Laws sentence example

laws
  • It is easy to write laws, but difficult to rule....

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  • Different laws apply in different jurisdictions.

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  • There are ancient laws that forbid it.

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  • There are many laws but no one to carry out the old ones.

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  • It's against the Immortal laws.

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  • What kind of deal did she make with Darkyn to rewrite the mating laws of the time-before-time?

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  • There are laws to protect women if a husband is abusive.

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  • The necessity of laws and penalties had to be explained to her.

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  • They form a union and get laws passed that no burgers can be flipped except by a union member.

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  • Gabriel's matter-of-fact talk of magic and laws older than time hadn't clarified much, except that he believed she belonged to him.

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  • It's one of the few Wartime laws I agreed with.

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  • Fortunately, the compounds at first examined by the chemists engaged in verifying these laws were comparatively simple, so that the whole numbers referred to above were small.

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  • Give us a few days to learn what sort of laws you will make for us, and then we will say whether we can submit to them or not.

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  • They were men who made the laws, and much depended upon their wisdom.

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  • They codify laws regarding libel and slander.

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  • After that they took his right hand, placed it on something, and told him to hold a pair of compasses to his left breast with the other hand and to repeat after someone who read aloud an oath of fidelity to the laws of the Order.

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  • Not surprising, since they made all the laws.

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  • The laws from the time-before-time are absolute.

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  • He followed the laws.

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  • I created you and broke laws older than time to do it!

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  • Then he told them what laws he would require them to obey.

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  • Here in Dr. Bell's laboratory, or in the fields on the shore of the great Bras d'Or, I have spent many delightful hours listening to what he had to tell me about his experiments, and helping him fly kites by means of which he expects to discover the laws that shall govern the future air-ship.

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  • The harp is the travelling patterer for the Universe's Insurance Company, recommending its laws, and our little goodness is all the assessment that we pay.

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  • The dread and guilt at the pit of her stomach were countered by the confusion of knowing that she'd fallen into the grip of the Immortal laws first with Gabriel then with Darkyn.

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  • He might at least explain what these laws were that condemned her to Darkyn.

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  • She's his mate by Immortal laws, and we both know how seriously he takes his duty.

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  • The deity you were in a past life started the chain of events that put us here by breaking laws from the time-before-time.

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  • I suppose letting someone into a guest's room is against a bunch of innkeeper laws but considering the circumstances, I'll stick my neck out.

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  • My sainted daddy used to say there are two things in life you don't want to see, sausage being made and laws being passed.

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  • The laws which govern particles of matter in the inorganic world govern them likewise if they are joined into an organism.

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  • One of the results of these investigations was to extend the meaning of the word mechanism, and comprise under it all laws which obtain in the phenomenal world, not excepting the phenomena of life and mind.

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  • But, in attempting to make this conception quite clear and thinkable, we are forced to represent the connexion of things as a universal substance, the essence of which we conceive as a system of laws which underlies everything and in its own self connects everything, but imperceptible, and known to us merely through the impressions it produces on us, which we call things.

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  • If chemical compounds can be proved by experiment to obey these laws, then the atomic theory acquires a high degree of probability; if they are contradicted by experiment then the atomic theory must be abandoned, or very much modified.

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  • The above gives some idea of the evidence that has been accumulated in favour of the laws of chemical combination, laws which can be deduced from the atomic theory.

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  • By his exposition of the political history of the kingdom, based on a study of its laws and institutions and of the legal conflicts between the state and the court of Rome, Pietro Giannone was the initiator of what has been since known as civil history.

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  • Vico held God to be the ruler of the world of nations, but ruling, not as the providence of the middle ages by means of continued miracles, but as He rules nature, by means of natural laws.

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  • In the former the author sets forth the analytical process by which the laws he discovered were deduced from facts.

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  • In the second he not only enlarges his matter and gives multiplied applications of his ideas, but also follows the synthetic method, first expounding the laws he had discovered and then proving them by the facts to which they are applied.

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  • All the phenomena, forces and laws of nature, together with mental conceptions, were alike personified.

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  • With the help of William Smith (1728-1793), the New York historian, William Livingston prepared a digest of the laws of New York for the period 1691-1756, which was published in two volumes (1752 and 1762).

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  • Laws to secure this object have been passed, but funds are lacking for their execution on a sufficiently large scale.

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  • He also made important contributions to the mathematical theory of electrodynamics, and in papers published in 1845 and 1847 established mathematically the laws of the induction of electric currents.

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  • Fermat, Roberval and Desargues took exception in their various ways to the methods employed in the geometry, and to the demonstrations of the laws of refraction given in the Dioptrics and Meteors.

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  • The disturbing conditions of will, life and organic forces are eliminated from the problem; he starts with the clear and distinct idea of extension, figured and moved, and thence by mathematical laws he gives a hypothetical explanation of all things.

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  • It proposes to set forth the genesis of the existing universe from principles which can be plainly Lh understood, and according to the acknowledged laws of the transmission of movement.

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  • Descartes has laid down three laws of nature, and seven secondary laws regarding impact.

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  • Mitchell (1803-1884), who prepared a code that was immediately adopted in Scotland as the standard laws.

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  • The end ditch within the limits of the space is, according to Scottish laws, regarded as part of the green, a regulation which prejudices the general acceptance of those laws.

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  • Iulis was the birthplace of the lyric poets Simonides and Bacchylides, the philosophers Prodicus and Ariston, and the physician Erasistratus; the excellence of its laws was so generally recognized that the title of Cean Laws passed into a proverb.

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  • The jobars superintend the execution of the laws, collect fines and administer capital punishment; they are in contact with the buluk-bashi, or resident representative of the tribe at Scutari, who forms the only link between the mountaineers and the Turkish government.

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  • The general assembly reviews all the work of the Church; settles controversies; makes administrative laws; directs and stimulates missionary and other spiritual work; appoints professors of theology; admits to the ministry applicants from other churches; hears and decides complaints, references and appeals which have come up through the inferior courts; and takes cognizance of all matters connected with the Church's interests or with the general welfare of the people.

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  • There were civil laws which regulated clothing, food and social festivity.

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  • By them he was to be ordained, after vowing to be true in office, faithful to the church system, obedient to the laws and to the civil government, and ready to exercise discipline without fear or favour.

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  • As contrasted with Indra the war god, Varuna is the lord of the natural laws, the upholder of the physical and moral order of the universe.

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  • The United States Congress in1871-1872enacted a series of "Force Laws" intended to break up the secret societies and to control the Southern elections.

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  • The elections were controlled for a few years, and violence was checked, but the Ku Klux movement went on until it accomplished its object by giving protection to the whites, reducing the blacks to order, replacing the whites in control of society and state, expelling the worst of the carpet-baggers and scalawags, and nullifying those laws of Congress which had resulted in placing the Southern whites under the control of a party composed principally of ex-slaves.

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  • To the chamber of deputies exclusively belongs the initiation of all laws relating to the raising of money and the conscription of troops.

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  • All laws are sanctioned and promulgated by the president, who is invested with the veto power, which can be overruled only by a two-thirds vote.

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  • Each has its own judicial system, and enacts laws relating to the administration of justice, the distribution and imposition of taxes, and all matters affecting the province.

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  • The prefect supervises the execution of the laws; has wide authority in regard to policing, public hygiene and relief of pauper children; has the nomination of various subordinate officials; and is in correspondence with the subordinate functionaries in his department, to whom he transmits the orders and instructions of the government.

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  • The Laws of 1882 and 1886 laicized the schools of this class, the former suppressing religious instruction, the latter providing that only laymen should be eligible for masterships.

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  • The realization of the fact that the value to France of her colonies was mainly commercial, led at length to the abandonment of the attempt to impose on a great number of diverse peoples—some possessing (as in Indo-China and parts of West Africa) ancient and highly complex civilizations—French laws, habits of mind, tastes and manners.

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  • A partial exception to this rule is found in Algeria, where all laws in force in France before the conquest of the country are also (in theory, not in practice) in force in Algeria.

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  • To this rule Tunisia presents an exception, Tunisians retaining their nationality and laws.

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  • Local laws, subject to approval by the legislative council of Fiji, are promulgated by a regulation board, composed of the commissioner, native chiefs of the seven districts into which the island is divided, and two native magistrates.

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  • He carried out a number of magnetic investigations which resulted in the discovery of many interesting phenomena, some of which have been rediscovered by others; they related among other things to the effect of mechanical strain on the magnetic properties of the magnetic metals, to the relation between the chemical composition of compound bodies and their magnetic properties, and to a curious parallelism between the laws of torsion and of magnetism.

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  • As it stands in these ancient laws, the Sabbath is not at all the unique thing which it was made to be by the Scribes.

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  • Maecianus was the author of works on trusts (Fideicommissa), on the Judicia publica, and of a collection of the Rhodian laws relating to maritime affairs.

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  • All belonged to the same totem or totemic class, and might be scattered throughout the tribe, though subject to the same marriage laws.

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  • Even in casual amours these class laws were invariably observed, and the young man or woman who defied them was punished, he with death, she with spearing or beating.

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  • Laws and penalties in protection of property were enforced by the tribe.

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  • Laws, however, did not protect the women, who were the mere chattels of their lords.

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  • Taking the states as a whole, agrarian legislation has been the most important subject that has engrossed the attention of their parliaments, and every state has been more or less engaged in tinkering with its land laws.

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  • The Chinese difficulty, so far as the mining population was concerned, was solved by the exhaustion of the extensive alluvial deposits; the miners' prejudice against the race, however, still exists, though they are no longer serious competitors, and the laws of some of the states forbid any Chinese to engage in mining without the express authority in writing of the minister of mines.

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  • In conformity with this determination the various state legislatures enacted new laws or amended the existing laws to cope with the difficulty; these remained until they were in effect superseded by Commonwealth legislation.

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  • Appropriation laws must not deal with other matters.

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  • Taxation laws must deal with only one subject of taxation; but customs and excise duties may, respectively, be dealt with together.

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  • The constitution, parliament and laws of each state, subject to the federal constitution, retained their authority; state rights were carefully safeguarded, and an inter-state commission was given powers of adjudication and of administration of the laws relating to trade, transport and other matters.

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  • His principal characteristic was perfect confidence in any result obtained by the treatment of symbols in accordance with their primary laws and conditions, and an almost unrivalled skill and power in tracing out these results.

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  • Thus, if x= horned and y = sheep, then the successive acts of election represented by x and y, if performed on unity, give the whole of the class horned sheep. Boole showed that elective symbols of this kind obey the same primary laws of combination as algebraical symbols, whence it followed that they could be added, subtracted, multiplied and even divided, almost exactly in the same manner as numbers.

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  • Still more original and remarkable, however, was that part of his system, fully stated in his Laws of Thought, which formed a general symbolic method of logical inference.

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  • The second part of the Laws of Thought contained a corresponding attempt to discover a general method in probabilities, which should enable us from the given probabilities of any system of events to determine the consequent probability of any other event logically connected with the given events.

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  • The Domesday Survey contains a long account of the laws, customs and values of the salt-works at that period, which were by far the most profitable in Cheshire.

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  • For the government of the state see The Revised Laws of Vermont (Rutland, 1881); the Vermont Legislative Directory, published biennially at Montpelier; the biennial reports of the secretary of state, the auditor, the treasurer, the commissioner of state taxes, the superintendent of education, the supervisors of the insane, &c., and the annual reports of the inspector of finance.

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  • Laws were also passed during his term putting obstacles in the way of recovering fugitive slaves.

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  • In 1655 a proclamation was issued for administering the laws against the priests and Jesuits, and some executions were carried out.

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  • Bordeaux, the French envoy in England, wrote that, in spite of the severe laws, the Romanists received better treatment under the Protectorate than under any other government.

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  • Mr Robertson found them without education, without religion, without laws and without any system of government, but living comfortably on clearings of cultivated land.

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  • In politics he held that good laws were better than good rulers, and criticised papal infallibility in temporal affairs.

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  • It is only used once in the laws before the time of Aethelstan (c. 895-940), but more frequently in the charters.

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  • He was the twelfhynde man of the laws, sharply divided from the twyhynde man or ceorl.

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  • Thus we justify, on grounds of instrumentation, laws usually known as laws of harmony and counterpoint.

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  • The so-called " Sumerian Family Laws " are thus preserved.

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  • As late as the accession of Assur-bani-pal and Samas-sum-yukin we find the Babylonians appealing to their city laws that groups of aliens to the number of twenty at a time were free to enter the city, that foreign women once married to Babylonian husbands could not be enslaved and that not even a dog that entered the city could be put to death untried.

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  • Similarly, the number of goats, which are reared only in hilly regions, is decreasing, especially on account of the existing forest laws, as they are the chief enemies of young plantations.

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  • Since then special laws have hampered development, some provinces, as for instance Sardinia, being allowed to manufacture for their own consumption but not for export.

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  • Italian charity legislation was reformed by the laws of 1862 and 1890, which attempted to provide efficacious protection for endowments, and to ensure the application of the ir.come to the purposes for which it was intended.

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  • The size of parishes varies from province to province, Sicily having larger parishes in virtue of the old Sicilian church laws, and Naples, and some parts of central Italy, having the smallest.

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  • The monastic buildings required for public purposes have been made over to the communal and provincial authorities, while the same authorities have been entrusted with the administration of the ecclesiastical revenues previously set apart for charity and education, and objects of art and historical interest have been consigned to public libraries and museums. By these laws the reception of novices was forbidden in the existing conventual establishments the extinction of which had been decreed, and all new foundations were forbidden, except those engaged in instruction and the care of the sick.

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  • But the laws have not been rigorously enforced of late years; and the ecclesiastical possessions seized by the state were thrown on the market simultaneously, and so realized very low prices, being often bought up by wealthy religious institutions.

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  • He holds supreme command by land and sea, appoints ministers and officials, promulgates the laws, coins money, bestows honors, has the right of pardoning, and summons and dissolves the parliament.

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  • Until 1893 the juridical status of the Banks of Issue was regulated by the laws of the 3oth of April 1874 on paper currency and of the 7th of April 1881 on the abolition of forced currency.

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  • Up to that year some of the regions of the kingdom, such as Tuscany, continued to have a kind of autonomy; but by the laws of the 20th of March the whole country was divided into 69 provinces and 8545 communes.

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  • His laws were wise.

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  • His anti-clerical laws produced some ill-feeling among the more devout part of the population.

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  • It is more important to observe that under Joseph and his ministers or advisers, including the Frenchmen Roederer, Dumas, Miot de Melito and the Corsican Saliceti, great progress was made in abolishing feudal laws and customs, in reforming the judicial procedure and criminal laws on the model of the Code Napoleon, and in attempting the beginnings of elementary education.

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  • The brutalities of Austrias white coats in the north, the unintelligent repression then characteristic of the house of Savoy, the petty spite of the duke of Modena, the medieval obscurantism of pope and cardinals in the middle of the peninsula and the clownish excesses of Ferdinand in the south, could not blot out from the minds of the Italians the recollection of the benefits derived from the just laws, vigorous administration and enlightened aims of the great emperor.

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  • In Naples King Ferdinand retained some of the laws and institutions of Murats rgime, and many of the functionaries of the former government entered Naples his service; but he revived the Bourbon tradition, the odious police system and the censorship; and a degrading religious bigotry, to which the masses were all too much inclined, became the basis of government and social iife.

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  • On the 12th of July 1871, Articles 268, 269 and 270 of the Italian Penal Code were so modified as to make ecclesiastics liable to imprisonment for periods varying from six months to five years, and to fines from 1000 to 3000 lire, for spoken or written attacks against the laws of the state, or for the fomentation of disorder.

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  • At the same time the cabinet, as a whole, brought in a Clerical Abuses Bill, threatening with severe punishment priests guilty of disturbing the peace of families, of opposing the laws of the state, or of fomenting disorder.

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  • Upon the outbreak of the Prussian Kulturkampf the Left had pressed the Right to introduce an Italian counterpart to the Prussian May laws, especially as the attitude of Thiers and the hostility of the French Clericals obviated the need for sparing French susceptibilities.

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  • The former at Pavia (15th October I 2878), and the latter at Arco (3rd November), declared publicly that Irredentist manifestations could not be prevented under existing laws, but gave no hint of introducing any law to sanction their prevention.

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  • In June 1675 he signed the paper of advice drawn up by the bishops for the king, urging the rigid enforcement of the laws against the Roman Catholics, their complete banishment from the court, and the suppression of conventicles, 2 and a bill introduced by him imposing special taxes on recusants and subjecting Roman Catholic priests to imprisonment for life was only thrown out as too lenient because it secured offenders from the charge of treason.

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  • Sir Leslie Stephen finds that moral laws are the conditions needful for the good of the social organism, and are imposed as such by society upon its individual members.

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  • Addressing the gathering, Langton referred to the laws of Edward the Confessor as "good laws," which the king ought to observe, and then mentioned the charter granted by Henry I.

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  • With due solemnity (super majus altare) they swore to withdraw their allegiance from the king and to make war upon him, unless within a stated time he restored to them their rightful laws and liberties.

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  • By declaring, as it does, what were the laws and customs of a past age wherein justice prevailed, it shows what was the ideal of good government formed by John's prelates and barons.

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  • The laws of branch formed by similar budding from 1; budding in hydroids a 2 -d 2 from 2, and so forth.

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  • The budding of this medusa has been worked out in detail by Chun (Hydrozoa, [1]), to whom the reader must be referred for the interesting laws of budding regulating the sequence and order of formation of the buds.

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  • In the modern doctrine of evolution the cosmic system appears as a natural product of elementary matter and its laws.

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  • In his Naturgeschichte des Himmels, in which he anticipated the nebular theory afterwards more fully developed by Laplace, Kant sought to explain the genesis of the cosmos as a product of physical forces and laws.

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  • It is to be noticed, however, that, even after such phenomena have been properly grouped and designated under Greek names as laws of organic growth, they have not become explanations of the series of facts they correlate.

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  • The weakness of the NeoLamarckian view lies in its interpretation of heredity; its strength lies in its zealous study of the living world and the detection therein of proximate empirical laws, a strength shared by very many bionomical investigations, the authors of which would prefer to call themselves Darwinians, or to leave themselves without sectarian designation.

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  • The great work that is going on is the simplification of the facts to be explained by grouping them under empirical laws; and the most general statement relating to these that can yet be made is that no single one of these laws has as yet shown signs of taking rank as a vera causa comparable with the Darwinian principle of natural selection.

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  • The 123rd Novell (c. 21) provides that if a clerk be accused of a secular crime he shall be accused before his bishop, who may depose him from his office and order, and then the competent judge may take him and deal with him according to the laws.

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  • In fact, it only approves the punishment as ordered by the Visigothic laws.

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  • The charter of William the Conqueror abrogated the laws of Edgar.

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  • Canon 127 of 1603 provided that the judges must be learned in the civil and ecclesiastical laws and at least masters of arts or bachelors of laws.

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  • It does not judge ministers (Brodie-Innes, Comparative Principles of the Laws of England and Scotland, 1903, p. 144).

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  • In continental countries the laws are even more stringent.

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  • Most continental countries have issued stringent laws against the sale of secret remedies, and these have been lately strengthened in Germany, France and Italy.

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  • These branch, and may be packed or interwoven to form a very solid structure; but each grows in length independently of the others and retains its own individuality, though its growth in those types with a definite external form is of course correlated with that of its neighbors and is subject to the laws governing the general form of the body.

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  • In the case of aquatic plants with aerial flowers, the latter obey the ordinary laws of pollination.

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  • In 1487 he went with Ferdinand to Malaga and thence to Valladolid, where in the October of 1488 he held another general congregation of the Inquisition and promulgated new laws based on the experience already gained.

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  • After a profligate youth at court, he followed his wife in professing the Roman faith, and in 1585 made an attempt to leave England to seek safety from the penal laws.

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  • Abundant charters from early Saxon monarchs are extant confirming various laws and privileges to the abbey, and the earliest of these, from King Ceadwalla, was granted before A.D.

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  • About 1330 B.C. Khurba-tila was captured by Kuri-galzu III., the Kassite king of Babylonia, but a later prince Kidin-Khutrutas avenged his defeat, and Sutruk-Nakhkhunte (1220 B.C.) carried fire and sword through Babylonia, slew its king Zamama-sum-iddin and carried away a stela of Naram-Sin and the famous code of laws of Khammurabi from Sippara, as well as a stela of Manistusu from Akkuttum or Akkad.

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  • Thus it is quite in accordance with the outlook of the classical period that Plato in his Laws (909-910) should prohibit all possession of private shrines or performance of private rites; "let a man go to a temple to pray, and let any one who pleases join with him in the prayer."

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  • There were no doubt in the earliest times popular songs orally transmitted and perhaps books - of annals and laws, but except in so far as remnants meat- of them are embedded in the biblical books, they have Scrip- entirely disappeared.

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  • When we are first entitled to speak with any kind of certainty, the non-privileged class possess a certain share in the election of magistrates and the making of laws.

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  • In the first the plebeians strive to obtain relief from laws and customs which were actually oppressive to them, while they were profitable to the patricians.

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  • The Old-English laws point out ways by which the churl might rise to thegn's rank, and in the centuries during which the change went on we find mention - complaining mention - both in England and elsewhere, at the court of Charles the Simple and at the court of 'Ethelred, of the rise of new men to posts of authority.

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  • Nature according to him is purely physical; it has no purpose, no will, no laws imposed by extraneous authority, no supernatural ethical sanction.

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  • He maintained that the laws of motion were necessary, not contingent.

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  • In provincial matters each province is independent, holds its own synods, makes its own laws, and elects its own governing board; but the General Synod meets, on the average, every ten years at Herrnhut, and its regulations are binding in all the provinces.

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  • In like manner real virtue consists in the subordination of the individual to the laws of this harmony as the universal reason wherein alone true freedom is to be found.

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  • Before this date the fundamental laws of Russia described the power of the emperor as " autocratic and unlimited."

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  • Stolypin defended the ukaz of the 2nd of June 1907, which in flat contradiction of the provisions of the fundamental laws altered the electoral law without the consent of the legislature, on the ground that what the autocrat had granted the autocrat could take away.

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  • At the head of the government is the emperor, 4 whose power is limited only by the provisions of the fundamental laws of the empire.

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  • If the budget be not sanctioned by the emperor, that of the previous year remains in force, and the government has power, motu proprio, to impose the extra taxes necessary to carry out new laws.

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  • These ordinances must, however, be of a temporary nature, must not infringe the fundamental laws or statutes passed by the two chambers, or change the electoral system, and must be laid upon the table of the Duma at the first opportunity.

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  • In this way the fundamental laws were suspended not only in Poland but in St Petersburg and other parts of the empire during the greater part of the four years succeeding the grant of the constitution.

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  • Lastly, it examines into registers and promulgates new laws, a function which, in theory, gives it a power, akin to that of the Supreme Court of the United States, of rejecting measures not in accordance with the fundamental laws.

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  • Under Alexander III., however, by laws promulgated in 1892 and 1894, the municipal dumas were subordinated to the governors in the same way as the zemstvos.

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  • But by laws promulgated in 1888 and 1889 the rights of police and manorial justice were transferred from the landlords to officials of the central government.

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  • Of this system - except so far as the confusion of the laws is -concerned - the reform of 1864 made a clean sweep. The new system established - based partly on English, partly on French models - was built up on certain broad 1864.

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  • The laws and relations of the cyclones and anti-cyclones in Russia are not yet thoroughly understood.

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  • Nor are the laws of the anti-cyclones established.

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  • Not only was the army to be well drilled and the fleet to be carefully equipped, but railways were to be constructed, river-navigation was to be facilitated, manufacturing industry was to be developed, commerce was to be encouraged, the administration was to be improved, the laws were to be codified and the tribunals were to be reorganized.

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  • But a great alteration took place noiselessly in the manner of carrying out the laws and ministerial circulars.

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  • The ordinary laws, too, had been suspended; the fining and confiscation of newspapers had been resumed, and the " Cadets " had been forbidden to hold a congress.

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  • On comparative railway legislation and the principles governing it, see Hadley, Railroad Transportation; its History and its Laws (New York, 1885).

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  • In the west, general laws came rather as a result of the abuses of special legislation.

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  • By 1850, general incorporation laws were found in nearly all the eastern states, and by 1870 in those of the west.

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  • In the first instance laws were enacted prescribing schedules of maximum freight and passenger rates with stringent penalties against rebates and discriminations.

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  • This demand has in many instances led to ill-considered legislation, has frequently ignored the prerogatives and even the existence of the state commissions, and has brought about the passage by state legislatures of maximum freight and passenger rate laws, with rates so low in many cases that they have been set aside by the courts as unconstitutional.

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  • Of trespassers the number killed per mile of line is about as large in England as in America, the density of population and of traffic in Great Britain apparently counterbalancing the laxity of the laws against trespassing in America.

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  • Useful compulsory laws regarding the details of train management are difficult to frame and hard to carry out; but the Board has exercised a persistent persuasiveness and has secured most of its objects.

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  • In the earlier years of American railway building, each project was commonly the subject of a special law; then special laws were in turn succeeded by general railway laws in the several states, and these in turn have come to be succeeded in most parts of the country by jurisdiction vested in the' state railway commission.

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  • The laws regulating original outputs for capital were strictly drawn in Great Britain and on the continent of Europe; in America they were drawn very loosely.

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  • The Light Railways Act 1896 was to remain in force only until the end of 1901 unless continued by parliament, but it was continued year by year under the Expiring Laws Continuance Act.

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  • Italy did the same in its laws in 1873, 1879, 1881, 1887 and 1889; and Germany fostered enterprise of this kind by the imperial edicts, of 1875, 1878 and 1892.

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  • His noblest achievement in this respect is the codification of the Danish laws known as the Jydske Lov (Jutland Code), which he lived to see completed a few days before his death at Vordingborg on the 28th of March 1241.

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  • In search of materials for this purpose, Pertz made a prolonged tour through Germany and Italy, and on his return in 1823 he received at the instance of Stein the principal charge of the publication of Monumenta germaniae historica, texts of all the more important historical writers on German affairs down to the year 1500, as well as of laws, imperial and regal archives, and other valuable documents, such as letters, falling within this period.

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  • The Public Safety Bill for the reform of the police laws, taken over by him from the Rudini cabinet, and eventually promulgated by royal decree, was fiercely obstructed by the Socialist party, which, with the Left and Extreme Left, succeeded in forcing General Pelloux to dissolve the Chamber in May 1900, and to resign office after the general election in June.

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  • How far totemism, or belief in deified animal ancestors, existed in prehistoric Israel, as evidenced by the tribal names Simeon (hyena, wolf), Caleb (dog), IIamor (ass), Rahel (ewe) and Leah (wild cow), as well as by the laws respecting clean and unclean animals, is too intricate and speculative a problem to be discussed here.

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  • Palestinian states on the other, and that they could scarcely have escaped the all-pervading Babylonian influences of 2000-1400 B.C. It is now becoming clearer every day, especially since the discovery of the laws of Khammurabi, that, if we are to think sanely about Hebrew history before as well as after the exile, we can only think of Israel as part of the great complex of Semitic and especially Canaanite humanity that lived its life in western Asia between 2060 and 600 B.C.; and that while the Hebrew race maintained by the aid of prophetism its own individual and exalted place, it was not less susceptible then, than it has been since, to the moulding influences of great adjacent civilizations and ideas.

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  • We note the laws respecting the clean and unclean animals (certainly based on ancient custom).

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  • Laws were engraved on cypress by the ancients, and objects of value were preserved in receptacles made of it; thus Horace speaks of poems levi servanda cupresso.

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  • All fines collected under the penal laws, all escheats and 2% of the receipts of toll roads and bridges go into the school fund, which is invested in state and Federal securities and the interest apportioned among the counties according to their school population.

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  • In the republican chamber elected after the 16th of May, he became minister of public instruction (December 1877), and proposed var i ous republican laws, notably on compulsory primary education.

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  • In 1674 he is mentioned as endeavouring to prevent the justices putting into force the laws against the Roman Catholics and Nonconformists.'

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  • Then, poor but not discouraged, he resolved to be a lawyer, and after reading Coke upon Littleton and the Virginia laws for a few weeks only, he strongly impressed one of his examiners, and was admitted to the bar at the age of twentyfour, on condition that he spend more time in study before beginning to practise.

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  • Dubos, but singularly transforming it, he maintained that those invasions were not marked by the violent and destructive character usually attributed to them; that the penetration of the German barbarians into Gaul was a slow process; that the Germans submitted to the imperial administration; that the political institutions of theMerovingians had their origins in the Roman laws at least as much as, if not more than, in German usages; and, consequently, that there was no conquest of Gaul by the Germans.

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  • As this vast mass cooled it must by the laws of heat have contracted towards the centre, and as it contracted it must, according to a law of dynamics, rotate more rapidly.

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  • Dealing then simply with the laws of nature as we know them, we can see no limit to the increasing size of the sun as we look back.

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  • Should any one be sceptical as to the sufficiency of these laws to account for the present state of things, science can furnish no evidence strong enough to overthrow his doubts until the sun shall be found growing smaller by actual measurement, or the nebulae be actually seen to condense into stars and systems."

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  • Clausius, to such an extent as to put its general accuracy beyond a doubt; but it received enormous developments from Maxwell, who in this field appeared as an experimenter (on the laws of gaseous friction) as well as a mathematician.

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  • On that occasion the court reaffirmed the dictum of Chief Justice Hale, that Christianity is part of the laws of England.

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  • Since the intrinsic energy of a substance varies with the conditions under which the substance exists, it is necessary, before proceeding to the practical application of any of the laws mentioned above, accurately to specify the conditions of the initial and final systems, or at least to secure that they shall not vary in the operations considered.

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  • It is also a necessary condition for the application of the preceding laws that no form of energy except heat and the intrinsic energy of the substances should be ultimately involved.

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  • In Moses (q.v.) was seen the founder of Israel's religion and laws; in Aaron (q.v.) the prototype of the Israelite priesthood.

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  • Elaborate legal enactments codified in Babylonia by the 10th century B.C. find striking parallels in Hebrew, late Jewish (Talmudic), Syrian and Mahommedan law, or in the unwritten usages of all ages; for even where there were neither written laws nor duly instituted lawgivers, there was no lawlessness, since custom and belief were, and still are, almost inflexible.

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  • But many of the laws were quite unsuitable for the circumstances of his age, and the belief that a body of intricate and even contradictory legislation was imposed suddenly upon a people newly emerged from bondage in Egypt raises insurmountable objections, and underestimates the fact that legal usage existed in the earliest stages of society, and therefore in pre-Mosaic times.

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  • The more important question is the date of the laws in their present form and content.

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  • Collections of laws are found in Deuteronomy and in exilic and post-exilic writings; groups of a relatively earlier type are preserved in Exod.

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  • There is also an unmistakable development in the laws; and the priestly legislation, though ahead of both Ezekiel and Deuteronomy, not to mention still earlier usage, not only continues to undergo continual internal modification, but finds a further distinct development, in the way of definition and interpretation, outside the Old Testament - in the Talmud.

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  • He destroyed the temple of Gerizim and compelled the Idumaeans to submit to circumcision and embrace the laws of the Jews on pain of deportation.

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  • They protested that they would rather die than dare to transgress the wisdom of the laws; and Pilate yielded.

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  • Troops were sent to pacify the country, and in one village a soldier found a copy of Moses' laws and tore it up in public with jeers and blasphemies.

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  • To Samuel of Nehardea belongs the honour of formulating the principle which made it possible for Jews to live under alien laws.

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  • But Islam has often shown itself milder in fact than in theory, for its laws were made to be broken.

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  • Many Jews found it possible to evade laws of domicile by residing in one place and trading in another.

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  • But economic laws are often too strong for civil vagaries or sectarian fanaticism, and as the commerce of Austria suffered by the absence of the Jews, it was impossible to exclude the latter from the fairs in the provinces of from the markets of the capital.

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  • The pale now includes fifteen governments, and under the May laws of 1892 the congestion of the Jewish population, the denial of free movement, and the exclusion from the general rights of citizens were rendered more oppressive than ever before.

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  • It was applied by the Moslems in Spain to the Christian communities existing among them, in Cordova, Seville, Toledo and other large cities, in the exercise of their own laws and religion.

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  • He convokes, prorogues and dissolves the chamber, sanctions laws, exercises the right of pardon in case of political offences, represents the island in its foreign relations and is chief of its military forces.

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  • The Dorian dynasts in Crete seem in some sort to have claimed descent from Minos, and the Dorian legislators sought their sanction in the laws which Minos was said to have received from the hands of the Cretan Zeus.

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  • It was from this source that he derived the wisdom which enabled him to give to the Cretans the excellent system of laws and governments that earned for him the reputation of being the greatest legislator of antiquity.

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  • It is certain that at a very early period the Cretan cities were celebrated for their laws and system of government, and the most extensive monument of early Greek law is the great Gortyna inscription, discovered in 1884.

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  • The origin of the Cretan laws was of course attributed to Minos, but they had much in common with those of the other Dorian states, as well as with those of Lycurgus at Sparta, which were, indeed, according to one tradition, copied in great measure from those already existing in Crete.'

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  • It is certain that whatever merits the Cretan laws may have possessed for the internal regulation of the different cities, they had the one glaring defect, that they made no provision for any federal bond or union among them, or for the government of the island as a whole.

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  • Since the Civil War the banking laws have become more stringent and the national banks have exercised a wholesome influence.

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  • In the middle of the 14th century the famous Goslar statutes, a code of laws, which was adopted by many other towns, was published.

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  • It was not until 1403 that the kings of Aragon were able to conquer the district of Arborea, which, under the celebrated Eleonora (whose code of laws - the so-called Carta de Logu- was famous), offered a heroic resistance.

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  • South Carolina, however, insisted that its doctrine was sound, and in November 1832 passed an ordinance declaring the revenue laws of the United States null and void.

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  • He would submit all minor questions to the reason of the individual member, but he set certain limits to toleration, excluding "whatsoever is against the foundation of faith, or contrary to good life and the laws of obedience, or destructive to human society, and the public and just interests of bodies politic."

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  • What was the secret power which enabled him to bring under the domain of scientific laws phenomena of disease which had so far baffled human endeavour?

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  • Which of these two laws will prevail, God only knows.

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  • His method was empirical, and the laws which he established were generally the result of repeated experiment.

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  • His ambition was to be allowed to prepare a code of laws for his own or some foreign country.

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  • As chief pontiff he inquired rigorously into the character of the vestal virgins, three of whom were buried alive; he enforced the laws against adultery, mutilation, and the grosser forms of immorality, and forbade the public acting of mimes.

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  • The very laws which were made during successive reigns for protecting the tillers of the soil from spoil are the best proofs of the deplorable state of the husbandman."' In the r7th century those laws were made which paved the way for an improved system of agriculture in Scotland.

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  • The restoration of peace to Europe, and the re-enactment of the Corn Laws in 1815, mark the beginning of another era in the history of agriculture.

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  • The much-debated Corn Laws, after undergoing various modifications, and proving the fruitful source of business uncertainty, social discontent and angry partisanship, were finally abolished in 1846, although the act was not consummated until three years later.

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  • As regards the pressure of foreign competition, it was stated to be greatly in excess of the anticipations of the supporters, and of the apprehensions of the opponents of the repeal of the Corn Laws.

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  • Its duties are shown by the preamble to the laws of Ine, king of Wessex, and 200 years later by the preamble to those of Alfred the Great, while several similar cases could be instanced.

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  • Ine legislates "with the counsel and with the teaching of Cenred my father and of Hedde my bishop, and of Eorcenwald my bishop, with all my ealdormen and the most distinguished witan of my people" (Stubbs, Select Charters), and Alfred issues his code of laws "with the counsel and consent of his witan."

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  • With their consent the king promulgated laws, made grants of land, appointed bishops and ealdormen, and discharged the other duties of government.

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  • It would seem that in his fits of despondency one of the thoughts that marred his dreams of human improvement was the apparently inexorable character of economic laws, condemning thousands of labourers to a cramped and miserable existence, and thousands more to semistarvation.

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  • From this oppressive feeling he found relief in the thought set forth in the opening of the second book of his Political Economy - that, while the conditions of production have the necessity of physical laws, the distribution of what is produced among the various classes of producers is a matter of human arrangement, dependent upon alterable customs and institutions.

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  • By comparing England with other countries we may be able in the distant future to reach conclusions of some generality as to the laws of growth, maturity and decay of industrial nations.

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  • We cannot suppose that there occurred, at or about the commencement of the 19th century, a breach of historical continuity of such a character that institutions, customs, laws and social conventions were suddenly swept away, the bonds of society loosened, and the state and people of England dissolved into an aggregate of competing individuals.

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  • But while we recognize these facts, we must not suppose that we have to study the action of men as though they were all enrolled in organized associations, or covered by stringent laws which were always obeyed.

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  • Long before his death, Bright's references in public speeches to the achievements of the Anti-Corn Law League were received with respectful impatience, and Peel's famous speech on the repeal of the corn laws would not convince the German Reichstag or a modern House of Commons.

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  • Natural laws are just the modes of the unfolding of God's perfection.

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  • Men should live according to the laws and dictates of nature, not forgetting the claims of reason and sentiment.

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  • Time was on the side of the moderates; they succeeded in placing General Pichegru, already known for his tendencies towards constitutional monarchy, in the presidential chair of the Council of Five Hundred; and they proceeded to agitate, chiefly through the medium of a powerful club founded at Clichy, for the repeal of the revolutionary and persecuting laws.

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  • The Councils allowed the elections to be annulled in forty-nine departments of France, and re-enacted some of the laws of the period of the Terror, notably those against non-juring priests and returned émigrés.

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  • He determined to treat prisoners captured from submarines, in view of their breaches of the laws of war, with more severity than ordinary prisoners; but the Germans retaliated harshly on the most noteworthy English prisoners in their hands, and Mr. Balfour, on succeeding Mr. Churchill, gave up this discrimination.

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  • The first volume contains the " Colibris, Oiseaux-mouches, Jacamars et Promerops," the second the " Grimpereaux " and " Oiseaux de Paradis " - associations which set all the laws of systematic method at defiance.

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  • These laws, as formulated by him, are that (1) there is a coincidence of form of the anterior palatal and of the cranium in birds of the same order; (2) there is a likeness between the anterior palatal bones in birds of the same order; (3) there are relations of likeness 1 The title of the English translation is Johannes Muller on Certain Variations in the Vocal Organs of the Passeres that have hitherto escaped notice.

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  • These laws, he added, exist in regard to all parts that offer characters fit for the methodical arrangement of birds, but it is in regard to the anterior palatal bone that they unquestionably offer the most evidence.

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  • In the evolution of these laws Dr Cornay had most laudably studied, as his observations prove, a vast number of different types, and the upshot of his whole labours, though not very clearly stated, was such as to wholly subvert the classification at that time generally adopted by French ornithologists.

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  • Under the old forest laws of England it was one of the "beasts of the forest," and, as such, under the Norman kings the unprivileged killing of it was punishable by death or the loss of a member.

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  • Propagation facilities are being greatly improved, and there are stringent laws for the protection of immature fish.

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  • Inland streams and lakes are well supplied with game fish; state laws prohibit the sale of game fish and their being taken, except with hook and line.

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  • Laws passed in 1877, 1890, 1893 and 1902 have made education compulsory for children between the ages of eight and fourteen.

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  • This fruitful thought he illustrates by showing how geometry is applied to the action of natural bodies, and demonstrating by geometrical figures certain laws of physical forces.

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  • Bacon then discusses vision in a right line, the laws of reflection and refraction, and the construction of mirrors and lenses.

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  • The city charter was revised in 1854, and again reconstructed in important particulars by laws of 1885 separating the executive and legislative powers, and by subsequent acts.

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  • The law of England - and the laws of Scotland and Ireland agree with it on this point - recognizes no absolute private ownership of land.

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  • An agricultural lease does not, apart from stipulation, confer any right to kill game, other than hares and rabbits (as to which, see the Ground Game Act 1880, and Game Laws) or any right of fishing.

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  • The laws of the various British colonies on the subject are too numerous and too different to be dealt with here.

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  • In 67 and 66 Catulus unsuccessfully opposed, as prejudicial to constitutional freedom, the Gabinian and Manilian laws, which conferred special powers upon Pompey.

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  • The government of the Jurisdiction was of the strictest Puritan type, and although the forty-five "blue laws" which the Rev. Samuel Peters, in his General History of Connecticut, ascribed to New Haven were much confused with the laws of the other New England colonies and some were mere inventions, yet many of them, and others equally "blue," were actually in operation as enactments or as court decisions in New Haven.

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  • The two conceptions, once common in the Christian church, that on the one hand miracles involved an interference with the forces and a suspension of the laws of nature, and that, on the other hand, as this could be effected only by divine power, they served as credentials of a divine revelation, are now generally abandoned.

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  • The 8th duke of Argyll (Reign of Law) maintains that " miracles may be wrought by the selection and use of laws of which man knows and can know nothing, and which, if he did know, he could not employ."

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  • He declines to regard miracles as divine action contrary to the laws of nature.

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  • Thus Spinoza, identifying God and nature, declares " nothing happens in nature which is in contradiction with its universal laws.

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  • And this being the case, the complete conditioning causes of the miracle will be found in God and nature together, and in that eternal action and reaction between them which perhaps, although not ordered simply according to general laws, is not void of regulative principles.

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  • He framed a code which introduced several beneficial changes into the laws of his kingdom.

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  • They made their own treaties with the Mahommedans, or attacked them in spite of the king's treaties; they dated their documents by the year of their own reign, and they had each their separate laws or assizes.

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  • But the conception of the equality of the king and his peers in the long run led to hereditary monarchy; for if the king held his kingdom as a fief, like other nobles, the laws of descent which applied to a fief applied to the kingdom, and those laws demanded heredity.

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  • We possess, in other words, law-books (like Bracton's treatise De legibus), but not laws - and law-books made after the loss of the kingdom to which the laws belonged.

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  • John of Ibelin - the laws of the kingdom were laid down by Godfrey, who is thus regarded as the great vo.

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  • These laws (progressively modified, it is admitted) were kept in Jerusalem, under the name of "Letters of the Sepulchre," until 1187.

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  • In regard to both assizes, it, is most important to bear in mind that we possess not laws, but law-books or custumals - records made by lawyers for their fellows of what they conceived to be the law, and supported by legal arguments and citations of cases.

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  • Under the head of laws come the assizes of the Kingdom, edited by Beugnot in the Recueil des historiens des croisades; and the assizes of Antioch, printed at Venice in 1876.

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  • Native laws and customs were interfered with as little as possible and the authority of the chiefs - all members of the Moshesh family - was maintained.

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  • Never, however, was his position so difficult as during the negotiations which led to a repeal of the May laws.

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  • In 1908 there were four supervisors and one state prison physician, and there are special laws designed to prevent abuses in the system.

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  • The people, who felt the severity of his laws, at the same time acknowledged their justice, and found themselves protected from the rapacity of their superiors.

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  • We begin by considering the laws of motion in the orbit itself, regardless of the position of the latter.

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  • All these laws may in general be described as codes of procedure and tariffs of compositions.

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  • They present somewhat similar features with the Salic law, but often differ from it in the date of compilation, the amount of fines, the number and nature of the crimes, the number, rank, duties and titles of the officers, &c. For the Salic law and other Frankish laws, see Salic Law, and for the edict of Theodoric I., which was applicable to the Ostrogoths and Romans, see Roman Law.

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  • At the instance of Euric's son, Alaric II., an examination was made of the Roman laws in use among Romans in his dominions, and the resulting compilation was approved in 506 at an assembly at Aire, in Gascony, and is known as the Breviary of Alaric, and sometimes as the Liber Aniani, from the fact that the authentic copies bear the signature of the referendarius Anian.

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  • It comprises 324 constitutions taken from Leovigild's collection, a few of the laws of Reccared and Sisebut, 99 laws of Chindaswinth (642-653), and 87 of Recceswinth.

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  • In Zeumer's edition of the Leges Wisigothorum the versions of Recceswinth and Erwig, where they differ from each other, are shown in parallel columns, and the laws later than Erwig are denoted by the sign "nov."

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  • Of the laws of the Alamanni, who dwelt between the Rhine and the Lech, and spread over Alsace and what is now Switzerland to the south of Lake Constance, we possess two different texts.

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  • A collection of laws has come down to us bearing the name of these two peoples, the hoc est, Thuringorum.

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  • We possess a fair amount of information on the origin of the last barbarian code, the laws of the Lombards.

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  • He appeared personally before successive legislative committees, and in 1846 published a pamphlet, "The Reorganization of the Judiciary," which had its influence in persuading the New York State Constitutional Convention of that year to report in favour of a codification of the laws.

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  • For an international commission of lawyers he prepared Draft Outlines of an International Code (1872), the submission of which resulted in the organization of the international Association for the Reform and Codification of the Laws of Nations, of which he became president.

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  • She preserved some of the Napoleonic laws and institutions; in 1817 she established the equality of women in heritage, and ordered the compilation of a civil code which was promulgated in January 1820.

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  • The introduction of trades-union representatives on the Supreme Labour Council, the organization of local labour councils, and the instructions to factory inspectors to put themselves in communication with the councils of the trades-unions, were valuable concessions to labour, and he further secured the rigorous application of earlier laws devised for the protection of the working-classes.

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  • As a ruler he showed legislative capacity, and a very commendable wish to provide his kingdoms with a code of laws and a consistent judicial system.

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  • Whatever may have been the immediate genesis of the myth - and it may well be sought in the heartless forest laws - its vitality was assured by the English love of archery and historical repetition.

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  • All laws enacted by the insular legislature must also be submitted to the Congress of the United States, which reserves the right to annul them.

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  • After a brilliant college career, which made him doctor of laws and a qualified barrister at nineteen, he was appointed counsel to the Breton estates and in 1775 professor of ecclesiastical law at Rennes.

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  • The treasury contained the moneys and accounts of the state, and also the standards of the legions; the public laws engraved on brass, the decrees of the senate and other papers and registers of importance.

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  • The laws of chemical combination were solved, in a measure, by John Dalton, and the solution expressed as Dalton's " atomic theory."

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  • But the belief died hard; the synthesis of urea remained isolated for many years; and many explanations were attempted by the vitalists (as, for instance, that urea was halfway between the inorganic and organic kingdoms, or that the carbon, from which it was obtained, retained the essentials of this hypothetical vital force), but only to succumb at a later date to the indubitable fact that the same laws of chemical combination prevail in both the animate and inanimate kingdoms, and that the artificial or laboratory synthesis of any substance, either inorganic or organic, is but a question of time, once its constitution is determined.'.

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  • Berzelius, in 1813 and 1814, by improved methods of analysis, established that the Daltonian laws of combination held in both the inorganic and organic kingdoms; and he adopted the view of Lavoisier that organic compounds were oxides of compound radicals, and therefore necessarily contained at least three elements - carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.

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  • A physicist, however, does more than merely quantitatively determine specific properties of matter; he endeavours to establish mathematical laws which co-ordinate his observations, and in many cases the equations expressing such laws contain functions or terms which pertain solely to the chemical composition of matter.

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  • The vast myth of the Ring is related in full several times in each of the three main dramas, with ruthless disregard for the otherwise magnificent dramatic effect of the whole; hosts of original dramatic and ethical ideas, with which Wagner's brain was even more fertile than his voluminous prose works would indicate, assert themselves at all points, only to be thwarted by repeated attempts to allegorize the philosophy of Schopenhauer; all efforts to read a consistent scheme, ethical or philosophical, into the result are doomed to failure; but all this matters little, so long as we have Wagner's unfailing later resources in those higher dramatic verities which present to us emotions and actions, human and divine, as things essentially complex and conflicting, inevitable as natural laws, incalculable as natural phenomena.

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  • These intellectual principles are, of course, not without their own ground in physical sensation; but it is evident that Debussy appeals beyond them to a more primitive instinct; and on it he bases an almost perfectly coherent system of which the laws are, like those of i 2th-century music, precisely the opposite of those of classical harmony.

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  • This is of constant occurrence in classical pianoforte music, in which thick chords are subjected to polyphonic laws only in their top and bottom notes, while the inner notes make a solid mass of sound in which numerous consecutive fifths and octaves are not only harmless but essential to the balance of tone.

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  • In Debussy's art the top and bottom are also involved in the antipolyphonic laws of such masses of sound, thus making these laws paramount.

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  • The part played by conscience in relation to general moral laws and particular cases will vary according to the view taken of the character of the general laws.

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  • If, on the other hand, the general laws are regarded as intuitive, then the discernment of them may be taken as the true function of conscience.

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  • The penal laws under which Friends suffered may be divided chronologically into those of the Commonwealth and the Restoration periods.

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  • The refusal to pay tithes and other ecclesiastical demands led to continuous and heavy distraints, under the various laws made in that behalf.

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  • In 1656, 1657 and 1658 laws were passed to prevent the introduction of Quakers into Massachusetts, and it was enacted that on the first conviction one ear should be cut off, on the second the remaining ear, and that on the third conviction the tongue should be bored with a hot iron.

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  • In 1677 the fundamental laws of West New Jersey were published, and recognized in a most absolute form the principles of democratic equality and perfect freedom of conscience.

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  • See Gotland and SEA Laws.

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  • In the Laws he accepts the institution as a necessary though embarrassing one, and recommends for the safety of the masters that natives of different countries should be mixed and that they should all be well treated.

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  • The slave could not possess property of any kind; Laws whatever he acquired was legally his master's.

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  • Yet general sentiment seems to have given a stronger sanction to this sort of connexion; the names of husband and wife are freely used in relation to slaves on the stage, and even in the laws, and in the language of the tombs.

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  • In 1776 it was moved in the House of Commons by David Hartley, son of the author of Observations on Man, that " the slave trade was contrary to the laws of God and the rights of men "; but this motion - the first which was made on the subject - failed.

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  • It was the practice to cut away the portion thus marked; but in case of legal documents this mutilation was forbidden by the laws of Justinian.

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  • Ethically, too, the new doctrine stands on a higher plane, and represents, in its moral laws, a superior civilization.

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  • On the basis of the new teaching arose a widely spread priesthood (athravano) who systematized its doctrines, organized and carried on its worship, and laid down the minutely elaborated laws for the purifying and keeping clean of soul and body, which are met with in the Vendidad.

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  • The town was in the manor of English Talgarth, there being also a manor of Welsh Talgarth, in which Welsh laws prevailed.

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  • The decent burial of the dead was a matter especially provided for by the Roman laws.

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  • The measure soon met with strong opposition in the northern states, and Personal Liberty Laws were passed to hamper officials in the execution of the law; Indiana in 1824 and Connecticut in 1828 providing jury trial for fugitives who appealed from an original decision against them.

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  • These Personal Liberty Laws forbade justices and judges to take cognizance of claims, extended the habeas corpus act and the privilege of jury trial to fugitives, and punished false testimony severely.

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  • These state laws were one of the grievances officially referred to by South Carolina (in Dec. 1860) as justifying her secession from the Union.

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  • A state sugar experiment station is maintained at Audubon Park in New Orleans, its work embracing the development of seedlings, the improvement of cane varieties, the study of fungus diseases of the cane, the improvement of mill methods and the reconciliation of such methods (for example, the use of sulphur as a bleaching and clarifying agent) with the requirements of " pure food " laws.

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  • Contingent appropriations are forbidden, and the constitution contains a long list of subjects on which special laws may not be passed.

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  • All the old codes of the Peninsula, as well as the laws of the Indies and special royal decrees and schedules, were in force in the colony.

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  • The United States left the task of altering the laws to the people, as far as there was no conflict between them and the Constitution of the United States and fundamental American legal customs. Copies of the Spanish codes were very rare, and some of them could not be had in the colonies.

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  • The earliest digest, completed in 1808, was mainly a compilation of Spanish laws.

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  • This evolution was little marked, so similar in large parts were the systems of France and Spain (although in other parts, due to the Gothic element in the Spanish, they were very different) - a similarity which explains the facility with which O'Reilly and his successors introduced the Spanish laws after 1769.

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  • The fear of Spanish commercial laws powerfully stimulated resistance to the transfer, and though Ulloa made commercial and monetary concessions, they were not sufficient.

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  • He may make regulations (reglements) both on special points, in virtue of various laws, and for the general administration of the police.

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  • The Spanish slave laws (although in practice often frightfully abused) were always comparatively generous to the slave, making relatively easy, among other things, the purchase of his freedom, the number of free blacks being always great.

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  • He sanctions, promulgates and executes the laws, and supplements them (partly co-ordinately with congress) by administrative regulations in harmony with their ends; holds a veto power and pardoning power; controls with the senate political appointments and removals; and conducts foreign relations, submitting treaties to the senate for ratification.

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  • This court passes on the constitutionality of all laws, decrees and regulations.

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  • The audiencias also held important political powers under the Laws of the Indies.

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  • There was besides a provincial commission of five lawyers named by the governor-general from the members of the deputation, who settled election questions, and questions of eligibility in this body, gave advice as to laws, acted for the deputation when it was not sitting, and in general facilitated centralized control of the administrative system.

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  • Spain paid increasing attention to the island, and in harmony with the policy of the Laws of the Indies many decrees intended to stimulate agriculture and commerce were issued by the crown, first in the form of monopolies, then with increased freedom and with bounties.

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