Layers Sentence Examples
Thick, bronze skin coated layers of roped, rippling muscles.
In some of the layers add a layer of fresh basil.
In Norwood and Rogers's process a thin coating of tin is applied to the iron before it is dipped in the zinc, by putting the plates between layers of granulated tin in a wooden tank containing a dilute solution of stannous chloride, when tin is deposited on them by galvanic action.
The separation of layers in the apical meristem of the root is usually very much more obvious than in that of the stem.
In a few cases the boundaries of the different layers are not traceable.Advertisement
Whoa, you can really peel the layers off the onion!
The glass may be wrapped in a towel or thick layers of paper tissue.
Even a few weeks of very hot, dry weather can dry out the upper layers of the soil.
It is unclear why this happens, although the protection imparted by aluminum oxide layers has been suggested.
She hadn't been able to shake the cold she felt and was dressed in layers despite the thermostat being set to eighty.Advertisement
He looked up instinctively, sensing something different about this thunder. It didn't sound like the rumbling thunder he'd heard in the mortal world. It sounded like an explosion in the sky. The jungle canopy blocked his view, so he leapt up to catch the branch of the nearest tree. He scaled the tree quickly, stopping only when he broke through the layers of leaves. More tiny explosions came, and he twisted to see what they were.
In the earthworms, on the other hand, this coat is thick and composed of many layers.
Between the outer shell and the insulating layers is a 100% waterproof, breathable, seamless inner protective glove.
The walls are constructed of thin layers of oolitic limestone bonded together with a clay mortar.
For larger amounts, mix in kitty litter or pour one-inch layers of paint in a cardboard box lined with a plastic bag.Advertisement
The company plans to make all new Capilene base layers with more than 50 per cent recycled materials by spring 2007.
I then adjusted the opacity of the two layers.
A fire was then lit inside the furnace and hot layers of charcoal and crushed iron ore were added alternately.
A favorite is the navy, silk organza tulip dress which plays with the lengths and layers of typically 20s fashions.
More disturbed or slipped packing was located above this, layers 3057 and 3064.Advertisement
The layers palette appears on the right hand side of the screen.
The unique design features multiple layers of oiled cotton fabric which captures the airborne dirt particles.
The aim was to create a patchwork of layers without adjoining gaps.
It is made of several layers of parallel fibers, and the.g.ps are filled in with jelly-like substances, e.g. pectin.
They freed women from the layers and layers of heavy petticoats and were much more hygienic and comfortable.Advertisement
When applied over clay undercoat or one-coat plaster, the previous layers should be fully dry and shrinkage complete before applying finish coats.
When applied over clay undercoat plaster, the previous layers should be fully dry and shrinkage complete before applying finish coats.
Use a steel frame with acoustic quilt insulation and two layers of acoustic plasterboard with a skim coat of plaster.
The organization I work for has a number of management layers and is also a firm proponent of empowerment.
The gap between the plasterboard laminate layers was typically around one meter, with a 100mm mineral fiber quilt in between.
Increased circulation brings vital nutrients and proteins to the sub dermal layers, leaving skin radiant, cleaner and healthier looking.
Secondly, raster layers can be combined to create new raster layers can be combined to create new raster layers.
Some rawhide dog treats are made out of many thin layers of rawhide dog treats are made out of many thin layers of rawhide, which should be a longer lasting treat for your dog.
Snowflakes can also fall through layers of different relative humidity where they can both build up and lose mass.
Wilson supposes that by the fall to the ground of a preponderance of negatively charged rain the air above the shower has a higher positive potential than elsewhere at the same level, thus leading to large conduction currents laterally in the highly conducting upper layers.
But these protective layers are in the main impermeable by gases and by either liquid or vapour, and prevent the access of either to the protoplasts which need them.
Some make their way through the cells of the outer part of the cortex towards the root-tip, and form a mycelium or feltwork of hyphae, which generally occupies two or three layers of cells.
In such stems and roots as increase in thickness there are other growing regions, which consist of cylindrical sheaths known as cambium layers or phellogens.
Starch exists, in the majority of cases, in the form of grains, which are composed of stratified layers arranged around a nucleus or hilum.
The stratification, which may be concentric or excentric, appears to be due to a difference in density of the various layers.
The separate layers of the starch-grain are deposited on it by the activity of the chrmatophore, and according to Meyer the grain is always surrounded by a thin layer of the chromatophore which completely separates it from the cytoplasm.
Both cuticularized and suberized membranes are insoluble in cuprammonia, and are colored yellow or brown in a soltition of chlor-iodide of zinc. It is probable that the corky or suberized cells do not contain any cellulose (Gilson, Wisselingh); whilst cuticularized cells are only modified in their outer layers, cellulose inner layers being still recognizable.
It is easy to distinguish the great primitive watercourses from the lateral ducts which they fed, the latter being almost without banks and merely traceable by the winding curves of the layers of alluvium in the bed, while the former are hedged in by high banks of mud, heaped up during centuries of dredging.
The upper surface of the elytron is sharply folded inwards at intervals, so as to give rise to a regular series of external longitudinal furrows (striae) and to form a set of supports between the two chitinous layers forming the elytron.
They consist for the most part of red and grey gneisses and granulites, with subordinate layers of granite and granitite.
The ballast consists of such materials as broken stone, furnace slag, gravel, cinders or earth, the lower layers commonly consisting of coarser materials than the top ones, and its purpose is to provide a firm, well-drained foundation in which the sleepers or crossties may be embedded and held in place, and by which the weight of the track and the trains may be distributed over the road-bed.
The dark bituminous layers of clay slate, which occur intercalated among the quartzites, have led, here as elsewhere, to the hope of coming upon a seam of coal, but it is contrary to experience that coal of any value should be found in rocks of that age.
Another out of many theories 1 is that the hard beds of quartzite are denuded by the disintegration of the sof ter layers.
In a more restricted sense it is used to connote certain thin layers of bony fragments, which occur upon welldefined geological horizons.
Another well-known bed, formerly known as the "Bristol" or "Lias" Bone Bed, exists in the form of several thin layers of micaceous sandstone, with the remains of fish and saurians, which occur in the Rhaetic Black Paper Shales that lie above the Keuper marls in the south-west of England.
With the exception of the almost inexhaustible layers of peat, the mineral wealth of the province is insignificant.
Usually they do not extend outwards of the muscular layers of the body wall.
The muscular layers are thinner in the aquatic forms, which possess only a single row of longitudinal fibres, or (Enchytraeidae) two layers.
In the earthworms, on the other hand, the epidermis becomes specialized into several layers of cells, all of which are glandular.
On this surface of pile heads was laid a platform of two layers of squared oak beams; and on this again the foundations proper were built.
Kovalevsky in 1871 first described the formation of the germinal layers in insects.
Owing to difference of density the oil and water in the anticlines separate into two layers, the upper consisting of oil which fills the anticlines, while the water remains in the synclines.
Protonemertini, in which there are two layers of dermal muscles, external circular and internal longitudinal; the nervous system lies external to the circular muscles; the mouth lies behind the level of the brain; the proboscis has no stylet; there is no caecum to the intestine.
Heteronemertini, in which the dermal musculature is in three layers, an external longitudinal, a middle circular, an internal longitudinal; the nervous system lies between the first and second of these layers; the outer layer of longitudinal muscles is a new development; there is no intestinal caecum; no stylets on the proboscis and the mouth is behind the level of the brain.
The proboscis, which is thus an eminently muscular organ, is composed of two or three, sometimes powerful, layers of muscles - one of longitudinal and one or two of circular fibres.
Internally the muscular layers are lined by an epithelium.
The muscular layers by which the body-wall is constituted have been very differently and to some extent confusingly described by the successive authors on Nemertean anatomy.
The fact is that not only have the larger subdivisions a different arrangement and even number of the muscular layers, but even within the same genus, nay, in the same species, well-marked differences occur.
The second is common to all the Heteronemertines, as well as to Polia and Valencinia, and also comprehends three layers, of which, however, two are longitudinal, viz.
The situation of the lateral nervestems in the different genera with respect to the muscular layers lends definite support to the interpretation of their homologies here given and forms the basis of Burger's classification.
In Carinella, Cephalothrix and Polia, as well as in all Metanemertines, the basement membrane of the skin already alluded to is particularly strong and immediately applied upon the muscular layers.
The connective tissue of the integument and basement membrane imperceptibly merges into that which surrounds the muscular bundles as they are united into denser and definite layers, and this is especially marked in those forms (Akrostomum) where the density of the muscular body-wall has considerably diminished, and the connective tissue has thus become much more prominent.
It can then at the same time be observed, too, that the compact mass of connective tissue (" reticulum," Barrois) which lies between the muscular bodywall and the intestine is directly continuous with that in which the muscular layers are embedded.
In Carinella, where the longitudinal nerve-stems are situated exteriorly to the muscular layers, this plexus, although present, is much less dense, and can more fitly be compared to a network with wide meshes.
Two layers are specially obvious in its walls - the inner layer bordering the lumen being composed of smaller ciliated cells, the outer thicker one containing numerous granular cells and having a more glandular character.
A matrix of wood or iron is covered with successive layers of papers, pasted together so as to form pasteboard.
The old idea that it was made from layers or pellicules growing between the rind and a central stalk has been abandoned, as it has been proved that the plant, like other reeds, contains only a cellular pith within the rind.
The two layers thus " woven " - Pliny uses the word texere in describing this part of the process - formed a sheet (plagula or net), which was then soaked in water of the Nile.
But the material was also subject to other defects, such as moisture lurking between the layers, which might be detected by strokes of the mallet; spots or stains; and spongy strips (taeniae), in which the ink would run and spoil the sheet.
These show the magnitudes of the layers of different salinity and temperature beneath the surface, and when a number of sections are compared the differences from season to season and from year to year can be seen.
In Lingula the shell is composed of alternate layers of chitin and of phosphate of lime.
Upon the central neck was wound a coil consisting of one or two layers of very fine wire, which was connected with a ballistic galvanometer for measuring the induction in the iron; outside this coil, and separated from it by a small and accurately determined distance, a second coil was wound, serving to measure the induction in the iron, together with that in a small space surrounding it.
On the ether hand, a survey of the facts of cellular embryology which were accumulated in regard to a variety of classes within a few years of Kovalevsky's work led to a generalization, independently arrived at by Haeckel and Lankester, to the effect that a lower grade of animals may be distinguished, the Protozoa or Plastidozoa, which consist either of single cells or colonies of equiformal cells, and a higher grade, the Metazoa or Enterozoa, in which the egg-cell by " cell division " gives rise to two layers of cells, the endoderm and the ectoderm, surrounding a primitive digestive chamber, the archenteron.
The shafts reached deposits of salt at a depth of 850 ft., but the finer and purer layers lie more than 1 roo ft.
The furnace consists of a shaft, circular (or more rarely rectangular) in plan, into which alternate layers of fuel and ore are charged, an air blast being generally injected near to the bottom of the furnace through one or more tuyeres.
First they are round or oval in shape; later they become spindle shaped, arranging themselves in layers.
Rising amid the ancient gneiss rocks of the St Gotthard, the Rhine finds its way down to the Lake of Constance between layers of Triassic and Jurassic formation; and between that lake and Basel it penetrates the chalk barrier of the Jura.
At marriage they burn benzoin with nim seeds (Melia Azadirachta, Roxburgh) to keep off evil spirits, and prepare the bride-cakes by putting a quantity of benzoin between layers of wheaten dough, closed all round, and frying them in clarified butter.
When boiling water is poured into a glass vessel, the vessel frequently breaks, on account of the unequal expansion of the inner and outer layers.
The surface of the glass was hardened, but the inner layers remained in unstable equilibrium.
In many specimens there were three or more layers of differently coloured glass, and curious effects of blended colour were obtained by cutting through, or partly through, the different layers.
One method is to form the tube of two layers of glass, one being considerably more expansible than the other.
The process of embedding gold and silver leaf between two layers of glass originated as early as the 1st century, probably in Alexandria.
What came out below was a compact cylinder with a rounded bottom, consisting of so many layers superimposed upon one another.
Parallel experiments with layers of dough or sand plus some connecting material proved that the particles in all cases moved along the same tracks as would be followed by a flowing cylinder of liquid.
The muscles are arranged, jn ten or more layers, and are transversely striated.
The muscles are composed of outer circular and inner longitudinal layers, and of branched dorso-ventral fibres.
In a few genera the place of the chitinoid coat is taken by a ciliary investment and in most families the structure of the layers is characteristic.
By this capillary action water may be transferred to the upper layers of the soil from a depth of several feet below the surface.
A deep porous bed in the upper layers is essential, and this should consist of fine particles which lie close to each other without any tendency to stick together and " puddle " after heavy showers.
Many of the mineral plant food-constituents locked up in the coarse herbage and in the upper layers of the soil are made immediately available to crops.
Above the level of the ground-water the soil is kept moist by capillary attraction and by evaporation of the water below, by rainfall, and by movements of the ground-water; on the other hand, the upper layers are constantly losing moisture by evaporation from the surface and through vegetation.
In the winter months the deeper layers of the soil act as a shelter to the organism, which again grows towards the surface during the summer.
Ordinary Saltpetre or Potassium Nitrate, KN03, occurs, mingled with other nitrates, on the surface and in the superficial layers of the soil in many countries, especially in certain parts of India, Persia, Arabia and Spain.
When prolonged heating is required at very high temperatures it is found necessary to line the furnace-cavity with alternate layers of magnesia and carbon, taking care that the lamina next to the lime is of magnesia; if this were not done the lime in contact with the carbon crucible would form calcium carbide and would slag down, but magnesia does not yield a carbide in this way.
When distilling a mixture of partially miscible components a distillate of constant composition is obtained so long as two layers are present, i.e.
The town is built in three layers.
The zoarium may rise up into erect growths composed of a single layer of zooids, the orifices of which are all on one surface, or of two layers of zooids placed back to back, with the orifices on both sides of the fronds or plates.
In the Phylactolaemata the outermost layer of the bodywall is a flexible, uncalcified cuticle or "ectocyst," beneath which follow in succession the ectoderm, the muscular layers and the coelomic epithelium.
Even the ectoderm can rarely be recognized as an obvious epithelium except in regions where budding is taking place, while muscular layers are always absent and a coelomic epithelium can seldom be observed.
Given internally in small quantities and in sufficient dilution, alcohol causes dilatation of;he gastric blood-vessels, increased secretion of gastric juice, and greater activity in the movements of the muscular layers in the wall of the stomach.
The gold is found in stratified layers, with " ruby " and black sand.
The process consists essentially in running the solution over layers of charcoal, the charcoal being afterwards burned.
It is deposited from water, which bubbles up from a number of springs in the form of horizontal layers, which at first are thin crusts and can easily be broken, but gradually solidify and harden into blocks with a thickness of 7 to 8 in.
The lowest layer of the molten mass is principally metallic bismuth, the succeeding layers are a bismuth copper matte, which is subsequently worked up, and a slag.
The acid gland consists of one, two or more tubes, with a cellular coat of several layers, opening into a reservoir whence the duct leads to the exterior.
Such, for instance, were those of Spindler and Wrangell in the Black Sea by sinking an electric lamp, those of Paul Regnard by measuring the change of electric resistance in a selenium cell or the chemical action of the light on a mixture of chlorine and hydrogen, by which he found a very rapid diminution in the intensity of light even in the surface layers of water.
Jacobsen on some occasions found water in the surface layers of the Baltic supersaturated with oxygen, which he ascribed to the action of the chlorophyll in vegetable plankton; in other cases when examining the nearly stagnant water from deep basins he found a deficiency of oxygen due no doubt to the withdrawal of oxygen from solution, by the respiration of the animals and by the oxidation of the deposits on the bottom.
He covered the bulb of the thermometer with layers of non-conducting material and left it immersed at the desired depth for a very long time to enable it to take the temperature of its surroundings.
The last elaboration of the insulated slip water-bottle by Ekman, Nansen and Pettersson has produced an instrument of great perfection, in which the insulation is effected by layers of water between a series of concentric ebonite cylinders, all of which are closed both above and below when the apparatus encloses a sample, and each of which in turn must be warmed considerably before there is any rise of temperature in the chamber within.
They would act equally well if the water grew continually warmer as the depth increases, but they cannot give an exact account of a temperature inversion such as is produced when layers of warmer and colder water alternate.
Curve B shows the typical distribution of temperature in an enclosed sea, in this case the Sulu Basin of the Malay Sea, where from the level of the barrier to the bottom the temperature remains uniform or homothermic. Curve C shows a typical summer condition in the polar seas, where layers of sea-water at different temperatures are superimposed, the arrangement from the surface to 200 fathoms is termed FIG.
The deeper layers lag behind the upper in deflection and the velocity of the current rapidly diminishes in consequence.
The latter phenomenon is most clearly shown by the stripes of cold water along the west coasts of Africa and America, the current running along the coast tending to draw its water away seawards on the surface and the principle of continuity requiring the updraught of the cool deep layers to take its place.
One of the scarps or steps is the result of a great fault or displacement of the earth's crust, and is known as the Balcones fault scarp; others are due to erosion and weatherin g of alternate layers of hard and soft rocks lying almost horizontal.
We may obtain an excellent representation of the motion of the layers of air in a train of sound waves by means of a device due to Crova and known as " Crova's disk."
In addition there is a pressure between the layers of the medium, and if this pressure in the undisturbed parts of the medium is P, momentum P per second is being transferred from right to left across each square centimetre.
At sunset, too, after a warm day, if the air is still, the cooling of the earth by radiation cools the lower layers, and sound carries excellently over a level surface.
But usually the lower layers are warmer than the upper layers, and the velocity below is greater than the velocity above.
The platform itself was usually composed of rough layers of unbarked stems, but occasionally it was formed of boards split from larger stems. When the mud was too soft to afford foothold for the piles they were mortised into a framework of tree trunks placed horizontally on the bottom of the lake.
The piles of the third settlement do not reach down to the shell marl, but are fixed in the layers representing the first and second settlements.
Along the southern coast of Bolshoy Baron Toll found immense layers of fossil ice, 70 ft.
That building is of course of much later date, but it seems certain that when (c. 513-516) Sigismund, son of King Gundibald, built a stone church on the site, it took the place of an earlier wooden church, constructed on Roman foundations, all three layers being clearly visible at the present day.
In this stage the body is composed of two layers, ectoderm (d) externally, and endoderm (c) internally, surrounding a central cavity, the archenteron (b), which communicates with the exterior by a pore (a), the blastopore.
The soil of yards and the floors and walls of houses rapidly become contaminated, and the ideal condition would be to have an impermeable flooring covering the whole area, and supplied with suitable layers of sand, sawdust, peat-moss or other absorbent substances which can be changed at frequent intervals.
The special adaptability of this region to its growth is attributed to the nature of the soil, which consists of layers of black or dark-brown volcanic ash, varying in depth from 1 to 6 yds.
It may be traversed by processes of the cells of the ectoderm and endoderm, or it may contain cells which have migrated into it from these two layers.
The ectoderm covers the whole external surface of the animal, while the endoderm lines the coelenteron or gastrovascular space; the two layers meet each other, and become continuous, at the edge of the mouth.
The next event is a great growth in thickness of the gelatinous mesogloea, especially on the exumbral side; as a result the flattened coelenteron is still further compressed so that in certain spots its cavity is obliterated, and its exumbral and subumbral layers of endoderm come into contact and undergo concrescence.
The two apposed layers of endoderm in the cathammal area undergo complete fusion to form a single layer of epithelium, the endoderm-lamella of the adult medusa.
Only very thin layers are sufficiently transparent to show the dispersion near or within an absorption band, and a large refracting angle is not required, the dispersion usually being very considerable.
As is always the case in the broad denudation of the gently inclined strata of such plains, the weaker layers are worn down in sub-parallel belts of lower land between the oldiand and the belts of more resistant strata, which rise in uplands.
The ligament is simple in Anadonta; in many Lamellibranchs it is separated into two layers, an outer and an inner (thicker,and denser).
These two layers, therefore, when once formed cannot increase in thickness; as the mantle grows in extent its border passes beyond the formed parts of the two outer layers, and the latter are covered internally by a deposit of nacreous matter.
The bark in most of the trees occurs in fine soft membranous layers, the outer cuticle of which peels off in thin, white, papery sheets.
At one point this is continuous with a layer of cells called the stratum granulosum which lines the outer wall of the follicle, but elsewhere the two layers are separated by fluid, the liquor folliculi.
From each side of the uterus the peritoneum is reflected outward, as a two-layered sheet, to the side wall of the pelvis; this is the broad ligament, and between its layers lie several structures of importance.
The Great Valley Region consists of folded sedimentary rocks, extensive erosion having removed the soft layers to form valleys, leaving the hard layers as ridges, both layers running in a N.E.-S.W.
Old trees are selected, from the bark of which it is observed to ooze in the early summer; holes are bored in the trunk, somewhat inclined upward towards the centre of the stem, in which, between the layers of wood, the turpentine is said to collect in small lacunae; wooden gutters placed in these holes convey the viscous fluid into little wooden pails hung on the end of each gutter; the secretion flows slowly all through the summer months, and a tree in proper condition yields from 6 to 8 Ib a year, and will continue to give an annual supply for thirty or forty years, being, however, rendered quite useless for timber by subjection to this process.
Unlike the cells of Protozoa, these embryonic cells of the Metazoa do not remain each like its neighbour and capable of independent life, but proceed to arrange themselves into two layers, taking the form of a sac. The cavity of the two-cell-layered sac or diblastula thus formed is the primitive gut or arch-enteron.
Thus the growth of the shell in extent is due to additions to the prismatic layer at the edge, its growth in thickness to new layers of nacre deposited on its inner surface.
On cutting across a grain of rice and examining it under the microscope, first the flattened and dried cells of the husk are seen, and then one or two layers of cells elongated in a direction parallel to the length of the seed, which contain the gluten or nitrogenous matter.
But that it may be given by the ordinary diatomic molecule is exemplified by oxygen, which gives in thick layers by absorption one of the typical sets of bands which were used by Deslandres and others to investigate the laws of distribution of frequencies.
The skin consists of a transparent cuticle excreted by the underlying ectoderm, the cells of which though usually one-layered may be heaped up into several layers in the head; beneath this is a basement membrane, and then a layer of longitudinal muscle fibres which are limited inside by a layer of peritoneal cells.
If for massive walls, it is usual to tip it out in large quantities from a barrow or wagon, and simply spread it in layers about a foot thick.
The majority of the lichens, however, possess a stratified thallus in which the gonidia are found as a definite layer or layers embedded in a pseudoparenchymatous mass of fungal hyphae, i.e.
This is derived chiefly from Lecanora esculents, which grows unattached on the ground in layers from 3 to 6 in.
Bare aluminium strip has recently been tried for winding-coils in electrical machines, the oxide of the metal acting as insulators between the layers.
In some instances buds form on the roots, and may be used for purposes of propagation, as in the Japan quince, the globe thistle, the sea holly, some sea lavenders, Bocconia, Acanthus, &c. Of the tendency in buds to assume an independent existence gardeners avail themselves in the operations of striking " cuttings," and making " layers " and " pipings," as also in budding and grafting.
It should also be sufficiently commodious to permit of the fruit being arranged in single layers on the shelves or trays.
It should be laid up in ridges of good loamy soil in alternate layers to form a compost, which becomes a valuable stimulant for any very choice subjects if cautiously used.
Vegetable refuse of all kinds, when smother-burned in a similar way, becomes a valuable mechanical improver of the soil; but the preferable course is to decompose it in a heap with quicklime and layers of earth, converting it into leaf-mould.
One whole summer, sometimes two, must elapse before the layers will be fully rooted in the case of woody plants; but such plants as carnations and picotees, which are usually propagated in this way, in favourable seasons take only a few weeks to root, as they are layered towards the end of the blooming season in July, and are taken off and planted separately early in the autumn.
After this season, keep always a reserve of annuals in pots, or planted on beds of thin layers of fibrous matter, so as to be readily transplanted.
Propagate all sorts of herbaceous plants by rooted slips or suckers; take off layers of carnations, picotees and pansies.
Transplant evergreens in moist weather, about the end of the month; and propagate them by layers and cuttings.
Continue the propagation of herbaceous plants, taking off the layers of carnations, picotees, pansies and chrysanthemums, by the end of the month; choice carnations and picotees may be potted and wintered in cold frames if the season is wet and ungenial.
In general, field strawberries are not grown from potted layers, but from good strong layers that strike naturally in the field.
They are dried best by placing them in a dry shed in thin layers.
In the lower forms the two layers are coextensive and have smooth edges, but in the higher forms FIG.
It should be observed, however, that the repeated intercalation of marine deposits within the continental series and the frequent occurrence of thin coaly layers in the marine series makes any hard and fast distinction of this kind impossible.
Except in Limburg, where, in the neighbourhood of Maastricht, the upper layers of the chalk are exposed and followed by Oligocene and Miocene beds, the whole of Holland is covered by recent deposits of considerable thickness, beneath which deep borings have revealed the existence of Pliocene beds similar to the " Crags " of East Anglia.
In the more complex tissue-bodies of higher fungi, however, we find considerable differences in the various layers or strands of hyphae.
As in other cell-walls, so here the older membranes may be altered by deposits of various substances, such as resin, calcium oxalate, colouring matters; or more profoundly altered throughout, or in definite layers, by lignification, suberization (Trametes, Daedalea), or swelling to a gelatinous mucilage (Tremella, Gymnosporangium), while cutinization of the outer layers is common.
That such enzymes are formed in the protoplasm is evident from the behaviour of hyphae, which have been observed to pierce cell-membranes, the chitinous coats of insects, artificial collodion films and layers of wax, &c. That a fungus can secrete more than one enzyme, according to the materials its hyphae have to attack, has been shown by the extraction of diastase, inulase, trehalase, invertase, maltase, raffinase, malizitase, emulsin, trypsin and lipase from Aspergillus by Bourquelot, and similar events occur in other fungi.
Compound sporophores arise when any of the branched or unbranched types of spore-bearing hyphae described above ascend into the air in consort, and are more or less crowded into definite layers, cushions, columns or other complex masses.
Meanwhile differences in consistency appear in various strata, and a dense outer protective layer (peridium), soft gelatinous layers, and so on are formed, the whole eventually attaining great complexity - e.g.
The I, Oogonium (og) with the an5, Fertilized oogonium sur theridial branch (az) applied rounded by two layers of to its surface.
These are made of alternate layers of soft wrought iron and chrome steel hardened by sudden cooling.
At this instant the outer layers, because of their contact with the cold mould, are cooling much faster than the inner ones, and hence tend to contract faster.
But this excess of their contraction is resisted by the almost incompressible inner layers so that the outer layers are prevented from contracting as much as they naturally would if unopposed, and they are thereby virtually stretched.
Later on the cooling of the inner layers becomes more rapid than that of the outer ones, and on this account their contraction tends to become .greater than that of the outer ones.
Because the outer and inner layers are integrally united, this excess of contraction of the inner layers makes them draw outward towards and against the outer layers, and because of their thus drawing outward the molten lake within no longer suffices to fill completely the central space, so that its upper surface begins to sink.
This ebb continues, and, combined with the progressive narrowing of the molten lake as more and more of it solidifies and joins the shore layers, gives rise to the pipe, a cavity like an inverted pear, as shown at C in fig.
Rothe and Alexander Smith's interesting observations on sulphur, results have been obtained which tend to prove that the melting-point, as well as the appearance of two layers in the liquid state, correspond to unstable conditions.
Every leaf originates as a simple cellular papilla (fig 1), which consists of a development from the cortical layers covered by epidermis; and as growth proceeds, the fibro-vascular bundles of the stem are continued outwards, and finally expand and terminate in the leaf.
The typical foliage leaf consists of several layers, and amongst vascular plants is distinguishable into an outer layer (epidermis) and a central tissue (parenchyma) with fibro-vascular bundles distributed through it.
Many tropical plants present on the upper surface of their leaves several layers of compressed cells beneath the epidermis which serve for storage of water and are known as aqueous tissue.
In the northern section, which receives the copious volumes brought down by the Volga, Ural and Terek, the salinity is so slight (only 0.0075% in the surface layers) that the water is quite drinkable, its specific gravity being not higher than 1.0016.
In the middle section the salinity of the surface layers increases to o or 5%, though it is of course greater along the shores.
But in March the temperature, as also the salinity, was tolerably uniform throughout all the layers of water.
The flow of heat may still be linear if the horizontal layers of the soil are of uniform composition, but the quantity flowing through each layer is no longer the same.
Part of the heat is used up in changing the temperature of the successive layers.
In any case, it is evident that the transmission of heat by percolation would be much greater in porous soils and in the upper layers of the earth's crust than in the lower strata or in solid rocks.
On the kinetic theory the molecules of a gas are relatively far apart and there is nothing analogous to friction between two adjacent layers A and B moving with different velocities.
This action and reaction between layers in relative motion is equivalent to a frictional stress tending to equalize the velocities of adjacent layers.
Similarly if A is hotter than B, or if there is a gradient of temperature between adjacent layers, the diffusion of molecules from A to B tends to equalize the temperatures, or to conduct heat through the gas at a rate proportional to the temperature gradient, and depending also on the rate of interchange of molecules in the same way as the viscosity effect.
A compact variety of a pale liver-brown colour and forming concentric layers with a reniform surface is known in Germany as Schalen- blende or Leberblende.
After being rolled, the leaves are spread out in layers of I to 2 ins.
The silt, as deposited in each tide, does not mix into a uniform mass, but remains in distinct layers.
The larger part of Lorraine belongs to France, but the German part nossesses great mineral wealth in its rich layers of ironstone (siderite) and in the coal-fields of the Saar.
The earlier churches of Genoa show a mixture of French Romanesque and the Pisan style - they are mostly basilicas with transepts, and as a rule a small dome; the pillars are sometimes ancient columns, and sometimes formed of alternate layers of black and white marble.
The eggs, in several layers, are laid near the top. The adults frequently dig long subterranean passages into the banks of streams, and, during dry seasons, they have been found deep in the hardened mud, whence they emerge with the beginning of the rains.
In the intestine, for instance, are layers of muscle-fibre which are constantly being inhibited or kept under check by the splanchnic nerves.
Deeper down there are successively strata of polyhalite, MgS04 K2S04.2CaS04.2H20, and anhydrite, CaSO 4, interspersed with regular layers of rock-salt; whilst below the anhydrite we have the main rock-salt deposits.
In 1779 three beds of rock-salt were discovered at Lawton, separated from one another by layers of indurated clay.
For the remaining distance the brine is raised by a pump. The fresh water, however, as it descends rises to the surface of the salt, tending rather to dissolve its upper layers and extend superficially, so that after a time the superincumbent soil, being without support, falls in.
When unicellular, it may consist of isolated cells, but more commonly the cells are held together in a common jelly (Chroococcaceae) derived from the outer layers of the cell-wall.
The zygospore becomes surrounded with its own wall, consisting finally of three layers, the outer of which is furnished with spicular prominences of various forms. In Zygnemaceae there is no dissolution of the filaments, but the whole contents of one cell pass over by means of a conjugation-tube into the cavity of a cell of a neighbouring filament, where the zygospore is formed by the fusion of the two FIG.
Then usually these layers successively give way, and the spherical naked oospheres float free in the water.
In Batrachospermum the whole system of branches are retained within a diffluent gelatinous substance derived from the outer layers of the cell-walls.
In certain Euphaeophyceae bodies built up of concentric layers, and attached to the chromatophores, were described by Schmitz as phaeophycean-starch; they do not, however, give the ordinary starch reaction.
The clays, which contain layers of good coal and an abundant fossil vegetation, show that during the Miocene period Sakhalin formed part of a continent which comprised north Asia, Alaska and Japan, and enjoyed a comparatively warm climate.
Where lava has been piled up in successive nearly horizontal sheets, with occasional layers of tuff or other softer rock between them, it offers conditions peculiarly favourable for the formation of escarpments, as in the wide basalt plateaus of the Inner Hebrides.
The sap-wood is made up of the outer layers or rings, and these are softer than the heart and generally of more open grain.
Not only is more powerful machinery required for the latter, but in bending it allowance has to be made for the difference in radius of outer and inner layers, which increases with increase of thickness.
Short, sharp bends which are readily made in thin sheets cannot be done in thick plates, as the metal would be stressed too much in the outer layers.
But in those forms where curving must take place in different directions the layers or fibres of metal are made to glide over one another, extension taking place in some layers but not in others, and this goes on without producing much reduction in the thickness.
As a general rule it is restricted to metals which are not cast, for, with some slight exceptions, it is impossible to produce relative movements of the layers in cast iron, steel or cast brass.
The quick-lime is then slaked with the requisite quantity of water; the product is passed through a fine-meshed wire sieve and is spread in layers of 2 or 3 in.
An application of these results to solar physics in conjunction with Sir Norman Lockyer led to the view that at least the external layers of the sun cannot consist of matter in the liquid or solid forms, but must be composed of gases or vapours.
There are, moreover, traces of still more primitive walls, built of rude small stones placed one upon the other without mortar, which are in character earlier than those of Tiryns, and have their parallel in the lowest layers of Hissarlik.
It is, however, important to bear in mind that Lane's theory is concerned with the temperature of the body of the star; the temperature of the photosphere and absorbing layers, with which we are chiefly concerned, does not necessarily follow the same law.
The wood is soft and neither strong nor durable; it burns better in the green state than that of most trees, and is often used by the hunters of the North-West as fuel; split into thin layers, it was formerly employed in the United States for bonnet and hat making.
Another type of mat is made exclusively from the above-mentioned rope by arranging alternate layers in sinuous and straight paths, and then stitching the parts together.
It may be propagated by suckers and layers, by grafting and by sowing.
By the Maidstone growers the best plants are considered to be obtained from layers.
In the Cambrian limestones, as in their more recent analogues, layers and nodules of chert and phosphatized material are not wanting.
To enlarge the area, or raise the surface-level where that was necessary, layers of logs, brushwood, heather and ferns were piled on the shallow, and consolidated with gravel and stones.
The substructure was built up from the bottom of the loch, partly of brushwood but chiefly of logs and trunks of trees with the branches lopped off, placed in layers, each disposed transversely or obliquely across the one below it.
The embryo now consists of two layers of cells, epiblast and hypoblast, surrounding a cavity, the archenteron, which opens to the exterior by the orifice of invagination or blastopore.
The old material is yellow, brown or red; and its wavy surface often shows layers like the gnarled grain of costly woods.
Layers of excrementitious matter appear, and also many small bones, along with a few large ones, all of existing species.
The upturning of the rocks of the Great Plains at the foot of the Front Range develops an interesting type of topography, the harder layers weathering into grotesquely curious forms, as seen in the famous Garden of the Gods at the foot of Pike's Peak.
This is usually done by pasting layers of thickish paper, or even thin cards, underneath the blocks.
In it the cooling is effected by water pipes, interposed horizontally between the layers of bricks.
The advantage of keeping the solution in motion is due partly to the renewal of solution thus effected in the neighbourhood of the electrodes, and partly to the neutralization of the tendency of liquids undergoing electrolysis to separate into layers, due to the different specific gravities of the solutions flowing from the opposing electrodes.
Such an irregular distribution of the bath, with strong copper sulphate solution from the anode at the bottom and acid solution from the cathode at the top, not only alters the conductivity in different strata and so causes irregular current-distribution, but may lead to the current-density in the upper layers being too great for the proportion of copper there present.
The layers from the different bales are laid upon the feed cloth which carries them up to the rollers, between which the layers are crushed and partly separated.
It is essential that the bobbin should have such a motion, because the delivery of the sliver and the speed of the flyer are constant for a given size of rove, whereas the layers of rove on the bobbin increase in length as the bobbin fills.
The metalliferous deposits have generally the form of beds or layers between the strata of granulite and limestone.
The deposits are in most places very little disturbed and form horizontal or slightly inclined layers.
The glacial clay consists generally of alternate darker and lighter coloured layers, which give it a striped appearance, for which reason it has often been called hvarfvig lera (striped clay).
From the astronomers the Stoics borrowed their picture of the universe - a plenum in the form of a series of layers or concentric rings, first the elements, then the planetary and stellar spheres, massed round the earth as centre - a picture which dominated the imagination of men from the days of Eudoxus down to those of Dante or even Copernicus.
The primary rocks which appear at Mitushev Kamen are overlaid with thick beds of quartzites and clayslates containing sulphide of iron, with subordinate layers of talc or mica slate, and thinner beds of fossiliferous limestone, Silurian or Devonian.
In the first place, the extremely small size and isolation of the vegetative cells place the protoplasmic contents in peculiarly favourable circumstances for action, and we may safely conclude that, weight for weight and molecule for molecule, the protoplasm of bacteria is brought into contact with the environment at far more points and over a far larger surface than is that of higher organisms, whether - as in plants - it is distributed in thin layers round the sap-vacuoles, or - as in animals - is bathed in fluids brought by special mechanisms to irrigate it.
Very extensive layers of melaphyre and andesite, as also of conglomerates and volcanic tuffs, cover the middle portions of the peninsula.
From the more complex colonial Protozoa the Coelentera are readily separated by their possession of two distinct sets of cells, with diverse functions, arranged in two definite layers, - a condition found in no Protozoan.
The Coelentera, as contrasted with other Metazoa (but not Parazoa), consist of two layers of cells only, an outer layer or ectoderm, an inner layer or endoderm.
In the remaining Metazoa certain cells are budded off at an early stage of development from one or both of the two original layers, to form later a third layer, the mesoderm, which lies between the ectoderm and endoderm; such forms have therefore received the name Triploblastica.
Reproductive sexual cells may be found in either of these two layers, according to the class and sub-class in question.
The northern part is rugged mountainous "old land," not completely worn down by erosion; and the southern part is a portion of the old coastal plain, whose layers contain salt, gypsum and some inferior coal.
It has a soft paste with irregular layers of light and dark colour and is covered with unusually green poppy leaves.
The interior often shows layers of light and dark colour.
The mineral resources are almost confined to a few layers of rocksalt near Segeberg.
To the south-west of the picturesque belts of palm trees which stretch inland from the northern coast of Bahrein, is a wide space of open sandy plain filled with gigantic tumuli or earth mounds, of which the outer layers of gravel and clay have been hardened by the weather action of centuries to the consistency of conglomerate.
The general character of the landscape in the Eastern Division is a succession of steep escarpments formed by the edges of the outcropping beds of harder rock, and long gentle slopes or plains on the dip-slopes, or on the softer layers; clay and hard rock alternating throughout the series.
Here three layers of vegetable soil appear, proved by the objects imbedded in them to have been the successive surface soils in two prehistoric periods and in the Roman period, but now lying 4, io and 1q ft.
The terraces represent the out-cropping edges of hard sandstone layers included in the series of plateau sediments, and are named according to the colour of the rock exposed in the south-facing escarpments, the Pink Cliffs (highest), White Cliffs and Vermilion Cliffs.
Most interesting among these are the Henry Mountains, formed by the intrusion of molten igneous rock between the layers of sediments, causing the overlying layers to arch up into dome mountains.
The fused mass separates into two layers, the upper of which contains a mixture of potassium and lithium sulphates; this is lixiviated with water and converted into the mixed chlorides by adding barium chloride, the solution evaporated and the lithium chloride extracted by a mixture of dry alcohol and ether.
The sporangial wall, consisting of several layers of cells, encloses a cavity containing numerous oval spores (pollen-grains).
The root is diarch in structure, but additional protoxylem-strands may be present at the base of the main root; the pericycle consists of several layers of cells.
Bromine at ordinary temperatures is a mobile liquid of fine red colour, which appears almost black in thick layers.
Thus in "ghost quartz," in which one crystal is seen inside another, the stages of growth are marked out by thin layers of enclosed material.
In "capped quartz" these layers are thicker, and the successive shells of the crystal may be easily separated.
Julius's phenomenon seems inseparable from grazing incidence, and hence any explanation it supplies depends upon his hypothetical tubular structure for layers of equal density.
The body may be roughly compared in structure to a sac, the wall of which is composed of two layers of cells.
Into this trench socalled " puddled clay," that is, clay rendered plastic by kneading with water, is filled and thoroughly worked with special tools, and trodden in layers.
When several alternate layers of hard and soft rock are cut through by a stream its banks sometimes have the form of steps.
In common with all Coelenterate animals, the walls of the columnar body and also the tentacles and peristome of Actinia are composed of three layers of tissue.
The middle layer or mesogloea is not originally a cellular layer, but a gelatinoid structureless substance, secreted by the two cellular layers.
Histologically, the perisarc or test in the Graptoloidea appears to be composed of three layers, a middle layer of variable structure,.
Cold, by some means or other, causes the pigment-bodies to shift from the normal positions, and to transfer themselves to other layers of the hair, where they are attacked and devoured by phagocytes.
In the great basins and hollows from Rugen to the Gulfs of Bothnia and Finland the upper layers of water, from 30 to 70 metres (16 to 38 fathoms) in thickness, have almost the same salinity throughout.
Beneath these layers are masses of salter water, through which a thermal wave of small amplitude is slowly propagated to the bottom by conduction.
Immense fresh-water lakes, in which were deposited layers of plants (now yielding coal), filled up the depressions of the country.
All the saprophytic prothalli contain an endophytic fungus in definite layers of their tissue.
More usually, by an infolding of the layer of cells in development, we get three layers under the lens; the front layer is the corneagen layer, and is separated by a membrane from the other two which, more or less, fuse and contain the nerve-end-cells (retinal layer).
These are chiefly silver and lead, the layers of both of which are very extensive, tin, nickel, copper and iron.
Two or three layers of cells inside the epidermis constitute the tissue of the ovary, and overlie somewhat similar layers which form the coats of the seed.
The several layers of cells above referred to become more FIG.
Above these beds there are layers of dolerite, 15 to 20 ft.
The majority of Hova houses were formerly built of layers of the hard red soil of the country, with high-pitched roofs thatched with grass or rush; while the chiefs and wealthy people had houses of framed timber, with massive upright planking, and lofty roofs covered with shingles or tiles.
Beneath the epidermis is a thin cutis, which is followed by the muscular layers (external circular and internal longitudinal).
For example, the real image may be recorded on a photographic plate; it may be measured; it can be physically altered by polarization, by spectrum analysis of the light employed by absorbing layers, &c. The greatest advantage of the compound microscope is that it represents a larger area, and this much more completely than is possible in the simple form.
He showed that in de Blainville's group there were associated with a number of heterogeneous forms a group of animals characterized by being composed of two layers of cells comparable with the first two layers in the development of vertebrate animals.
In each a differentiation takes place in the layers beneath the epidermis, by which an outer layer of small-celled tissue surrounds an inner portion of large cells.
They are situated in a swamp near the coast village of Chieri, and comprise two basins, with alternate layers of water and bitumen, the lower sheet of water apparently communicating with the sea.
A curious fact, which may be used for the detection of the minutest quantity of oils and fats, is that camphor crushed between layers of paper without having been touched with the fingers rotates when thrown on clean water, the rotation ceasing immediately when a trace of oil or fat is added, such as introduced by touching the water with a needle which has been passed previously through the hair.
On standing, the distillate separates into two layers, an aqueous and an oily layer, the oil floating on or sinking through the water according to its specific gravity.
This insulation generally consists of materials such as charcoal, silicate cotton, granulated cork, small pumice, hair-felt, sawdust, &c., held between layers of wood or brick, and forming a more or less heat-tight box.
The air spaces, two or three in number, are formed between two layers of tongued and grooved wood, and the total thickness of the insulation is about the same as when silicate cotton alone is used.
In the case of thin, flat organs such as leaves, the whole organ may be spread out in the plane of stratification, leaving its impress on the overlying and underlying layers.
This is a large seed, with a very long micropyle; it has a beaked pollen-chamber, and a complex integument made up of hard and fleshy layers, closely resembling the seed of a modern Cycad; the nucellus, however, was free from the integument, each a sketch after Kidston.
By continuing the walls of the hearth above the tuyere, into a shaft or stack either of the same or some other section, we obtain a furnace of increased capacity, but with no greater power of consuming fuel, in which the material to be treated can be heated up gradually by loading it into the stack, alternately with layers of fuel, the charge descending regularly to the point of combustion, and absorbing a proportion of the heat of the flame that went to waste in the open fire.
A shaft of brilliant sunlight fell through the dusty layers of a horse chestnut tree, landing on the velvet vows of her shoes.
Layers of comfrey can be placed on the compost heap from time to time to act as a compost accelerant.
Along the various layers of rock a curve down is called a syncline, a curve in an upwards is called an anticline.
R.P. Ã¢We have had drone layers at the teaching apiary & one of our teachers made sure we all saw itÃ¢ .
In other places in Jerusalem, the destruction layers have no arrowheads.
For example, an extremely thin layer of gallium arsenide can be sandwiched between two layers of aluminum gallium arsenide.
In modulation doping, facing layers of gallium arsenide and aluminum gallium arsenide squeeze electrons into an essentially two-dimensional electron gas, or 2DEG.
Nanoscale control of these layers is crucial Ã¢ even atomic level defects cause a problem.
Place more avocado on top of the crab and finish with another layer of tomatoes, compressing the layers as you go.
This means that layers of ATM and SDH systems sit between devices and the optical backbone.
These are concentrated in layers probably build-up associated with occupation in and around the street-front structure, predominantly in the immediate backyard.
Short stretch bandages are then applied, sometimes in several layers, to provide a graduated pressure profile, reducing from distal to proximal.
Due to their more organized nature, laminar boundary layers produce much less skin friction drag than turbulent boundary layers.
The Roman builders laid three rows of stones, staggering the layers as a modern day bricklayer does.
Acid water, which seeps through the limestone layers, dissolves the calcium, which is forming the stalactites.
The upper beds of the third limestone are often dark colored, and contain layers of black chert in nodules.
In fewer instances, layers of the limestone seem to be converted into white chert, called china stone.
His " duo " concept carried through to evening wear, as layers of soft chiffon softened the line of body-hugging lace sheaths.
They comprise two layers of moisture-resistant chipboard separated by visco-elastic sound damping strips.
Despite the cold, my back felt clammy under the layers of clothing, and my mouth was drier than a witch's tit.
The project will examine the synthesis and application of new conjugated block copolymers as light harvesting and charge transporting layers in organic solar cells.
Cover the rolled-up newspaper with layers of black crepe or tissue paper, covered with PVA glue.
Didn't quite work, as a bit too crispy on top, and gooey underneath, so the 2 layers separating?
Allow the mixture to cool, then decant it through two or three layers of muslin into another beaker.
The skin consist of two main layers, an outer layer called the epidermis and an inner layer called the dermis and an inner layer called the dermis.
The skin (see Figure 1) is composed of two major layers of tissue; the outer epidermis, and the inner dermis, and the inner dermis.
Carnivorous plankton and those that eat detritus can live in deep, dark layers, so one finds quite distinct communities at different depths.
These floors were made up of heather, straw and peat interspersed with, often discontinuous, ash and grit layers.
Two glaciers converged across the North Shropshire Plain leaving thick layers of glacial drift.
Even a few weeks of very hot, dry weather can dry weather can dry out the upper layers of the soil.
The shape of enamel rod sections of all layers composing the enamel projection was distorted.
The skin (see Figure 1) is composed of two major layers of tissue; the outer epidermis, and the inner dermis.
Annual layers in polar firn detected by Borehole Optical Stratigraphy.
The outer layers are soft flannelette, print gingham on the outside, white inside.
Have storm flaps over zips Are big enough to wear over several layers of clothing.
Horticultural fleece, in single, or double or even triple layers works well.
Permanent buoyancy is provided using soft PVC closed-cell foam or polyethylene that is placed in layers inside a durable outer cover.
These consist of layers of sand, silt and clay which are quite friable, especially in certain weather conditions.
One of the most tedious tasks was stripping back the layers of chocolate brown paint from all the woodwork in the immense minstrels gallery.
The filter media is made of 4 layers of high quality NAFTA surgical cotton gauze specially designed by our R&D department.
Majestic and enduring, their peaks glistened as the sun caught and reflected the layers of snow.