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lava

lava

lava Sentence Examples

  • Great streams of lava flowed from the crater in ancient times.

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  • Less than a days' march north of here is a lava field.

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  • The different kinds of lava are more fully described in the article Volcano.

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  • The lava is a basic augiteandesite.

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  • The lava is a basic augiteandesite.

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  • Besides the plant beds extensive outflows of basic lava rest directly upon the Cambrian and Ordovician strata.

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  • The term lava is applied by geologists to all matter of volcanic origin, which is, or has been, in a molten state.

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  • The Columbia plateau consists of horizontal beds of lava having a total thickness of several thousand feet, and its surface has a general elevation of tow to 2000 ft.

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  • On the Columbia plateau the soil is principally volcanic ash and decomposed lava; it is almost wholly volcanic ash in the more arid sections, but elsewhere more decomposed lava or other igneous rocks, and some vegetable loam is mixed with the ash.

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  • When the frost comes out in the spring, and even in a thawing day in the winter, the sand begins to flow down the slopes like lava, sometimes bursting out through the snow and overflowing it where no sand was to be seen before.

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  • They won't expect us to go that way, and we can move around in the lava field without leaving tracks.

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  • The desert and lava fields behind them, they made good time.

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  • An eruption in 1783, with a deluge of lava, destro~ed an extensive forest and overwhelmed several villages.

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  • It will be easier for a while until we get to the Lava fields.

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  • In the Rudolf province there and are the basalt, lava, tuff and kenyte of the volcanic mineralogy.

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  • In the northern unfolded region great flows of basic lava lie directly upon the Cambrian and Ordovician beds of Siberia, but are certainly in part of Tertiary age.

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  • Could she make it across the lava field by herself?

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  • Over both sandstone and granite great sheets of lava have been poured, and these, protecting the softer beds beneath from further denudation, now stand up as the high plateaus and hills called harra.

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  • The rocks on the verge of the Kisumu province of East Africa are mainly volcanic (basalt, tuff, lava, kenyte).

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  • The bombshell blonde always threw good dinner parties with fun themes; this theme had been Disco Night, complete with lava lamps, disco ball, tacky '70s music that still jammed out the open windows, and costumes for those who chose to wear them.

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  • Judging from the sharp rocks, they must be in the lava field.

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  • He removed his hand and they moved back against the rock wall of lava that swirled over them.

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  • The Tertiary deposits cover the whole of the central depression, where they are associated with extensive flows of lava and beds of volcanic ash.

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  • The Tertiary deposits cover the whole of the central depression, where they are associated with extensive flows of lava and beds of volcanic ash.

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  • The lava cakes won't be ready for another half hour.

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  • Lava streams and other signs of volcanic action abound, but there has been no igneous activity since the Spaniards took possession.

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  • A vast variety of trinketsin coral, glass, lava, &c.is exported from Italy, or carried away by the annual host of tourists.

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  • There are raised coral beds high up the mountains, and lava occurs in a variety of forms, even in solid flows; but all active volcanic agency has so long ceased that the craters have.

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  • Volcanic activity took place around its shores at the end of the Tertiary or during the Quaternary Age, and great streams of lava cover the Sayan and Khamar-daban mountains, as well as the valley of Irkut.

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  • Throughout the central part of Alexandria the streets are paved with blocks of lava and lighted by electricity.

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  • The very extensive pumice deposits at Neuwied and the lava and other volcanic rocks belong to a more recent epoch.

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  • Hauran southward forms the main watershed of the peninsula is covered in places by deep beds of lava, which from their hardness have preserved the underlying sandstones from degradation, and now stand up consider ably above the general level.

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  • Lava is much used for paving-stones in the neighborhood of volcanic districts, where pozzolana (for cement) and pumice stone are also important.

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  • Barren Island was last in eruption in 1803, but there is still a thin column of steam from a sulphur bed at the top and a variable hot spring at the point where the last outburst of lava flowed into the sea.

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  • Volcanic cones still exist in large numbers, and the sheets of lava appear as fresh as any recent flows of Etna or Vesuvius.

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  • The accumulations of lava gave rise to the plateaus which form almost the whole interior of the county.

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  • Volcanic cones still exist in large numbers, and the sheets of lava appear as fresh as any recent flows of Etna or Vesuvius.

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  • (d)bergusstafelland - Lava plain.

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  • Nathorst has suggested that the whole of Greenland is a "horst," in the subordinate folds of which, as well as in the deeper " graben," the younger rocks are preserved, often with a covering of Tertiary or later lava flows.'

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  • The latter are represented by large contemporaneous deposits of tuff and felsitic lava which in the Snowdon District are several thousand feet thick.

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  • The modern cone of the mountain has been built up by suc~ssive discharges of lava and fragmentary materials round a Int of eruption, which lies a little south of the centre of the Tehistoric crater.

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  • The chief provinces of the Cordihleran region are: The Rocky Mountain system and its basins, from northern New Mexico northward, including all the mountains from the front ranges bordering on the plains to the Uinta and Wasatch ranges in Utah; the Pacific ranges including the Sierra Nevada of California, the Cascade range of Oregon and Washington, and the Coast range along the Pacific nearly to the southern end of California; and a great intermediate area, including in the north the Columbian lava plains and in the south the large province of the Basin ranges, which extends into Mexico and widens from the centre southward, so as to meet the Great Plains in eastern New Mexico, and to extend to the Pacific coast in southern California.

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  • ence that any lava was emitted during this eruption.

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  • Many of the block mountains of the Great Basin are of complicated internal structure, showing rocks of all ages - slate, limestone, quartzites, granite, multi-coloured volcanic rocks, and large areas of lava overflow.

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  • Hornaday, Camp Fires on Desert and Lava (London, 1908); Alex.

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  • No evidences of recent lava flows can be found in the interior over the great alluvial plain, the Lower, or the Higher Steppes.

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  • The surface of the harra is extremely broken, forming a labyrinth of lava crags and blocks of every size; the whole region is sterile and almost waterless, and compared with the Nafud it produces little vegetation; but it is resorted to by the Bedouin in the spring and summer months when the air is always fresh and cool.

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  • The lava is emitted from the volcanic vent at a high temperature, but on exposure to the air it rapidly consolidates superficially, forming a crust which in many cases is soon broken up by the continued flow of the subjacent liquid lava, so that the surface becomes rugged with clinkers.

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  • Burton's topographical descriptions are fuller, and his march to Mecca from Medina by the eastern route led him over ground not traversed by any other explorer in Hejaz: this route leads at first south-east from Medina, and then south across the lava beds of the Harra, keeping throughout its length on the high plateau which forms the borderland between Hejaz and Nejd.

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  • Ejections of basaltic lava have been observed on the southern slope vo of this range, extending over wide areas on the plateau itself, over a stretch of more than 600 m.

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  • The numerous deep ravines which indented the des of the prehistoric volcano, and still form a marked feature I the outer slopes of Somma, have on the south side served channels to guide the currents of lava from the younger)ne.

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  • The magma, or molten lava in the interior of the earth, may be regarded as a mutual solution of various mineral silicates, charged with highly-heated vapour, sometimes to the extent of supersaturation.

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  • According to the proportion of silica, the lava is distinguished as "acid" or "basic."

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  • Ejections of basaltic lava have been observed on the southern slope vo of this range, extending over wide areas on the plateau itself, over a stretch of more than 600 m.

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  • 2 Port Lloyd, the chief anchorage (situated on Peel Island), is considered by Commodore Perry - who visited the islands in 1853 and strongly urged the establishment of a United States coaling station there - to have been formerly the crater of a volcano from which the surrounding hills were thrown up, the entrance to the harbour being a fissure through which lava used to pour into the sea.

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  • Issuing from the tnks of the mountain, several streams of lava flowed down wards the west and south, and reached the sea at twelve or iirteen different points.

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  • But in the derivant valley peneplains developed in the present cycle of denudation, and there are residual summits also; in the Connecticut Valley trap ridges, of which Mt Tom and Mt Holyoke are the best examples; at Mt Holyoke, lava necks; occasionally in the lowlands, ridges of resistant sandstone, like Deerfield Mountain near Northampton; in the Berkshire Valley, summits of resistant schists, like Greylock, the highest summit in the state.

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  • Iii north-western Wyoming there are extensive and heavy lava sheets, uplifted and dissected, and crowned with a few dissected volcanoes.

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  • Issuing from the tnks of the mountain, several streams of lava flowed down wards the west and south, and reached the sea at twelve or iirteen different points.

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  • Near it, in a district called Civita, is a large elliptical area of about 1300 by 380 yds., enclosed by a wall of masses of lava, which is about 28 ft.

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  • and lava in south-western Ankole and on the eastern flanks of Ruwenzori.

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  • Streams of rainwater, formed by condensation of exhaled steam often mingled with volcanic ashes so as to produce mud, are known as lava d'acqua, whilst the streams of molten matter are called lava di fuoco.

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  • Streams of rainwater, formed by condensation of exhaled steam often mingled with volcanic ashes so as to produce mud, are known as lava d'acqua, whilst the streams of molten matter are called lava di fuoco.

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  • The streets of Honolulu are wide, and are macadamized with crushed or broken lava.

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  • The columns in the principal church are of black lava.

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  • distant, and the crater poured forth streams of lava.

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  • The whole of the upper part of the cone consists of grey highly acidic lava.

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  • ahead, was strongly fortified, another short detour was made to the westward by cutting a road through a field of broken lava.

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  • from the nearest member of this group. Unlike the majority of the islands in this region, it is without coral reefs, but rises abruptly with steep and rugged cliffs of dark basaltic lava.

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  • Some of the high plateaus in the north are capped with remnants of heavy lava flows of early eruption.

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  • A group of large volcanoes occurs on the limestone platform s6uth of the Grand Canyon, culminating in Mt San Francisco (12,794 ft.), a moderately dissected cone, and associated with many more recent smaller cones and freshlooking lava flows.

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  • Mt Taylor in western New Mexico is of similar age, but here dissection seems to have advanced farther, probably because of the weaker nature of the underlying rocks, with the result of removing the smaller cones and exposing many lava conduits or pipes in the form of volcanic necks or buttes.

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  • The lava plains of the Columbia basin are among the most extensive volcanic outpourings in the world.

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  • The lava completely buries the pre-existent land forms over most of its extent.

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  • The earlier supposition that these vast lava flows came chiefly from fissure eruptions has been made doubtful by the later discovery of flat-sloping volcanic cones from which much lava seems to have been poured out in a very liquid state.

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  • Some of the flows are still so young as to preserve their scoriaceous surface; here the shore-line of the lava contours evenly around the spurs and enters, bay-like, into the valleys of the enclosing mountains, occasionally isolating an outlying mass.

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  • Other~ parts of the lava flood are much older and have been more or less deformed and eroded.

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  • Thus the uplifted, dislocated and dissected lava sheets of the Yellowstone National Park in the Rocky Mountains on the east (about the headwaters of the Snake river) are associated with the older lavas,of the Columbian plains.

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  • The Columbia river has entrenched itself in a canyon-like valley around the northern and Western side of the lava plains; Snake river has cut a deeper canyon farther south-east where the plains are higher and has disclosed the many lava sheets which build up the plains, occasionally revealing a buried mountain in which the superposed river has cut an even narrower canyon.

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  • The lava plains are treeless and for the most part too dry for agriculture; but they support many cattle and horses.

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  • or more, annually) on the Westward or windward slope, and there they are heavily forested; but the rainfall is light on the eastward slope and the piedmont district is dry; hence the forests thin out on that side of the range and treeless lava plains follow next eastward.

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  • The region was by no means a peneplain before its slanting uplift; its surface then was hilly and in the south mountainous; in its central and still more in its northern part it was overspread with lavas which flowed westward along the broad open valleys from many vents in the eastern part: near the northern end of the range, eruptions have continued in the present cycle, forming many cones and young lava flows.

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  • Some of the chief valleys are not cut in the floors of the old valleys of the former cycle, because the rivers were displaced from their former courses by lava flows, which now stand up as table mountains.

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  • Other auriferous gravels are buried under the upland lava flows, and are now reached by tunnels driven in beneath the rim of the table mountains.

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  • The lower part of the Keweenawan system consists of a great succession of lava flows, of prodigious thickness.- This portion of the system is overlain by thick beds of sedimentary rock, mostly conglomerate and sandstone, derived from the igneous rocks beneath.

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  • In the western part of the country there are, in addition, very extensive flows of lava covering in the aggregate some 200,000 sq.

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  • The amount of volcanic material, consisting of both pyroclastic material and lava flows, is great.

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  • Igneous rocks, whether lava flows or pyroclastic ejections, are less important in the Quaternary than in the Tertiary, though volcanic activity is known to have continued into the Quaternary.

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  • Guye formation (sedimentary beds with some lava flows) 3500 ~ ft.

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  • The island is entirely volcanic, and the soil is finely disintegrated lava.

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  • Broken black lava forms the beach, and blocks of it are the universal building material.

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  • Chu-sung, the capital and seat of government, a few miles from Port Pelto, has a black lava wall 25 ft.

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  • The centre of the island consists of a desert field of lava streams, about 1600 ft.

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  • possesses a massive black tower, built of blocks of lava, and in the courtyard is an interesting chapel, in Romanesque style with fantastic ornamentations, which was finished in the 13th century.

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  • On the land side the Kohala Mountains have been covered with lava from Mauna Kea, and form the broad plains of Kohala, having a maximum elevation of about 3000 ft.; on the ocean side, wherever this lava has not extended, erosion has gone on until bluffs woo ft.

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  • in diameter in 1905), now full of boiling lava, now empty to a depth of perhaps woo ft.

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  • Since the Rev. William Ellis and a party of American missionaries first made the volcano known to the civilized ' Among the minqr phenomena of Hawaiian volcanoes are the delicate glassy fibres called Pele's hair by the Hawaiians, which are spun by the wind from the rising and falling drops of liquid lava, and blown over the edge or into the crevices of the crater.

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  • N ?e J Maui 2 ra' Channel D Hawaii lvoa Hoopuloa 0 English Miles 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 County Seats Railways Lava flows 1 2 t 60° 175° West t65° Long.

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  • 1,55° 56° D world in 1823, the eruptions have consisted mainly in the quiet discharge of lava through a subterranean passage into the sea.

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  • In the eruptions of 1823, 1832, 1840 and 1868 the floor of the crater rose on the eve of an eruption and then sank, sometimes hundreds of feet, with the discharge of lava; but since 1868 (in 1879, 1886, 1891, 1894 and 1907; and once, before 1868, in 1855) this action has been confined to Halemaumau and such other pits as at the time existed.

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  • or more below where the lava was discharged in great streams, the action at the summit diminishing or wholly ceasing when this discharge began.

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  • But the eruptions of Mauna Loa have consisted mainly in the quiet discharge of enormous flows of lava: in 1859 the lava-stream, which began to run on the 23rd of January, flowed N.W., reached the sea, 33 m.

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  • The aa is lava broken into fragments having sharp and jagged edges.

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  • in height and several miles in length; they were produced by the escape of lava over which a crust had formed.

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  • in depth - through which poured the lava of probably the last great eruption.

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  • There are few craters on the loftier heights, but on the coasts there are several groups of small cones with craters, some of lava, others of tuf a.

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  • The soil of the Territory is almost wholly a decomposition of lava, and in general differs much from the soils of the United States, particularly in the large amount of nitrogen (often more than 1.25% in cane and coffee soil, and occasionally 2.2%) and iron, and in the high degree of acidity.

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  • The islands have large (unworked) supplies of pumice, sandstone, sulphur, gypsum, alum and mineral-paint ochres, and some salt, kaolin and sal-ammoniac, but otherwise they are without mineral wealth other than lava rocks for building purposes.

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  • There are good wagon roads on the islands, some of them macadamized, built of the hard blue lava rock.

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  • Even at the time when they were first known to Europeans, they had stone and lava hatchets, shark's-tooth knives, hardwood spades, kapa cloth or paper, mats, fans, fish-hooks and nets, woven baskets, &c., and they had introduced a rough sort of irrigation of the inland country with long canals from highlands to plains.

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  • Subsequently, in the Tertiary period, there were two enormous outpourings of volcanic material - first andesitic lava, and later, after a long interval of quiet, rhyolitic - which nearly half filled the basin, converted it into a plateau and broke up the mountain rim.

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  • It is cut in the volcanic plateau, and its ragged broken walls, which are inclined at very steep angles, are of a richness of colouring that almost defies description, a colouring that is produced by the action of the thermal springs, at the base of the canyon, upon the mineral pigments in the lava.

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  • Lava streams are seldom emitted from these volcanoes, the material erupted consisting chiefly of ash and scoriae, which are spread over a very wide extent of country.

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  • In the third, after the Campagna, by a great general uplift, had become a land surface, volcanic energy found an outlet in comparatively few large craters, which emitted streams of hard lava as well as fragmentary materials, the latter forming sperone (lapis Gabinus) and peperino (lapis Albanus), while upon one of the former, which runs from the Alban Hills to within 2 m.

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  • The tufa, sperone and peperino were easy to quarry, and could be employed by those who possessed comparatively elementary tools, while travertine, which came into use later, was an excellent building stone, and the lava (selce) served for paving stones and as material for concrete.

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  • varieties of basaltic lava and tuff containing little or no olivine - the rock type known as labradorite.

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  • At Acireale the lava has assumed the prismatic or columnar form in a striking manner; at the rock of Aci it is in parts spheroidal.

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  • The Grotte des Chevres has been regarded as an enormous gas-bubble in the lava.

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  • The remarkable stability of the mountain appears to be due to the innumerable dikes which penetrate the lava flows and tuff beds in all directions and thus bind the whole mass together.

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  • Chaix, Carta Volcanologica e topographica dell'Etna (showing lava streams up to 1892); G.

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  • This eminence is itself due to an outflow of lava from that mountain, during some previous eruption in prehistoric times, for we know from Strabo that Vesuvius had been quiescent ever since the first records of the Greek settlements in this part of Italy.

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  • Millstones and pumice were also exported, but for the former the more gritty lava of Rocca Monfina was later on preferred.

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  • (It is to be remembered, however, that the standard width of a Roman highroad in the neighbourhood of Rome itself is about 14 ft.) They are uniformly paved with large polygonal blocks of hard basaltic lava, fitted very closely together, though now in many cases marked with deep ruts from the passage of vehicles in ancient times.

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  • No good building stone was at hand; and the public as well as private edifices were constructed either of volcanic tufa, or lava, or Sarno limestone, or brick (the latter only used for the corners of walls).

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  • Grey tufa period; ashlar masonry of tufa, coated with fine white stucco; rubble work of lava.

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  • Certain flat oval nodules from a decomposed lava (augite-andesite) in Uruguay present a cavity lined with quartz crystals and enclosing liquid (a weak saline solution), with a movable air-bubble, whence they are called "enhydros" or water-stones.

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  • In the northern half of this coast the lava streams of Mount Etna stand out for a distance of about 20 M.

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  • In 1909 the mountain was in eruption and huge streams of lava were ejected.

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  • Cohen, "Lava vom Camerun-Gebirge," Neues Jahrb.

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  • At the foot of the eastern slope stretches a vast lava field - the " malpays 'f (malapais) of Atlachayacatl - which, according to Humboldt, lies 60 to 80 ft.

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  • horses are left behind, though they could be forced farther up through the loose lava and ashes.

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  • They are formed from a grey trachytic lava found at the east end of the island.

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  • The lava rocks near the houses are carved into the resemblance of various animals and human faces, forming, probably, a kind of picture writing.

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  • Where lava has been piled up in successive nearly horizontal sheets, with occasional layers of tuff or other softer rock between them, it offers conditions peculiarly favourable for the formation of escarpments, as in the wide basalt plateaus of the Inner Hebrides.

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  • The two leading types of volcanic areas are the plateaus, in which sheets of porphyrites, basalts and even trachytes were emitted, sometimes with wide discharge of volcanic ashes, and the puys, or isolated vents, or scattered groups of vents, which discharged comparatively a small amount of lava and ashes.

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  • In the Isle of Eigg, for example, the basalts had already been deeply eroded by river-action and into the river-course a current of glassy lava (pitch-stone) flowed.

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  • Denudation has continued active ever since, and now, owing to greater hardness and consequent power of resistance, the glassy lava stands up as the prominent and picturesque ridge of the Scuir, while the basalts which formerly rose high above it have been worn down into terraced declivities that slope away from it to the sea.

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  • It is built chiefly of lava, and stands on the lava stream of 1631, which destroyed two-thirds of the older town.

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  • The town has shipbuilding yards and lava quarries.

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  • Its eruptions are not on a grand scale, but small outbursts of lava and explosions of steam occur at frequent intervals, and at longer intervals more violent explosions in which the molten rock is thrown 2000 ft.

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  • Moreover, the calcined matter resembling white sand which covers its sides below the snow-line, extensive beds of lava, and the issue of streams of hot water from its northern side, seem to confirm the deduction that Chimborazo is an extinct volcano.

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  • The island is of volcanic origin, a fragment of an ancient stream of lava.

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  • It is a large volcanic region, entirely covered with lava and other igneous rocks.

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  • Lava flows of basic character, belonging to the Tertiary period, cover extensive areas in Jaulan and Hauran; and smaller patches occur in the land of Moab and also west of the Jordan, especially near the Sea of Gennesareth.

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  • The theatre, covered by a stream of lava, and built partly of small rectangular blocks of the same material, though in the main of concrete, has been superimposed upon the Greek building, some foundations of which, in calcareous stone, of which the seats are also made, still exist.

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  • To the north, in the Piazza Stesicoro, is the amphitheatre, a considerable portion of which has been uncovered, including the two corridors which ran round the whole building and gave access to the seats, while a part of the arcades of the exterior has been excavated and left open; the pillars are made of blocks of lava, and the arches of brick.

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  • Their excellent preservation is accounted for by their burial under the lava.

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  • 251 a lava stream threatened the town and entered the amphitheatre, which in the time of Theodoric had fallen into ruins, as is clear from the fact that he permitted the use of its fallen stones to build the city wall.

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  • Through these, again, pierce other granites in dikes or lava flows, and overlying the whole are limestones of Cretaceous and Tertiary age, themselves cut through by later volcanic eruptions.

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  • But its most notable article of commerce is that of mill-stones, made of lava and tufa-stone, a product much used by the Dutch in the construction of their dykes.

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  • The matter transported consisted of soil of various kinds - sand, ashes, fragments of lava, pozzolana and whitish pumice, enclosing grains of uncalcined lime, similar in every respect to those of Pompeii.

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  • of lava and pumice, with little distinction of strata, almost always confused and mingled together, and varying from spot to spot in degree of compactness.

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  • North and south of Alid extends a vast lava field.

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  • Streams of lava completely destroyed several villages and injured others, as well as the town of San Fernando.

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  • The lava flow extended more than 7 m.

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  • The soil, usually of a reddish-brown colour, is for the most part disintegrated lava mixed with decayed vegetation; occasionally there is also a mixture of disintegrated coral limestone.

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  • Korean soil consists largely of light sandy loam, disintegrated lava, and rich, stoneless alluvium, from 3 to 1 0 ft.

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  • Lava covers most of the northern half of the range, and there are many craters and ash-cones, some recent and of perfect form.

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  • They are associated with a thin band of lava visible on the west side of the island near Auchencar and traceable inland to Garbh Thorr.

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  • The second is represented by a thin lava, associated with the Upper Limestone group of the Carboniferous Limestone series, and the highest is found in Ben Lister Glen intercalated with the Upper Carboniferous strata, and may be the equivalent of the volcanic series which, in Ayrshire, occupies the position of the Millstone Grit.

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  • In the region between the Northern and Southern Rockies, the plains are interrupted by minor Mountain groups, volcanic buttes and lava flows, among which the Leucite Hills and Pilot Butte are prominent examples.

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  • Limestone occurs in thick formations near Lava Creek, and in the valley of the East Fork of the Yellowstone river; also near the summit of the Owl Creek range, and in the Wind River range.

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  • On the plateau itself the sandstone is generally overlaid by the Deccan trap, a blackish-coloured basaltic rock of volcanic origin, the high level tableland having been formed by a succession of lava flows, the valleys of Central India being merely "denudation hollows" carved out by the action of rain and rivers.

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  • Near its southern and eastern borders are many lava flows and extinct volcanic mountains, one of the most imposing of those in New Mexico being the 1VIt.

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  • Taylor volcano (11,389 ft.), which is surrounded by lava tables and some of the most wonderful volcanic buttes in the world.

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  • A line of volcanoes crosses it from north to south, and extensive lava beds cover a considerable part of its surface.

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  • of Clifton, it is much broken down and obscured by erosion and lava deposits.

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  • The highest volcanoes are grouped under 56° N., and the highest of them, Kluchevskaya (16,990 ft.), is in a state of almost incessant activity (notable outbreaks in 1729, 1 737, 1841, 1853-1854, and 1896-1897), a flow of its lava having reached to Kamchatka river in 1853.

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  • Instead of being one plain formed by erosion, this region is rather a series of plains built up with sheets of lava, several thousand feet deep, varying considerably in elevation and in smoothness of surface according to the nature of the lava, and being greater in area than any other lava beds in North America except those of the Columbia river, which are of similar formation and, with the Snake river plains, form the Columbia plateau.

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  • Except for the broad valleys of the Panhandle, where the soils are black in colour and rich in vegetable mould, the surface of the state is arid; the Snake river valley is a vast lava bed, covered with deposits of salt and sand, or soils of volcanic origin.

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  • It is associated with beds of lava and volcanic ash, some of which contain copper ores.

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  • The last phase in the history of the Caucasus was marked by the growth of the great volcanoes of Elbruz and Kasbek, which stand upon the old rocks of the central zone, and by the outflow of sheets of lava upon the sides of the chain.

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  • The streets of Naples are generally well-paved with large blocks of lava or volcanic basalt.

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  • In the Rajmahal Hills basaltic lava flows are interbedded with the Gondwana deposits, and in the Karharbari coalfield the Gondwana beds are traversed by dikes of mica-peridotite and basalt, which are supposed to be of the same age as the Rajmahal lavas.

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  • Lake Masaya occupies an extinct crater; the isolated volcano of Masaya (3000 ft.) on the opposite side of the lake was active at the time of the conquest of Nicaragua in 1522, and the conquerors, thinking the lava they saw was gold, had themselves lowered into the crater at the risk of their lives.

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  • Steep and rugged ravines intersect the plains, opening into small bays or coves on the shore, fenced with masses of compact and cellular lava; and all over the island are found products of volcanic action.

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  • The greater part of the volcanic series is formed by lava streams of great thickness.

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  • Between these ridges lie almost level valleys, whose floors consist partly of lava flows, partly of volcanic fragmental material, and partly of detritus from the bordering mountains.

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  • On account of the small amount of precipitation, the fissured condition of the underlying lava sheets, and the porous soil, the Great Sandy Desert has practically no surface streams even in the wet season, and within its limits no potable waters have been found.

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  • Where the streams cut their way through sheets of basaltic lava their banks are steep, almost vertical cliffs, but where they cut through sedimentary rocks the sides have a more gentle slope.

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  • from its mouth are the Cascades, where the river cuts through the lava beds of the Cascade Mountains and makes a descent of about 300 ft.

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  • A peculiar feature of the stream is the uniformity of its volume throughout the year; the great crevasses in the lava bed through which it flows form natural spillways andcheck any tendency of the stream to rise within its banks.

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  • above the surrounding tableland; the upper portion of the mountain fell inward, possibly owing to the withdrawal of interior lava, and left a crater-like rim, or caldera, rising 2000 ft.

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  • The new Kessler furnace is a very ingenious apparatus, in which the fire from a gas-producer travels over the sulphuric acid contained in a trough made of Volvic lava, and surmounted by a number of perforated plates, over which fresh acid is constantly running down; the temperature is kept down by the production of a partial vacuum, which greatly promotes the volatilization of the water, whilst retarding that of the acid.

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  • South of Gujarat nearly the whole of Bombay is covered by the horizontal lava flows of the Deccan Trap series, and these flows spread over the greater part of the Kathiawar peninsula and extend into Cutch.

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  • A few persons reside on the little island Allegranza, a mass of lava and cinders ejected at various times from a now extinct volcano, the crater of which has still a well-defined edge.

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  • of Lipari, is a constantly active volcano, ejecting gas and lava at brief intervals, and always visible at night.

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  • At the outside, not more than onefourth of the area of Iceland is inhabited; the rest consists of elevated deserts, lava streams and glaciers.

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  • The interior of the tableland consists for the most part of barren, grassless deserts, the surface being covered by gravel, loose fragments of rock, lava, driftsand, ashes and glacial detritus.

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  • Myvatn fills a depression between lava streams, and has a depth of not more than 84 ft.

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  • They are grouped in dense masses round the volcanoes from which they have flowed, the bulk of the lava dating from outbreaks which occurred in prehistoric times.

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  • The largest volume of lava which has issued at one outflow within historic times is the stream which came from the craters of Laki at Skapta.

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  • The largest unbroken lava-field in Iceland is Oda6ahraun (Lava of Evil Deeds), upon the tableland north from Vatnajokull (2000 to 4000 ft.

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  • Sometimes they are very uneven and jagged (apalhraun), consisting of blocks of lava loosely flung together in the utmost confusion.

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  • The great lava-fields, however, are composed of vast sheets of lava, ruptured and riven in divers ways (helluhraun).

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  • The smooth surface of the viscous billowy lava is further diversified by long twisted " ropes," curving backwards and forwards up and down the undulations.

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  • The Icelandic volcanoes may be divided into three classes: (I) cone-shaped, like Vesuvius, built up of alternate layers of ashes, scoriae and lava; (2) cupola-shaped, with an easy slope and a vast crater opening at the top - these shield-shaped cupolas are composed entirely of layers of lava, and their inclination is seldom steeper than 7°-8°; (3) chains of craters running close alongside a fissure in the ground.

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  • In the middle of Iceland, where the geological foundation is tuff and breccias, large areas are buried under ancient outflows of lava, which bear evidences of glacial scratching.

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  • These lava streams, which are of a doleritic character, flowed before the Glacial age, or during its continuance, out of lava cones with gigantic crater openings, such as may be seen at the present day.

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  • In the lower division the hills are all tilted up towards the east, and broad streams of lava have flowed Lower over the plateau above the sea of Galilee.

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  • The streets are paved with large lava blocks, of which the town is also built.

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  • The more deep-seated type of these rocks is seen in the olivine-gabbro mass of Carlingford Mountain; but most of the igneous region became covered with sheets of basaltic lava, which filled up the hollows of the downs, baked the gravels into a layer of red flints, and built up, pile upon pile, the great plateaus of the north.

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  • The basalt again broke out, through dikes that cut even the Mourne granite, and some of the best-known columnar masses of lava overlie the red deposits of iron-ore and mark this second basaltic epoch.

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  • south-west of Antananarivo there is a still larger extinct volcano, Ankaratra, with an extensive lava field surrounding it; while near Lake Itasy are some 200 volcanic cones.

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  • The capital, St George, in the south-west, is built upon a lava peninsula jutting into the sea and forming one side of its landlocked harbour.

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  • They are often intersected by dikes of chalcedony, formerly mistaken for lava.

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  • lying to the north-west, towards the great valleys by which the inland traffic is conveyed, is pierced by broad and straight streets paved with lava.

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  • Outflows of lava and tufa cover the mountain sides and fill up the valleys.

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  • The volcanic origin of the whole archipelago is proved by the principal rocks being of basalt, trachyte and lava.

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  • Less than a days' march north of here is a lava field.

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  • They won't expect us to go that way, and we can move around in the lava field without leaving tracks.

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  • It will be easier for a while until we get to the Lava fields.

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  • Judging from the sharp rocks, they must be in the lava field.

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  • Could she make it across the lava field by herself?

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  • He removed his hand and they moved back against the rock wall of lava that swirled over them.

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  • The desert and lava fields behind them, they made good time.

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  • The bombshell blonde always threw good dinner parties with fun themes; this theme had been Disco Night, complete with lava lamps, disco ball, tacky '70s music that still jammed out the open windows, and costumes for those who chose to wear them.

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  • The lava cakes won't be ready for another half hour.

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  • andesite lava dome of the Soufriere Hills volcano on 31st May 2003.

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  • automaton model, which simulates the propagation of lava tubes.

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  • basalt lava at the Earth's surface.

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  • A range of unusual minerals are present together with notable lava cooling features such as columnar basalts, chisel marks and blister surfaces.

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  • These can erupt sheets of flood basalt lava at the Earth's surface.

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  • The MT survey confirmed the existence of a Mesozoic sedimentary basin between lava flows and the Precambrian basement.

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  • A bent but tall blue hat rose amidst the white lava, followed by a brown forehead and grizzled beard.

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  • beholdough we have seen lava in abundance, I have never yet beheld the crater.

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  • Maybe hurling big boulders - even making them change into steaming chunks of lava on the way - is more your thing.

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  • Active volcanoes and vast lava deserts stand in direct opposition to utterly boundless glacial landscapes.

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  • Reputed to be the largest lava lamp in the world this big bruiser of a lava lamp stands at over 2ft tall.

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  • bubblesnowy peak belies what lies beneath red-hot swirling streams of bubbling lava.

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  • This amazing country is full of incredible landscapes featuring glaciers, hot springs, geysers, active volcanoes and vast lava deserts.

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  • Aerial photography taken on 21 July revealed than an external lava dome was not visible at the bottom of the crater.

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  • Most eruptions are relatively gentle, sending lava flows downslope from fountains a few meters to a few hundred meters high.

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  • erupt lava?

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  • He has also worked recently in southern Iceland on 934 AD Eldgja fissure eruption that produced the largest lava flow in historic times.

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  • Part of the volcano is formed by gentle lava flows and part by explosive ash eruptions.

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  • extinct lava cone with a walkway to the summit.

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  • fissure eruption that produced the largest lava flow in historic times.

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  • There is a huge ridge deep below the sea's surface that was created by the lava flow from a volcano.

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  • gaze whale watching near the scenic Snaefellsnes and walk in lava fields gazing in wonder at the impressive volcanic landscape.

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  • The underlying geology is volcanic lava flows, which outcrop in some areas.

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  • greenstone belt - an elongated group of specific rocks derived from molten lava intruded into pre-existing rock or extruded onto surface.

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  • hardened lava a quarter mile away.

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  • Upper Basalt Formation Comprise a crudely-bedded succession of lava flows, columnar jointed lava flows, ash-falls and red-weathered horizons (or boles ).

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  • ka lava ).

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  • In the 1939 eruption, lava of about 0.1 cubic kilometer flowed out.

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  • observe kittiwakes and Brunnich's guillemots nesting on the lava cliffs alongside impressive basalt columns and wonderful rock arches.

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  • You know, a secret lava of frilly silk knickers under the severe, forbidding exterior.

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  • Place lava lamps around the room to give a new age feel.

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  • lava from the volcano 's most recent eruptions.

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  • That means there is little chance of the mountain spewing lava.

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  • Some are formed by solidifying lava that do not form a crater, leaving a " puy " .

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  • Did you know that not all volcanoes erupt lava?

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  • Dodge Ball - Normal dodge ball is too easy for these chimps: they have to play it over a pit of boiling lava!

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  • The first section has a deep fissure which contains bubbling lava.

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  • No ordinary Tor indeed, as this tor isn't the usual granite, but rather basaltic lava.

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  • We decided these were formed by molten lava building up around trees, which burnt away.

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  • One porter was burnt by volcanic lava crossing the crater.

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  • Na pali coast hardened lava a quarter mile away.

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  • lava lamps around the room to give a new age feel.

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  • lava dome was not visible at the bottom of the crater.

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  • lava flows were limited by using water sprays.

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  • lava lizards here.

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  • lava plateau.

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  • lava tubes.

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  • These can erupt sheets of flood basalt lava at the Earth's surface.

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  • The local pillow lava bedrock is visible in limited outcrops on many of the terrace treads.

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  • Note the junction between the brown-black lava stone and green and leafy lichen.

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  • There are colonies of marine iguanas & lava lizards here.

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  • macaroni salad lomi through a lava.

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  • molten lava building up around trees, which burnt away.

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  • pillow lava bedrock is visible in limited outcrops on many of the terrace treads.

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  • For better quality breads the Romans imported lava querns from Germany.

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  • I would wait until the lava emerged from the dark rain forest and take my life.

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  • rhyolite lava flows have occurred before and after the large caldera-forming events.

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  • There were long scarlet ribbons of lava pouring down the sides like blood from a major wound.

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  • rim of the crater, pinnacles formed by lava flow reach upward.

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  • LAVA FLOWS These are flows of extremely hot molten rocks extruded by the volcano.

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  • Here, although exposures are very poor, the Silurian rocks comprise shales, sandstones and limestones with a couple of beds of lava.

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  • solidifying lava that do not form a crater, leaving a " puy " .

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  • spewing lava.

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  • spewing ash and red-hot lava flow.

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  • succession of Tertiary basalt lava flows that define successive, large-scale steps within the landscape.

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  • Upper Basalt Formation Comprise a crudely-bedded succession of lava flows, columnar jointed lava flows, ash-falls and red-weathered horizons (or boles ).

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  • Detailed topography is largely controlled by a succession of Tertiary basalt lava flows that define successive, large-scale steps within the landscape.

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  • superincumbent lava, its horizontality and extent.

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  • valedictory tour to the mystical Blue Lagoon with its turquoise blue waters set in black lava rocks.

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  • The differences in lava composition between the stratigraphic groups affect the average seismic velocity of each group.

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  • volcanic lava crossing the crater.

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  • The streets of the older and busier quarter of Clermont in the neighbourhood of the cathedral and the Place de Jaude, the principal square, are for the most part narrow, sombre and bordered by old houses built of lava; boulevards divide this part from more modern and spacious quarters, which adjoin it.

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  • Lava streams and other signs of volcanic action abound, but there has been no igneous activity since the Spaniards took possession.

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  • Late in the Tertiary period vast sheets of lava poured from many points of the Great Dividing Range of eastern Australia.

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  • No evidences of recent lava flows can be found in the interior over the great alluvial plain, the Lower, or the Higher Steppes.

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  • 2 Port Lloyd, the chief anchorage (situated on Peel Island), is considered by Commodore Perry - who visited the islands in 1853 and strongly urged the establishment of a United States coaling station there - to have been formerly the crater of a volcano from which the surrounding hills were thrown up, the entrance to the harbour being a fissure through which lava used to pour into the sea.

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  • A stream of lava issued in 1198 from the crater of the Solfatara, which still continues to exhale steam and noxious gases; the Lava dell' Arso came out of the N.E.

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  • Lava is much used for paving-stones in the neighborhood of volcanic districts, where pozzolana (for cement) and pumice stone are also important.

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  • A vast variety of trinketsin coral, glass, lava, &c.is exported from Italy, or carried away by the annual host of tourists.

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  • Barren Island was last in eruption in 1803, but there is still a thin column of steam from a sulphur bed at the top and a variable hot spring at the point where the last outburst of lava flowed into the sea.

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  • There are raised coral beds high up the mountains, and lava occurs in a variety of forms, even in solid flows; but all active volcanic agency has so long ceased that the craters have.

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  • (d)bergusstafelland - Lava plain.

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  • Many of the block mountains of the Great Basin are of complicated internal structure, showing rocks of all ages - slate, limestone, quartzites, granite, multi-coloured volcanic rocks, and large areas of lava overflow.

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  • Besides the plant beds extensive outflows of basic lava rest directly upon the Cambrian and Ordovician strata.

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  • In the northern unfolded region great flows of basic lava lie directly upon the Cambrian and Ordovician beds of Siberia, but are certainly in part of Tertiary age.

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  • Volcanic activity took place around its shores at the end of the Tertiary or during the Quaternary Age, and great streams of lava cover the Sayan and Khamar-daban mountains, as well as the valley of Irkut.

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  • Near it, in a district called Civita, is a large elliptical area of about 1300 by 380 yds., enclosed by a wall of masses of lava, which is about 28 ft.

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  • Throughout the central part of Alexandria the streets are paved with blocks of lava and lighted by electricity.

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  • Nathorst has suggested that the whole of Greenland is a "horst," in the subordinate folds of which, as well as in the deeper " graben," the younger rocks are preserved, often with a covering of Tertiary or later lava flows.'

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  • The streets of Honolulu are wide, and are macadamized with crushed or broken lava.

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  • The columns in the principal church are of black lava.

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  • The very extensive pumice deposits at Neuwied and the lava and other volcanic rocks belong to a more recent epoch.

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  • The latter are represented by large contemporaneous deposits of tuff and felsitic lava which in the Snowdon District are several thousand feet thick.

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  • Burton's topographical descriptions are fuller, and his march to Mecca from Medina by the eastern route led him over ground not traversed by any other explorer in Hejaz: this route leads at first south-east from Medina, and then south across the lava beds of the Harra, keeping throughout its length on the high plateau which forms the borderland between Hejaz and Nejd.

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  • Hauran southward forms the main watershed of the peninsula is covered in places by deep beds of lava, which from their hardness have preserved the underlying sandstones from degradation, and now stand up consider ably above the general level.

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  • The surface of the harra is extremely broken, forming a labyrinth of lava crags and blocks of every size; the whole region is sterile and almost waterless, and compared with the Nafud it produces little vegetation; but it is resorted to by the Bedouin in the spring and summer months when the air is always fresh and cool.

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  • Over both sandstone and granite great sheets of lava have been poured, and these, protecting the softer beds beneath from further denudation, now stand up as the high plateaus and hills called harra.

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  • ence that any lava was emitted during this eruption.

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  • t intervals, varying from a few weeks or months to a few years, has broken out into eruption, sometimes emitting only steam, ist and scoriae, but frequently also streams of lava.

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  • The modern cone of the mountain has been built up by suc~ssive discharges of lava and fragmentary materials round a Int of eruption, which lies a little south of the centre of the Tehistoric crater.

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  • The numerous deep ravines which indented the des of the prehistoric volcano, and still form a marked feature I the outer slopes of Somma, have on the south side served channels to guide the currents of lava from the younger)ne.

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  • Great streams of lava flowed from the crater in ancient times.

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  • distant, and the crater poured forth streams of lava.

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  • The whole of the upper part of the cone consists of grey highly acidic lava.

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  • An eruption in 1783, with a deluge of lava, destro~ed an extensive forest and overwhelmed several villages.

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  • To the south-east, in the district known as the Cunelie, are a large number of tombs, known as sesi, similar in character to the nuraghi of Sardinia, though of smaller size, consisting of round or elliptical towers with sepulchral chambers in them, built of rough blocks of lava.

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  • The rocks on the verge of the Kisumu province of East Africa are mainly volcanic (basalt, tuff, lava, kenyte).

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  • In the Rudolf province there and are the basalt, lava, tuff and kenyte of the volcanic mineralogy.

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  • and lava in south-western Ankole and on the eastern flanks of Ruwenzori.

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  • But in the derivant valley peneplains developed in the present cycle of denudation, and there are residual summits also; in the Connecticut Valley trap ridges, of which Mt Tom and Mt Holyoke are the best examples; at Mt Holyoke, lava necks; occasionally in the lowlands, ridges of resistant sandstone, like Deerfield Mountain near Northampton; in the Berkshire Valley, summits of resistant schists, like Greylock, the highest summit in the state.

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  • ahead, was strongly fortified, another short detour was made to the westward by cutting a road through a field of broken lava.

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  • The Columbia plateau consists of horizontal beds of lava having a total thickness of several thousand feet, and its surface has a general elevation of tow to 2000 ft.

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  • On the Columbia plateau the soil is principally volcanic ash and decomposed lava; it is almost wholly volcanic ash in the more arid sections, but elsewhere more decomposed lava or other igneous rocks, and some vegetable loam is mixed with the ash.

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  • The earth surface above these natural furnaces has been hardened, cracked and sometimes melted into a reddish slag, called scoria, which, on account of its resemblance to lava, has given rise to an incorrect impression that the region was once the centre of volcanic disturbances.

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  • The accumulations of lava gave rise to the plateaus which form almost the whole interior of the county.

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  • from the nearest member of this group. Unlike the majority of the islands in this region, it is without coral reefs, but rises abruptly with steep and rugged cliffs of dark basaltic lava.

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  • Hornaday, Camp Fires on Desert and Lava (London, 1908); Alex.

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  • LAVA, an Italian word (from Lat.

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  • The term lava is applied by geologists to all matter of volcanic origin, which is, or has been, in a molten state.

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  • The magma, or molten lava in the interior of the earth, may be regarded as a mutual solution of various mineral silicates, charged with highly-heated vapour, sometimes to the extent of supersaturation.

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  • According to the proportion of silica, the lava is distinguished as "acid" or "basic."

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  • The lava is emitted from the volcanic vent at a high temperature, but on exposure to the air it rapidly consolidates superficially, forming a crust which in many cases is soon broken up by the continued flow of the subjacent liquid lava, so that the surface becomes rugged with clinkers.

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  • The different kinds of lava are more fully described in the article Volcano.

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  • The chief provinces of the Cordihleran region are: The Rocky Mountain system and its basins, from northern New Mexico northward, including all the mountains from the front ranges bordering on the plains to the Uinta and Wasatch ranges in Utah; the Pacific ranges including the Sierra Nevada of California, the Cascade range of Oregon and Washington, and the Coast range along the Pacific nearly to the southern end of California; and a great intermediate area, including in the north the Columbian lava plains and in the south the large province of the Basin ranges, which extends into Mexico and widens from the centre southward, so as to meet the Great Plains in eastern New Mexico, and to extend to the Pacific coast in southern California.

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  • Iii north-western Wyoming there are extensive and heavy lava sheets, uplifted and dissected, and crowned with a few dissected volcanoes.

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  • Some of the high plateaus in the north are capped with remnants of heavy lava flows of early eruption.

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  • A group of large volcanoes occurs on the limestone platform s6uth of the Grand Canyon, culminating in Mt San Francisco (12,794 ft.), a moderately dissected cone, and associated with many more recent smaller cones and freshlooking lava flows.

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  • Mt Taylor in western New Mexico is of similar age, but here dissection seems to have advanced farther, probably because of the weaker nature of the underlying rocks, with the result of removing the smaller cones and exposing many lava conduits or pipes in the form of volcanic necks or buttes.

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  • The Henry Mountains in south-western Utah are peculiar in owing their relief to the doming or blistering up of the plateau strata by the underground intrusion of large bodies or cisterns (laccolites) of lava, now more or less exposed by erosion.

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  • The lava plains of the Columbia basin are among the most extensive volcanic outpourings in the world.

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  • The lava completely buries the pre-existent land forms over most of its extent.

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  • The earlier supposition that these vast lava flows came chiefly from fissure eruptions has been made doubtful by the later discovery of flat-sloping volcanic cones from which much lava seems to have been poured out in a very liquid state.

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  • Some of the flows are still so young as to preserve their scoriaceous surface; here the shore-line of the lava contours evenly around the spurs and enters, bay-like, into the valleys of the enclosing mountains, occasionally isolating an outlying mass.

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  • Other~ parts of the lava flood are much older and have been more or less deformed and eroded.

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  • Thus the uplifted, dislocated and dissected lava sheets of the Yellowstone National Park in the Rocky Mountains on the east (about the headwaters of the Snake river) are associated with the older lavas,of the Columbian plains.

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  • The Columbia river has entrenched itself in a canyon-like valley around the northern and Western side of the lava plains; Snake river has cut a deeper canyon farther south-east where the plains are higher and has disclosed the many lava sheets which build up the plains, occasionally revealing a buried mountain in which the superposed river has cut an even narrower canyon.

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  • The lava plains are treeless and for the most part too dry for agriculture; but they support many cattle and horses.

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  • or more, annually) on the Westward or windward slope, and there they are heavily forested; but the rainfall is light on the eastward slope and the piedmont district is dry; hence the forests thin out on that side of the range and treeless lava plains follow next eastward.

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  • The region was by no means a peneplain before its slanting uplift; its surface then was hilly and in the south mountainous; in its central and still more in its northern part it was overspread with lavas which flowed westward along the broad open valleys from many vents in the eastern part: near the northern end of the range, eruptions have continued in the present cycle, forming many cones and young lava flows.

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  • Some of the chief valleys are not cut in the floors of the old valleys of the former cycle, because the rivers were displaced from their former courses by lava flows, which now stand up as table mountains.

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  • Other auriferous gravels are buried under the upland lava flows, and are now reached by tunnels driven in beneath the rim of the table mountains.

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  • The lower part of the Keweenawan system consists of a great succession of lava flows, of prodigious thickness.- This portion of the system is overlain by thick beds of sedimentary rock, mostly conglomerate and sandstone, derived from the igneous rocks beneath.

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  • In the western part of the country there are, in addition, very extensive flows of lava covering in the aggregate some 200,000 sq.

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  • The amount of volcanic material, consisting of both pyroclastic material and lava flows, is great.

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  • Igneous rocks, whether lava flows or pyroclastic ejections, are less important in the Quaternary than in the Tertiary, though volcanic activity is known to have continued into the Quaternary.

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  • Guye formation (sedimentary beds with some lava flows) 3500 ~ ft.

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  • The island is entirely volcanic, and the soil is finely disintegrated lava.

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  • Broken black lava forms the beach, and blocks of it are the universal building material.

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  • Chu-sung, the capital and seat of government, a few miles from Port Pelto, has a black lava wall 25 ft.

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  • The centre of the island consists of a desert field of lava streams, about 1600 ft.

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  • possesses a massive black tower, built of blocks of lava, and in the courtyard is an interesting chapel, in Romanesque style with fantastic ornamentations, which was finished in the 13th century.

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  • On the land side the Kohala Mountains have been covered with lava from Mauna Kea, and form the broad plains of Kohala, having a maximum elevation of about 3000 ft.; on the ocean side, wherever this lava has not extended, erosion has gone on until bluffs woo ft.

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  • in diameter in 1905), now full of boiling lava, now empty to a depth of perhaps woo ft.

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  • When most active, Halemaumau affords a grand spectacle, especially at night: across the crust run glowing cracks, the crust is then broken into cakes, the cakes plunge beneath, lakes of liquid lava are formed, over whose surface play fire-fountains 10 to 50 ft.

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  • Since the Rev. William Ellis and a party of American missionaries first made the volcano known to the civilized ' Among the minqr phenomena of Hawaiian volcanoes are the delicate glassy fibres called Pele's hair by the Hawaiians, which are spun by the wind from the rising and falling drops of liquid lava, and blown over the edge or into the crevices of the crater.

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  • N ?e J Maui 2 ra' Channel D Hawaii lvoa Hoopuloa 0 English Miles 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 County Seats Railways Lava flows 1 2 t 60° 175° West t65° Long.

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  • 1,55° 56° D world in 1823, the eruptions have consisted mainly in the quiet discharge of lava through a subterranean passage into the sea.

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  • In the eruptions of 1823, 1832, 1840 and 1868 the floor of the crater rose on the eve of an eruption and then sank, sometimes hundreds of feet, with the discharge of lava; but since 1868 (in 1879, 1886, 1891, 1894 and 1907; and once, before 1868, in 1855) this action has been confined to Halemaumau and such other pits as at the time existed.

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  • or more below where the lava was discharged in great streams, the action at the summit diminishing or wholly ceasing when this discharge began.

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  • But the eruptions of Mauna Loa have consisted mainly in the quiet discharge of enormous flows of lava: in 1859 the lava-stream, which began to run on the 23rd of January, flowed N.W., reached the sea, 33 m.

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  • The aa is lava broken into fragments having sharp and jagged edges.

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  • in height and several miles in length; they were produced by the escape of lava over which a crust had formed.

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  • in depth - through which poured the lava of probably the last great eruption.

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  • There are few craters on the loftier heights, but on the coasts there are several groups of small cones with craters, some of lava, others of tuf a.

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  • The soil of the Territory is almost wholly a decomposition of lava, and in general differs much from the soils of the United States, particularly in the large amount of nitrogen (often more than 1.25% in cane and coffee soil, and occasionally 2.2%) and iron, and in the high degree of acidity.

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  • The islands have large (unworked) supplies of pumice, sandstone, sulphur, gypsum, alum and mineral-paint ochres, and some salt, kaolin and sal-ammoniac, but otherwise they are without mineral wealth other than lava rocks for building purposes.

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  • There are good wagon roads on the islands, some of them macadamized, built of the hard blue lava rock.

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  • Even at the time when they were first known to Europeans, they had stone and lava hatchets, shark's-tooth knives, hardwood spades, kapa cloth or paper, mats, fans, fish-hooks and nets, woven baskets, &c., and they had introduced a rough sort of irrigation of the inland country with long canals from highlands to plains.

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  • Subsequently, in the Tertiary period, there were two enormous outpourings of volcanic material - first andesitic lava, and later, after a long interval of quiet, rhyolitic - which nearly half filled the basin, converted it into a plateau and broke up the mountain rim.

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  • It is cut in the volcanic plateau, and its ragged broken walls, which are inclined at very steep angles, are of a richness of colouring that almost defies description, a colouring that is produced by the action of the thermal springs, at the base of the canyon, upon the mineral pigments in the lava.

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  • Lava streams are seldom emitted from these volcanoes, the material erupted consisting chiefly of ash and scoriae, which are spread over a very wide extent of country.

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  • In the third, after the Campagna, by a great general uplift, had become a land surface, volcanic energy found an outlet in comparatively few large craters, which emitted streams of hard lava as well as fragmentary materials, the latter forming sperone (lapis Gabinus) and peperino (lapis Albanus), while upon one of the former, which runs from the Alban Hills to within 2 m.

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  • The tufa, sperone and peperino were easy to quarry, and could be employed by those who possessed comparatively elementary tools, while travertine, which came into use later, was an excellent building stone, and the lava (selce) served for paving stones and as material for concrete.

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  • varieties of basaltic lava and tuff containing little or no olivine - the rock type known as labradorite.

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  • At Acireale the lava has assumed the prismatic or columnar form in a striking manner; at the rock of Aci it is in parts spheroidal.

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  • The Grotte des Chevres has been regarded as an enormous gas-bubble in the lava.

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  • The remarkable stability of the mountain appears to be due to the innumerable dikes which penetrate the lava flows and tuff beds in all directions and thus bind the whole mass together.

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  • Chaix, Carta Volcanologica e topographica dell'Etna (showing lava streams up to 1892); G.

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  • This eminence is itself due to an outflow of lava from that mountain, during some previous eruption in prehistoric times, for we know from Strabo that Vesuvius had been quiescent ever since the first records of the Greek settlements in this part of Italy.

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  • Millstones and pumice were also exported, but for the former the more gritty lava of Rocca Monfina was later on preferred.

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  • (It is to be remembered, however, that the standard width of a Roman highroad in the neighbourhood of Rome itself is about 14 ft.) They are uniformly paved with large polygonal blocks of hard basaltic lava, fitted very closely together, though now in many cases marked with deep ruts from the passage of vehicles in ancient times.

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  • No good building stone was at hand; and the public as well as private edifices were constructed either of volcanic tufa, or lava, or Sarno limestone, or brick (the latter only used for the corners of walls).

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  • Grey tufa period; ashlar masonry of tufa, coated with fine white stucco; rubble work of lava.

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  • Certain flat oval nodules from a decomposed lava (augite-andesite) in Uruguay present a cavity lined with quartz crystals and enclosing liquid (a weak saline solution), with a movable air-bubble, whence they are called "enhydros" or water-stones.

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  • In the northern half of this coast the lava streams of Mount Etna stand out for a distance of about 20 M.

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  • In 1909 the mountain was in eruption and huge streams of lava were ejected.

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  • Cohen, "Lava vom Camerun-Gebirge," Neues Jahrb.

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  • At the foot of the eastern slope stretches a vast lava field - the " malpays 'f (malapais) of Atlachayacatl - which, according to Humboldt, lies 60 to 80 ft.

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  • horses are left behind, though they could be forced farther up through the loose lava and ashes.

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  • Halite may occur as a sublimate on lava, as at Vesuvius and some other volcanoes, where it is generally associated with potassium chloride; but its usual mode of occurrence is in bedded deposits, often lenticular, and sometimes of great thickness.

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  • They are formed from a grey trachytic lava found at the east end of the island.

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  • The lava rocks near the houses are carved into the resemblance of various animals and human faces, forming, probably, a kind of picture writing.

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  • Where lava has been piled up in successive nearly horizontal sheets, with occasional layers of tuff or other softer rock between them, it offers conditions peculiarly favourable for the formation of escarpments, as in the wide basalt plateaus of the Inner Hebrides.

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  • The two leading types of volcanic areas are the plateaus, in which sheets of porphyrites, basalts and even trachytes were emitted, sometimes with wide discharge of volcanic ashes, and the puys, or isolated vents, or scattered groups of vents, which discharged comparatively a small amount of lava and ashes.

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  • In the Isle of Eigg, for example, the basalts had already been deeply eroded by river-action and into the river-course a current of glassy lava (pitch-stone) flowed.

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  • Denudation has continued active ever since, and now, owing to greater hardness and consequent power of resistance, the glassy lava stands up as the prominent and picturesque ridge of the Scuir, while the basalts which formerly rose high above it have been worn down into terraced declivities that slope away from it to the sea.

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  • It is built chiefly of lava, and stands on the lava stream of 1631, which destroyed two-thirds of the older town.

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  • The town has shipbuilding yards and lava quarries.

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  • Its eruptions are not on a grand scale, but small outbursts of lava and explosions of steam occur at frequent intervals, and at longer intervals more violent explosions in which the molten rock is thrown 2000 ft.

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  • Moreover, the calcined matter resembling white sand which covers its sides below the snow-line, extensive beds of lava, and the issue of streams of hot water from its northern side, seem to confirm the deduction that Chimborazo is an extinct volcano.

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  • The island is of volcanic origin, a fragment of an ancient stream of lava.

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  • It is a large volcanic region, entirely covered with lava and other igneous rocks.

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  • Lava flows of basic character, belonging to the Tertiary period, cover extensive areas in Jaulan and Hauran; and smaller patches occur in the land of Moab and also west of the Jordan, especially near the Sea of Gennesareth.

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  • The theatre, covered by a stream of lava, and built partly of small rectangular blocks of the same material, though in the main of concrete, has been superimposed upon the Greek building, some foundations of which, in calcareous stone, of which the seats are also made, still exist.

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  • To the north, in the Piazza Stesicoro, is the amphitheatre, a considerable portion of which has been uncovered, including the two corridors which ran round the whole building and gave access to the seats, while a part of the arcades of the exterior has been excavated and left open; the pillars are made of blocks of lava, and the arches of brick.

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  • Their excellent preservation is accounted for by their burial under the lava.

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  • 251 a lava stream threatened the town and entered the amphitheatre, which in the time of Theodoric had fallen into ruins, as is clear from the fact that he permitted the use of its fallen stones to build the city wall.

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  • Through these, again, pierce other granites in dikes or lava flows, and overlying the whole are limestones of Cretaceous and Tertiary age, themselves cut through by later volcanic eruptions.

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  • But its most notable article of commerce is that of mill-stones, made of lava and tufa-stone, a product much used by the Dutch in the construction of their dykes.

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  • The opinion that immediately after the first outbreak of Vesuvius a torrent of lava was ejected over Herculaneum was refuted by the scholars of the 18th century, and their refutation is confirmed by Beule (Le Drame du Vesuve, p. 240 seq.).

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  • The matter transported consisted of soil of various kinds - sand, ashes, fragments of lava, pozzolana and whitish pumice, enclosing grains of uncalcined lime, similar in every respect to those of Pompeii.

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  • of lava and pumice, with little distinction of strata, almost always confused and mingled together, and varying from spot to spot in degree of compactness.

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  • North and south of Alid extends a vast lava field.

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  • Streams of lava completely destroyed several villages and injured others, as well as the town of San Fernando.

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  • The lava flow extended more than 7 m.

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  • The soil, usually of a reddish-brown colour, is for the most part disintegrated lava mixed with decayed vegetation; occasionally there is also a mixture of disintegrated coral limestone.

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  • Korean soil consists largely of light sandy loam, disintegrated lava, and rich, stoneless alluvium, from 3 to 1 0 ft.

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  • Lava covers most of the northern half of the range, and there are many craters and ash-cones, some recent and of perfect form.

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  • They are associated with a thin band of lava visible on the west side of the island near Auchencar and traceable inland to Garbh Thorr.

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  • The second is represented by a thin lava, associated with the Upper Limestone group of the Carboniferous Limestone series, and the highest is found in Ben Lister Glen intercalated with the Upper Carboniferous strata, and may be the equivalent of the volcanic series which, in Ayrshire, occupies the position of the Millstone Grit.

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  • In the region between the Northern and Southern Rockies, the plains are interrupted by minor Mountain groups, volcanic buttes and lava flows, among which the Leucite Hills and Pilot Butte are prominent examples.

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  • Limestone occurs in thick formations near Lava Creek, and in the valley of the East Fork of the Yellowstone river; also near the summit of the Owl Creek range, and in the Wind River range.

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  • On the plateau itself the sandstone is generally overlaid by the Deccan trap, a blackish-coloured basaltic rock of volcanic origin, the high level tableland having been formed by a succession of lava flows, the valleys of Central India being merely "denudation hollows" carved out by the action of rain and rivers.

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  • Near its southern and eastern borders are many lava flows and extinct volcanic mountains, one of the most imposing of those in New Mexico being the 1VIt.

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  • Taylor volcano (11,389 ft.), which is surrounded by lava tables and some of the most wonderful volcanic buttes in the world.

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  • A line of volcanoes crosses it from north to south, and extensive lava beds cover a considerable part of its surface.

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  • of Clifton, it is much broken down and obscured by erosion and lava deposits.

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  • The highest volcanoes are grouped under 56° N., and the highest of them, Kluchevskaya (16,990 ft.), is in a state of almost incessant activity (notable outbreaks in 1729, 1 737, 1841, 1853-1854, and 1896-1897), a flow of its lava having reached to Kamchatka river in 1853.

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  • Instead of being one plain formed by erosion, this region is rather a series of plains built up with sheets of lava, several thousand feet deep, varying considerably in elevation and in smoothness of surface according to the nature of the lava, and being greater in area than any other lava beds in North America except those of the Columbia river, which are of similar formation and, with the Snake river plains, form the Columbia plateau.

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  • Except for the broad valleys of the Panhandle, where the soils are black in colour and rich in vegetable mould, the surface of the state is arid; the Snake river valley is a vast lava bed, covered with deposits of salt and sand, or soils of volcanic origin.

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  • It is associated with beds of lava and volcanic ash, some of which contain copper ores.

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  • The last phase in the history of the Caucasus was marked by the growth of the great volcanoes of Elbruz and Kasbek, which stand upon the old rocks of the central zone, and by the outflow of sheets of lava upon the sides of the chain.

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  • The streets of Naples are generally well-paved with large blocks of lava or volcanic basalt.

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  • In the Rajmahal Hills basaltic lava flows are interbedded with the Gondwana deposits, and in the Karharbari coalfield the Gondwana beds are traversed by dikes of mica-peridotite and basalt, which are supposed to be of the same age as the Rajmahal lavas.

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  • Lake Masaya occupies an extinct crater; the isolated volcano of Masaya (3000 ft.) on the opposite side of the lake was active at the time of the conquest of Nicaragua in 1522, and the conquerors, thinking the lava they saw was gold, had themselves lowered into the crater at the risk of their lives.

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  • Steep and rugged ravines intersect the plains, opening into small bays or coves on the shore, fenced with masses of compact and cellular lava; and all over the island are found products of volcanic action.

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  • The greater part of the volcanic series is formed by lava streams of great thickness.

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  • Between these ridges lie almost level valleys, whose floors consist partly of lava flows, partly of volcanic fragmental material, and partly of detritus from the bordering mountains.

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  • On account of the small amount of precipitation, the fissured condition of the underlying lava sheets, and the porous soil, the Great Sandy Desert has practically no surface streams even in the wet season, and within its limits no potable waters have been found.

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  • Where the streams cut their way through sheets of basaltic lava their banks are steep, almost vertical cliffs, but where they cut through sedimentary rocks the sides have a more gentle slope.

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  • from its mouth are the Cascades, where the river cuts through the lava beds of the Cascade Mountains and makes a descent of about 300 ft.

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  • A peculiar feature of the stream is the uniformity of its volume throughout the year; the great crevasses in the lava bed through which it flows form natural spillways andcheck any tendency of the stream to rise within its banks.

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  • above the surrounding tableland; the upper portion of the mountain fell inward, possibly owing to the withdrawal of interior lava, and left a crater-like rim, or caldera, rising 2000 ft.

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  • The new Kessler furnace is a very ingenious apparatus, in which the fire from a gas-producer travels over the sulphuric acid contained in a trough made of Volvic lava, and surmounted by a number of perforated plates, over which fresh acid is constantly running down; the temperature is kept down by the production of a partial vacuum, which greatly promotes the volatilization of the water, whilst retarding that of the acid.

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  • South of Gujarat nearly the whole of Bombay is covered by the horizontal lava flows of the Deccan Trap series, and these flows spread over the greater part of the Kathiawar peninsula and extend into Cutch.

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  • A few persons reside on the little island Allegranza, a mass of lava and cinders ejected at various times from a now extinct volcano, the crater of which has still a well-defined edge.

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  • of Lipari, is a constantly active volcano, ejecting gas and lava at brief intervals, and always visible at night.

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  • At the outside, not more than onefourth of the area of Iceland is inhabited; the rest consists of elevated deserts, lava streams and glaciers.

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  • The interior of the tableland consists for the most part of barren, grassless deserts, the surface being covered by gravel, loose fragments of rock, lava, driftsand, ashes and glacial detritus.

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  • Myvatn fills a depression between lava streams, and has a depth of not more than 84 ft.

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  • They are grouped in dense masses round the volcanoes from which they have flowed, the bulk of the lava dating from outbreaks which occurred in prehistoric times.

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  • The largest volume of lava which has issued at one outflow within historic times is the stream which came from the craters of Laki at Skapta.

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  • The largest unbroken lava-field in Iceland is Oda6ahraun (Lava of Evil Deeds), upon the tableland north from Vatnajokull (2000 to 4000 ft.

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  • Sometimes they are very uneven and jagged (apalhraun), consisting of blocks of lava loosely flung together in the utmost confusion.

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  • The great lava-fields, however, are composed of vast sheets of lava, ruptured and riven in divers ways (helluhraun).

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  • The smooth surface of the viscous billowy lava is further diversified by long twisted " ropes," curving backwards and forwards up and down the undulations.

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  • The Icelandic volcanoes may be divided into three classes: (I) cone-shaped, like Vesuvius, built up of alternate layers of ashes, scoriae and lava; (2) cupola-shaped, with an easy slope and a vast crater opening at the top - these shield-shaped cupolas are composed entirely of layers of lava, and their inclination is seldom steeper than 7°-8°; (3) chains of craters running close alongside a fissure in the ground.

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  • In the middle of Iceland, where the geological foundation is tuff and breccias, large areas are buried under ancient outflows of lava, which bear evidences of glacial scratching.

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  • These lava streams, which are of a doleritic character, flowed before the Glacial age, or during its continuance, out of lava cones with gigantic crater openings, such as may be seen at the present day.

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  • In the lower division the hills are all tilted up towards the east, and broad streams of lava have flowed Lower over the plateau above the sea of Galilee.

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  • The streets are paved with large lava blocks, of which the town is also built.

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  • The more deep-seated type of these rocks is seen in the olivine-gabbro mass of Carlingford Mountain; but most of the igneous region became covered with sheets of basaltic lava, which filled up the hollows of the downs, baked the gravels into a layer of red flints, and built up, pile upon pile, the great plateaus of the north.

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  • The basalt again broke out, through dikes that cut even the Mourne granite, and some of the best-known columnar masses of lava overlie the red deposits of iron-ore and mark this second basaltic epoch.

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  • south-west of Antananarivo there is a still larger extinct volcano, Ankaratra, with an extensive lava field surrounding it; while near Lake Itasy are some 200 volcanic cones.

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  • The capital, St George, in the south-west, is built upon a lava peninsula jutting into the sea and forming one side of its landlocked harbour.

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  • They are often intersected by dikes of chalcedony, formerly mistaken for lava.

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  • lying to the north-west, towards the great valleys by which the inland traffic is conveyed, is pierced by broad and straight streets paved with lava.

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  • Outflows of lava and tufa cover the mountain sides and fill up the valleys.

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  • The volcanic origin of the whole archipelago is proved by the principal rocks being of basalt, trachyte and lava.

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  • For better quality breads the Romans imported lava querns from Germany.

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  • I would wait until the lava emerged from the dark rain forest and take my life.

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  • More frequent eruptions of basalt and rhyolite lava flows have occurred before and after the large caldera-forming events.

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  • There were long scarlet ribbons of lava pouring down the sides like blood from a major wound.

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  • Along the rim of the crater, pinnacles formed by lava flow reach upward.

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  • LAVA FLOWS These are flows of extremely hot molten rocks extruded by the volcano.

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  • The differences in lava composition between the stratigraphic groups affect the average seismic velocity of each group.

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  • Here, although exposures are very poor, the Silurian rocks comprise shales, sandstones and limestones with a couple of beds of lava.

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  • Live webcams, thermal satellite images, and animated snap-shots capture scenes of spewing ash and red-hot lava flow.

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  • Detailed topography is largely controlled by a succession of Tertiary basalt lava flows that define successive, large-scale steps within the landscape.

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  • A calcareous sedimentary deposit, with recent shells, altered by the contact of superincumbent lava, its horizontality and extent.

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  • A valedictory tour to the mystical Blue Lagoon with its turquoise blue waters set in black lava rocks.

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  • These include, but are not limited to back massagers, lava lamps, and a cow-shaped cookie jar that moos when you open it.

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