Latter Sentence Examples
She liked the latter plan much better.
Faced with those two, I would far prefer the latter.
In the latter category, one text stuck out.
The latter part of his life was spent at Heraclea.
When there is an option between a tree and an adjacent house, the latter is doubtless the safer choice.Advertisement
We suspect the latter is very largely the case.
Somehow the latter seemed more likely with Cade.
The usual inquiries as to his success was made by the latter.
A general who was standing by the guns shouted some words of command to the officer, and the latter ran back again with his men.
His latter species of good works has something peculiar in it.Advertisement
The former and the latter were alike familiar and his own.
What was the latter's first name?
Boris belonged to the latter and no one else, while showing servile respect to Kutuzov, could so create an impression that the old fellow was not much good and that Bennigsen managed everything.
He looked after the former and the latter in an effective way.
He rushed at the barefooted Frenchman and, before the latter had time to draw his sword, knocked him off his feet and hammered him with his fists.Advertisement
Traffic was light—nonexistent by eastern standards—made up mostly of Jeeps or pickup trucks, the latter with a dog pacing the back bed in perfect balance.
I quarrel not with far-off foes, but with those who, near at home, co-operate with, and do the bidding of those far away, and without whom the latter would be harmless.
As soon as Prince Andrew began to demonstrate the defects of the latter and the merits of his own plan, Prince Dolgorukov ceased to listen to him and gazed absent-mindedly not at the map, but at Prince Andrew's face.
Sulphur is of an oily and fiery nature; in combination with salt by its fiery nature it arouses a desire in the latter by means of which it attracts mercury, seizes it, holds it, and in combination produces other bodies.
On reaching Petersburg he inquired for Kuragin but the latter had already left the city.Advertisement
Being the softy that he is, he chose the latter.
He was armed with a musketoon (which he carried rather as a joke), a pike and an ax, which latter he used as a wolf uses its teeth, with equal ease picking fleas out of its fur or crunching thick bones.
This latter family contains the great majority of the order.
In the latter case they are the earliest form of the art.
Their scores in the latter stages meant they were unable to beat the previous season's finish.Advertisement
When the French officer went into the room with Pierre the latter again thought it his duty to assure him that he was not French and wished to go away, but the officer would not hear of it.
This will be composed of a conduction and a convection current, the latter due to rising or falling air currents carrying ions.
They traced the latter's death to 1771.
It struck him as a surprise that Alexander treated Bonaparte as an equal and that the latter was quite at ease with the Tsar, as if such relations with an Emperor were an everyday matter to him.
Prince Andrew went up to Pierre, and the latter noticed a new and youthful expression in his friend's face.
As to long-haired cats, there appear originally to have been two closely-allied strains, the Angora and the Persian, of which the former has been altogether replaced in western Europe by the latter.
I think it may have been the former, but a knowledge of iTunes suggests the latter.
The latter half of the 15th century Shoreham was, for the time being, ruined.
During the latter part of the Siege of Richmond, the poor suffered very much indeed.
Pierre smiled in his good-natured way as if afraid for his companion's sake that the latter might say something he would afterwards regret.
The latter, a fresh, rosy officer of the Guards, irreproachably washed, brushed, and buttoned, held his pipe in the middle of his mouth and with red lips gently inhaled the smoke, letting it escape from his handsome mouth in rings.
It was said that Prince Vasili and the old count had turned upon the Italian, but the latter had produced such letters from the unfortunate deceased that they had immediately let the matter drop.
We both know it's the latter.
But this latter term of office was destined to be even shorter than his former one had been.
The diurnal variation in summer at the latter station is shown graphically in the top curve of fig.
This latter sense has been adapted and extended by modern historians concerned with the frontiers of the Roman Empire.
For this latter purpose he had chosen as his thesis the constitution of the free Lombard cities in the middle ages, the province in which he was destined to do most for the scientific study of history.
It is remarkable that he gives the same pecuniary bequests to Winchester and New Colleges as to his own college of Magdalen, but the latter he made residuary devisee of all his lands.
Neither the tunny nor the coral fishery is carried on by the Sardinians themselves, who are not sailors by nature; the former is in the hands of Genoese and the latter of Neapolitans.
The latter seen from a distance resembles a medieval castle crowning a hill-top.
In the continual struggles between Pisa and Genoa some of these princes took the side of the latter.
While his wife's influence could not increase the latter, it was successfully exerted to foment and embitter the former.
He succeeded his grandfather Leotychides upon the banishment of the latter, his father having already died.
During the latter Sassanids it is seldom mentioned, and when the Arabs came to Khorasan (641-642) it was of so little importance that, as Tabari relates, it did not even have a garrison.
Bonif ace tried to induce King Charles to break the treaty, but the latter was only too anxious for peace, and finally in May 1303 the pope ratified it, Frederick agreeing to pay him a tribute.
In 1815 he commanded the Dutch and Belgian contingents, and won high commendations for his courage and conduct at the battles of Quatre Bras and Waterloo, at the latter of which he was wounded.
Both in Gaelic and in old French it is cat, although sometimes taking the form of chater in the latter; the Gaelic designation of the European wild cat being cat fiadhaich.
Since in all domesticated cats retaining the colouring of the wild species the soles of the hind-feet correspond in this particular with the Egyptian rather than with the European wild cat, the presumption is in favour of their descent from the former rather than from the latter.
This latter type appears to be the true "tabby"; since that word denotes a pattern like that of watered silk.
During his stay at the Northamptonshire village of Holdenby or Holmby - where Sir Thomas Herbert complains the green was not well kept - Charles frequently rode over to Lord Vaux's place at Harrowden, or to Lord Spencer's at Althorp, for a game, and, according to one account, was actually playing on the latter green when Cornet Joyce came to Holmby to remove him to other quarters.
The strict distinction between nimbus and aureole is not commonly maintained, and the latter term is most frequently used to denote the radiance round the heads of saints, angels or persons of the Godhead.
This latter question had not presented itself to the prophet's mind; his object was simply to correct the opinion of the people that their present misfortunes were due not to their own faults but to those of their predecessors.
The latter work, when completed, will be indispensable.
The latter he considered to be his by conquest.
All the surviving forms, however, have a completely established double system with the specific characters alluded to, and since there is every reason to believe that the conditions of evolution of the primitive Pteridophyte must have been essentially similar to those of the Bryophytes, the various stages in the evolution of the conducting system of the latter (p. 732) are very useful to compare with the arrangements met with in the former.
Scarcely, however, was this great undertaking fairly commenced when he accepted the post of private secretary to Lord Durham on the latter's appointment as special commissioner to Canada.
The Gothic choir, forming the more modern portion of the cathedral, was added during the latter half of the 14th and the beginning of the 15th century, and contains the tomb of the emperor Otto III.
From the Lousberg and the Salvatorberg to the north, the latter crowned by a chapel, magnificent views of the city are obtained; while covering the hills 2 m.
Both men are Swans' rejects - the latter departed the Vetch just three months ago.
The latter's son, Prince Rupert, became heir to the throne but he was mentally defective.
What was the latter's impact on North America and Western Europe?
Of two patterns which differ only by a few threads more or less of a particular color, the one will be sold readily, the other lie on the shelf, though it frequently happens that after the lapse of a season the latter becomes the most fashionable.
If I endeavored to overtake him in a boat, in order to see how he would manoeuvre, he would dive and be completely lost, so that I did not discover him again, sometimes, till the latter part of the day.
When two legs of my level were on the shore and the third on the ice, and the sights were directed over the latter, a rise or fall of the ice of an almost infinitesimal amount made a difference of several feet on a tree across the pond.
The latter spared him, and this magnanimity Bonaparte subsequently repaid by death.
Pierre had managed to start a conversation with the abbe about the balance of power, and the latter, evidently interested by the young man's simple-minded eagerness, was explaining his pet theory.
Anna Mikhaylovna with just the same movement raised her shoulders and eyes, almost closing the latter, sighed, and moved away from the doctor to Pierre.
She tried to pass Anna Mikhaylovna, but the latter sprang so as to bar her path.
You are fortunate, for the latter are generally the stronger!
I'll teach you to think! and lifting his stick he swung it and would have hit Alpatych, the overseer, had not the latter instinctively avoided the blow.
When the review was over, the newly arrived officers, and also Kutuzov's, collected in groups and began to talk about the awards, about the Austrians and their uniforms, about their lines, about Bonaparte, and how badly the latter would fare now, especially if the Essen corps arrived and Prussia took our side.
Again he pressed the hand of the latter with an expression of good-natured, sincere, and animated levity.
The latter began to feel that it was in bad taste to speak of his enthusiasms, dreams, and hopes of happiness or goodness, in Prince Andrew's presence.
Nicholas ate and drank (chiefly the latter) in silence.
Peter the footman made some remark to the coachman; the latter assented.
The latter was riding with a sullen expression on his face.
Nor did the latter, having risen and curtsied, know what to do.
The partisan warfare flamed up most fiercely in the latter days of October.
A botanist notices that the bee flying with the pollen of a male flower to a pistil fertilizes the latter, and sees in this the purpose of the bee's existence.
More than likely he'd get the latter.
Something about his expression led her to believe he was talking about the latter.
To the former he owes his appreciation of exact investigation and a complete knowledge of the aims of science, to the latter an equal admiration for the great circle of ideas which had been diffused by the teaching of Fichte, Schelling and Hegel.
On the accession of the latter to the throne, Andrew Stone was appointed treasurer to Queen Charlotte, and attaching himself to Lord Bute he became an influential member of the party known as "the king's friends," whose meetings were frequently held at his house.
In 1697 Georg Stahl admitted that fermentation and putrefaction were analogous processes, but that the former was a particular case of the latter.
His identification with Hippolytus and the manner of the latter's death would explain the exclusion of horses from his grove.
One of these myths is the famous story of Ishtar's descent to Irkalla or Aralu, as the lower world was called, and her reception by her sister who presides over it; the other is the story of Nergal's offence against Ereshkigal, his banishment to the kingdom controlled by the goddess and the reconciliation between Nergal and Ereshkigal through the latter's offer to have Nergal share the honours of the rule over Irkalla.
He was particularly friendly with King Emmanuel of Portugal on account of the latter's missionary enterprises in Asia and Africa.
So again, in the case of the Paris curves, the absolute value of the diurnal range in summer was much greater for the Eiffel Tower than for the Bureau Central, but the mean voltage was 2150 at the former station and only 134 at the latter.
He was educated at Pavia and Bologna, and in 1812 became professor of law at the latter university.
The latter, in fact, was a minor court of equity attached to the lord privy seal as the court of chancery was to the chancellor.
The dock and victualling yards occupy together an area of some i oo acres spread over the shores on both sides of those arms of the great harbour known as "Dockyard" and "French" creeks, the dockyard being partly on the former, but principally on the latter creek.
Natives and Anglo-Indians alike venerate his name, the former as their first beneficent administrator, the latter as the most able and the most enlightened of their own class.
Their mother, loving the latter most, avenged his death by murdering her son, and the people, horrified at her act, revolted and murdered both her and King Gorboduc. This legend was the subject of the earliest regular English tragedy which in 1561 was played before Queen Elizabeth in the Inner Temple hall.
In the latter years of his reign Harsha's sway over the whole basin of the Ganges from the Himalayas to the Nerbudda was undisputed.
The latter work was attacked by Burnet and others, but the author showed himself as keen a controversialist as ever.
The olive oil produced is mainly mixed with that from Genoa or Provence, and placed on the market under the name of the latter.
Of wild animals may be noted the moufflon (Ovis Ammon), the stag, and the wild boar, and among birds various species of the vulture and eagle in the mountains, and the pelican and flamingo (the latter coming in August in large flocks from Africa) in the lagoons.
The latter, however, are widely distributed over the island, being especially frequent in the central and most inaccessible part.
As it was to a cat of the latter kind that Linnaeus gave the name of Felis catus, Pocock urges that this title is not available for the European wild cat, which he would call Felis sylvestris.
Examples may perhaps occasionally still be found in the uninhabited forests of Hungary and Transylvania, and occasionally in Spain and Greece, as well as in the Caucasus and in some of the Swiss cantons, but the original race has in most countries interbred with the domestic cat wherever the latter has penetrated."
Apart from the above-mentioned division of the striped members of both groups into two types according to the pattern of their markings, the domesticated cats of western Europe are divided into a short-haired and a long-haired group. Of these, the former is the one which bears the closest relationship to the wild cats of Africa and of Europe, the latter being an importation from the East.
Siamese cats may have the tail either straight or kinked, but whether the latter feature belongs of right to the breed, or has been acquired by crossing with the ordinary black and tabby kink-tailed cats of the country, is not known.
The best account of Descartes's mental history during his life in Holland is contained in his letters, which extend over the whole period, and are particularly frequent in the latter half.
The dispute on the latter point between Fermat and Descartes was continued, even after the philosopher's death, as late as 1662.
Through Chanut, with whom she was on terms of familiarity, she came to hear of Descartes, and a correspondence which the latter nominally carried on with the ambassador was in reality intended for the eyes of the queen.
The latter are to a large extent incorrect.
Later we find the worship of Isis and of Cybele,the latter being especially flourishing, with large corporations of dendrophori (priests who carried branches of trees in procession) and cannofori (basketcarriers); the worship of Mithras, too, had a large number of followers.
The first important recorded act of Pericles falls in 463, when he helped to prosecute Cimon on a charge of bribery, after the latter's Thasian campaign; but as the accusation could hardly have been meant seriously Pericles was perhaps put forward only as a lay-figure.
It excited the admiration of Gonzales Clavijo, the Spanish envoy, when he passed through it on his way to visit the court of Timur at Samarkand (Clavijo, Historia del gran Tamorlan, p. 84); and Cardinal Bessarion, who was a native of the place, in the latter part of his life, when the city had passed into the hands of the Mahommedans, and he was himself a dignitary of the Roman Church, so little forgot the impression it had made upon him that he wrote a work entitled "The Praise of Trebizond" ('E-yac c uLovTpaire oiivros), which exists in manuscript at Venice.
They failed, however, in both attempts; and in the latter, owing to the darkness, and to the occurrence of a violent storm which suddenly swelled the torrents in the ravines, their force was thrown into inextricable confusion, and they were compelled to abandon their camp and make the best of their escape from the country.
The latter is described in detail under the heading Masu Ria, Battles In.
Two lines of steamers, an English and a Turkish, furnish an inadequate service between Basra and Bagdad, but there is no steam navigation on the river above the latter city.
At the point of entering the alluvial plain the bed of the Tigris seems to be lower than that of the Euphrates, so that the canals run from the latter to the former stream.
Under the names of Yenking, which it received from the Khitan, and of Chung-tu, which it had from the Kin, it holds a conspicuous place in the wars of Jenghiz Khan against the latter dynasty.
The latter selected a position a few hundred yards to the north-east of the old city of Chung-tu or Yenking, where he founded the new city of Ta-tu ("great capital"), called by the Mongols Taidu or Daitu, but also KhanBalik; and from this time dates the use of the latter name as applied to this site.
At the entrance to the latter the senate erected, in his honour, a triumphal arch which is still extant - a fine simple monument with a single opening.
The latter enterprise Alexander designed to conduct in person; under his supervision was prepared in Babylon an immense fleet, a great basin dug out to contain 1000 ships, and the watercommunications of Babylonia taken in hand.
The latter was a great magician, able, by operating upon waxen figures of the armies and ships of his enemies, to obtain complete power over their real actions.
The armature consists of a bony case, partly composed of solid buckler-like plates, and partly of movable transverse bands, the latter differing in number with the species, and giving to the body a considerable degree of flexibility.
This lowering tendency towards the low church pitch, and the final adoption of the latter as a general mean pitch throughout the 18th century, was no doubt influenced by the introduction of the violin, which would not bear the high tension to which the lutes and viols had been strained.
Maxillary and labial palpi are also present, and the latter, together with the labrum or lower lip, form the rostrum.
It was this latter circumstance which ultimately led to its abolition.
It was opened to foreign trade towards the latter end of the 18th century.
The Albanians, both Ghegs and Tosks, call themselves Shkiipetar, and their land Shkiipenia or Shkiiperia, the former being the Gheg, the latter the Tosk form of the word.
In the latter half of the century large colonies of Tosks were planted in the Morea by the despots of Mistra, and in Attica and Boeotia by Duke Nerio of Athens.
With the latter, however, he remained on the most friendly terms, and when he departed from Rome, left in his hands two unfinished pictures which Raphael completed.
The latter was so well designed, so naturally and beautifully coloured, and so strongly expressive of suffering and agony, that it was found necessary to remove it from the place where it had been exhibited in the chapel of a convent.
Scaurus decided in favour of the latter, who was able to offer more money.
There are two sorts - the common, and the Jersey or Russian, the latter being much larger and less pungent.
The latter called forth a reply from Bentley (Phileleutherus lipsiensis).
The presbytery fixes the former for specific business; the latter is summoned by the moderator, either on his own initiative or on the requisition of two or more members of presbytery, for the transaction of business which has suddenly emerged.
The latter would have required that the question should have been settled by the church at Antioch instead of being referred to Jerusalem.
This episcopacy was at first rather congregational than diocesan; but the tendency of its growth was undoubtedly towards the latter.
The consistoire or session consisted of the minister, elders and deacons (the latter without a vote), and was over the congregation.
The latter, about the time of Elizabeth's succession, expressed his hope that the bishops would become pastors, labourers and watchmen; and that the great riches of bishoprics would be diminished and reduced to mediocrity; that, being delivered from courtly and regal pomp, the bishops might take care of the flock of Christ.
The former enterprise was soon abandoned, and the colonists of the latter were massacred by the Spaniards.
Shields (1825-1904), who afterwards entered the Protestant Episcopal Church, republished and urged the adoption of the Book of Common Prayer as amended by the Westminster Divines in the royal commission of 1661; and Henry Van Dyke was prominent in the latter stage of the movement for a liturgy.
The latter, besides teaching him the Bible and Talmud, introduced to him the philosophy of Maimonides.
Just as the latter afterwards makes Nathan the Wise and Saladin meet over the chess-board, so did Lessing and Mendelssohn actually come together as lovers of the game.
The latter resolved to devote the rest of his life to the emancipation of the Jews.
For the earlier part he used Widukind's Res gestae Saxonicae, the Annales Quedlinburgenses and other sources; the latter part is the result of personal knowledge.
North of that river the coast is low-lying and bordered by sand-lunes, to which succeed on the Strait of Dover the cliffs in the neighborhood of the port of Boulogne and the marshes and sand-dunes of Flanders, with the ports of Calais and Dunkirk, the latter the principal French port on the NOrth Sea.
Of the former the remnants are now seen in Brittany and the Ardennes; of the latter the Cvennes and the Montagne Noire are the last traces visible on the surface.
Calvados the former was 904,000, as against 857,000 in the Cantal latter year, the diminution being acconipanied by Charente a decrease in the annual number of deaths.
The bishops and archbishops, formerly nominated by the government and canonically confirmed by the pope, are now chosen by the latter.
The Roman priests are drawn from the seminaries, established by the church for the education of young men intending to join its ranks, and divided into lower and higher seminaries (grands et petits sminaires), the latter giving the same class of instruction as the tyces.
Oats and barley are generally cultivated, the former more especially in the Parisian region, the latter in Mayenne and one or two of the neighboring departments.
There are important zinc works at Auby and St Amand (Nord) and Viviez (Aveyron) and Noyelles-Godault (Pas-de-Calais); there are lead works at the latter place, and others of greater irirportance at Couron (Loire-Infrieure).
Glass is manufactured in the departments of Nord (Aniche, &c.), Seine, Loire (Rive-de-Gier) and Meurthe-et-Moselle, Baccarat in the latter department being famous for its table-glass.
As before, the sums paid out in respect of guaranteed dividend were to be regarded as advances which were to be paid back to the state out of the profits made, when these permitted, and when the advances were wiped out, the profits, after payment of a certain dividend, were to be divided between the state and the railway, two-thirds going to the former and one-third to the latter.
The latter is subdivided into general commerce, which includes all goods entering or leaving the country, and special commerce whirls includes imports for home use and exports of home produce.
Police.Broadly, the police of France may be divided into two great branchesadministrative police (la police administrative) and judicial police (la police judic-iaire), the former having for its object the maintenance of order, and the latter charged with tracing out offenders, collecting the proofs, and delivering the presumed offenders to the tribunals charged by law with their trial and punishment.
In war the latter would probably remain at the ministry of war in Paris, and the generalissimo would have his own chief of staff.
The officers of the army are obtained partly from the oldestablished military schools, partly from the ranks of the noncommissioned officers, the proportion of the latter being about one-third of the total number of officers.
The Laws of 1882 and 1886 laicized the schools of this class, the former suppressing religious instruction, the latter providing that only laymen should be eligible for masterships.
Before opening a private school the person proposing to do so must give notice to the mayor, prefect and academy rnspector, and forward his diplomas and other particulars to the latter official.
The city's manufactures idclude cotton, woollen and silk textiles, cigars and cigarettes, and dulces, or sweetmeats, Morelia being noted throughout Mexico for the latter, particularly for a variety called Guayabate.
The ordinary business of the ports was conducted in two courts known respectively as the court of brotherhood and the court of brotherhood and guestling, - the former being composed of the mayors of the seven principal towns and a number of jurats and freemen from each, and the latter including in addition the mayors, bailiffs and other representatives of the corporate members.
In return for this aid the younger Henry granted to William the earldom of Northumberland, a possession which the latter had vainly sought from the English king, and which was possibly the cause of their first estrangement.
It is subject, however, to extreme and rapid variations in temperature, to alternations of dry and humid winds (the latter, called catias, being irritating and oppressive), to chilling night mists brought up from the coast by the westerly winds, and to other influences productive of malaria, catarrh, fevers, bilious disorders and rheumatism.
Marsupials may be defined as viviparous (that is non-egglaying) mammals, in which the young are born in an imperfect condition, and almost immediately attached to the teats of the mammary glands; the latter being generally enclosed in a pouch, and the front edge of the pelvis being always furnished with epipubic or "marsupial" bones.
Owing to the antiquity of both placentals and marsupials, the arboreal character of the feet of the modern forms of the latter is of little importance.
The latter, which covers an area of about moo acres, has at the present time a fairly uniform surface and slopes gradually from the north to the south and east.
The limited knowledge which we possess of the original features of the ground within the area of the city makes a reconstruction of the topographical history of the latter a difficult task; and, as a natural result, many irreconcilable theories have been suggested.
North of the Temple enclosure there was a gate, known as the Sheep Gate, which must have opened into the third valley mentioned above, and stood somewhere near what is now the north side of the Haram enclosure, but considerably south of the present north wall of the latter.
The Greeks held out for a considerable time, but had finally to surrender, probably from want of food, to Simon Maccabaeus, who demolished the Acra and cut down the hill upon which it stood so that it might no longer be higher than the Temple, and that there should be no separation between the latter and the city.
A dry season, which lasts from May to October, is followed by a rainy season, divided into the early winter and latter rains.
The latter was begun by Henry of Guise in 1578, in place of an older château burnt by Louis XI.
It was continued by Mademoiselle de Montpensier in the latter half of the 17th century, and restored by Louis Philippe who, in 1843 and 1845, received Queen Victoria within its walls.
It was he who effected a reconciliation between the king and the dauphin after the revolt of the latter.
There are no ruins of any importance on the site of either Ialysus or Camirus, but excavations at the latter place have produced valuable and interesting results in the way of ancient vases and other antiquities, which are now in the British Museum.
The range is here called the Muniong, but farther north it receives the name of Monaro Range; the latter has a much reduced altitude, its average being only about 2000 feet.
The yield of tin in Victoria is very small, and until lately no fields of importance have been discovered; but towards the latter end of 1890 extensive deposits were reported to exist in the Gippsland district - at Omeo and Tarwin.
This sum represents the interest payable on government loans placed outside Australia, mainly in England, and the income from British and other capital invested in the country; the former may be estimated at £7,300,000 and the latter £8,000,000 per annum.
Pottery, common to Malays and Papuans, the bows and arrows of the latter, and the elaborate canoes of all three races, are unknown to the Australians.
In the latter direction, explored by Mitchell in 1834 and 1836, lay Australia Felix, now Victoria, including the well-watered, thickly-wooded country of Gipps' Land.
Taking everything into consideration the reduction was, perhaps, not less than 20 Lo, so that, though the nominal or money wages in 1873 and 1890 were the same, the actual wages were much higher in the latter year.
Unlike the latter, they reproduced the institution of district conciliation boards in addition to the arbitration court; but these boards were a failure here as they were in New Zealand, and after 1903 they fell into disuse.
Under the latter prince the country prospered greatly, and having introduced the principle of primogeniture, he died and was succeeded by his infant son, Bernard Ernest Freund (1800-1882), whose mother, Eleanora of Hohenlohe-Langenburg, governed in his name until 1821.
In the latter year the government of the French Republic confided to him a mission to Rome at the moment when it was a question whether the expelled pope would return to the Vatican with or without bloodshed.
The last of which we have any knowledge occurred in 1301, but the island was visited by earthquakes in 1881 and 1883, 1700 lives being lost in the latter year, when the town of Casamicciola on the nort of the island was almost entirely destroyed.
Instead, we find the Sakai occupying this position, thus indicating that they have been driven northward by the Malays, and that the latter people has not been expelled by the Mon-Khmer races from the countries now represented by Burma, Siam and French Indo-China.
Malacca was taken from the Dutch by the British in 1795; was restored to the latter in 1818; but in 1824 was exchanged for Benkulen and a few more unimportant places in Sumatra.
According to Clarendon the latter, though frequently victorious in a charge, dale, subsequently falling upon and defeating the royalist centre, and pursuing the fugitives as far as the outskirts of Leicester.
The latter formulated his theory of beauty.
Some of the latter were either not conquered by the Israelites until long after the invasion, or, if conquered, were not held by Levites; and names are wanting of places in which priests are actually known to have lived.
Three of them, respectively commanded by Mr. Walker, Mr. Landsborough, and Mr. Norman, sailed to the north, where the latter two landed on the shores of the Gulf of Carpentaria, while Mr. Walker marched inland from Rockhampton.
Gregory, the editor of the journal, which lasted until the premature death of the latter in 1844.
This belief appears to be of a more primitive character than the view which places the seat of life in the heart, though we are accustomed to think that the latter was the prevailing view in antiquity.
On both the east and the west coast the islands are thickly wooded, but whereas the former are surrounded by beautiful sands and beaches, the latter are fringed by mangrove-swamps.
Although the first definite endeavour to locate the Golden Chersonese thus dates from the middle of the 2nd century of our era, the name was apparently well known to the learned of Europe at a somewhat earlier period, and in his Antiquities of the Jews, written during the latter half of the 1st century, Josephus says that Solomon gave to the pilots furnished to him by Hiram of Tyre commands " that they should go along with his stewards to the land that of old was called Ophir, but now the Aurea Chersonesus, which belongs to India, to fetch gold."
There is considerable reason to think, however, that the more frequent ports of call in the Straits of Malacca were situated in Sumatra, rather than on the shores of the Malay Peninsula, and two famous medieval travellers, Marco Polo and Ibn Batuta, both called and wintered at the former, and make scant mention of the latter.
Eventually, in 1641, a joint attack was made by the Achinese and the Dutch, but the latter, not the people of the sturdy little Sumatran kingdom, became the owners of the coveted port.
Of the latter journal he was principal editor for some time previous to his death.
There was a gild merchant and also a town bailiff, but the latter office was of little real significance and was soon dropped.
The greatest development was between 1900 and 1905; the total value of textiles in the former year was $5,407,217 (woollen goods, $2,572,646; hosiery and knit goods, $1,834,685; cotton goods, $999,886) and in the latter was $7,773, 612 (woollen goods, $4,698,405; hosiery and knit goods, $1,988,685; and cotton goods, $1,086,522).
The tonnage of the commerce of this port amounted, according to the reports of the United States army engineers, to 107,421 tons in 1904 and to 249,174 tons in 1908, of which in the latter year nearly 80% was lumber.
It contains two islands, Bisentina and Martana, the former containing a church constructed by Vignola, the latter remains of the castle where Amalasuntha, the daughter of Theodoric, was imprisoned and, strangled.
It was discussed in the 12th century whether this sacrament is indelible like baptism, or whether it can be repeated; and the latter view, that of Peter Lombard, prevailed.
A fault divides the latter from the mass of red-brown Old Red Sandstone that spreads south nearly to Enniskillen.
It was the chief town of the Samnites, who took refuge here after their defeat by the Romans in 314 B.C. It appears not to have fallen into the hands of the latter until Pyrrhus's absence in Sicily, but served them as a base of operations in the last campaign against him in 275 B.C. A Latin colony was planted there in 268 B.C., and it was then that the name was changed for the sake of the omen, and probably then that the Via Appia was extended from Capua to Beneventum.
Having been expelled from Crete by the latter, he and his comrades sailed for Asia, where he finally became king of Lycia.
According to Clarendon he told the latter in 1641 that if the Grand Remonstrance had not passed "he would have sold all he had the next morning and never have seen England more."
The law was ably and justly administered, and Irish trade was admitted to the same privileges as English, enjoying the same rights in foreign and colonial trade; and no attempt was made to subordinate the interests of the former to the latter, which was the policy adopted both before and after Cromwell's time, while the union of Irish and English interests was further recognized by the Irish representation at Westminster in the parliaments of 1654, 1656 and 16J9.
Cromwell furnished 6000 men with a fleet to join in the attack upon Spain in Flanders, and obtained as reward Mardyke and Dunkirk, the former being captured and handed over on the 3rd of October 1657, and the latter after the battle of the Dunes on the 4th of June 1658, when Cromwell's Ironsides were once more pitted against English royalists fighting for the Spaniards.
In 1653 he had made the astonishing proposal to the Dutch that England and Holland should divide the habitable globe outside Europe between them, that all states maintaining the Inquisition should be treated as enemies by both the proposed allies, and that the latter "should send missionaries to all peoples willing to receive them, to inculcate the truth of Jesus Christ and the Holy Gospel."
The shores are covered with coral; earthquakes and tidal waves are frequent, the latter not taking the form of bores, but of a sudden steady rise and equally sudden fall in the level of the sea; the climate is rather tropical than temperate, but sickness is almost unknown among the residents.
In the quarrel between Jackson and John C. Calhoun, Green supported the latter, and through the columns of the Telegraph violently attacked the administration.
The latter play was 1 Some doubt has been expressed as to whether the eggs are extruded or hatched within the body.
The main body of his works belongs, so far as can be ascertained from the scanty evidence which we have, to the latter half of his life; 206 B.C. is the approximate date of the Miles gloriosus; cf.
Now, we know that the number of electrochemical equivalents electrolysed is proportional to the whole amount of electricity which passed through the circuit, and the product of this by the electromotive force of the battery is the work done by the latter, so that in this case also Joule showed that the heat generated was proportional to the work done.
Neglecting both his see and his professor - ship, to which latter he appointed a deputy described as highly incompetent, he withdrew to Calgarth Park, in his native county, where he occupied himself in forming plantations and in the improvement of agriculture.
He died on the 2nd of July 1816, having occupied his latter years in the composition and revision of an autobiography (published in 1817), which, with all its egotism and partiality, is a valuable work, and the chief authority for his life.
Jib cranes can be subdivided into fixed cranes and portable cranes; in the former the central post or pivot is firmly fixed in a permanent position, while in the latter the whole crane is mounted on wheels, so that it may be transported from place to place.
This latter gives the ratio of the length of the working periods to the whole time; e.g.
In the latter case the overturning tendency begins as soon as the load leaves the ground, but ceases as soon as the load again touches the ground and thus relieves the crane of the extra weight, whereas overturning backwards is caused either by the reaction of a chain breaking or by excessive counterweight.
Among the latter are the mosques at Ajmere and the temples on Abu.
If the mancipium died a natural death while in the creditor's possession no claim could lie against the latter; but if he was the cause of death by cruelty, he had to give son for son, or pay for a slave.
The latter is the forfeit usually named in the contract for his repudiation of her.
The latter had the privilege of exemption from state dues and absolute disposal of her property.
If the looped lines are both in good condition and free from leakage, the current sent out on line r will be exactly equal to the current received back on line 2; and as these currents will have equal but opposite effects on the galvanometer needle, no deflection of the latter will be produced.
The actual number of sets of apparatus it was possible to work multiplex depended upon the length of the line, for if the latter were long, retardation effects modified the working conditions.
A ray of light is directed upon the mirror, and the motion of the latter, due to the varying strengths and direction of the received currents, is made to write the transmitted signals upon a strip of bromide photographic paper about three inches wide.
Owing to the variable illumination of the selenium thus produced, the resistance of the latter, and therefore the intensity of the current sent through the line to the receiving station by the battery, will be altered accordingly.
Owing to the difficulty of maintaining perfect balance on duplexed cables, curb sending is not now used, but the signals are transmitted by means of an apparatus similar to the Wheatstone automatic transmitter used on land lines and differing from the latter only in regard to the alphabet employed; the signals from the transmitter actuate a relay having heavy armatures which in turn transmit the signals to the cable; this arrangement gives very firm signals, a point of great importance for good working.
He caused the relay in series with the sensitive tube to set in action not only a telegraphic instrument but also the electromagnetic tapper, which was arranged so as to administer light blows on the under side of the sensitive tube when the latter passed into the conductive condition.
At the receiving end are a similar antenna and resonant circuit, and a telephone is connected across one part of the latter through an automatic interrupting device called by Poulsen a " ticker."
It is decomposed by heat into the oxide and water, and is soluble in ammonia but not in excess of dilute potassium hydroxide; this latter property serves to distinguish it from zinc hydroxide.
The impedance coils shown connected between the battery and the lines and between the latter and the transmitters are joined up non-inductively as regards the transmitter circuits, but inductively as regards the secondary circuits.
The latter names a disengaged junction circuit, then " tests " the line of the wanted subscriber, and if she finds it free, finally completes the connexion and rings the subscriber.
Bernardone's commercial enterprises made him travel abroad, and it was from the fact that the father was in France at the time of his son's birth that the latter was called Francesco.
The latter ceded its portion to Baden in 1810.
On the latter hypothesis it has been generally assumed that the wild camels are the descendants of droves of the domesticated breed which escaped when certain central Asian cities were overwhelmed by sand-storms. This theory, according to Professor Leche, is rendered improbable by Dr Sven Hedin's observations on the habits and mode of life of the wild camel.
In the latter the bear was found in Roman times, and there are said to be still a few remaining.
The kingdom is divided into 69 provinces, 284 regions, of which 197 are classed as circondarii and 87 as districts (the latter belonging to the province of Mantua and the 8 provinces of Venetia), 1806 administrative divisions (mandamenti) and 8262 communes.
The modes of life and standards of comfort and morality in north Italy and in Calabria are widely different; the former being far in front of the latter.
The Sicilians and Sardinians have something of Spanish dignity, but the former are one of the most mixed and the latter probably one of the purest races of the Italian kingdom.
The movement of emigration may be divided into two currents, temporary and permanentthe former going chiefly towards neighboring European countries and to North Africa, and consisting of manual laborers, the latter towards trans-oceanic countries, principally Brazil, Argentina and the United States.
The former two show a very large decrease and the latter a large increase on the export figures for 1882.
In the former case a peasant family undertakes all the necessary work in return for payment in money or kind, which varies according to the crop; in the latter the money wages and the payment in kind are fixed beforehand.
Quicksilver and tin are found (the latter in small quantities) in Tuscany.
A third difficulty is the comparatively small tonnage and volume of Italian exports relatively to the imports, the former in 1907 being about one-fourth of the latter, and greatl out of proportion to the relative value; while a fourth is the lac of facilities for handling goods, especially in the smaller ports.
The age limit is six to nine years for the lower grade, and up to twelve for the higher grade, attendance being obligatory at the latter also where it exists.
In addition to the regular charitable institutions, the communal and provincial authorities exercise charity, the former (in 1899) to the extent of 1,827,166 and the latter to the extent of 919,832 per annum.
The army consists of 96 three-battalion regiments of infantry of the line and 12 of bersaglieri (riflemen), each of the latter having a cyclist company (Bersaglieri cyclist battalions are being (1909) provisionally formed); 26 regiments of cavalry, of which 10 are lancers, each of 6 squadrons; 24 regiments of artillery, each of 8 batteries; I I regiment of horse artillery of 6 batteries; I of mountain artillery of 12 batteries, and 3 independent mountain batteries.
The personnel on active service consisted of 1799 officers and 25,000 men, the former being doubled and the latter trebled since 1882.
The former apply principally to successions, stamps, registrations, mortgages, &c.; the latter to distilleries, breweries, explosives, native sugar and matches, though the customs revenue and octrois upon articles of general consumption, such as corn, wine, spirits, meat, flour, petroleum butter, tea, coffee and sugar, may be considered as belonging to thu class.
The former total is more than double add the latter more than treble the sum in 1873, while there is an increase of 62% in the former and 26% in the latter over the totals for 1882.
While the former faction gained in Lombardy by the massacre of Ezzelino, the latter revived in Tuscany after the battle of Montaperti, which in 1260 placed Florence at the discretion of the Ghibellines.
The first entry of any moment made by the Venetians into strictly Italian affairs was in 1336, when the republics of Florence and St Mark allied themselves against Mastino della Scala, and the latter took possession of Treviso.
Equally extensive, but less important in the political sphere, were the Papal States and Veneti, the former torpid under the obscurantist rule of pope and cardinals, the latter enervated by luxury and the policy of unmanly complaisance long pursued by doge and council.
Milan and Piedmont were comparatively well governed; but repugnance to Austrian rule in the former case, and the contagion of French Jacobinical opinions in the latter, brought those populations into increasing hostility to the rulers.
The latter immediately proclaimed the constitution, but the new king, Charles Felix, who was at Modena at the time, repudiated the regents acts and exiled him to Tuscany; and, with his consent, an Austrian army invaded Piedmont and crushed the constitutionalists at Novara.
But the withdrawal of the Neapolitans left Durando too weak to intercept Nugent and his 30,000 men; and the latter, although harassed by the inhabitants of Venetia and repulsed at Vicenza, succeeded in joining Radetzky, who was soon further reinforced from Tirol.
On the 6th of August Radetzky re-entered Milan, and three days later an armistice was concluded between Austria and Piedmont, the latter agreeing to evacuate Lombardy and Venetia.
Tuscany the government drifted from the moderates to the extreme democrats; the Ridolfi ministry was succeeded after Custozza by that of Ricasoli, and the latter by that of Capponi.
Capponi resigned in October 1848, and Leopold reluctantly consented to a democratic ministry led by Guerrazzi and Montanelli, the former a very ambitious and unscrupulous man, the latter honest but fantastic. Following the Roman example, a constituent assembly was demanded to vote on union with Rome and eventually with the rest of Italy.
Long terms of imprisonment and the bastinado, the latter even inflicted on women, were the penalties for the least expression of anti-Austrian opinion.
One section of public opinion desired to make Piedmonts co-operation subject to definite promises by the Powers; but the latter refused to bind, themselves, and both Victor Emmanuel and Cavour realized that, even without such promises, participation would give Piedmont a claim.
In the Austrian provinces and in the duchies it carried all before it, and gained many adherents in the Legations, Rome and Naples, although in the latter regions the autonomist feeling was still strong even among the Liberals.
Yet after these warlike declarations and after the signing of a military convention at Turin, the king agreeing to all the conditions proposed by Napoleon, the latter suddenly became pacific again, and adopted the Russian suggestion that Italian affairs should be settled by a congress.
The latter introduced a sounder financial policy, which was maintained until the fall of the Right in 1876.
During the same period the assumption of the Venetian and Roman debts, losses on the issue of loans and the accumulation of annual deficits, had caused public indebtedness to rise from 92,000,000 to 328,000,000, no less than f 100,000,000 of the latter sum having been sacrificed in premiums and commissions to bankers and underwriters of loans.
The former at Pavia (15th October I 2878), and the latter at Arco (3rd November), declared publicly that Irredentist manifestations could not be prevented under existing laws, but gave no hint of introducing any law to sanction their prevention.
Italy, in constant danger from France, needed good relations with Austria and Germany, but could only attain the goodwill of the former by firm treatment of the revolutionary Irredentist agitation, and of the latter by clear demonstration of Italian will and ability to cope with all anti-monarchical forces.
Hence a tacit understanding between Bismarck and Austria that the latter should profit by Italian resentment against France to draw Italy into the orbit of the Austro-German alliance.
Kalnky desired that both the terms of the treaty and the fact of its conclusion should remain secret, but Bismarck and Mancini hastened to hint at its existence, the former in the Reichstag on the 12th of June 1882, and the latter in the Italian semi-official press.
Thq latter retreated south of the river Mareb, leaving the whole of the cis-Mareb territory, including the provinces of Hamasen, Agameh, Sera and Okul-Kusai, in Italian hands.
The latter, indeed, prosecuted the former for libel and for abuse of his position when premier, but after many vicissitudes, including the flight of Giolitti to Berlin in.
The protocol concluded with Great Britain on the 15th of April 1891, already referred to, contained a clause to the effect that, were Kassala occupied by the Italians, the place should be transferred to the Egyptian government as soon as the latter should be In a position.
The latter, though leader of the Right, had long been intriguing with Cavallotti, leader of the Extreme Left, to overthrow Crispi, but without the disaster of Adowa his plan would scarcely have succeeded.
In August there were strikes among the dock laborers of Genoa and the iron workers of Florence; the latter agitation developed into a general strike in that city, which aroused widespread indignation among the orderly part of the population and ended without any definite result.
The latter accepted the task, and the new administration included Signor Tittoni, late prefect of Naples, as foreign minister, Signor Luigi Luzzatti, the eminent financier, at the treasury, General Pedotti at the war office, and Admiral Mirabello as minister of marine.
In November Signor Gianturco died, and Signor Pietro Bertolini took his place as minister of public works; the latter proved perhaps the ablest member of the cabinet, but the acceptance of office under Giolitti of a man who had been one of the most trusted and valuable lieutenants of Signor Sonnino marked a further step in the dgringolade of that statesmans party, and was attributed to the fact that Signor Bertolini resented not having had a place in the late Sonnino ministry.
Austria had persistently adopted a policy of pin-pricks and aggravating police provocation towards the Italians of the Adriatic Littoral and of the Trentino, while encouraging the Slavonic element in the former and the Germans in the latter.
The acceptance by the powers of the Murzsteg programme and the appointment of Austrian and Russian financial agents in Macedonia was an advantage for Austria and a set-back for Italy; hut the latter scored a success in the appointment of General de Giorgis as commander of the international Macedonian gendarmerie; she also obtained, with the support of Great Britain, France and Russia, the assignment of the partly Albanian district of Monastir to the Italian officers of that corps.
The latter, after a quarrel with the duchess of Cleveland, was dismissed from the king's employment.
The 4th duke was the latter's son Thomas (1713-1789), who was succeeded by his son Francis.
The latter was so wide in its scope that it might fairly be held to supersede the former in so far as the two were inconsistent.
Only second in importance to this was the re-adjustment of the creed and liturgy of the church, which formed Cranmer's principal work during the latter half of his life.
This latter definition seems on the whole the more probable one, and it certainly would fit exactly the character of the writings to which the term relates.
He blends the tradition of the Old Testa ment with Greek philosophy, and, within the latter, exhibits that union of Platonism with Stoicism, especially in the doctrine of the Logos, which became dominant in the Christian apologists and the great theologians of the ancient church.
In the latter case, however, he was allowed a respite until he returned from the projected crusade.
Sometimes ships that are windbound and have exhausted their provision of water, touch here and apply to the natives for it; in such cases the crews sometimes fall into the hands of the latter and most of them are massacred."
The total population of the settlement, consisting of convicts, their guards, the supervising, clerical and departmental staff, with the families of the latter, also a certain number of ex-convicts and trading settlers and their families, numbered 16,106.
In the same year the two groups, Andaman and Nicobar, the occupation of the latter also having been forced on the British government (in 1869) by the continuance of outrage upon vessels, were united under a chief commissioner residing at Port Blair.
The latter are vacuolated, and contain each a nucleus and several dark granules.
Iwanzov  has brought forward strong grounds for the latter view, pointing out that the cnidoblast has no contractile mechanism and that measurements show discharged capsules to be on the average slightly larger than undischarged ones.
We can distinguish (I) digestive endoderm, in the stomach, often with special glandular elements; (2) circu-, latory endoderm, in the radial and ring canals; (3) supporting endoderm in the axes of the tentacles and in the endodermlamella; the latter is primitively a double layer of cells, produced by concrescence OC-- = w.?"
This is the case in Syncoryne mirabilis (Allman , p. 278) and in Campanularia volubilis; in the latter, free medusae are produced in summer, gonophores in winter (Duplessis ).
When the bud is nearly complete, the body-wall of the parent immediately below it becomes perforated, placing the coelenteric cavity of the parent in secondary communication with that of the bud (H), doubtless for the better nutrition of the latter.
Solitary polyps are unknown in this sub-order; the colony may be creeping or arborescent in form; if the latter, the budding of the polyps, as already stated, is of the sympodial type, and either biserial, forming stems capable of further branching, or uniserial, forming pinnules not capable of further branching.
In the latter half of the 16th century the direction of education fell into the hands of the Jesuits.
At Madrid he preached a sermon which pleased Prince Charles, afterwards Charles I., and the latter on his accession appointed Frewen one of his chaplains.
In fact, while holding firmly by the former, Bonnet more or less modified the latter in his later writings, and, at length, he admits that a " germ " need not be an actual miniature of the organism, hut that it may be merely an " original preformation " capable of producing the latter.4 But, thus defined, the germ is neither more nor less than the "particula genitalis" of Aristotle, or the "primordium vegetale" or " ovum " of Harvey; and the " evolution " of such a germ would not be distinguishable from " epigenesis."
Aristotle, Haller, Harvey, Kielmeyer, Autenrieth, and many others have either made this observation incidentally, or, especially the latter, have drawn particular attention to it, and drawn therefrom results of permanent importance for physiology."
In 1879 he founded the Aachener Geschichtsverein, and having spent his concluding years at Bonn and at Aix-la-Chapelle, he died in the latter city on the 27th of April 1887.
He was born at Rome while his father was cardinal, and on the latter's elevation to the papacy (1492) he was created archbishop of Valencia, and a year later cardinal.
In August 1498, Cesare in the consistory asked for the permission of the cardinals and the pope to renounce the priesthood, and the latter granted it "for the good of his soul."
Cesare, who could still count on the Spanish cardinals, wished to prevent the election of Giuliano della Rovere, the enemy of his house, but the latter's chances were so greatly improved that it was necessary to come to terms with him.
He showed no illwill towards Cesare, but declared that the latter's territories must be restored to the church, for "we desire the honour of recovering what our predecessors have wrongfully alienated."
It should be remembered that, from the latter part of the 3rd century, the leading bishops had generally been trained in secular learning.
If the prosecutor have first brought him before the civil judge, the evidence is to be sent to the bishop, and the latter, if he thinks the crime has been committed, may deprive him of his office and order, and the judge shall apply to him the proper legal punishment.
The latter was treated as a mere delegate, from whom an appeal could be made to the bishop. The former had one consistory with the bishop, so that appeals from him had to be made to the court of the metropolitan.
The tribunals thus subsisting are the courts of the bishop and archbishop, the latter sometimes called the court of appeal of the province.
Marcus had been, at the age of fifteen, betrothed to Fabia, the sister of Commodus; the engagement was broken off by Antoninus Pius, and he was betrothed to Faustina, the daughter of the latter.
Vauquelin, and succeeded in gaining admission, in a humble capacity, to the latter's laboratory.
The difference between these two latter substances was first pointed out by Cronstedt, and in 1778 C. Scheele prepared molybdic acid from the sulphide.
The latter are often swollen at the ends, so that the cross-wall separating two successive cells has a larger surface than if the cells were of uniform width along their entire length.
Cells of this type are often called trumpet-hyphae (though they have no connection with the hyphae of Fungi), and in some genera of Laminariaceae those at the periphery of the medulla simulate the sieve-tubes of the higher plants in a striking degree, even (like these latter) developing the peculiar substance callose on or in the perforated cross-walls or sieve-plates.
In both Algae and Fungi the latter are primarily supporting and food-conducting, and in.
The latter are plates of green tissue one cell thick, while the stem consists of uniform more or less elongated cylindrical cells.
The latter has a central strand consisting of files of large hydroids, separated from one another by very thin walls, each file being separated from its neighbor by stout, dark-brown walls.
Besides this there is usually a living conducting tissue, sometimes differentiated as leptom, forming a mantle round the hydrom, and bounded externally by a more or less well-differentiated endodermis, abutting on an irregularly cylindrical lacuna; the latter separates the central conducting cylinder from the cortex of the seta, which, like the cortex of the gametophyte stem, is usually differentiated into an outer thick-walled stereom and an inner starchy parenchyma.
In higher forms the conducting strands of the leaves are continued downwards into the stem, and eventually come into connection with the central hydrom cylinder, forming a complete cylindrical investment apparently distinct from the latter, and exhibiting a differentiation into hydrom, leptom and amylom which almost completely parallels that found among the true vascular plants.
The guard-cells contain chlorophyll, which is absent from typical epidermal cells, the latter acting as a tissue for water storage.
In the latter case each segment of the solenostele frequently resembles a Dktyosteb.
The latter is often sclerized, especially opposite the phloem, and to a less extent opposite the xylem, as in the stem.
It is only or germination of the latter that the development of the embryc into the free plant is begun.
The connections of its stele witl that of the parent axis are made across the pericycle of the latter Its cortex is never in connection with the cortex of the parent, but with its pericycle.
In the latter event the cells of the primary rays are either merely stretched radially, or they divide to keep pace with the growth of the bundles.
Thus the structure of an old thickened root approximates to that of an old thickened stem, and so far as the vascular tissue is concerned can often only be distinguished from the latter by the position and orientation of the primary xylems. The cambium of the primary root, together with the tissues which it forms, is always directly continuous with that of the primary stem, just in the same way as the tissues of the primary stele.
This consists typically of close-fitting layers of cells with completely suberized walls, intended to replace the epidermis as the external protective layer of the plant when the latter, incapable as it is of further growth after its original formation, is broken and cast off by the increase in thickness of the stem through the activity of the cambium.
Cork is also formed similarly in the root after the latter has passed through its primary stage as an absorptive organ, and its structure is becoming assimilated to that of the stem.
In the former case the formation of phelloderm is trivial in amount; in the latter, considerable, since this tissue has to replace the cast-off cortex, as a metabolic and particularly a storage tissue.