absorption in alkaline hydroxide solution is effected (German Pat.
    0
    0
  • It is very unstable, decomposing into nitrous oxide and water when mixed with copper oxide, lead chromate or even powdered glass.
    0
    0
  • Thus in the theory of masses we must know that two pounds of lead when put together will counterbalance in the scales two pounds of sugar, or a pound of lead and a pound of sugar.
    0
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  • It induced many Spanish explorers to lead expeditions in search of treasure, but all failed.
    0
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  • The empire is rich in minerals, including gold, silver, lead, copper, iron, coal, mercury, borax, emery, zinc; and only capital is needed for successful exploitation.
    0
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  • The silver, lead and copper mines are mainly worked by British capital.
    0
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  • He worked to produce doubt and confusion in the mind of the British government by threats and attacks on its distant possessions, which should lead it to scatter its forces.
    0
    0
  • It was the schoolmaster or paedagogue to lead them to Christ.
    0
    0
  • The object of his incarnation and death was to free man from his sins, to lead him into the path of wisdom, and thus in the end elevate him to the position of a god.
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  • Allenlightenment tended to lead up to the truths of Christianity, and hence knowledge of every kind not evil was its handmaid.
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  • He had been a merchant captain, and was chosen to lead the naval forces of the islands when they rose against the government of the Sultan.
    0
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  • Differences of temperature and atmospheric pressure must disturb this equilibrium, but the movements of both ocean and atmosphere lead to a high degree of uniformity in both envelopes as regards their gaseous constitutions.
    0
    0
  • Therefore a reduction in the partial pressure of the gas in the atmosphere, or a rise in the temperature of the water, or a violent agitation of the sea itself, will lead to precipitation of calcium carbonate.
    0
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  • Faraday examined also the electrolysis of certain fused salts such as lead chloride and silver chloride.
    0
    0
  • A study of the products of decomposition does not necessarily lead directly to a knowledge of the ions actually employed in carrying the current through the electrolyte.
    0
    0
  • Similar investigations applied to the general case of chemical equilibrium lead to an expression of exactly the same form as that given by C. M.
    0
    0
  • The effective electromotive force of the common lead accumulator is less than that required to charge it.
    0
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  • The fact that the Gibbs-Helmholtz equation is found to apply also indicates that the lead accumulator is approximately reversible in the thermodynamic sense of the term.
    0
    0
  • This is largely due to the improved methods of preparing the rubber practised by the planters of Ceylon and Malaya, which lead to the exclusion of the impurities usually found in " wild " rubber.
    0
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  • Vegetable and other oils rapidly penetrate caoutchouc and lead to deterioration of its properties.
    0
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  • Of late years a considerable amount of seamless tubing has been made, much in the same way as lead piping, by forcing the mixed rubber through a die, and curing as above.
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  • A certain number of Hussites lead by Nicolas of Hus - no relation of John Huss - left Prague.
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  • Sherard Cowper Coles patented a process in which, working with a high current density, a lead anode is used, and powdered zinc is kept suspended in the solution to maintain the proportion of zinc in the electrolyte, and so to guard against the gradual acidification of the bath.
    0
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  • Such slags contain S10 2 =3033%, Fe(Mn)O =27-50%, Ca(Mg, Ba)O =12-28%, and retain less than 1% lead and I oz.
    0
    0
  • The lead is melted down at a low temperature and drossed.
    0
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  • In 1842 Karsten discovered that lead could be desilverized by means of zinc. His invention, however, only took practical form in1850-1852through the researches of Parkes, who showed how the zinc-silver-lead alloy formed could be worked and the desilverized lead freed from the zinc it had taken up. In the Parkes process only 5% of the original lead need be cupelled.
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  • Thus, while cupellation still furnishes the only means for the final separation of lead and silver, it has become an auxiliary process to the two methods of concentration given.
    0
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  • It holds its own, however, when base bullion contains bismuth in appreciable amounts, as in the Pattinson process bismuth follows the lead to be cupelled, while in the Parkes process it remains with the desilverized lead which goes to market, and lead of commerce should contain little bismuth.
    0
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  • The effect of the two processes on the purity of the market lead is clearly shown by the two following analyses by Hampe, which represent lead from Lautenthal in the Harz Mountains, where the Parkes process replaced that of Pattinson, the ores and smelting process remaining practically the same: - It is absolutely necessary for the success of the Parkes process that the zinc and lead should contain only a small amount of impurity.
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  • The spelter used must therefore be of a good grade, and the lead is usually first refined in a reverberatory furnace (the softening furnace).
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  • 5% lead if it comes from a Pattinson plant, from 5-to% if from a Parkes plant.
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  • deep, about 6 tons of lead are cupelled in twenty-four hours.
    0
    0
  • The loss in lead is about 5%.
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  • The working door through which the litharge is run off lies under the flue which carries off the products of combustion and the lead fumes, the lead is charged and the blast is admitted near the fire-bridge.
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  • In the meantime the lead in the moulds, which has solidified, is removed with the crane and stacked to one side, until its turn comes to be raised and charged into one of the pans.
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  • of zinc, all the gold and copper and some silver and lead will be alloyed with the zinc to a so-called gold - or copper - crust, and the residual lead saturated with zinc. By removing from the surface of the lead this first crust and working it up separately (liquating, retorting and cupelling), dore silver is obtained.
    0
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  • A third addition becomes necessary to remove the rest of the silver, when the lead will assay only o I oz.
    0
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  • In skimming the crust from the surface of the lead some unalloyed lead is also drawn off, and has to be separated by an additional operation (liquation), as, running lower in silver than the crust, it would otherwise reduce its silver content and increase the amount of lead to be cupelled.
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  • The liquated zinc-silver-lead crust contains 5-10% silver, 30-40% zinc and 65-50% lead.
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  • The desilverized lead, which retains o 6-0.7% zinc, has to be refined before it is suited for industrial use.
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  • In the reverberatory furnace, similar to the one used in softening, the lead is brought to a brightred heat and air allowed to have free access.
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  • The zinc and some lead are oxidized; part of the zinc passes off with the fumes, part is dissolved by the litharge, forming a melted mixture which is skimmed off and reduced in a blast-furnace or a reverberatory smelting furnace.
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    0
  • In the kettle covered with a hood the zinc is oxidized by means of dry steam, and incidentally some lead by the air which cannot be completely excluded.
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    0
  • A yellowish powdery mixture of zinc and lead oxides collects on the lead; it is skimmed off and sold as paint.
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  • From the reverberatory furnace or the kettle the refined lead is siphoned off into a storage (market) kettle after it has cooled somewhat, and from this it is siphoned off into moulds placed in a semicircle on the floor.
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  • In the process the yield in metal, based upon the charge in the kettle, is lead 99%, silver loo-}- %, gold 98-100%.
    0
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  • Pure lead isa feebly lustrous bluishwhite metal, endowed with a characteristically high degree of softness and plasticity, and almost entirely devoid of elasticity.
    0
    0
  • The specific gravity is 11 352 for ingot, and from 11.354 to II '365 for sheet lead (water of 4°C. = 1).
    0
    0
  • Lead exposed to ordinary air is rapidly tarnished, but the thin dark film formed is very slow in increasing.
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  • When kept fused in the presence of air lead readily takes up oxygen, with the formation at first of a dark-coloured scum, and then of monoxide PbO, the rate of oxidation increasing with the temperature.
    0
    0
  • Water when absolutely pure has no action on lead, but in the presence of air the lead is quickly attacked, with formation of the hydrate, Pb(OH) 2, which is appreciably soluble in water forming an alkaline liquid.
    0
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  • When carbonic acid is present the dissolved oxide is soon precipitated as basic carbonate, so that the corrosion of the lead becomes continuous.
    0
    0
  • Since all soluble lead compounds are strong cumulative poisons, danger is involved in using lead cisterns or pipes in the distribution of pure waters.
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    0
  • The word "pure" is emphasized because experience shows that the presence in a water of even small proportions of calcium bicarbonate or sulphate prevents its action on lead.
    0
    0
  • Ammonium nitrate and nitrite, for instance, intensify the action of a water on lead.
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  • Even pure waters, however, such as that of Loch Katrine (which forms the Glasgow supply), act so slowly, at least on such lead pipes as have already been in use for some time, that there is no danger in using short lead service pipes even for them, if the taps are being constantly used.
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  • Lead cisterns must be unhesitatingly condemned.
    0
    0
  • The presence of carbonic acid in a water does not affect its action on lead.
    0
    0
  • Aqueous non-oxidizing acids generally have little or no action on lead in the absence of air.
    0
    0
  • Dilute sulphuric acid (say an acid of 20% H 2 SO 4 or less) has no action on lead even when air is present, nor on boiling.
    0
    0
  • Pure lead is far more readily corroded than a metal contaminated with 1% or even less of antimony or copper.
    0
    0
  • Boiling concentrated sulphuric acid converts lead into sulphate, with evolution of sulphur dioxide.
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  • Lead unites readily with almost all other metals; hence, and on account of its being used for the extraction of (for instance) silver, its alchemistic name of saturnus.
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  • - Lead contaminated with small proportions of antimony is more highly proof against sulphuric acid than the pure metal.
    0
    0
  • Arsenic renders lead harder.
    0
    0
  • An alloy of 5 of lead, 8 of bismuth and 3 of tin fuses at 94.4° C., i.e.
    0
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  • An alloy of 15 parts of bismuth, 8 of lead, 4 of tin and 3 of cadmium (Wood's alloy) melts below 70° C.
    0
    0
  • Tin unites with lead in any proportion with slight expansion, the alloy fusing at a lower temperature than either component.
    0
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  • Compounds of Lead.
    0
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  • Lead generally functions as a divalent element of distinctly metallic character, yielding a definite series of salts derived from the oxide PbO.
    0
    0
  • Lead combines with oxygen to form five oxides, viz.
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  • The suboxide, Pb 2 0, is the first product of the oxidation of lead, and is also obtained as a black powder by heating lead oxalate to 300° out of contact with air.
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    0
  • It ignites when heated in air with the formation of the monoxide; dilute acids convert it into metallic lead and lead monoxide, the latter dissolving in the acid.
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    0
  • The monoxide, PbO, occurs in nature as the mineral lead ochre.
    0
    0
  • This oxide is produced by heating lead in contact with air and removing the film of oxide as formed.
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    0
  • Litharge is much used for the preparation of lead salts, for the manufacture of oil varnishes, of certain cements, and of lead plaster, and for other purposes.
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    0
  • Massicot is the raw material for the manufacture of "red lead" or "minium."
    0
    0
  • Lead monoxide is dimorphous, occurring as cubical dodecahedra and as rhombic octahedra.
    0
    0
  • The corresponding hydrate, Pb(OH)2, is obtained as a white crystalline precipitate by adding ammonia to a solution of lead nitrate or acetate.
    0
    0
  • Lead dioxide, Pb0 2, also known as "puce oxide," occurs in nature as the mineral plattnerite, and may be most conveniently prepared by heating mixed solutions of lead acetate and bleaching powder until the original precipitate blackens.
    0
    0
  • It is also obtained by passing chlorine into a suspension of lead oxide or carbonate, or of magnesia and lead sulphate, in water; or by treating the sesquioxide or red oxide with nitric acid.
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    0
  • The Kassner process for the manufacture of oxygen depends upon the formation of calcium plumbate, Ca2Pb04, by heating a mixture of lime and litharge in a current of air, decomposing this substance into calcium carbonate and lead dioxide by heating in a current of carbon dioxide, and then decomposing these compounds with the evolution of carbon dioxide and oxygen by raising the temperature.
    0
    0
  • Plumbic acid, Pb0(OH) 21 is obtained as a bluish-black, lustrous body of electrolysing an alkaline solution of lead sodium tartrate.
    0
    0
  • If a suspension of lead dichloride in hydrochloric acid be treated with chlorine gas, a solution of lead tetrachloride is obtained; by adding ammonium chloride ammonium plumbichloride, (NH 4) 2 PbC1 6, is precipitated, which on treatment with strong sulphuric acid yields lead tetrachloride, PbC1 4, as a translucent, yellow, highly refractive liquid.
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    0
  • It freezes at - 15° to a yellowish crystalline mass; on heating it loses chlorine and forms lead dichloride.
    0
    0
  • With water it forms a hydrate, and ultimately decomposes into lead dioxide and hydrochloric acid.
    0
    0
  • By dissolving red lead, Pb304, in glacial acetic acid and crystallizing the filtrate, colourless monoclinic prisms of lead tetracetate, Pb(C2H302)4, are obtained.
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    0
  • Here compounds of divalent lead have not yet been obtained; by acting with zinc ethide on lead chloride, lead tetraethide, Pb(C 2 IH Q) 4, is obtained, with the separation of metallic lead.
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    0
  • Lead sesquioxide, Pb203, is obtained as a reddish-yellow amorphous powder by carefully adding sodium hypochlorite to a cold potash solution of lead oxide, or by adding very dilute ammonia to a solution of red lead in acetic acid.
    0
    0
  • It is decomposed by acids into a mixture of lead monoxide and dioxide, and may thus be regarded as lead metaplumbate, PbPbO 3.
    0
    0
  • Red lead or triplumbic tetroxide, Pb304, is a scarlet crystalline powder of specific gravity 8.6-9.1, obtained by roasting very finely divided pure massicot or lead carbonate; the brightness of the colour depends in a great measure on the roasting.
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  • Pliny mentions it under the name of minium, but it was confused with cinnabar and the red arsenic sulphide; Dioscorides mentions its preparation from white lead or lead carbonate.
    0
    0
  • Commercial red lead is frequently contaminated with this oxide, which may, however, be removed by repeated digestion with lead acetate.
    0
    0
  • Acids decompose it into lead dioxide and monoxide, and the latter may or may not dissolve to form a salt; red lead may, therefore, be regarded as lead orthoplumbate, Pb2Pb04.
    0
    0
  • Lead chloride, PbC1 2, occurs in nature as the mineral cotunnite, which crystallizes in the rhombic system, and is found in the neighbourhood of volcanic craters.
    0
    0
  • It is artificially obtained by adding hydrochloric acid to a solution of lead salt, as a white precipitate, little soluble in cold water, less so in dilute hydrochloric acid, more so in the strong acid, and readily soluble in hot water, from which on cooling, the excess of dissolved salt separates out in silky rhombic needles.
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    0
  • It melts at 485° and solidifies on cooling to a translucent, horn-like mass; an early name for it was plumbum corneum, horn lead.
    0
    0
  • A basic chloride, Pb(OH)Cl, was introduced in 1849 by Pattinson as a substitute for white lead.
    0
    0
  • Powdered galena is dissolved in hot hydrochloric acid, the solution allowed to cool and the deposit of impure lead chloride washed with cold water to remove iron and copper.
    0
    0
  • Lead fluoride, PbF2, is a white powder obtained by precipitating a lead salt with a soluble fluoride; it is sparingly soluble in water but readily dissolves in hydrochloric and nitric acids.
    0
    0
  • A chlorofluoride, PbC1F, is obtained by adding sodium fluoride to a solution of lead chloride.
    0
    0
  • Lead bromide, PbBr 2, a white solid, and lead iodide, PbI 21 a yellow solid, are prepared by precipitating a lead salt with a soluble bromide or iodide; they resemble the chloride in solubility.
    0
    0
  • Lead carbonate, PbCO 3, occurs in nature as the mineral cerussite (q.v.).
    0
    0
  • It is produced by the addition of a solution of lead salt to an excess of ammonium carbonate, as an almost insoluble white precipitate.
    0
    0
  • Of greater practical importance is a basic carbonate, substantially 2PbCO 3 Pb(OH) 2, largely used as a white pigment under the name of "white lead."
    0
    0
  • This pigment is of great antiquity; Theophrastus called it kibOhov, and prepared it by acting on lead with vinegar, and Pliny, who called it cerussa, obtained it by dissolving lead in vinegar and evaporating to dryness.
    0
    0
  • It thus appears that white lead and sugar of lead were undifferentiated.
    0
    0
  • In the old Dutch method, pieces of sheet lead are suspended in stoneware pots so as to occupy the upper two-thirds of the vessels.
    0
    0
  • A little vinegar is poured into each pot; they are then covered with plates of sheet lead, buried in horse-dung or spent tanner's bark, and left to themselves for a considerable time.
    0
    0
  • By the action of the acetic acid and atmospheric oxygen, the lead is converted superficially into a basic acetate, which is at once decomposed by the carbon dioxide, with formation of white lead and acetic acid, which latter then acts de novo.
    0
    0
  • After a month or so the plates are converted to a more or less considerable depth into crusts of white lead.
    0
    0
  • These are knocked off, ground up with water, freed from metal-particles by elutriation, and the paste of white lead is allowed to set and dry in small conical forms. The German method differs from the Dutch inasmuch as the lead is suspended in a large chamber heated by ordinary means, and there exposed to the simultaneous action of vapour of aqueous acetic acid and of carbon dioxide.
    0
    0
  • Another process depends upon the formation of lead chloride by grinding together litharge with salt and water, and then treating the alkaline fluid with carbon dioxide until it is neutral.
    0
    0
  • White lead is an earthy, amorphous powder.
    0
    0
  • The inferior varieties of commercial "white lead" are produced by mixing the genuine article with more or less of finely powdered heavy spar or occasionally zinc-white (ZnO).
    0
    0
  • Venetian white, Hamburg white and Dutch white are mixtures of one part of white lead with one, two and three parts of barium sulphate respectively.
    0
    0
  • Lead sulphide, PbS, occurs in nature as the mineral galena (q.v.), and constitutes the most valuable ore of llead.
    0
    0
  • It may be artificially prepared by leading sulphur vapour over lead, by fusing litharge with sulphur, or, as a black precipitate, by passing sulphuretted hydrogen into a solution of a lead salt.
    0
    0
  • Lead sulphate, PbSO 4, occurs in nature as the mineral anglesite (q.v.), and may be prepared by the addition of sulphuric acid to solutions of lead salts, as a white precipitate almost insoluble in water (1 in 21,739), less soluble still in dilute sulphuric acid (1 in 36,504) and insoluble in alcohol.
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  • Lead nitrate, Pb(N03)2, is obtained by dissolving the metal or oxide in aqueous nitric acid; it forms white crystals, difficultly soluble in cold water, readily in hot water and almost insoluble in strong nitric acid.
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  • The normal ortho-phosphate, Pb3(P04)2, is a white precipitate obtained by adding sodium phosphate to lead acetate; the acid phosphate, PbHPO 4, is produced by precipitating a boiling solution of lead nitrate with phosphoric acid; the pyrophosphate and meta-phosphate are similar white precipitates.
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  • The borate, Pb 2 B 6 0 1 u 4H20, is obtained as a white precipitate by adding borax to a lead salt; this on heating with strong ammonia gives PbB2044H2.
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  • Lead silicates are obtained as glasses by fusing litharge with silica; they play a considerable part in the manufacture of the lead glasses.
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  • Lead chromate, PbCrO 4, is prepared industrially as a yellow pigment, chrome yellow, by precipitating sugar of lead solution with potassium bichromate.
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  • Lead acetate, Pb(C2H302)2.3H20 (called "sugar" of lead, on account of its sweetish taste), is manufactured by dissolving massicot in aqueous acetic acid.
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  • An aqueous solution readily dissolves lead oxide, with formation of a strongly alkaline solution containing basic acetates (Acetum Plumbi or Saturni).
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  • When carbon dioxide is passed into this solution the whole of the added oxide, and even part of the oxide of the normal salt, is precipitated as a basic carbonate chemically similar, but not quite equivalent as a pigment, to white lead.
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  • When mixed with sodium carbonate and heated on charcoal in the reducing flame lead salts yield malleable globules of metal and a yellow oxide-ring.
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  • Solutions of lead salts (colourless in the absence of coloured acids) are characterized by their behaviour to hydrochloric acid, sulphuric acid and potassium chromate.
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  • But the most delicate precipitant for lead is sulphuretted hydrogen, which produces a black precipitate of lead sulphide, insoluble in cold dilute nitric acid, less so in cold hydrochloric, and easily decomposed by hot hydrochloric acid with formation of the characteristic chloride.
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  • The chief pharmacopoeial salts are: (1) Plumbi oxidum (lead oxide), litharge.
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  • It is not used internally, but from it is made Emplastrum Plumbi (diachylon plaster), which is an oleate of lead and is contained in emplastrum hydrargeri, emplastrum plumbi iodidi, emplastrum resinae, emplastrum saponis.
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  • (2) Plumbi Acetas (sugar of lead), dose 1 to 5 grains.
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  • (3) Plumbi Carbonas, white lead, a mixture of the carbonate and the hydrate, a heavy white powder insoluble in water; it is not used internally, but from it is made Unguentum Plumbi Carbonatis, strength 1 in so parts of paraffin ointment.
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  • Applied externally lead salts have practically no action upon the unbroken skin, but applied to sores, ulcers or any exposed mucous membranes they coagulate the albumen in the tissues themselves and contract the small vessels.
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  • The sedative effect of lead lotion in pruritus is well known.
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  • Internally lead has an astringent action on the mucous membranes, causing a sensation of dryness; the dilute solution of the subacetate forms an effective gargle in tonsillitis.
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  • Lead salts usually produce constipation, and lead is an active ecbolic. Lead is said to enter the blood as an albuminate in which form it is deposited in the tissues.
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  • The symptoms of acute poisoning are pain and diarrhoea, owing to the setting up of an active gastro-enteritis, the foeces being black (due to the formation of a sulphide of lead), thirst, cramps in the legs and muscular twitchings, with torpor, collapse, convulsions and coma.
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  • For an account of chronic plumbism see Lead Poisoning.
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  • - For the history of lead see W.
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  • Pulsifer, Notes for a History of Lead (1888); B.
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  • Percy, The Metallurgy of Lead (London, 1870); H.
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