How to use Larvae in a sentence
The larvae have soft, white bodies and, with very few exceptions, no legs.
The larvae are stout and soft-skinned, with short legs in correlation with their burrowing habit.
The eggs and larvae of the fire-flies are luminous as well as the perfect beetles.
The Staph y linid larvae are typically campodeiform.
Two very small families of aquatic beetles seem to stand at the base of the series, the Amphizoidae, whose larvae are broad and well armoured with FIG.Advertisement
Some of the scavengers, like the burying beetles, inter the bodies of small vertebrates to supply food for themselves and their larvae, or, like the "sacred" beetle of Egypt, collect for the same purpose stores of dung.
Beetles and larvae are frequently carnivorous in habit, hunting for small insects under stones, or pursuing the soft-skinned grubs of beetles and flies that bore in woody stems or succulent roots.
The beetles are hairy and their larvae well-armoured and often predaceous.
Besides Anopheles, two species of Culex, C. penicillaris and C. pipiens, are also accused of transmitting the larvae.
The distribution of many groups of beetles is restricted in correspondence with their habits; the Cerambycidae (longhorns), whose larvae are wood-borers, are absent from timberless regions, and most abundant in the great tropical forests.Advertisement
The root-feeding larvae of the cockchafer and allied members of the Scarabaeidae have a ridged area on the mandible, which is scraped by teeth on the maxillae, apparently forming a stridulating organ.
Ganglbauer (1892) divides the whole order into two sub-orders only, the Caraboidea (the Adephaga of Sharp and the older writers) and the Cantharidoidea (including all other beetles), since the larvae of Caraboidea have five-segmented, two-clawed legs, while those of all other beetles have legs with four segments and a single claw.
The larvae of Lucanidae live within the wood of trees, and may take three or four years to attain their full growth.
The larvae of the beautiful, elongate, metallic Donaciae live in the roots and stems of aquatic plants, obtaining thence both food and air.
Metamorphosis in Diptera is complete; the larvae are utterly different from the perfect insects in appearance, and, although varying greatly in outward form, are usually footless grubs; those of the Muscidae are generally known as maggots.Advertisement
In these forms the pregnant female, instead of laying eggs, as Diptera usually do, or even producing a number of minute living larvae, gives birth at one time but to a single larva, which is retained within the oviduct of the mother until adult, and assumes the pupal state immediately on extrusion.
These workers then take on themselves the labour of the colony, some collecting food, which they transfer to their comrades within the nest whose duty is to tend and feed the larvae.
The Solenopsis can make its way into the territory of the Formica to steal the larvae which serve it as food, but the Formica is too large to pursue the thief when it returns to its own galleries.
The larvae of these are usually spoken of as " false caterpillars," on account of their resemblance to the larvae of a moth.
Sawfly larvae can at once be recognized by the curious positions they assume, and by the number of pro-legs, which exceeds ten.Advertisement
Another group of Hymenoptera occasionally causes much harm in fir plantations, namely, the Siricidae or wood-wasps, whose larvae burrow into the trunks of the trees and thus kill them.
For all exposed sawfly larvae hellebore washes are most fatal, but they must not be used over ripe or ripening fruit, as the hellebore is poisonous.
Fruit suffers much from the larvae of the Geometridae, the socalled "looper-larvae" or " canker-worms."
In many years quite half the apple crop is lost in England owing to the larvae destroying the fruit.
Sugar-canes suffer from the sugar cane borer (Diatioca sacchari) in the West Indies; tobacco from the larvae of hawk moths (Sphingidae) in America; corn and grass from various Lepidopterous pests all over the world.Advertisement
The female lays her eggs beneath the scaly covering, from which hatch out little active six-legged larvae, which wander about and soon begin to form a new scale.
The series of paired spiracles on most of the trunk-segments is well displayed, as a rule, in terrestrial larvae - caterpillars and the grubs of most beetles, for example.
It is of nocturnal and burrowing habits, and feeds on decomposed animal substances, larvae and termites.
P. alba suffers much from the ravages of wood-eating larvae, and also from fungoid growths, especially where the branches have been removed by pruning or accident.
Various local hypertrophies, including galls, result from the increased growth of young tissues irritated by the punctures of insects, or by the presence of eggs or larvae left behind.Advertisement
These stridulating organs were mentioned by C. Darwin as probable examples of the action of sexual selection; they are, however, frequently present in both sexes, and in some families also in the larvae.
Macleay's classification (1825), which rested principally on the characters of the larvae, is almost forgotten nowadays, but it is certain that in any systematic arrangement which claims to be natural the early stages in the life-history must receive due attention.
According to Sharp, all Dermestid larvae probably feed on dried animal matters; he mentions one species that can find sufficient food in the horsehair of furniture, and another that eats the dried insect-skins hanging in old cobwebs.
The larvae have a somewhat swollen abdomen, which is protected by bristle-bearing tubercles.
The larvae have soft, fleshy bodies, with the head and prothorax large and broad, and the legs very much reduced.Advertisement
All puddles and collections of water should be filled in or drained; as a temporary expedient they may be treated with petroleum, which prevents the development of the larvae.
That Diptera of the type of the common house-fly are often in large measure responsible for the spread of such diseases as cholera and enteric fever is undeniable, and as regards blood-sucking forms, in addition to those to which reference has already been made, it is sufficient to mention the vast army of pests constituted by the midges, sand-flies, horseflies, &c., from the attacks of which domestic animals suffer equally with man, in addition to being frequently infested with the larvae of the bot and warble flies (Gastrophilus, Oestrus and Hypoderma).
A number of larvae of Lepidoptera feed on the leaves - the remedy is to capture the mature insects when possible.
Larval " weevils " mostly feed on the roots of plants, but some, such as the nut weevil (Balaninus nucum), live as larvae inside fruit.
Young often larvae.Advertisement
Most saw-fly larvae devour leaves, and the beautifully serrate processes of the ovipositor are well adapted for egg-laying in plant tissues.
While thus carried about by the host-insect, the female is fertilized by the free-flying male, and gives birth to a number of tiny triungulin larvae.
Willughby, Ray and others in the late 17th century to include the active larvae of beetles, as well as bugs, lice, fleas and other insects with undeveloped wings.
Many insects have aquatic larvae, some of which take in atmospheric air at intervals, while others breathe dissolved air by means of tracheal gills.
The various larvae of the above series, however, have all a distinct head-capsule, which is altogether wanting in the degraded fly maggot.Advertisement
But in general we find that elaboration of imaginal structure is associated with degradation in the nature of the larva, cruciform and vermiform larvae being characteristic of the highest orders of the Hexapoda, so that unlikeness between parent and offspring has increased with the evolution of the class.
The term nymph is applied by many writers on the Hexapoda to all young forms of insects that are not sufficiently unlike their parents to be called larvae.
The aquatic habit of many larvae is associated with endless beautiful adaptations for respiration.
Other aquatic larvae have the tracheal system entirely closed, and are able to breathe dissolved air by means of tubular or leaf-like gills.
Nevertheless, the function of reproduction is occasionally exercised by larvae.Advertisement
The larvae produced by this remarkable method (paedogenesis) of virgin-reproduction are hatched within the parent larva, and in some cases escape by the rupture of its body.
Aquatic larvae with distinct maxillulae, breathing dissolved air by abdominal tracheal gills.
Larvae eruciform without thoracic legs, or vermiform without head-capsule.
But a survey of the Hexapoda as a whole, and especially a comparative study of the tracheal system, can hardly leave room for doubt that this system is primitively adapted for atmospheric breathing, and that the presence of tracheal gills in larvae must be regarded as a special adaptation for temporary aquatic life.
As shown by the number and variety of species, the Orthoptera are the most dominant order of this group. Eminently terrestrial in habit, the differentiation of their fore-wings and hindwings can be traced from Carboniferous, isopteroid ancestors through intermediate Mesozoic forms. The Plecoptera resemble the Ephemeroptera and Odonata in the aquatic habits of their larvae, and by the occasional presence of tufted thoracic gills in the imago exhibit an aquatic character unknown in any other winged insects.
The Neuroptera, with their similar foreand hind-wings and their campodeiform larvae, seem to stand nearest to the presumed isopteroid ancestry, but the imago and larva are often specialized.
The campodeiform larvae of many Coleoptera are indeed far more primitive than the neuropteran larvae, and suggest to us that the Coleoptera - modified as their wing-structure has become - arose very early from the primitive metabolous stock.
The eruciform larva of the Orthorrhapha leads on to the headless vermiform maggot of the Cyclorrhapha, and in the latter sub-order we find metamorphosis carried to its extreme point, the muscid flies being the most highly specialized of all the Hexapoda as regards structure, while their maggots are the most degraded of all insect larvae.
As a commercial product spider-silk has been found to be equal, if not superior, to the best silk spun by lepidopterous larvae; but the cannibalistic propensities of spiders, making it impossible to keep more than one in a single receptacle, coupled with the difficulty of getting them to spin freely in a confined space, have hitherto prevented the silk being used on any extensive scale for textile fabrics.
Now, Coccinellidae (ladybirds) are known to be highly distasteful to most insectivorous mammals and birds, and snails would be quite unfit food for the Pompilid or Ichneumonid larvae, so that the reason for the mimicry in these cases is also perfectly clear.
The " cotton stainers," various species of Dysdercus, are widely distributed, occurring for example in America, the West Indies, Africa, India, &c. The larvae suck the sap from the young bolls and seeds, causing shrivelling and reduction in quantity of fibre.
If they fall on pasture land or fodder of any kind and are eaten by any herbivorous animal, such as a hare, rabbit, horse, sheep or ox, the active embryos or larvae are set free in the alimentary canal of the new host.
These larvae are minute oval creatures with a comparatively short apically fringed caudal prolongation and furnished with two pairs of short two-clawed processes, which may represent the limbs of anthropods and possibly the two pairs of legs found in Acari of the family Eriophyidae.
In the event of the host escaping being killed and eaten it is believed that some of these larvae wander about or ultimately make their way to the exterior, possibly through the bronchi; nevertheless it seems to be certain that they can only reach sexual maturity in the nasal passages of some carnivorous animal, and the chance of attaining this environment is afforded when the viscera of the host are devoured by some flesh-eating mammal.
The size of the animals varies greatly, from forms a few millimetres in length to Gigantorhynchus gigas, which measures from 10 to 65 cms. The adults live in great numbers in the alimentary canal of some vertebrate, usually fish, the larvae are as a rule encysted in the body cavity of some invertebrate, most often an insect or crustacean, more rarely a small fish.
This animal spends most of its time burrowing in the sand in search of insects and their larvae, but occasionally makes its appearance on the surface.
Spiders, caterpillars and grasshoppers are, he said, stung in their chief nerve-centres, in consequence of which the victims are not killed outright, but rendered motionless and continue to live in this paralysed condition for several weeks, being thus available as food for the larvae when these are hatched.
But the Peckhams' careful observations and experiments show that, with the American wasps, the victims stored in the nests are quite as often dead as alive; that those which are only paralysed live for a varying number of days, some more, some less; that wasp larvae thrive just as well on dead victims, sometimes dried up, sometimes undergoing decomposition, as on living and paralysed prey; that the nerve-centres are not stung with the supposed uniformity; and that in some cases paralysis, in others death, follows when the victims are stung in parts far removed from any nerve-centre.
Probably several months elapse before the young larvae are excluded.
Joly, the very young larvae have no breathing organs, and respiration is effected through the skin.
It is probable that some are carnivorous, either attacking other larvae or subsisting on more minute forms of animal life; but others perhaps feed more exclusively on vegetable matters of a low type, such as diatoms.
The Tornaria larva offers a certain similarity to larvae of Echinoderms (sea-urchins, star-fishes, and sea-cucumbers), and when first discovered was so described.
About this stage the larvae leave the broodpouch, which is a lateral or median cavity in the body of the female, and lead a free swimming life in the ocean.
I t may, however, be pointed out that Brachiopods seem to belong to that class of animal which commences life as a larva with three segments, and that tri-segmented larvae have been found now in several of the larger groups.
Such cases are the habits of " shamming dead " and the combined posturing and colour peculiarities of certain caterpillars (Lepidopterous larvae) which cause them to resemble dead twigs or similar surrounding objects.
The Elasmobranchs swallow infected molluscs or fish; pike and trout devour smaller fry; birds pick up sticklebacks, insects and worms which contain Cestode larvae; and man lays himself open to infection by eating the uncooked or partially prepared flesh of many animals.
The evolution of the cysticercoid, cysticercus and other forms of larvae is a varied adaptive phenomenon.
To destroy the seeds, &c., of weeds, and the larvae of insect pests, a fire is often lighted, kept from the ground itself by intervening wood logs, or the seed-bed is thoroughly steamed.
The " tobacco flea-beetle " (Epitrix parvula, Fabr.) is a small active beetle, the larvae of which attack the roots, while the adult beetles eat holes in the leaves.
The latter is the more serious, as in addition to the actual damage done by the beetle the holes afford entrance to fungus spores, &c. Under the name " horn worms " are included the larvae or caterpillars of species of Protoparce.
The blackbird feeds chiefly on fruits, worms, the larvae of insects and snails, extracting the last from their shells by dexterously chipping them on stones; and though it is generally regarded as an enemy of the garden, it is probable that the amount of damage by it to the fruit is largely compensated for by its undoubted services as a vermin-killer.
The Euculicidae are divided into the Asiphonatae (=Anophelinae), the larvae of which have no respiratory siphon, and the Siphonatae, or forms in which a respiratory siphon is present in the larval state.
The nature of the breeding-place varies greatly according to the species, and while many of the mosquitoes that infest houses will breed even in the smallest accidental accumulation of water such as may have collected in a discarded bottle or tin, the larvae of other species less closely associated with man are found in natural pools or ditches, at the margins of slow-moving streams, in collections of water in hollow trees and bamboo-stumps, or even in the water-receptacles of certain plants.
The larvae are active and voracious little grub-like creatures (known in the United States as "wrigglers"), with large heads and jaws provided with a pair of brushes, which sweep food-particles into the mouth.
The larvae of species belonging to the Culicinae have a prominent breathing tube, or respiratory siphon, on the penultimate (eighth) abdominal segment, and when taking in air hang head downwards (often nearly vertically) from the surface film.
Larvae of Anophelinae, on the other hand - which are grey, green or brown in colour, and often extremely difficult to see - have no respiratory siphon and lie almost !
The larvae are perfectly white at first and wingless, although in other respects not unlike their parents, but they are not mature insects until after the sixth casting of the skin.
Perhaps the most remarkable of these effects is that produced by the larvae of Gasterostomum.
A different but still more interesting result is produced by these Trematode larvae on certain lamellibranchs.
Unless this occurs, the development of the larvae is soon arrested.
The larvae usually live in Molluscs, the mature worm in vertebrates, and the immature but metamorphosed Trematode in either host and also in pelagic and littoral marine and fresh-water invertebrates.
These cells aggregated in masses become the bodies of another generation of larvae within the sporocyst.
By a series of changes similar to those by which the primary larva arose from a segmented egg, so do these secondary larvae or "rediae" arise from the germ-cells or germ-balls within the sporocyst.
In the course of a few months it attains full size and maturity and probably in most cases dies in the course of a year after having given rise to another generation of larvae.
In many cases it appears that only the brilliantly coloured tentacle is pecked off by the bird, and as the snail can easily regenerate a new one, this in turn becomes infected by a fresh branch of the sporocyst ramifying through the snail and thus a new supply of larvae is speedily provided (Heckert).
The life-history of Schistostomum haematobium is still unknown, but the difficulty in obtaining developmental stages in any of the numerous intermediate hosts that have been tried suggests that the ciliated larvae may develop directly in man and either gain access to him by the use of impure water for drinking or may perforate his skin when bathing.
These are probably important in checking overgrowth by encrusting organisms, and in particular by preventing larvae from fixing on the zoarium.
It is terminated by a well-developed structure (fg) corresponding with the apical sense-organ of ordinary Trochospheres, and an excretory organ (nph) of the type familiar in these larvae occurs on the ventral side of the stomach.
The practical importance of this peculiar life-history is very great, since larvae thus protected cannot easily be destroyed.
The larvae known as caddis-worms are aquatic. The mature females lay their eggs in the water, and the newly-hatched larvae provide themselves with cases made of various particles such as grains of sand, pieces of wood or leaves stuck together with silk secreted from the salivary glands of the insect.
The larvae of several nocturnal Lepidoptera feed upon the leaves of the willows, and the trunk of the sallow is often injured by the perforations of the lunar hornet sphinx (Trochilium crabroniforme).
The development of a true insect society among the Hymenoptera is dependent on a differentiation among the females between individuals with well-developed ovaries (" queens ") whose special function is reproduction; and individuals with reduced or aborted ovaries (" workers ") whose duty is to build the nest, to gather food and to tend and feed the larvae.
Thus, wasps catch flies; worker ants make raids and carry off weak insects of many kinds; bees gather nectar from flowers and transform it into honey within their stomachs - largely for the sake of feeding the larvae in the nest.
On the other hand, there are thousands of very small species, and the tiny " fairy-flies " (Myynaridae), whose larvae live as parasites in the eggs of various insects, are excessivel y minute for creatures of such complex organization.
Comparatively only a few species are, for part of their lives, denizens of fresh water; these, as larvae, are parasitic on the eggs or larvae of other aquatic insects, the little hymenopteron, Polynema natans, one of the " fairy-flies " - swims through the water by strokes of her delicate wings in search of a dragon-fly's egg in which to lay her own egg, while the rare Agriotypus dives after the case of a caddis-worm.
No group of terrestrial insects escapes their attacks - even larvae boring in wood are detected by ichneumon flies with excessively long ovipositors.
This sub-order, characterized by the " sessile," broad-based abdomen, whose fist segment is imperfectly united with the thorax, and by the usually caterpillar-like larvae with legs, includes the various groups of saw-flies.
The soft, white larvae have the thoracic legs very small and feed in the stems of various plants.
The ovipositor is long and prominent, enabling the female insect to lay her eggs in the wood of trees, where the white larvae, whose legs are excessively short, tunnel and feed.
The Tenthredinidae, or true saw-flies, are distinguished by two spines on each fore-shin, while the larvae are usually caterpillars, with three pairs of thoracic legs, and from six to eight pairs of abdominal prolegs, the latter not possessing the hooks found on the pro-legs of lepidopterous caterpillars.
Other flies of this group have the inquiline habit, laying their eggs in the galls of other species, while others again pierce the cuticle of maggots or aphids, in whose bodies their larvae live as parasites.
The vast majority of this group, including nearly 5000 known species, are usually reckoned as a single family, the Chalcididae, comprising small insects, often of bright metallic colours, whose larvae are parasitic in insects of various orders.
They are among the most minute of all insects and their larvae are probably all parasitic in insects' eggs.
The Trigonalidae, a small family whose larvae are parasitic in wasps' nests, also probably belong here.
In two of the families - the Mutillidae and Thynnidae - the females are wingless and the larvae live as parasites in the larvae of other insects; the female Mutilla enters humble-bees' nests and lays her eggs in the bee-grubs.
They make burrows wherein they place insects or spiders which they have caught and stung, laying their eggs beside the victim so that the young larvae find themselves in presence of an abundant and appropriate food-supply.
After the lapse of six, eight or twelve days, according to the temperature, the larvae hatch out of the eggs.
He carefully studied also the history of the ant and was the first to show that what had been commonly reputed to be "ants' eggs" are really their pupae, containing the perfect insect nearly ready for emersion, whilst the true eggs are far smaller, and give origin to "maggots" or larvae.
The larvae of the ribbon-footed corn-fly (Chlorops taeniopus) caused great injury to the barley crop in Great Britain in 1893, when the plant was weakened by extreme drought.
The larvae of the latter usually vacate their galls, to spin their cocoons in the earth, or, as in the case of Athalia abdominalis, Klg., of the clematis, may emerge from their shelter to feed for some days on the leaves of the gall-bearing plant.
Thus the galls of Cynips and its allies are inhabited by members of other cynipideous genera, as Synergus, Amblynotus and Synophrus; and the pine-cone-like gall of Salix strobiloides, as Walsh has shown, 2 is made by a large species of Cecidomyia, which inhabits the heart of the mass, the numerous smaller cecidomyidous larvae in its outer part being mere inquilines.
Ambrosia beetles bore deep though minute galleries into trees and timber, and the wood-dust provides a bed for the growth of the fungus, on which the insects and larvae feed.
The youngest larvae are typical nauplii.
Its adhesive foot is paralleled by a cup-shaped ciliated depression, possibly nervous, found in all the larvae cited, except some Echinoderms, and which in Asterids and Crinoids actually serves as an organ of attachment.
In spring the chaffinch is destructive to early flowers, and to young radishes and turnips just as they appear above the surface; in summer, however, it feeds principally on insects and their larvae, while in autumn and winter its food consists of grain and other seeds.
At the anterior end of the test is the apical plate from the centre of which projects a long flagellum as in many other Lamellibranch larvae.
The other groups of the old Linnean order (such as lacewing-flies and caddis-flies)--which are hatched as larvae markedly unlike the parent, develop wing-rudiments hidden under the larval cuticle, and only show the wings externally in a resting pupal stage, passing thus through a " complete " metamorphosis and falling into the sub-class Endopterygotawere retained in the order Neuroptera, which thus became much restricted in its extent.
The larvae are active and well-armoured, upon the whole of the ' ` campodeiform " type, but destitute of cerci; they are predaceous in habit, usually with slender, sickle-shaped mandibles, wherewith they pierce various insects so as to suck their juices.
Fossil Neuroptera occur in the Lias and even in the Trias if the relationships of certain larvae have been correctly surmised.
Their predaceous, suctorial larvae are the well-known ant-lions (q.v.).
The lacewing-flies (q.v.), however, of which there are two families, the Hemerobiidae and Chrysopidae, whose larvae feed on Aphids, sucking their juices, are represented in our fauna.
Their larvae resemble those of the lacewings, attacking scale-insects and sucking their juices.
The family Phryganeidae have males with foursegmented hairy palps; the larvae inhabit stagnant water and make cases of vegetable fragments.
The males of the Sericostomatidae have two or three segmented palps; their larvae inhabit running water and make cases of grains of sand, or of small stones.
The stone-built cases of the carnivorous Hydropsychid larvae are familiar objects in the water of swift streams.
In the larvae of several Gastropoda and Lamellibranchia occur excretory organs which have the characters of true nephridia.
Advantage is taken of this peculiarity to prepare from fully developed larvae silkworm gut used for casting lines in rodfishing, and for numerous other purposes where lightness, tenacity, flexibility and strength are essential.
The larvae are killed and hardened by steeping some hours in strong acetic acid; the silk glands are then separated from the bodies, and the vis cous fluid drawn out to the condition of a fine uniform line, which is stretched between pins at the extremity of a board.
Its eggs were first sent to Europe by Duchene du Bellecourt, French consulgeneral in Japan in 1861; but early in March following they hatched out, when no leaves on which the larvae would feed were to be found.
A few bananas and (especially from Oahu) pineapples of fine quality are exported; since 1901 the canning of 3 The entomological department of the Hawaii Experiment Station undertakes " mosquito control," and in 1905-1906 imported top-minnows (Poeciliidae) to destroy mosquito larvae.
Sometimes Lepidoptera mimic protected members of other orders of insects - such as Coleoptera, Hymenoptera and Hemiptera; but perhaps the most singular illustrations of the phenomenon known in the order are exemplified by the larvae of the hawk-moth Chaerocampa, which imitate the heads of snakes.
Professor Poulton long ago suggested, and supported the suggestion by experimental evidence on a lizard, that the larvae of two British species, C. elpenor and C. porcellus, are protected by the resemblance to the heads of snakes presented by the anterior extremities of their bodies which are ornamented with large eye-like spots.
When the larvae are disturbed the similarity is produced with startling suddenness by the telescopic contraction of the anterior segments in such a manner as to suggest a triangular, pointed head with two large dorsal eyes.
Another instance of mimicry affecting the larval form is supplied by the moth Endromis versicolor, the caterpillars of which resemble the inedible larvae of saw-flies.
The branches are some times attacked by weevils (Rhyn- cites) and the larvae of various moths, and saw-flies (chiefly Erio- campa) feed on the leaves, and young branches and leaves are sometimes invaded by Aphides.
Leaf-feeding beetles and larvae of moths are best got rid of by shaking the branches and collecting the insects.
Slug-worms or saw-fly larvae require treatment by washing with soapsuds, tobacco and lime-water or hellebore solution, and Aphides by syringing from below and removing all surplus young twigs.
Furs kept in such a condition are not only immune from the ravages of the larvae of moth, but all the natural oils in the pelt and fur are conserved, so that its colour and life are prolonged, and the natural deterioration is arrested.
It is said also to dig up the nests of wasps in order to eat the larvae, as the ratel - a closely allied South African form - is said to rob the bees of their honey.
When the time for eclosion has come, the male enters the water with his burden; the larvae, in the full tadpole condition, measuring 14 to 17 millimetres, bite their way through their tough envelope, which is not abandoned by the father until all the young are liberated, and complete in the ordinary way their metamorphosis.
The larvae are aquatic, active, armed with strong sharp mandibles, and breathe by means of seven pairs of abdominal branchial filaments.
But for its large size - it grows to a length of eleven inches - it is a nearly exact image of the British newt larvae.
Dumeril, they and their offspring gave birth to 0000 or io,000 larvae during that period.
Lake Xochimilco contains powerful springs, but away from them the water appears dark and muddy, full of suspended fresh and decomposing vegetable matter, teeming with fish, larvae of insects, Daphniae, worms and axolotl.
The native fishermen know all about them; how the eggs are fastened to the water plants, how soon after the little larvae swarm about in thousands, how fast they grow, until by the month of June they are all grown into big, fat creatures ready for the market; later in the summer the axolotls are said to take to the rushes, in the autumn they become scarce, but none have ever been known to leave the water or to metamorphose, nor are any perfect Amblystomas found in the vicinity of the two lakes."
These floral products which form the food of bees and of their larvae, are in most cases collected and stored by the industrious insects; but some genera of bees act as inquilines or "cuckoo-parasites," laying their eggs in the nests of other bees, so that their larvae may feed at the expense of the rightful owners of the nest.
But when Fabre substituted dead individuals of her own species or live larvae of another genus, the Osmia had no scruple in destroying them, so as to bite her way out to air and liberty.
Hence the two eggs are at opposite ends of the food, and both larvae feed for a time without conflict, but the Stelis, being the older, is the larger of the two.
For the fulfilment of this last condition, the older insects of the new generation must emerge from the cells while the mother is still occupied with the younger eggs or larvae.
In the nests of Bombi are found various beetle larvae that live as inquilines or parasites, and also maggots of drone-flies (V olucella), which act as scavengers; the Volucella-fly is usually a" mimic ' vades.
Dickel and others have lately claimed that fertilized eggs can give rise to either queens, workers or males, according to the food supplied to the larvae and the influence of supposed "sex-producing glands" possessed by the nurse-workers.
The larvae swim normally like the adult or suspend themselves by their flagella (not shown in the figures) vertically in mid-water.
The larvae are extremely minute, about ff in.
But if it is possible to procure a supply of spat from the American oyster by keeping the swarms of larvae in confinement, it ought to be possible in the case of the European oyster.
All that would be necessary would be to take a number of mature oysters containing white spat and lay them down in tanks till the larvae escape.
This would be merely carrying oyster culture a step farther back, and instead of collecting the newly fixed oysters, to obtain the free larvae in numbers and so insure a fall of spat independently of the uncertainty of natural conditions.
The wandering life of the larvae makes it uncerain whether any of the progeny of a given oyster-bed will settle within its area and so keep up its numbers.
It is known from the history of the Liimfjord beds that the larvae may settle 5 m.
The hatching of eggs, whether of fresh-water or salt-water fishes, presents no serious difficulties, if suitable apparatus is employed; but the rearing of fry to an advanced stage, without serious losses, is less easy, and in the case of sea-fishes with pelagic eggs, the larvae of which are exceedingly small and tender, is still an unsolved problem, although recent work, carried out at the Plymouth laboratory of the Marine Biological Association, is at least promising.
It has been found possible to grow pure cultures of various diatoms, and by feeding these to delicate larvae kept in sterilized sea-water, great successes have been attained.
If it is a risky matter to plant out the robust young fry of trout under an age of three months, it would seem to be an infinitely more speculative proceeding to plant out the delicate week-old larvae of sea-fishes in an environment which teems with predaceous enemies.
It is recognized that the great fertility of fishes is nature's provision to meet a high mortality - greater in sea-fishes with minute pelagic eggs than in fresh-water fishes with larger-yolked eggs, partly because of the greater risks of marine pelagic life, and partly because of the greater delicacy of marine larvae at the time of hatching.
The large amount of salt in the water makes both fauna and flora of the lake scanty; there are a few algae, the larvae of an Ephydra and of a Tipula fly, specimens of what seems to be Corixa decolor, and in great quantities, so as to tint the surface of the water, the brine shrimp, Artemia salina (or gracilis or fertilis), notable biologically for the rarity of males, for the high degree of parthenogenesis and for apparent interchangeableness with the Branchipus.
The most peculiar modification, perhaps, is that found in the Cirripedia (Thyrostraca), in the larvae of which the antennules develop into organs of attachment, bearing the openings of the cement-glands, and becoming, in the adult, involved in the attachment of the animal to its support.
At the same time, the tendency to a retardation in the development of the posterior thoracic somites is very general in Malacostracan larvae, and may perhaps be correlated with the f
Besides the nauplius and the zoea there are many other types of Crustacean larvae, distinguished by special names, though, as their occurrence is restricted within the limits of the smaller systematic groups, they are of less general interest.
Stomatopoda of a very modern-looking type, and even their larvae, occur in Jurassic rocks.
The Cirripedia are so specialized both as larvae and as adults that it is hard to say in what direction their origin is to be sought.
The larvae are white, fleshy, apodal grubs, with a series of tubercles along each side of the body; the head is round, and bears strong jaws, and sometimes rudimentary ocelli.
The larvae of corals are free swimming ciliated forms known as planulae, and they do not acquire a corallum until they fix themselves.
The larvae are free-swimming and have the pelvic fins elongated into filaments.
The difficulty of rearing the larvae in an aquarium towards the close of the metamorphosis may account for the slight information available concerning the stages that immediately follow the embryonic. Another difficulty is due to the fact that the types studied, and especially the crinoid Antedon, are highly specialized, so that some of the embryonic features are not really primitive as regards the class, but only as regards each particular genus.
But only slight modifications are required to produce the Tornaria larva of the Enteropneusta and other larvae, including the special type that is inferred from the Dipleurula larval stages of recent forms to have characterized the ancestor of the Echinoderms. We cannot enter here into all the details of comparison between these larval forms; amid much that is hypothetical a few homologies are widely accepted, and the preceding account will show the kind of relation that the Echinoderms bear to other animals, including what are now usually regarded as the ancestors of the Chordata (to which back-boned animals belong), as well as the nature of the evidence that their study has been, or may be, made to yield.
These young, or larvae as they are called, after the integument has hardened by exposure to the air, climb up the stalks of grain or herbage and cling with outstretched legs waiting for passing animals.
In other cases (some larvae) stigmata are absent; in other cases again a single stigma is developed, as in the smaller Arachnida and Chilopoda, in the median dorsal line or other unexpected position.
These associations of individuals can hardly be the result of the metamorphosis of a corresponding number of larvae, but are probably due to a spontaneous fragmentation of the adult animals, each such fragment developing into a complete Phoronis (De Selys-Longchamps).
Its whole structure is strangely modified to enable it to procure the woodboring larvae which form its food.
It develops from direct ingestion of the larvae.
The larvae of this worm are also directly swallowed, and infection probably takes place through water, or possibly through lettuces and watercress.
The vertical section (A) shows the lower portion of the combs devoted to brood-rearing, the higher and thicker combs being reserved for honey, and midway between the brood and food is stored the pollen required for mixing with honey in feeding the larvae.
During the summer season, however (from May to July), when drones are abundant, the loss of a queen is of comparatively little moment, as the workers can transform eggs (or young larvae not more than three days old), which would in the ordinary course produce worker bees, into fully-developed queens, capable of fulfilling all the maternal duties of a mother-bee.
It shows a portion of honeycomb (natural size) not precisely as it appears when the frame containing it is lifted out of the hive, but as would be seen on two or more combs in the same hive, namely, the various cells built for - and occupied by - queens, drones and workers; also the larvae or grubs in the various stages of transformation FIG.
The sealed cells are dark-coloured and sunken, pierced with irregular holes, and the larvae in all stages from the crescent-shaped healthy condition to that in which the dead larvae are seen lying at the bottom of the cells, flaccid and shapeless.
The remains then change to buff colour, afterwards turning brown, when decomposition sets in, and as the bacilli present in the dead larvae increase and the nutrient matter is consumed, the mass in some cases becomes sticky and ropy in character, making its removal impossible by the bees.
In the worst cases the larvae even die after the cells are sealed over; a strong characteristic and offensive odour being developed in some phases of the disease, noticeable at times some distance away from the hive.
The brood of bees, when healthy, lies in the combs in compact masses, the larvae being plump and of a pearly whiteness, and when quite young curled up on their sides at the base of the cells.
When the disease attacks the larvae before they are sealed over Bacillus alvei is present, usually associated with Streptococcus apis, which latter imparts a sour smell to the dead brood.
In cases where the disease is odourless the larvae are attacked after the cells are sealed over, and just before they change to pupae, when they become slimy, sputum-like masses, difficult to remove from the cells.
He cites Groom's evidence that larvae obtained from the egg readily go through one moult in the aquarium, and the known fact that the last larval stage is.
They are now considered as arrested larvae descended from the latter.
Palaeobatrachus (26), of which a number of species represented by skeletons of the perfect form and of the tadpole have been described from Miocene beds in Germany, Bohemia and France, seems to be referable to the Pelobatidae; this genus has been considered as possibly one of the Aglossa, but the absence of ribs in the larvae speaks against such an association.
But the larvae of the Ecaudata are mainly herbivorous and the digestive tract is accordingly extremely elongate and coiled up like the spring of a watch.
The number of larvae needed to treat an aphid infestation will vary on the number of aphid infestation will vary on the number of aphids present.
Free living barnacle larvae are chemically attracted to barnacle larvae are chemically attracted to barnacle shells and tend to settle among established adults.
When fully grown the larvae pupate and a few days later they emerge as the first worker bumble bees of the year.
The tunnels of buprestid larvae can be distinguished from those of cerambycid larvae as the buprestid larvae can be distinguished from those of cerambycid larvae as the buprestid tunnels are more flattened in cross section.
In pigs adult worms burrow into the mucosa of the small intestine where the female produces larvae.
Like the larvae, the adults are fiercely carnivorous.
Do not wear dog or cat flea collars on your ankles or cattle ear tags on your shoes to ward off harvest mite larvae.
The larvae feed mainly on roots but they will also eat corms and soft fleshy stems.
And as it turns out, Monarch larvae and butterflies actually do better in Bt cornfields than in cornfields sprayed with insecticides.
Larvae which consume high levels of the pollen do grow poorly and have a higher death rate.
The Caddis larvae normally live on river-beds, and make cocoons for themselves from bark, gravel and other river detritus.
The family will be a familiar one to the pond dipper as it includes the larvae known as bloodworms.
At this time the black spiky larvae can often be seen basking in clusters of several dozen.
Larvae of other echinoderms are also present in the plankton, like those of sea urchins, sea cucumbers and brittle stars.
Lacewing adults and larvae are voracious feeders on aphids.
The larvae have external gills, which absorb oxygen directly from the water.
This prevents granulation and kills wax moth larvae and eggs should any be present.
The most common insect root herbivore was Tipula paludosa and the application of insecticide reduced all insect larvae and reduced microbial biomass.
Similarly satisfying was feeding some vine weevil larvae I found in my potted hostas to the birds.
The infective eggs or larvae are then ingested by a cat.
The larvae may or may not cause skin irritation.
The workers feed a few selected larvae a special food called " royal jelly " which causes them to become queens.
Clothes moth larvae are among the few insects able to digest the keratin of hairs and feathers.
A five-day dose of fenbendazole controls inhibited encysted small redworm larvae.
The Sheep Nostril fly places already hatched larvae in the nostrils of sheep.
L3 larvae are invasive and may penetrate human skin, giving rise to cutaneous larval migrans.
Birds become infected when they consume the host containing the infective larvae.
Viviparous adult females release L1 larvae into fresh water.
They can be important predators of insect pests, such as aphids, scale insects and bark beetle larvae.
In recent years there has been quite a craze for the Polish or Check heavily weighted nymphs that imitate free-swimming caddis larvae.
Large numbers of ants can prevent the effectiveness of lacewing larvae.
Damage to plant roots by vine weevil larvae shows by the plants starting to wilt.
Tiny midge larvae (3mm long, orange or white) cause the damage.
The key features of many descriptions include the paralysis and subsequent liquefaction of the afflicted larvae.
The green and white striped larvae loop their backs as they move about and the insect is some-times known as the pine looper moth.
The butterfly kit allows a child to see the complete metamorphosis from larvae to butterfly, both an exciting and wonderful learning experience.
The larvae are carnivorous, with biting or suctorial mouthparts.
The larvae bore into muscle tissue; infestation is called myiasis.
After hatching the larvae are carried by the currents and join other plankton.
Collin quotes Perris who in 1839 bred this species from larvae found under the bark of various dead trees including poplars.
Without an effective preventive worming program pasture is likely to become heavily contaminated with potentially dangerous levels of Infective larvae.
The larvae feed on wild and garden privet and saplings of Ash, Lilac and Guelder rose.
The larvae or caterpillars have three pairs of thoracic (true) legs and several pairs of fleshy, abdominal prolegs.
These eggs hatch into larvae which then become pupae.
These larvae mature then pupate to form the first cohort of worker ants.
The researchers tested the suggestion that pathogens may be influential by feeding cannibal tiger salamander larvae diseased and non-diseased prey.
The larvae of furniture beetle can easily attack the sapwood of our usual structural timbers.
Carry out a thorough weekly inspection of gooseberries from May onwards concentrating in the center of the bush for larvae of gooseberry sawfly.
It keeps to the bottom - grubbing for insect larvae - worms and small shellfish.
Their main food source is freshwater shrimps, water slaters and caddis larvae which they obtain by diving and hunting underwater.
Aquatic insect larvae like mosquito and midge larvae have slender elongated worm like bodies.
The tunneling activity of the larvae can cause the turf to feel spongy underfoot.
Eggs deposited by the adult tapeworm are shed into the environment where they are consumed by the flea larvae.
In the wild killies eat mainly terrestrial insects, aquatic insects larvae and crustaceans.
The larvae numbers of the mosquito vectors were significantly lower in organic sites.
The larvae are aquatic, feeding below the surface on the submerged parts of emergent vegetation.
The larvae of this species feeds on milk wort.
Grassi and Noe think that if the cavity of the labium be full of the larval nematodes this bending will burst the tissue, and through the rent the larvae will escape and make their way into the body of the host.
The young larvae, nourished by the yolk xIx.
Many larvae of beetles, moths, &c., bore into bark, and injure the cambium, or even the wood and pith; in addition to direct injury, the interference with the transpiration current and the access of other parasites through the wounds are also to be feared in proportion to the numbers of insects at work.
In the case of certain beetles whose larvae do not find themselves amid appropriate food from the moment of hatching, but have to migrate in search of it, an early larval stage, with legs, is followed by later sluggish stages in which legs have disappeared, furnishing examples of what is called hypermetamorphosis.
The Diptera Orthorrhapha include the more primitive and less specialized families such as the Tipulidae (daddy-long-legs), Culicidae (gnats or mosquitoes), Chironomidae (midges), Mycetophilidae (fungus-midges), Tabanidae (horse-flies), Asilidae (robber-flies), &c. The Diptera Cyclorrhapha on the other hand consist of the most highly specialized families, such as the Syrphidae (hover-flies), Oestridae (bot and warble flies), and Muscidae (sensu latiore - the house-fly and its allies, including tsetse-flies, flesh-flies, Tachininae, or flies the larvae of which are internal parasites of caterpillars, &c.).
The phytophagous species are attached to various parts of plants, dead or alive; and the carnivorous in like manner feed on dead or living flesh, or its products, many larvae being parasitic on living animals of various classes (in Australia the larva of a species of Muscidae is even a parasite of frogs), especially the caterpillars of Lepidoptera, which are destroyed in great numbers by Tachininae.
The part played by certain blood-sucking Diptera in the dissemination of disease is now well known (see Mosquito and Tsetse-Fly), and under the term myiasis medical literature includes a lengthy recital of instances of the presence of Dipterous larvae in various parts of the living human body, and the injuries caused thereby.
Among other notable Lepidopterous pests are the " surface larvae " or cutworms (Agrotis spp.), the caterpillars of various Noctuae; the codling moth (Carpocapsa pomonella), which causes the maggot in apples, has now become a universal pest, having spread from Europe to America and to most of the British Colonies.
In many aquatic larvae we find that all the spiracles are closed up, or become functionless, except a pair at the hinder end which are associated with some arrangement - such as the valvular flaps of the gnat larva or the telescopic " tail " of the drone-fly larva - for piercing the surface film and drawing periodical supplies of atmospheric air.
Wagner made his classical observations on the production of larvae from unfertilized eggs developed in the precociouslyformed ovaries of a larval gall-midge (Cecidomyid), and subsequent observers have confirmed his results by studies on insects of the same family and of the related Chironomidae.
As regards wing-structure, the Isoptera with the two pairs closely similar are the most primitive of all winged insects; while in the paired mesodermal genital ducts, the elongate cerci and the conspicuous maxillulae of their larvae the Ephemeroptera retain notable ancestral characters.
From then onwards the plant organisms diminish because they are eaten by the animal larvae.
In most cases this is a mollusc, and the larvae bore their way into the most diverse organs, often accumulating to such an extent as to give a distinctly orange colour to an otherwise colourless tissue, and to cause the demolition of particular structures e.g.
All the other families of Hymenoptera, including the gall-flies, ichneumons and aculeates, have the first abdominal segment closely united with the thorax, the second abdominal segment constricted so as to form a narrow stalk or " waist," and legless larvae without a hinder outlet to the food-canal.
For the larvae of their makers the galls provide shelter and sustenance.
Besides the larva of the gall-maker, or the householder, galls usually contain inquilines or lodgers, the larvae of what are termed guest-flies or cuckoo-flies.
Huxley viewed them as equivalent to and on a level with the larvae of Echinoderms, and of such other trocho phore larvae as resem-???,, ally adopted.
The nymphs of the Perlidae are closely like their parents and breathe dissolved air by means of tracheal gills on the thoracic segments, for they all live in the water of streams. They feed upon weaker aquatic creatures, such as the larvae of Mayflies.
Pebrine manifests itself by dark spots in the skin of the larvae; the eggs do not hatch out, or hatch imperfectly; the worms are weak, stunted and unequal in growth, languid in movement, fastidious in feeding; many perish before coming to maturity; if they spin a cocoon it is soft and loose, and moths when developed are feeble and inactive.
Moreover, the above-suggested explanation does not coincide with the explanation of the likeness to ants shown by certain insects such as Myrecophana fallax, the ant and leaf-like Membracid Homopteron and the larvae of the lobster-moth (Stauropos fagi), which are plant-eaters.
It is probable that one explanation - namely, that of protection - covers all cases of ant-mimicry; and this explanation lies in all probability in the immunity from the attacks of most insectivorous enemies that ants enjoy, and especially from predaceous wasps of the family Pompilidae which annually destroy thousands upon thousands of spiders to feed their larvae; and since more than one observer has testified to the fear and abhorrence these wasps have of ants, it is needless to look farther for the benefit ant-mimicry is to spiders.
B, a, larvae boring their way into a root; b, larva of the immobile kind surrounded by the old skin, living as an ectoparasite on the outside of the root.
Nymphs repeat the behaviour of the larvae, and finally moult into the adult, showing the generative orifice, which is the mark of maturity.
They overwinter as larvae in roots or as pupae in the soil, tho a few adults may survive the winter.
The young are fed on invertebrates, particularly caterpillars, larvae and pupae of flies and beetles.
Moths found in Quaker Oats packs Boxes of Quaker Oats are pulled from the shelves because of the presence of moth pupae and larvae.
The large oval area in the center of the frame contains mostly sealed over pupated larvae.
These larvae pupate in the soil, new adults hatching out in the autumn.
The leaves fall and the larvae pupate in the leaf litter to emerge as adult females in the spring.
These larvae feed on rosebay willow-herb which is plentiful at Gibraltar Point.
When the bitch becomes pregnant the hormones that she releases stimulates the roundworm larvae, which can be lying dormant in the tissues.
The larvae, along with some sawfly larvae, share some responsibility for ' leaf roll ' damage to rose bushes.
On the coast of Picardy just across the Channel I have seen it being devoured by large spurge hawk larvae.
During later stages of our march through the jungle, men drank from stagnant pools which were often full of mosquito larvae.
Studies have indicated that inhibited 3rd stage small strongyle larvae represent 50% of the total larval population in the horse.
The tadpole larvae are often present in plankton catches.
Some forms of tapeworm larvae can be ingested and travel to other parts of the body including the brain and muscle.
In view of this, suggest one reason why cannibalistic larvae of tiger salamanders are still found.
They look like tunicate larvae but retain this larval shape when they become adult.
Once hatched, the wasp larvae Squeeze a hormone trigger, Bringing into play A sequence of events.
These insects lay eggs inside the whitefly scales and their larvae consume them from the inside out.
Worker bees collect nectar and pollen for the queen and new larvae to eat, and keep the burrow tidy.
The scientist and artist Hubert Duprat has placed Caddis worm larvae in vitrines lined with gold dust and tiny particles of jewels.
The larvae of this species feeds on Milk wort.
The larvae are usually about ¼ inch long and almost transparent.
The flea larvae also eat pet dander and other small, organic particles found in carpets and on the floor.
The insect growth regulator, pyriproxyfen, inhibits the growth of the flea's larvae and kills the eggs.
The medication contains the insect growth regulator, (S)-methoprene, which controls flea larvae and eggs by making them unable to successfully mature.
Delving into a world only seen on Fear Factor, one might also happen upon crickets, silkworm, and red ant larvae.
As dog owners travel (taking southerly vacations in winter months, for example), they expose their pets to the disease, and northern mosquitoes can acquire the parasites as larvae from infected dogs.
Both daily and monthly tablets are available that destroy larvae before it reaches maturation, therefore preventing the worms from lodging in the dog's heart.
Nematodes are a type of worm that actually live on flea larvae, and can be purchased through some veterinarians under the brand name Interrupt.
Larvae is the next stage in the tick's life cycle.
Larvae continue their development by encasing themselves in pupae, from which they eventually emerge as immature fleas.
Dry environments cause the eggs and larvae to shrivel and die, but higher humidity levels actually speed up development, boosting the population in your home.
After the larvae undergo several changes in the dog's body, they reach their adult stage.
Once a dog is infected, the larvae continue to grow into adult heartworms.
Killing heartworms at the larvae stage is important since heartworms are quick to grow in dogs.
Many are not considered pests and might be the larvae of important species of butterflies or moths.
Knock any beetles and larvae you find into a can of soapy water to dispose of them.
For major outbreaks, spray Bt San Diego while larvae are small.
If necessary, apply neem oil, a botanical pesticide, to the soil to kill larvae.
Cutworms are moth larvae that live in the soil and come out at night to feast on new seedlings.
The larvae of a small fly, leafminers live in and feed on leaves, leaving behind highly visible tunnels, or mines.
Mulch soil under plants to prevent leafminer larvae from reaching the soil to pupate.
A "hot" compost pile will kill disease organisms and insect larvae.
Larvae of the cabbage moth feed upon pinks, but other insects tend to avoid them.
If left over the winter, garden debris can harbor larvae or insects that can damage plants.
Nematodes feast upon beetle grubs, injecting a bacteria into the grub and feasting on the bacteria, which kills the larvae.
Be sure to spray the plant with a stream of water before moving it indoors to remove any insects, and inspect the pot carefully for insect larvae and other hitchhikers before moving the plant inside.
Such soils contain good quality soil without added weed seeds or insect larvae.
It is performed as a way to prevent fly strike (a skin infestation of fly larvae) in regions where fly strike is common, such as Australia.
Itching also may be caused when any of the family of hookworm larvae penetrate the skin.
Creeping eruption-Itchy, irregular, wandering red lines on the foot made by burrowing larvae of the hookworm family and some roundworms.
In order for such eggs or larvae to survive, they would need to withstand temps exceeding 140 degrees F during cooking, and they would need to withstand the digestive enzymes within the human body.
The story involves the development of a rash or an itch, subsequent swelling and, eventually, the eruption of an infection within which an infestation of spiders, larvae or some other insect is discovered.