Physical surroundings rather than latitude determine the character of the flora.
As a rule, the elevation of the timber line on the mountains increases as the latitude decreases.
Even so small an area as that of Britain illustrates what has already been pointed out, that the species of a flora change both with latitude and altitude.
But during the summer, temperatures are affected as much by altitude as by latitude, and the coast is cooled at night by breezes from the Gulf.
North of the North Atlantic maximum the waters become steadily fresher as latitude increases until the channels opening into the Arctic basin are reached.
If you have some latitude regarding the color of your tiles, this won't be a problem, but if you need some verification that those attractive terracotta tiles really are . . . terracotta, don't rely on photos.
The lower levels are in climate and cultivation quite similar to the regions in the same latitude on the Malay peninsula.
As astrologers and astonomers charted the movement of the earth in a elliptical pattern around the sun, they saw both mathematical patterns (longitude and latitude), and visible evidence of seasonal nature.
And one essentially similar but adapted to slightly cooler conditions existed as far north as the latitude of Greenland.
The effect of this latitude is to give the company ample discretion in the matter, and to enable the act to be administered and the object of it to be attained without undue interference.
The stations are arranged in order of latitude.
To connect the idea of parallel lines to geography, the teacher us taught about latitude and longitude.
America, those of 46° to 32° being distributed over twenty degrees of latitude.
The large difference between the means obtained at Potsdam and Kremsmtinster, as compared to the comparative similarity between the results for Kew and Karasjok, suggests that the mean value of the potential gradient may be much more dependent on local conditions than on difference of latitude.
If both places have the same latitude we have to deal with an isosceles triangle, of which two sides and the included angle are given.
The flora and fauna are similar to those of the other states of the same latitude.
There is one set of numbers he changes for the time and he can set the location somehow by longitude and latitude.
All the fossil plants and animals of every kind are brought from this continent into a great museum; the latitude, longitude and relative elevation of each specimen are precisely recorded; a corps of investigators, having the most exact and thorough training in zoology and botany, and gifted with imagination, will soon begin to restore the geographic and physiographic outlines of the continent, its fresh, brackish and salt-water confines, its seas, rivers and lakes, its forests, uplands, plains, meadows and swamps, also to a certain extent the cosmic relations of this continent, the amount and duration of its sunshine, as well as something of the chemical constitution of its atmosphere and the waters of its rivers and seas; they will trace the progressive changes which took place in the outlines of the continent and its surrounding oceans, following the invasion§ of the land by the sea and the re-emergence of the land and retreatal of the seashore; they will outline the shoals and deeps of its border seas, and trace the barriers which prevented intermingling of the inhabitants of the various provinces of the continent and the surrounding seas.
Of the parallels of latitude, the equator only is a great circle.
In practice the courts allow themselves wide latitude in applying this principle.
The places mentioned are scattered over 31Ã‚° of longitude and 61Ã‚° of latitude.
Nevada extends thence south-eastward through Cali fornia to latitude 35.
In latitude to° S.
The climate of Lithuania is, on the whole, more moderate than that of other parts of Russia in the same latitude.
Occupying 135 degrees of latitude, living on the shores of frozen or of tropical waters; at altitudes varying from sea-level to several thousands of feet; in forests, grassy prairies or deserts; here starved, there in plenty; with a night here of six months' duration, there twelve hours long; here among health-giving winds, and there cursed with malaria - this brown man became, in different culture provinces, brunette or black, tall or short, long-headed or short-headed, and developed on his own hemisphere variations from an average type.
The mean annual temperature decreases to the north-westward with an increase of both altitude and latitude, and ranges from 73Ã‚° F.
- The great extent of Argentina in latitude - about 33° - and its range in altitude from sea-level westward to the permanently snow-covered peaks of the Andes, give it a highly diversified climate,, which is further modified by prevailing winds and mountain barriers..
Lindsay's expedition, which was fitted out by Sir Thomas Elder, the generous patron of Australian exploration, entered Western Australia about the 26th parallel south latitude, on the line of route taken by Forrest in 1874.
But the observations do not extend continuously throughout the year, and do not include a sufficient length of the central line on each evening to enable us to distinguish certainly the heliocentric latitude of the central line, as distinct from its apparent geocentric position.
Great differences also exist with regard to climate between northern and southern Italy, due in great part to other circumstances as well as to differences of latitude.
Speaking generally, the climate of the Andamans themselves may be described as normal for tropical islands of similar latitude.
The Mediterranean is all that remains of a great ocean which at an early geological epoch, before the formation of the Atlantic, encircled half the globe along a line of latitude.
The greater part of the James River Valley lies in the bed of the extinct Lake Dakota, which was once a very narrow body of water extending northward from about the latitude of the present town of Mitchell for a short distance into what is now North Dakota.
Owing to the northern latitude, comparatively high altitudes, and the great distance from the ocean, there are great annual variations of temperature and a very small amount of rainfall.
The teak tree grows all over the hill districts north of latitude 15°, but seems to attain its best development on the west, and on the east does not appear to be found south of 17°.
1.495), the apparent difference of latitude between two stations on opposite sides of the mountain being compared with the real difference of latitude obtained by triangulation.
Maskelyne also took a great interest in various geodetical operations, notably the measurement of the length of a degree of latitude in Maryland and Pennsylvania (ibid.
In North America the Carolina parakeet, Conurus carolinensis, at the beginning of the i 9th century used to range in summer as high as the shores of lakes Erie and Ontario - a latitude equal to the south of France; and even much later it reached, according to trustworthy information, the junction of the Ohio and the Mississippi, though now its limits have been so much curtailed that its occurrence in any but the Gulf States is doubtful.
These values of p refer to a standard density of the air, of 534.22 grains per cubic foot, which is the density of dry air at sea-level in the latitude of Greenwich, at a temperature of 62° F.
St Luke's phrase is a general one, " about thirty years old," and cannot be so pressed as to exclude some latitude in either direction.
So far the amount of possible latitude left is not so great as to obscure the main outline of the chronology.
To neither question can an answer be given in terms so precise as to exclude some latitude, but to both with sufficient exactness to rule out at once three of the six years.
A narrow strip of cold water runs along the equator, widest to the east and narrowing westward, and separates two areas of maximum which have their greatest intensity in the western part of the ocean, and have their central portions in higher latitudes as depth increases, apparently tending constantly to a position in about latitude 30° to 35° N.
The first resolution was a statement of the ultra states'-rights view of the relation of the states to the Federal government 2 and subsequent resolutions declare the 1 The southern boundary to the Tennessee river was surveyed in1779-1780by commissioners representing Virginia and North Carolina, and was supposed to be run along the parallel of latitude 36° 30', but by mistake was actually run north of that parallel.
of distilled water of the temperature of 4° C., under an atmospheric pressure equal to 760 millimetres at 0° C. at sea-level and latitude 45°; the weighing being made in air, but reduced by calculation to a vacuum.
The value of this intensity is equal to that of the force of gravity at the Bureau International, Paris (at the level of the Bureau), divided by 1.000332; a co-efficient which allows for theoretical reduction to the latitude 45° and to the level of the sea.
In standardizing a weight for use in India, correction has to be made for the weight of air displaced by the material standard, and for such purpose the normal temperature of 85°, atmospheric pressure 29.8 inches, latitude 22° 35` 6.5" (Calcutta), g at 0.9982515 of g at 45° are taken.
Between these rivers the boundary line is determined by the peaks of Tacana, Buenavista and Ixbul, and from the Usumacinta eastward it follows two parallels of latitude, one on the point of departure from that river, and the other, the longer, on that of 1 7° 49' to the British Honduras frontier.
Its area is usually restricted to the waters north of the latitude of Cape San Lucas, but it should be extended to the outer waters enclosed by a line from Cape San Lucas to Cape Corrientes.
- Mexico stretches across 17 parallels of latitude, with the Tropic of Cancer crossing her territory about midway.
With the natives south of the latitude of Tampico there was little trouble after the Mixton War (in Guadalajara) in 1540-1562, save for occasional risings in Yucatan, Tehuantepec, and in 1711 in the Nayarit mountain region west of Zacatecas, and Tamaulipas was conquered in 1748; but the wild Indians of Sonora and New Mexico gave constant trouble to the missions and outlying settlers.
latitude, and which made the following grants bearing upon the history of New Hampshire by their inducement to settlement, by determining the boundaries or by causing strife through their conflicts with one another: to John Mason, who has been called " the founder of New Hampshire," on the 9th of March 1622, a grant of the region between the Salem and Merrimac rivers, under the name of Mariana; to John Mason and Sir Ferdinando Gorges jointly, on the loth of August 1622, a grant of the region between the Merrimac and Kennebec rivers for 60 m.
The area of the United States, as here considered, exclusive of Alaska and outlying possessions, occupies a belt nearly twenty degrees of middle latitude in width, and crosses Boundaries sad Area, North America from the Atlantic to the Pacific. The southern boundary is naturally defined on the east by the Gulf of Mexico; its western extension crosses obliquely over the western highlands, along an irregular line determined by aggressive Americans of Anglo-Saxon stock against Americans of Spanish stock.
The northern boundary, after an arbitrary beginning, finds a natural extension along the Great Lakes, and thence continues along the 49th parallel of north latitude to the Pacific (see Bulletin 171, U.S. Geological Survey).
The northern section of the Great Plains, north of latitude 44, including eastern Montana, north-eastern Wyoming and most of the Dakotas, is a moderately dissected peneplain, one of the best examples of its class.
The Cascade Range enters from Canada, trending sotithward across the international boundary through ThePacifk Washington and Oregon to latitude 41; the Sierra Ranges.
The effects of the continent are already visible in the mean annual temperatures, in which the poleward temperature gradient is about twice as strong as it is on the neighboring oceans; this being a natural effect of the immobility of the land surface, in contrast to the circulatory movement of the ocean currents, which thus lessen the temperature differences due to latitude: on the continent such differences are developed in full force.
The temperature anomalies are also instructive: they rival those of Asia in value, though not in area, being from 15 to 20 above the mean of their latitude in the northern interior in summer, and as much below in winter.
The warmed air of summer produces an area of low pressure in the west-central United States, which interrupts the belt of high pressure that planetary conditions alone would form around the earth about latitude 30; hence there is a tendency of the summer winds to blow inward from the northern Pacific over the Cordilleras toward the continental centre, and from the trades of the torrid Atlantic up the Mississippi Valley; conversely in winter time, the cold air over the lands produces a large area of high pressure from which the winds tend to flow outward; thus repelling the westerly winds of the northern Pacific and greatly intensifying the outflow southward to the Gulf of Mexico and eastward to the Atlantic. As a result of these seasonal alternations of temperature and pressure there is something of a monsoon tendency developed in the winds of the Mississippi Valley, southerly infiowing winds prevailing in summer and northerly outfiowing winds in winter; but the general tendency to inflow and outflow is greatly modified by the relief of the lands, to which we next turn.
The countrys centre of population in 110 years moved more than 5oo m westward, almost exactly along the 39th parallel of latitude: 9.5 degrees of longitude, with an extreme variation.
of less than 19 minutes of latitude.
Its boundary on the south is the parallel of latitude 49°, between the Pacific Ocean and Lake-of-the-Woods, then a chain of small lakes and rivers eastward to the mouth of Pigeon river on the north-west side of Lake Superior, and the Great Lakes with their connecting rivers to Cornwall, on the St Lawrence.
In Canada a very fine wheat crop was raised in the autumn of 1898 as far north as the mission at Fort Providence, on the Mackenzie river, in a latitude above 62° - or less than m.
south of the latitude of Dawson City - the period between seed-time and harvest having been ninety-one days.
The climate is remarkably temperate and equable for so northerly a latitude.
The Siberian larch has smooth grey bark and smaller cones, approaching in shape somewhat to those of the American hackmatack; it seems even hardier than the Alpine tree, growing up to latitude 68°, but, as the inclement climate of the polar shores is neared, dwindling down to a dwarf and even trailing bush.
By them a written law has been substituted for that unwritten law which nations had been wont to construe with a latitude more or less corresponding to their power.
Aberration Of Light This astronomical phenomenon may be defined as an apparent motion of the heavenly bodies; the stars describing annually orbits more or less elliptical, according to the latitude of the star; consequently at any moment the star appears to be displaced from its true position.
Hooke, in 1674, published his observations of y Draconis, a star of the second magnitude which passes practically overhead in the latitude of London, and whose observations are therefore singularly free from the complex corrections due to astronomical refraction, and concluded that this star was 23" more northerly in July than in October.
The oscillation of the earth's axis may arise in two distinct ways; distinguished as " nutation of the axis " and " variation of latitude.
the north and south poles occupy permanent geographical positions, yet the axis is not directed towards a fixed point in the heavens; variation of latitude, however, is associated with the shifting of the axis within the earth, i.e.
His conclusions may be thus summarized: (r) only stars near the solstitial colure had their maximum north and south positions when the sun was near the equinoxes, (2) each star was at its maximum positions when it passed the zenith at six o'clock morning and evening (this he afterwards showed to be inaccurate, and found the greatest change in declination to be proportional to the latitude of the star), (3) the apparent motions of all stars at about the same time was in the same direction.
The minor axis, on the other hand, is not constant, but, as we have already seen, depends on the latitude, being the product of the major axis into the sine of the latitude.
The climate is cooler than that of other regions in the same latitude, and is very healthy.
Having encouraged a warlike spirit in his people and having introduced firearms, Kamehameha attacked and overcame the chiefs of the other kingdoms one after another, until (in 1795) he became undisputed master of the whole group. He made John Young (c. 1775-1835) and Isaac Davis, Americans from one of the ships of Captain Metcalf which visited the island in 1789, his advisers, encouraged trade with foreigners, 2 Their discovery in the 16th century (in 1542 or 1555 by Juan Gaetan, or in 1528 when two of the vessels of Alvaro de Saavedra were shipwrecked here and the captain of one, with his sister, survived and intermarried with the natives) seems probable, because there are traces of Spanish customs in the islands; and they are marked in their correct latitude on an English chart of 1687, which is apparently based on Spanish maps; a later Spanish chart (1743) gives a group of islands 10 0 E.
The time of transit of the sun or star across the vertical wire of the telescope having been observed by means of a chronometer of which the error is known, it is possible to calculate the azimuth of the sun or star, if the latitude and longitude, of the place of observation are given.
in the latitude of Greenwich is about T 11n.
The Tharthar (Assyrian Tartar, in Tukulti-Ninib II.'s inscription) begins in the Sinjar range and runs southwards, to lose itself in the desert a little above the latitude of Hit.
and N.E., Silesia has a somewhat severe climate for its latitude, the mean annual temperature being 50 F., while the annual rainfall varies from 20 to 30 in.
latitude forms the boundary between it and New York on the N.; Mason and Dixon's line is the border between it and Maryland and West Virginia on the south and a north and south line marks the boundary between it and West Virginia and Ohio on the west.
The song and insectivorous birds - thrushes, flycatchers, vireos and woodpeckers - of this latitude, are well represented, and the high plateaus (particularly the Pocono plateau) have especial ornithological interest as the tarrying-places, during the migratory seasons, of many species of birds whose natural breeding ground is much farther north.
PHOENICIA, in ancient geography, the name given to that part of the seaboard of Syria which extends from the Eleutherus (Nahr el-Kebir) in the north to Mt Carmel in the south, a distance of rather more than two degrees of latitude.
The greatest elevation of the Arakan Yomas in Henzada, attained in the latitude of Myan-aung, is 4003 ft.
It is, indeed, estimated that such positions enjoy an increased temperature equal to 7° of latitude - that is to say, the mean temperature within a few inches of the wall is equal to the mean temperature of the open plain 7° farther south.
W.) (B) For the United States (chiefly for the latitude of New York).
The best date for latitude of New York is September 15th.
All vegetable roots that are yet in the ground, and not designed to be left there over winter, must be dug up in this latitude before the middle of the month or they may be frozen in.
Celery in trenches should receive the final covering for the winter, which is best done by leaves or light stable litter; in the latitude of New York it should not be less than 12 in.
The finest furs are obtained from the Arctic and northern regions, and the lower the latitude the less full and silky the fur, till, at the torrid zone, fur gives place to harsh hair without any underwool.
The latitude is approximately that of Moscow, Berwickon-Tweed and Hopedale in Labrador.
Its situation is very beautiful, the moist climate (mean annual rainfall, 74 in.) fostering on the steep surrounding hills a vegetation unusually luxuriant for the latitude.
The tides, which are very high, run into it with amazing velocity, but at low water the bottom is left nearly dry for some distance below the latitude of the town of Cambay.
Being also sheltered from the north and east by the hills at the foot of which it nestles, the town enjoys an exceptionally mild climate for its latitude.
The extent of Asoka's dominion included all India from the thirteenth degree of latitude up to the Himalayas, Nepal, Kashmir, the Swat valley, Afghanistan as far as the Hindu Kush, Sind and Baluchistan.
- The successful commercial production of tea on a large scale is confined to a strictly limited area enclosed by about 40° of latitude (5° S.
A straight line of latitude runs through all of these.
From the latitude of Bagdad northward the region between the two rivers is an arid, waterless, limestone steppe, inhabited only by roving Arabs.
From the latitude of Bagdad southward the country is entirely alluvial soil, deposited by the rivers Tigris and Euphrates, possessing great possibilities of fertility, but absolutely flat and subject to inundations at the time of flood of the two rivers.
Lincoln tolerated this latitude as falling properly within the military discretion pertaining to local army operations.
Its northern range in Europe does not seem to have extended farther than the southern frontier of Bavaria, or the neighbourhood of Salzburg; 1 but in Asia it formerly reached a higher latitude, having been found even so lately as 1830 in the Amur region where, according to G.
The climate of Ontario varies greatly, as might be expected from its wide range in latitude and the relationships of the Great Lakes to the southern peninsula of the province.
In the southern hemisphere there is comparatively little inhabited land in high latitudes and observational data are few; thus little is known as to how the frequency varies with latitude and longitude.
The stations are arranged according to latitude.
points changes rapidly with change of latitude and longitude, and has a large diurnal variation.
In 1892 the Congo State expedition established posts up to the seventh parallel of north latitude.
Cape Fligely was the highest latitude attained by Payer, and remained the highest attained in the Old World till 1895.
Before this, state and Federal courts had taken wide latitude in considering the " general tendency " of utterances.
The principal fruit of the observations was a catalogue of about a thousand stars, the places of which were determined by the methods usually employed in the 16th century, connecting a fundamental star by means of Venus with the sun, and thus finding its longitude and latitude, while other stars could at any time be referred to the fundamental star.
Including the islands, however, the extreme latitude north is 60° 51' 30" (Out Stack in the Shetlands) and the extreme longitude west 8° 35' 30" (St Kilda).
The Babahoyo, which is the main stream, has its sources on the slopes of Chimborazo, the Daule on the Sandomo ridge in the latitude of Pichincha, the Yaguachi on the south-eastern slopes of Chimborazo, whence it flows southward for a considerable distance before breaking through the Cordillera to the western plain.
border, is 47° F., and it increases to the southward at the rate of about 2° for every degree of latitude, being 52° F.
The climate of Vancouver Island, especially in the south, is wonderfully mild for the latitude - as mild as that of Great Britain, with dryer summers.
The axis F of the instrument is set at an angle equal to the latitude of the place of observation and in the meridian by means of the screw K, and rotated by clockwork contained in the barrel H.
The setting in the meridian is effected by turning the instrument after setting for latitude until a pin-hole aperture s and a small screen P, placed so that Ps is parallel to CO, are in a line with the sun.
The dry season is at the time of the trade-winds, which extend a few degrees farther north than this latitude.
South of this promontory the plain begins to widen again; on the latitude of Acre (Akka), from which this part of the plain takes its name, it is from 4 to 5 m.
to the south, it is about 2 m.; from this point it expands uniformly to about 20 m., which is the breadth at the latitude of Ascalon.
This part of the plain is (in European nomenclature) divided into two at about the latitude of Jaffa, that to the north being the plain of Sarona (Sharon), the southern half being the plain of the Philistines.
A vertical plane passing through A A is therefore in the meridian, and the polar axis is inclined to the horizon at an angle equal to that of the latitude of the place of observation.
If now a wheel W is forced up against q with a pressure equal to the weight of the moving part of the instrument, the whole weight of the moving part would rest upon W in unstable equilibrium; or if a pressure R, less than W, is employed, we have the end friction on the lower bearing removed to an extent = R sin 4),4), and the friction on the bearings of the upper pivot removed to the extent of F cos 4), - where 4 is the latitude of the place.
Its original use was the determination of geographical latitudes in the field work of geodetic operations; more recently it has been extensively employed for the determination S of variation of latitude, at fixed stations, under the auspices of the International Geodetic Bureau, and for the astronomical determination of the constant of aberration.
Assuming, for example, that the northern star has the smaller right ascension, the instrument is first, with the aid of the stop, placed in the meridian towards the north; the verniers of the graduated circle g are set to read to the reading 40-2(Sn+Ss) where 0 is the approximate latitude of the place and Sn, Ss the declinations of the northern and southern star respectively; then the level frame h is turned till the levels k and I are in the middle of their run, and there clamped by the screw m, aided in the final adjustment by the adjoining slow motion screw shown in the figure.
Suppose now, for the moment, that the readings of the levels k and l are identical in both observations, we have then, in the difference between the micrometer readings north and south, a measure of the difference of the two zenith distances expressed in terms of the micrometer screw; and, if the "` value of one revolution of the micrometer screw" is known in seconds of arc we have for the resulting latitude FIG.
NIU?II1010 which he has erected at Cambridge (Eng.) and applied to an investigation of the change of latitude and a determination of the constant of refraction.
At every degree of latitude the sledges were lightened by forming a depot of provisions for the return journey.
From January to the middle of April, Mauritius, in common with the neighbouring islands and the surrounding ocean from 8° to 30° of southern latitude is subject to severe cyclones, accompanied by torrents of rain, which often cause great destruction to houses and plantations.
The climate is warm for the latitude, but the higher elevations of the vicinity are noted for their mild climate and healthfulness.
from shore to shore, and an outer roadstead exposed to the violent winds of this latitude, where the larger ocean-going steamers were compelled to anchor before the construction of the new port works.
Throughout the archipelago the mean annual temperature varies much more with the altitude than with the latitude, but the range in mean monthly temperatures increases from 3.96° F.
The British engineer prefers to state results in terms of foot-pounds of work in any convenient latitude per pound-degree-Fahrenheit of heat.
Jacques Cassini also proved that Arcturus had even since the time of Tycho Brahe shifted five minutes in latitude; for r l Bootis, which would have shared in the change, if it had been due to a motion of the ecliptic, had not moved appreciably.
These stars include most of the brighter ones visible in the latitude of Greenwich, ranging down to about the seventh magnitude.
This is confirmed by the fact that the Milky Way is not quite a great circle of the celestial sphere, but has a mean south galactic latitude of about 1.7°.
In the first place, the climate of the entire Pacific Coast is milder and more uniform in temperature than that of the states in corresponding latitude east of the mountains.
to find the same mean yearly temperature as that of Halifax, Nova Scotia, in latitude 44° 39'.
The places mentioned are scattered over 31° of longitude and 61° of latitude.
Its habitat extends some 200 m., from latitude 36° to 39°, nowhere descending much below an altitude of 5000 ft., nor rising above 8000 ft.
But his name is chiefly perpetuated through his investigation of the motions of sun-spots, by which he determined the elements of the sun's rotation and made the important discovery of a systematic drift of the photosphere, causing the rotation-periods of spots to lengthen with increase of solar latitude.
WYOMING, one of the Central Western states of the United States of America, situated between the parallels of latitude 41° and 45° N., and the meridians of longitude 27° and 34° W.
latitude; but, besides minor conflicts, a considerable portion of the garrison of Fort Laramie was killed in 18J4 and there was trouble for more than twenty years.
If these junks could cross the Pacific in the latitude of Hawaii it is not at all unlikely that others running in a south-easterly direction would reach some of the many atolls which stretch over about 35° of longitude, forming the Caroline and Marshall archipelagoes.
It throws off, in the latitude of Kaisarieh, a subsidiary range, the Binboa Dagh, which separates the waters of the Sihun from those of the Jihun.
Purgatory, for example, is usually thought of as having some position in space, and as being distinct from heaven and hell; but any theory as to its exact latitude and longitude, such as underlies Dante's description, must be regarded as imaginative.
by North Carolina and Tennessee, the boundary line being nominally a parallel of latitude, but actually a more irregular line.
It increases somewhat with the latitude, the extreme variation from the equator to the pole being about ~ %.
The deviation of the earths figure from sphericity, and the variation of g with latitude, are here ignored.
This would cause a periodic variation in the latitude of any place on the earths surface, as determined by astronomical methods.
There appears to be evidence of a slight periodic variation of latitude, but the period would seem to be about fourteen months.
it attains the depth of 700 fathoms. South of the 1200fathom depression a ridge rises to 500 fathoms in the latitude of Jidda, and south of this again a similar depression goes down to 1190 fathoms. Throughout this northern part, i.e.
across, extends farther and farther seaward, until in the latitude of Hodeda the deep channel (marked by the loo-fathom line) is only 20 m.
To the north-west of the volcanic island of Zebayir the depth is less than 500 fathoms; the bottom of the channel rises to the ioofathom line at Hanish Island (also volcanic), then shoals to 45 fathoms, and sinks again in about the latitude of Mokha in a narrow channel which curves westward round the island of Perim (depth 170 fathoms), to lose itself in the Indian Ocean.
T Daily variations of temperature are observable to a depth of over 50 fathoms. Temperature is, on the whole, higher near the Arabian than the Egyptian side, but it everywhere diminishes with increase of depth and latitude, down to 380 fathoms from the surface; below this depth a uniform constant temperature of 70.7° F.
The wines of the Rhine are grown in the most northerly latitude at which viticulture is successful in Europe, and consequently, when the seasons are not too unpropitious, they display the hardiness and distinction characteristic of northern products.
Accordingly the Territory of Jefferson arose, assuming to rule over six degrees of latitude (37 0 -43°) and eight of longitude (102°-IIo°).
The low humidity, high altitudes and southern latitude all combine to make the climate salubrious and especially beneficial to persons suffering with pulmonary disorders.
of the latitude of Santa Fe vegetables and deciduous fruits flourish where the watersupply is ample.
It lies between 34 33' and 35° 41' N., and between 32° 20' and 34 35' E., so that it is situated in almost exactly the same latitude as Crete.
The latitude is L 63° 26' N., that of southern Iceland.
Not only will most tropical plants refuse to live in a temperate climate, but many species are seriously injured by removal a few degrees of latitude beyond their natural limits.
- The climate of the Scandinavian peninsula as a whole is so far tempered by the warm Atlantic drift from the south-west as to be unique in comparison with other countries of so high a latitude.
The heavy and continuous rainfall throughout this region, especially in the latitude of Chiloe, gives rise to a large number of rivers and lakes.
Pissis, " Sur la constitution geologique de la chaine des Andes entre le 16 e et le 55 e degre de latitude sud," Ann.
The date-palm thrives well as far north as Tabbas in latitude 33 36 and at an altitude of 2000 ft.
On the death of the Shah Rukh in 1446 he was succeeded by his son Ulugh Bey, whose scientific tastes are demonstrated in the astronomical tables bearing his name, quoted by European writers when determining the latitude of places in Persia.
The two left Paris in 1806 and began operations among the mountains of Spain, but Biot returned to Paris after they had determined the latitude of Formentera, the southernmost point to which they were to carry the survey, leaving Arago to make the geodetical connexion of Majorca with Ivica and with Formentera.
An act passed in 1836 (the Cape of Good Hope Punishment Act) empowered the colonial courts to deal with offences committed by British subjects in any part of South Africa up to the 25th degree of south latitude.
The condor is a native of South America, where it is confined to the region of the Andes, from the Straits of Magellan to 4° north latitude, - the largest examples, it is said, being found about the volcano of Cayambi, situated on the equator.
Speaking broadly, the general type of the flora of the lower, hotter and wetter regions, which extend along the great plain at the foot of the Himalaya, and include the valleys of the larger rivers which penetrate far into the mountains, does not differ from that of the contiguous peninsula and islands, though the tropical and insular character gradually becomes less marked going from east to west, where, with a greater elevation and distance from the sea and higher latitude, the rainfall and humidity diminish and the winter cold increases.
Bolivia has a wide range of temperature between places of the same latitude.
The former, which are chiefly Aymaras south of the latitude of Lake Titicaca, attained a considerable degree of civilization before the discovery of America and have been in closer contact with Europeans than the other tribes of Bolivia.
In 1862 a treaty of peace and commerce with the United States was ratified, and in the following year a similar treaty was concluded with Belgium; but new causes of disagreement with Chile had arisen in the discovery of rich beds of guano on the eastern coast-land of the desert of Atacama, which threatened warfare, and were only set at rest by the treaty of August 1866, in which the 24th parallel of latitude was adopted as the boundary between the two republics.
The temperature of Arizona is somewhat higher than that of points of equal latitude on the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts.
We read in Gibbon that "Honorius excluded all persons who were adverse to the catholic church from holding any office in the state," that he "obstinately rejected the service of all those who dissented from his religion," and that "the law was applied in the utmost latitude and rigorously executed."
Army followed carefully to the latitude of Gradishte, while the III., parts of which - for the sake of earlier contact with the I.
"The rubrics as retained from the Book of Geneva made provision for an extempore prayer before the sermon, and allowed the minister some latitude in the other two prayers.
The next important tributary is the Nam Hsim, on the left bank, rising in the latitude of Keng Tang.
He is the reputed inventor besides of two instruments to enable sailors "to find out the latitude without seeing of sun, moon or stars," an account of which is given in Thomas Blondeville's Theoriques of the Planets (London, 1602).
in the south, is rather higher than is usual in the same latitude.
wide on the 45th parallel of latitude.
- Between the extreme northern and southern sections of the state there is a greater variation in climate than would naturally result from their difference in latitude.
On account of the proximity to the sea, New Jersey has a more equable climate than have some of the states in the same latitude farther west.
On the New England tableland, under latitude 30° S., the yearly average temperature is 56.5°, the mean summer 67.7° and the mean winter 44.3°.
A narrow but well-marked pass or depression, known as the Tyne Gap, is taken to separate the Cheviot system from the Pennine Chain, which is properly to be described as a wide tract of hillcountry, extending through two degrees of latitude, on an axis from N.
The pressure at any given latitude is normally highest in the centre of the country and on the east coast, and lowest on the west coast.
corners, and sweeping in a vast arc over 6 degrees of latitude and 58 degrees of longitude.
The range of latitude from Point Barrow in the Arctic Ocean to Cape Muzon is almost 17 degrees - as great as from New Orleans to Duluth; the range of longitude from Attu Island to the head of Portland Canal is 58 degrees - considerably greater than from New York to San Francisco.
The climate of the state is moist and, for its latitude, cold.
Extremes of temperature are not so great as farther inland in the same latitude; for the summer heats are tempered by the sea and the cool north winds, and the winter cold is so constant as to be less severely felt than the changing temperature of more southern districts.
In 1620 the Council for New England, the successor of the Plymouth Company, obtained a grant of the country between latitude 40° and 48° N.
The treaty of 1783 (Article II.) had defined the north-east boundary of the United States as extending along the middle of the river St Croix " from its mouth in the bay of Fundy to its source " and " due north from the source of St Croix river to the highlands; along the said highlands which divide those rivers that empty themselves into the river St Lawrence from those which fall into the Atlantic Ocean, to the north-westernmost head of Connecticut river; thence down along the middle of that river to the forty-fifth degree of north latitude."
van Eetvelde, administrator-general of the foreign affairs of the Congo State, informed the French minister at Brussels that the International Association had not intended in 1884 that the right subsequently gave rise to considerable discussions with France, and eventually a protocol, signed at Brussels on the 29th of April 1887, continued the boundary along the Congo to its confluence with the Ubangi (Mobangi), whence it followed the thalweg of that river to its intersection with the 4th parallel of north latitude, below which parallel it was agreed that the northern boundary of the Congo Free State should in no case descend.
After each name are given the longitude, latitude, "climate," spelling, and then observations generally taken from earlier authors.
They are carried across the disk by the sun's rotation, partaking in the equatorial acceleration; they also show marked displacements of their own, whether with, or relative to, the neighbouring photosphere does not appear; at the beginning of their life they usually outrun the average daily rotation appropriate to their latitude.
Rotation period; latitude o° :24.46d 300:26.43d 60°:29.634 80°:30.56d Solar constant, or units of energy received per minute per square centimetre at earth's mean distance: 2 I calories.
in this latitude), and is sometimes distinguished with the name borne by the republic for the time being.
The course of the Magdalena traverses nine degrees of latitude and is nearly moo m.
Above this tropical zone in the mountainous regions are to be found all the varying gradations of climate which we are accustomed to associate with changes in latitude.
The large extent of ocean is primarily responsible for the lower temperature of the air in places south of the tropics compared with that experienced in countries in the same latitude north of the equator.
In 1890 the ownership of the lake was divided by Great Britain and Germany, the first degree of south latitude being taken as the boundary line.
It is known that within thirty years after the discovery of the Pacific Ocean the Spaniards had explored the western coasts of the American continent from the isthmus to the vicinity of the forty-second parallel of north latitude, and it is possible that the Spanish pilot Bartolome Ferrelo (or Ferrer), who in 1 543 made the farthest northward voyage in the Pacific recorded in the first half of the 16th century, may have reached a point on the Oregon coast.
In 1603 Sebastian Vizcaino, acting under orders of the viceroy of Mexico, reached the latitude of 42° N., and Martin Aguilar, with another vessel of the fleet, reached a point near latitude 43° which he called Cape Blanco and claimed to have discovered there a large river.
The dispute arose from the designation, in the grant to Penn, of the southern boundary of Pennsylvania mainly as the parallel marking the " beginning of the fortieth degree of Northerne Latitude," after the northern boundary of Maryland had been defined as a line " which lieth under the fortieth degree of north latitude from the equinoctial."
The measure of the earth, which had hitherto been accepted by geographers and navigators, was based on the very rough estimate that the length of a degree of latitude of the earth's surface measured along a meridian was .60 m.
South of the belt salinity falls quickly as latitude increases, while to the north of it, in the monsoon region, the surface water is very fresh off the African coast and to the north-east.
latitude, and 100 m.
Near this place a number of streams unite to form the river Arinos, which at latitude io° 25' joins the Juruena to form the Alto Tapajos, so called as low down as the Rio Manoel, entering from the east.
Its ramifications drain the slopes of the Andes between 12° and 15° of latitude.
Gunter's Quadrant, an instrument made of wood, brass or other substance, containing a kind of stereographic projection of the sphere on the plane of the equinoctial, the eye being supposed to be placed in one of the poles, so that the tropic, ecliptic, and horizon form the arcs of circles, but the hour circles are other curves, drawn by means of several altitudes of the sun for some particular latitude every year.
- Considering its high latitude and situation, Iceland has a relatively mild climate.
The theory of the system is that the metre is a 1000-1000Y Part of a quandrant of the earth through Paris; the litre or unit of volume is a cube ofmetre side; the gramme or unit of weight is (nominally) 10 water at 4° C. The idea of adopting scientific measurements had been suggested as early as the 17th century, particularly by the astronomer Jean Picard (1620-1682), who proposed to take as a unit the length of a pendulum beating one second at sealevel, at a latitude of 45°.
It is our system of defining the position of a point on the earth's surface by its latitude and longitude.
The angle QOP is the latitude of the place and the angle NOQ its longitude.
The longitudes and latitudes thus defined are geocentric, and the latitude is slightly different from that in ordinary use for geographic purposes.
The relation of geocentric to apparent co-ordinates depends upon the latitude of the observer.
Latitudinal Co-ordinate; Latitude or Ecliptic Polar Distance.
It may then be taken as certain that the heavens described by Aratus in 270 B.C. represented approximately observations made some 2500 years earlier in or near north latitude 400.
There is also a libration in latitude, arising from the fact that the axis of rotation of the moon is not precisely perpendicular to the plane of her orbit.
The expressions for the longitude, latitude `and parallax appear as an infinite trigonometric series, in which the coefficients of the sines and cosines are themselves infinite series proceeding according to the powers of the above small numbers.
The range from north to south of Great Britain in the same month is some 10°, but the greater extent of latitude accounts only for a part of this difference, which is mainly occasioned by the physical configuration of the surface of Ireland in its relations to the prevailing moist W.S.W.
C. Chandler to determine the latitude or correct the timepiece, of great value because of its freedom from instrumental errors.
As among races much less advanced in civilization than the Vedic Indians, each of the greater powers has his own separate department, however much his worshippers may be inclined to regard him as an absolute premier with undisputed latitude of personal government.
It is frequently precipitated as hoar-frost, snow or hail; and in the glaciers and snows of lofty mountain systems or of regions of high latitude it exists on a gigantic scale, being especially characteristic of the seas and lands around the poles.
In the west the flora, at least in the north, resembles that of central Europe, while in the east it is distinctly Mediterranean in character, though the difference of latitude is only about 1°, on both sides of the chain from the centre whence the Cobieres stretch north-eastwards towards the central plateau of France.
Owing to the varying latitude of the ship, and the fact that the observer attempted to draw curves of equal brilliancy instead of the central line, the required conclusions cannot be drawn with certainty from these observations.
The latitude of a point on the earth's surface is its angular distance from the equator, measured on the curved surface of the earth.
Latitude thus determined by the plumb-line is termed astronomical.
The geocentric latitude of a place is the angle which the line from the earth's centre to the place makes with the plane of the equator.
Geographical latitude, which is used in mapping, is based on the supposition that the earth is an elliptic spheroid of known compression, and is the angle which the normal to this spheroid makes with the equator.
It differs from the astronomical latitude only in being corrected for local deviation of the plumb-line.
The latitude of a celestial object is the angle which the line drawn from some fixed point of reference to the object makes with the plane of the ecliptic.
The latitude of a point on the earth's surface, as above defined, is measured from the equator.
Up to 1890 the most careful observations and researches failed to establish the periodicity of such a rotation, though there was strong evidence of a variation of latitude.
C. Chandler, from an elaborate discussion of a great number of observations, showed that there was really a variation of the latitude of the points of observation; but, instead of the period being 305 days, it was about 428 days.
The annual term in the latitude is thus accounted for.
When the fluctuation in the position of the pole was fully confirmed, its importance in astronomy and geodesy led the International Geodetic Association to establish a series of stations round the globe, as nearly as possible on the same parallel of latitude, for the purpose of observing the fluctuation with a greater degree of precision than could be attained by the miscellaneous observations before available.
The principal stations are: Carloforte, Italy; Mizusawa, Japan; Gaithersburg, Maryland; and Ukiah, California, all nearly on the same parallel of latitude, 39° 8'.
While in the west of the Andes, from the latitude of Aconcagua, the central valley of Chile runs without any notable interruption to the south end of the continent, a valley which almost disappears to the north, leaving only some rare inflexions which are considered by Chilean geographers and geologists to be a continuation of the same valley; to the east in Argentina a longitudinal valley, perfectly characterized, runs along the eastern foot of the Cordillera, separating this from the preCordillera, which is parallel to the Cordillera de la Costa of Chile.
The Neocomian flora has been collected from an area extending over about 30° of latitude; but there is little evidence of any corresponding climatic change.
The flora found in Mull points distinctly to temperate conditions; but it is not yet clear whether this indicates a different period from the subtropical flora of the south of England, or whether the difference depends on latitude or local conditions.
From Europe it will be convenient to pass to a distant region of similar latitude, so that we may see to what extent botanical provinces existed in Eocene and Oligocene times.
The Tertiary flora of Greenland is of great interest, from the extremely high latitude at which the plants flourished, thirty of the species having been collected so far north as lat.
Such an assemblage at the present day would suggest a latitude quite 25° farther south; but it shows decidedly colder conditions than any of the European Eocene, Oligocene, or Miocene strata.
If these different deposits are contemporaneous, as is not improbable, there is a distinct change in the flora as we move farther from the pole, which suggests that difference of latitude then as now was accompanied by a difference in the flora.
But if this process is continuous from latitude to latitude, then we ought not to look for a flora of equivalent age in the warm-temperate Miocene deposits of central Europe, but should rather expect to find that the temperate plants of Greenland were contemporaneous with a tropical flora in central Europe.
As Mr Starkie Gardner has pointed out, it does not seem reasonable to assume that the same flora could have ranged then through 40° of latitude; it is more probable that an Eocene temperate flora found in the Arctic regions travelled southwards as the climate became cooler, till it became the Miocene temperate flora of central Europe.
Tycho Brahe, when compiling his catalogue of stars, was unable to observe Lupus, Ara, Corona australis and Piscis australis, on account of the latitude of Uranienburg; and hence these constellations are omitted from his catalogue.
TENNESSEE, a South Central state of the United States of North America, lying between latitude 35° and latitude 36° 40' N.
by Kentucky and Virginia along a line which, because of erroneous surveys, varies considerably, east of the Tennessee river, from the intended boundary - the line of latitude 36° 30' N.
(See Terrestrial magnetism.) In astronomy the declination is the angular distance, as seen from the earth, of a heavenly body from the celestial equator, thus corresponding with terrestrial latitude.
While the GPS figures listed were in the standard sequence of latitude and longitude, Quinn seemed to take these figures and assign a numeric equivalent of his own.
My understanding was limited to knowing zero degrees latitude began at the equator and increased to ninety degrees at the poles.
BII The ecliptic latitude corresponding to the given right ascension.
celestial equator at a meridian is a function of the latitude of the observer.
So terrestrial latitude would have to be 63 north for a lunar standstill north to be truly circumpolar today.
The general negative correlation between the two data sets, dominated by the Galactic plane to high Galactic latitude variation, is readily apparent.
cosine of the latitude.
Each grid box was weighted by surface area, using the cosine of the latitude.
Such measurements show a winter downdraft that is strongest over the latitude range from 40° to 60° .
The ecliptic latitude of an object in the sky is its angular distance north or south of the ecliptic latitude of an object in the sky is its angular distance north or south of the ecliptic.
The altitude of the celestial equator at a meridian is a function of the latitude of the observer.
The Van Allen belts span only about forty degrees of earth's latitude -- twenty degrees above and below the magnetic equator.
exclusion zone was amended to south of latitude 33 degrees North.
galactic longitude 90 degrees, latitude 0 degrees.
galactic latitude of the object in decimal degrees.
geodetic latitude should be corrected for polar motion.
AMT sampling covers almost the entire gradient of oceanic productivity from oligotrophic ocean gyres to seasonally high productive high latitude and equatorial upwelling waters.
icebreaker hull, we navigate high latitude waterways closed to conventional shipping.
The aim of the collaboration between Sheffield and Aberystwyth is to combine modeling studies with experimental observations of the high- latitude ionosphere.
It is capable of determining latitude, longitude, and altitude of the individual user.
It also allowed much more latitude in terms of plot.
The Astronomical Almanac reports the galactic latitude of the object in decimal degrees.
The optimum heading will vary depending on your geomagnetic latitude.
The ecliptic latitude of an object in the sky is its angular distance north or south of the ecliptic.
Its climate can be milder than its northerly latitude would suggest.
latitude X1 is a decent performer.
latitude laptops with touchpads and I struggled to get the touchpads turned off.
latitude scales on the sides.
In any case, the exposure latitude is far greater than that of slide film.
So far only the southern sky above 60 degrees latitude has been covered.
It bent around in such a curve as to end in a wide angle toward two degrees forty minutes north latitude.
latitude in the northern hemisphere lies mainly in the Arctic ocean.
latitude of the object in decimal degrees.
May 07, 2006 Zutons join lineup for Latitude Festival The Zutons join the line-up for the new ' Latitude ' festival.
Tuva lies between 89 degrees and 100 degrees east longitude, and 49 and 53 degrees north latitude.
longitude of every star, leaving the ecliptic latitude unchanged.
meridional winds act as the driver of the low latitude storm response by changing the dynamo action of the winds.
For generally northbound or southbound aircraft, latitude is to be expressed in degrees only, longitude in degrees and minutes.
northerly latitude would suggest.
Cowlishaw G & Hacker JE (1997) Distribution, diversity and latitude in African primates.
The tribunal recognize, as stated in Decision 112, that latitude should be allowed where the home is in a building not purpose-built.
secant of the suns latitude.
sine of the latitude of the place = the secant of the suns latitude.
At what latitude is sunrise 12 hours away from astronomical solstice?
North of this latitude solstice sunrise will be Friday, south of that latitude solstice sunrise will be saturday.
southerly latitude of 12 degrees 58 minutes.
thin plate splines were used to interpolate the station anomalies as a function of latitude and longitude.
Perhaps this dangerous latitude comes of the fact that we never have any temperance " rot " going on in Hartford.
Sweden geography Sweden enjoys a mostly temperate climate despite its northern latitude, mainly due to the Gulf Stream.
vary with solar latitude and activity.
Therefore the revised wording provides a degree of latitude.
In 1996 the southern air exclusion zone was amended to south of latitude 33 degrees North.
It may be safely stated that Lotze would allow much latitude to individual convictions, as indeed it is evident that the empty notion of an absolute can only become living and significant to us in the same degree as experience and thought have taught us to realize the seriousness of life, the significance of creation, the value of the beautiful and the good, and the supreme worth of personal holiness.
In the great tract of forest between the Ganges and Kistna rivers they occur locally as far west as Bilaspur and Mandla; they are met with in the Western Ghats as far north as between latitude 17 0 and 18Ã‚°, and are likewise found in the hill FIG.
The Pine-grosbeak (Pinicola enucleator) inhabits the coniferzone of both the Old and the New Worlds, seeking, in Europe and probably elsewhere, a lower latitude as winter approaches - often journeying in large flocks; stragglers have occasionally reached the British Islands (Yarrell, Br.
gives the annual variation of the potential gradient at a number of stations arranged according to latitude, the mean value for the whole year being taken in each case as too.
gives the mean diurnal variation for the whole year at a number of stations arranged in order of latitude, the mean from the 24 hourly values being taken as loo.
In temperate latitudes, speaking generally, the higher the latitude the fewer the thunderstorms. For instance, for Edinburgh (64) (1771 to 1900) and London (65) (1763 to 1896) R.
- The great extent of Argentina in latitude - about 33Ã‚° - and its range in altitude from sea-level westward to the permanently snow-covered peaks of the Andes, give it a highly diversified climate,, which is further modified by prevailing winds and mountain barriers..
Southern Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego, for instance, although they correspond in latitude to Labrador, are made habitable and an excellent sheep-grazing country by the southerly equatorial current along the continental coast.
If the republic be divided into sections by east and west lines, diversities of climate in the same latitude appear.
The references to it in the Pentateuch are confined to rough geographical indications of the latitude of the transJordanic camp of the Israelites in Moab before their crossing of the river.
The contour of the continent in latitude 30Ã‚° 5' is as follows: - a short strip of coastal plain; then a sharp incline rising to a mountain range 4000 ft.
In the latitude of Brisbane the chain swerves inland; no other peak north of this reaches higher than Mount Bartle Frere in the Bellenden Ker Range (5438 ft.).
- The Australian continent, extending over 28Ã‚° of latitude, might be expected to show a considerable diversity of climate.
Sydney, situated in latitude 33Ã‚°51'S., has a mean temperature of 62.9Ã‚° Fahr., which corresponds with that of Barcelona in Spain and of Toulon in France, the former of these being in latitude 41Ã‚° 22' N.
Bourke has exactly the same latitude as Cairo, yet its mean summer temperature is 1.3Ã‚° less, and its mean annual temperature 4Ã‚° less than that of the Egyptian city.
Melbourne, which stands in latitude 37Ã‚° 50' S., has a mean temperature of 57'3Ã‚°, and therefore corresponds with Washington in the United States, Madrid, Lisbon and Messina.
South Australia proper extends over 26 degrees of latitude, and naturally presents considerable variations of climate.
But the 18th degree of latitude had been reached, where the watershed divided the rivers of the Gulf of Carpentaria from the Victoria river, flowing towards the north-west coast.
VERMONT, a North Atlantic state of the United States of America and one of the New England group, lying between latitude 42Ã‚° 44' and 45Ã‚° o' 43' s N., and between longitudes 3Ã‚° 35' and 5Ã‚° 29' E.
Meteor- g P Y The tropical belt of high atmospheric pressure is very marked in winter; it is weaker during the summer months, and at that season the greater relative fall of pressure over the land cuts it off into an oval-shaped anticyclone, the centre of which rests on the coolest part of the sea surface in that latitude, near the Gulf of Guinea.
South of this anticyclone, from about the latitude of the Cape, we find the region where, on account of the uninterrupted sea surface right round the globe, the planetary circulation is developed to the greatest extent known; the pressure gradient is steep, and the region is swept continuously by strong westerly winds - the " roaring forties."
The existence of an African Cush cannot reasonably be questioned, though the term is employed in the Old Testament with some latitude.
Now, we may select any definite quantity of work we please as our unit, as, for example, the work done in lifting a pound a foot high from the sea-level in the latitude of London, which is the unit of work generally adopted by British engineers, and is called the "foot-pound."
In the latitude of Paris the dyne is equal to the weight of about of a gramme, and the erg is the amount of work required to raise Ti lerof a gramme vertically through one centimetre.
From these experiments Joule obtained 72.692 foot-pounds in the latitude of Manchester as equivalent to the amount of heat required to raise i lb of water through 1Ã‚° Fahr, from the freezing point.
But the effect of its southern latitude is tempered by its peninsular character, bounded as it is on both sides by seas of considerable extent, as well as by the great range of the Alps with its snows and glaciers to the north.
Along the shores of the Adriatic, which are exposed to the north-east winds, blowing coldly from over the Albanian mountains, delicate plants do not thrive so well in general as under the same latitude along the shores of the Tyrrhcnian Sea.
Thus the characteristic assemblage of plants to which Sir Joseph Hooker has given the name Scandinavian is present in every latitude of the globe, and is the only one that is so (Trans.
If the surface of the globe had been symmetrically divided into sea and land, and these had been distributed in bands bounded by parallels of latitude, the character of vegetation would depend on temperature alone; and as regards its aggregate mass, we should find it attaining its maximum at the equator and sinking to its minimum at the poles.
It was the ambition of Ptolemy to describe and represent accurately the surface of the oekumene, for which purpose he took immense trouble to collect all existing determinations of the latitude of places, all estimates of longitude, and to make every possible rectification in the estimates of distances by land or sea.
latitude, climate zones, longitude, &c.; and (3) the Comparative part, which " considers the From translator's preface to the English version by Mr Dugdale (1733), entitled A Complete System of General Geography,1 revised by Dr Peter Shaw (London, 1756).
Pytheas, a navigator of the Phocean colony of Massilia (Marseilles), determined the latitude of that port with considerable precision by the somewhat clumsy method of ascertaining the length of the longest day, and when, about 330 B.C., he set out on exploration to the northward in search of the lands whence came gold, tin and amber, he followed this system of ascertaining his position from time to time.
The Dutch emulated the British in the Arctic seas during this period, directing their efforts mainly towards the discovery of a north-east passage round the northern end of Novaya Zemlya; and William Barents or Barendsz (1594-1597) is the most famous name in this connexion, his boat voyage along the coast of Novaya Zemlya after losing his ship and wintering in a high latitude, being one of the most remarkable achievements in polar annals.
Drake's discoveries extended from Cape Mendocino to 48Ã‚° N., in which latitude he gave up his quest, sailed across the Pacific and reached the Philippine Islands, returning home round the Cape of Good Hope in 1580.
Dirk Hartog had been on the west coast in latitude 26Ã‚° 30' S.
After exploring Tahiti and the Society group, Cook spent six months surveying New Zealand, which he discovered to be an island, and the coast of New South Wales from latitude 38Ã‚° S.
James Cook at his first attempt reached a south latitude of 57Ã‚° 15'.
The expedition was fitted out under Captains Constantine Phipps and Skeffington Lutwidge, and the highest latitude reached was 80Ã‚° 48' N., but no opening was discovered in the heavy Polar pack.
C. Chandler's discussion of them in 1894, in the course of his researches into the variation of latitude (Astron.
At Feluja, in the latitude of Bagdad, the Euphrates and Tigris closely approach each other, and then, widening out, enclose the plain of Babylonia (Arab.
It consisted essentially in the adoption of Delauny's final numerical expressions for longitude, latitude and parallax, with a symbolic term attached to each number, the value of which was to be determined by substitution in the equations of motion.
The outline of the state is that of a roughly-shaped wedge with the thin edge extending northward between and up to the junction of the rivers Araguaya and Upper Tocantins, and its length is nearly 15Ã‚° of latitude.
latitude 9Ã‚° 6', but by the Franco-Liberian understanding of 1907 the frontier on this side was withdrawn to 8Ã‚° 25' N., where the river Makona crosses 10Ã‚° 40' W.
latitude was reached, thence following this 8th degree eastwards to where it cuts the head stream of the Cavalla river.
latitude), with a curve N.
through 30Ã‚° of latitude, the climate of its different portions, apart Climate, from the Crimea and Caucasia, presents a striking uni formity.
America, those of 46Ã‚° to 32Ã‚° being distributed over twenty degrees of latitude.
The Rhodesian railway system in 1910 had penetrated north of Broken Hill, which is just above the fifteenth parallel of south latitude, while the Egyptian railway system had reached Gondokoro, located close to the fifth parallel of north latitude.
The Falkland Islands correspond very nearly in latitude in the southern hemisphere with London in the northern, but the climatic influences are very different.
long., and drawn southward and eastward near Ripley, Pontotoc, and Starkville, crossing into Alabama in latitude 32Ã‚° 45'.
The southern latitude, the low elevation and the proximity to the Gulf of Mexico produce in southern Mississippi a rather mild and equable climate, but to the northward the extremes increase.
Lord Carteret refused to sell and continued to hold a one-eighth undivided share until 1744, when he gave up his claim in return for a large strip of land in North Carolina lying between latitude 35Ã‚° 34' and the Virginia line (36Ã‚° 30').
The changes of temperature and climate caused by difference of elevation are quite comparable in their magnitude and effect on all organized creatures with those due to differences of latitude; and the relative position of the high and low lands on the earth's surface, by modifying the direction of the winds, the fall of rain, and other atmospheric phenomena, produce effects in no sense less important than those due to the relative distribution of the land and sea.
The eastern termination of Tibet is in the line of snowy mountains which flanks China on the west, between the 27th and 35th parallels of latitude, and about 103Ã‚° east.
From the point of intersection of the 71st meridian with the 36th parallel of latitude, an unbroken range of mountain stretches on one side towards the north-east, up to the crest of the northern slope of the Tibetan plateau, and on the other nearly due west as far as the Caspian.
The arid nature of the trans-Caspian deserts has proved an insuperable obstacle to those rigorous methods of geodetic survey which distinguish Russian methods in Europe, so that Russian geography in central Asia is dependent on other means than that of direct measurement for the co-ordinate values in latitude and longitude for any given point.
The isothermals of mean annual temperature lie over northern Asia on curves tolerably regular in their outline, having their western branches in a somewhat higher latitude than their eastern; a reduction of IÃ‚° of latitude corresponds approximately - and irrespective of modifications due to elevation - to a rise of 2 Ã‚° Fahr., as far say as 30Ã‚° N., where the mean temperature is about 75Ã‚° Fahr.
The difference between the heating power of the sun's rays at noon on the 21st of June, in latitude 20Ã‚° and in latitude 45Ã‚°, is only about 2%; while the accumulated heat received during the day, which is lengthened to 152 hours in the higher latitude, is greater by about i i% than in the lower latitude, where the day consists only of 134 hours.
Here, off the coast of Greenland, the expedition passed two winters, accomplishing much useful geographical, as well as scientific, work, including the attainment of what was to remain for sixteen years the highest northern latitude, 80Ã‚° 35' N.
The latter dies away over the plains east and south-east of Aleppo, making them afford good spring pasture, which has attracted the nomads from farther south: but below the latitude of Rakka-Homs thin steppe begins, and quickly degenerates into sheer desert broken only by a chain of poor oases, south of a low ridge running from Anti-Lebanon to Euphrates.
If G is the acceleration of gravity at the equator and g that at any latitude X, then g= G(IFoÃ¯¿½o0513 sin 2 X).
A like overestimate of the distances covering the march of Julius Maternus to Agisymba, which Marinus places 24Ã‚° south of the equator, a latitude which Ptolemy reduces to 18Ã‚°, but which is probably no farther south than lat.
This accounts for Gibraltar and Alexandria being shown as lying due east and west of each other, although there is a difference of 5Ã‚° of latitude between them, a fact known long before Ptolemy.
Including islands in the Gulf, the stretch of latitude is approximately 4Ã‚° and of longitude 5Ã‚°.
It lies on both sides of the river Tigris, in an extensive desert plain which has scarcely a tree or village throughout its whole extent, in latitude 33Ã‚° 20' N., longitude 44Ã‚° 24' E.
south to 67Ã‚° N.14 From the work of explorers in the north-west it had been possible to infer the approximate latitude of the northward termination of Greenland long before it was definitely known.
But although still holding to the theory expounded in his July speech of 1848, he was now ready with the proposal that slavery might be prohibited north of latitude 36Ã‚° 30' N.
No distinct latitude can be assigned as a boundary between the two forms, from the simple fact that where migration in comparatively recent times has taken place a natural conservatism has prevented the more familiar garb from being discarded; at the same time the two forms can often be seen within the limits of the same country; as, for instance, in China, where the women of Shanghai commonly wear trousers, those of Hong-Kong skirts.
The province lies to the east of the Bay of Bengal, and covers a range of country extending from the Pakchan river in 9Ã‚° 55' north latitude to the Naga and Chingpaw, or Kachin hills, lying roughly between the 27th and 28th degrees of north latitude; and from the Bay of Bengal on the west to the Mekong river, the boundary of the dependent Shan States on the east, that is to say, roughly, between the 92nd and tooth degrees of east longitude.
Two rivers, the Mali and the N'mai, meeting about latitude 25Ã‚° 45' some 150 m.
In latitude toÃ‚° S.
coast of Norway, in Finmarken amt (county), in 70Ã‚° 40' 11" N., the latitude being that of the extreme north of Alaska.
3 Hierapolis of the Greeks, Manbij of the Arabs, a few miles west of the Eu p hrates about latitude 361Ã‚°.
from its western extremity, on the isthmus of the Akrotiri peninsula, which lies between the Bay of Canea and the Bay of Suda (latitude 35Ã‚° 31' N., longitude 24Ã‚° i' E.).
per hour, the drift-current depth in latitude 5Ã‚° would be approximately 104 fathoms, in latitude 15Ã‚°, 55 fathoms, and in latitude 45Ã‚° only from 33 to 38 fathoms. A strong wind of 38 m.
an hour would produce a drift-current depth of 82 fathoms in latitude 45Ã‚°, and a light breeze of 3 m.
'JACOBS CAVERN, a cavern in latitude 36Ã‚° 35 N., 2 m.
The proof that these animals lived and fed in this latitude (73Ã‚° 20' N)., at a time when the islands were not yet separated from the continent, is given by the relics of forest vegetation which are found in the same deposits.
The term arbiter seems, however, to have been sometimes used when the referee had a certain degree of latitude, and was entitled to give weight to equitable considerations (Roby, Inst.
This inquiry yielded (in 1867) the result 783, and this Joule himself was inclined to regard as more accurate than his old determination by the frictional method; the latter, however, was repeated with every precaution, and again indicated 772.55 foot-pounds as the quantity of work that must be expended at sea-level in the latitude of Greenwich in order to raise the temperature of one pound of water, weighed in vacuo, from 60 to 61Ã‚° F.
The teak tree grows all over the hill districts north of latitude 15Ã‚°, but seems to attain its best development on the west, and on the east does not appear to be found south of 17Ã‚°.
These values of p refer to a standard density of the air, of 534.22 grains per cubic foot, which is the density of dry air at sea-level in the latitude of Greenwich, at a temperature of 62Ã‚° F.
was intended for its north boundary, and although Penn's charter prescribed that Pennsylvania should extend on the south to the " beginning of the fortieth degree of Northern Latitude," a controversy arose with regard to the boundary between the two provinces, and there was a long period of litigation; in 1763-1767 Charles Mason and` Jeremiah Dixon, two English mathematicians, established the line named from them (see Mason And Dixon Line), which runs along the parallel 39Ã‚° 43' 26" 3 N.
A narrow strip of cold water runs along the equator, widest to the east and narrowing westward, and separates two areas of maximum which have their greatest intensity in the western part of the ocean, and have their central portions in higher latitudes as depth increases, apparently tending constantly to a position in about latitude 30Ã‚° to 35Ã‚° N.
The first resolution was a statement of the ultra states'-rights view of the relation of the states to the Federal government 2 and subsequent resolutions declare the 1 The southern boundary to the Tennessee river was surveyed in1779-1780by commissioners representing Virginia and North Carolina, and was supposed to be run along the parallel of latitude 36Ã‚° 30', but by mistake was actually run north of that parallel.
of distilled water of the temperature of 4Ã‚° C., under an atmospheric pressure equal to 760 millimetres at 0Ã‚° C. at sea-level and latitude 45Ã‚°; the weighing being made in air, but reduced by calculation to a vacuum.
The value of this intensity is equal to that of the force of gravity at the Bureau International, Paris (at the level of the Bureau), divided by 1.000332; a co-efficient which allows for theoretical reduction to the latitude 45Ã‚° and to the level of the sea.
In standardizing a weight for use in India, correction has to be made for the weight of air displaced by the material standard, and for such purpose the normal temperature of 85Ã‚°, atmospheric pressure 29.8 inches, latitude 22Ã‚° 35` 6.5" (Calcutta), g at 0.9982515 of g at 45Ã‚° are taken.
Between these rivers the boundary line is determined by the peaks of Tacana, Buenavista and Ixbul, and from the Usumacinta eastward it follows two parallels of latitude, one on the point of departure from that river, and the other, the longer, on that of 1 7Ã‚° 49' to the British Honduras frontier.
The prevailing winds respond to the stronger poleward temperature gradients of winter by rising to a higher velocity and a more frequent and severer cyclonic storminess; and to the weaker gradients of summer by relaxing to a lower velocity with fewer and weaker cyclonic storms; but furthermore the northern zone occupied by the prevailing westerlies expands as the winds strengthen in winter, and shrinks as they weaken in summer; thus the stormy westerlies, which impinge upon the north-western coast and give it plentiful rainfall all through the year, in winter reach southern California and sweep across part of the Gulf of Mexico and Florida; it is for this reason that southern California has a rainy winter season, and that the states bordering on the Gulf of Mexico are visited in winter by occasional intensified cold winds, inappropriate to their latitude.
Its boundary on the south is the parallel of latitude 49Ã‚°, between the Pacific Ocean and Lake-of-the-Woods, then a chain of small lakes and rivers eastward to the mouth of Pigeon river on the north-west side of Lake Superior, and the Great Lakes with their connecting rivers to Cornwall, on the St Lawrence.
If placed upon Europe it would extend from Rome to the North Cape, but latitude is of course only one of the factors influencing climate, the arrangement of the ocean currents and of the areas of high and low pressure making a very wide difference between the climates of the two sides of the Atlantic. In reality the Pacific coast of Canada, rather than the Atlantic coast, should be compared with western Europe, the south-west corner of British Columbia, in lat.
In Canada the isotherms by no means follow parallels of latitude, especially in summer when in the western half of the country they run nearly north-west and south-east; so that the average temperature of 55Ã‚° is found about on the Arctic circle in the Mackenzie river valley, in lat.
In Canada a very fine wheat crop was raised in the autumn of 1898 as far north as the mission at Fort Providence, on the Mackenzie river, in a latitude above 62Ã‚° - or less than m.
The Siberian larch has smooth grey bark and smaller cones, approaching in shape somewhat to those of the American hackmatack; it seems even hardier than the Alpine tree, growing up to latitude 68Ã‚°, but, as the inclement climate of the polar shores is neared, dwindling down to a dwarf and even trailing bush.
As the star decreases in latitude, this circle will be viewed more and more obliquely, becoming a flatter and flatter ellipse until, with A is zero latitude, it degenerates into a straight line (fig.
It is, indeed, estimated that such positions enjoy an increased temperature equal to 7Ã‚° of latitude - that is to say, the mean temperature within a few inches of the wall is equal to the mean temperature of the open plain 7Ã‚° farther south.
- The successful commercial production of tea on a large scale is confined to a strictly limited area enclosed by about 40Ã‚° of latitude (5Ã‚° S.
The climate of Denmark does not differ materially from that of Great Britain in the same latitude; but whilst the summer is a little warmer, the winter is colder, so that most of the evergreens which adorn an English garden in the winter cannot be grown in the open in Denmark.
Including the islands, however, the extreme latitude north is 60Ã‚° 51' 30" (Out Stack in the Shetlands) and the extreme longitude west 8Ã‚° 35' 30" (St Kilda).
border, is 47Ã‚° F., and it increases to the southward at the rate of about 2Ã‚° for every degree of latitude, being 52Ã‚° F.
It extends from the 8th to the 37th degree of north latitude, that is to say, from the hottest regions of the equator to far within the temperate The spelling throughout all the articles dealing with India is that adopted by the government of India, modified in special instances with deference to long-established usage.
From January to the middle of April, Mauritius, in common with the neighbouring islands and the surrounding ocean from 8Ã‚° to 30Ã‚° of southern latitude is subject to severe cyclones, accompanied by torrents of rain, which often cause great destruction to houses and plantations.
Throughout the archipelago the mean annual temperature varies much more with the altitude than with the latitude, but the range in mean monthly temperatures increases from 3.96Ã‚° F.
This is confirmed by the fact that the Milky Way is not quite a great circle of the celestial sphere, but has a mean south galactic latitude of about 1.7Ã‚°.
to find the same mean yearly temperature as that of Halifax, Nova Scotia, in latitude 44Ã‚° 39'.
Its habitat extends some 200 m., from latitude 36Ã‚° to 39Ã‚°, nowhere descending much below an altitude of 5000 ft., nor rising above 8000 ft.
WYOMING, one of the Central Western states of the United States of America, situated between the parallels of latitude 41Ã‚° and 45Ã‚° N., and the meridians of longitude 27Ã‚° and 34Ã‚° W.
If these junks could cross the Pacific in the latitude of Hawaii it is not at all unlikely that others running in a south-easterly direction would reach some of the many atolls which stretch over about 35Ã‚° of longitude, forming the Caroline and Marshall archipelagoes.
T Daily variations of temperature are observable to a depth of over 50 fathoms. Temperature is, on the whole, higher near the Arabian than the Egyptian side, but it everywhere diminishes with increase of depth and latitude, down to 380 fathoms from the surface; below this depth a uniform constant temperature of 70.7Ã‚° F.
Accordingly the Territory of Jefferson arose, assuming to rule over six degrees of latitude (37 0 -43Ã‚°) and eight of longitude (102Ã‚°-IIoÃ‚°).
It lies between 34 33' and 35Ã‚° 41' N., and between 32Ã‚° 20' and 34 35' E., so that it is situated in almost exactly the same latitude as Crete.
The latitude is L 63Ã‚° 26' N., that of southern Iceland.
The condor is a native of South America, where it is confined to the region of the Andes, from the Straits of Magellan to 4Ã‚° north latitude, - the largest examples, it is said, being found about the volcano of Cayambi, situated on the equator.
On the New England tableland, under latitude 30Ã‚° S., the yearly average temperature is 56.5Ã‚°, the mean summer 67.7Ã‚° and the mean winter 44.3Ã‚°.
In 1620 the Council for New England, the successor of the Plymouth Company, obtained a grant of the country between latitude 40Ã‚° and 48Ã‚° N.
Rotation period; latitude oÃ‚° :24.46d 300:26.43d 60Ã‚°:29.634 80Ã‚°:30.56d Solar constant, or units of energy received per minute per square centimetre at earth's mean distance: 2 I calories.