"On the fir and larch grows what is called stelis in Euboea and hyphear in Arcadia."
The larch frequently attains a height of 100 ft.
Yet the forests of larch in Siberia often suffer from conflagration.
The cultivation of the tree rapidly spread, and the larch has become a conspicuous feature of the scenery in many parts of Scotland.
A variety with very pendent boughs, known as the " drooping " larch var.
When well prepared for use, larch is one of the most durable of coniferous woods.
For hop-poles it is not so well adapted as the larch.
The original varieties of trees still abound, though in less numbers, on lands illadapted to agriculture, and in the Adirondack and Catskill Mountains, where the state has established forest preserves, and the Forest, Fish and Game Commissioner began reforesting in 1901, principally with pine, spruce and larch.
The state is reforesting portions of its preserve chiefly with pine, spruce and larch.
The European larch has long been introduced into the United States, where, in suitable localities, it flourishes as luxuriantly as in Britain.
in length, of a roundishoblong shape; the scales are very few in number, crimson in the young state, reddish-brown when ripe; the tree much resembles the European larch in general appearance but is of more slender growth; its trunk is seldom more than 2 ft.
The black larch (L.
The bark is dark bluish-grey, smoother than in the red larch, on the trunk and lower boughs often glossy; the branches are more or less pendulous and very slender.
The red larch grows usually on higher and drier ground, ranging from the Virginian mountains to the shores of Hudson Bay; the black larch is found often on moist land, and even in swamps.
Several fine specimens of the red larch exist in English parks, but its growth is much slower than that of L.
The hackmatacks might perhaps be grown with advantage in places too wet for the common larch.
In western America a larch (L.
The bark of the trunk has the same reddish tint as that of the common larch of Europe.
The higher elevations are covered by dense forests of fir and larch, and the lower slopes with deciduous trees.
In the pine forests of the Alps the prevailing species are the common spruce and the silver fir; on siliceous soil the larch flourishes, and surpasses every other European species in height.
above the sea, but on the south side they commonly attain 7000 ft., while the larch, Siberian fir and mughus often extend above that elevation.
In their simplest form, they are merely a row of slender stakes of larch or other wood driven into the ground, and connected by a slight rod or fillet at top. The use of iron rails has now been almost wholly discontinued on account of metallic substances acting as powerful conductors of both heat and cold in equal extremes.
Larix - Larch.
The larch, which three centuries ago covered large tracts, has almost entirely disappeared.
The Ayan spruce (Abies ayanensis), the Sakhalin fir (Abies sachalensis) and the Daurian larch are the chief trees; on the upper parts of the mountains are the Siberian rampant cedar (Cembra pumila) and the Kurilian bamboo (Arundinaria kurilense).
The modern plantations consist mostly of Scots fir with a sprinkling of larch.
The larch, elm and ash should be felled when the trees are between the ages of fifty and one hundred years.
Of the larch the best known variety is the European larch (Larix europaea), which grows in Switzerland, Italy, Russia and Germany.
The wood is extremely durable and lasts well where exposed alternately to wet and dry; indeed, the larch is useful for every purpose of building, internal and external.
The American black larch (Larix pendula) and the American red larch (Larix microcarpa) are native to North America.
The black larch yields timber of good quality, nearly equal to that of the European tree.
On the alpine range itself and its immediate branches, at a height of 6000 to 10,000 ft., we have abundant growth of large forest trees, among which conifers are the most noble and prominent, such as Cedrus Deodara, Abies excelsa, Pinuslongifolia, P. Pinaster,P. Pinea (the edible pine) and the larch.
Its large variety of trees and shrubs, including oak, hickory, elm, maple, chestnut, birch, ash, cedar, pine, larch and sumach, its flower gardens, a palm house, ponds, a lake of 61 acres for boating, skating and curling, a parade ground of 40 acres for other athletic sports, a menagerie, and numerous pieces of statuary, are among its objects of interest or beauty.
Larch (Larix europaea).
Of the Coniferae, Podocarpus and Pinus longifolia alone descend to the tropical zone; Abies Brunoniana and Smithiana and the larch (a genus not seen in the western mountains) are found at 8000, and the yew and Picea Webbiana at 10,000 ft.
The flora is on the whole poor, although the higher regions carry good forests of larch, pitch pine, cedar, birch and alder, with rhododendrons and species of Berberis and Ribes.
Briancon manna is met with on the leaves of the common Larch, and bide-khecht on those of the willow, Salix fragilis; and a kind of manna was at one time obtained from the cedar.
The larch (Larix) sheds its leaves in the autumn, in the Chinese larch (Pseudolarix Kaempferi) the leaves turn a bright yellow colour before falling.
Smaller cones, less than an inch long, occur in the larch, Athrotaxis (Tasmania), Fitsroya (Patagonia and Tasmania), &c. In the Taxodieae and Araucarieae the cones are similar in appearance to those of the Abietineae, but they differ in the fact that the scales appear to be single, even in the young condition; each cone-scale in a genus of the Taxodiinae (Sequoia, &c.) bears several seeds, while in the Araucariinae (Araucaria and Agathis) each scale has one seed.
The birch and larch woods of this zone give way to pine forests as the altitude increases; and the pines to mosses, lichens and alpine plants, just below the jagged iron-grey peaks, many of which attain altitudes of 6000 to 8000 ft.
Venice turpentine is yielded by the larch tree, Larix europaea, from which it is collected principally in Tirol.
In the north, and in the deep valleys through which the streams descend to the plain, there are extensive forests of oak, birch and beech, and in the south, of fir and larch.
A lengthening of the axis of the female strobilus of Coniferae is not of infrequent occurrence in Cryptomeria japonica, larch (Larix europaea), &c., and this is usually associated with a leaf-like condition of the bracts, and sometimes even with the development of leaf-bearing shoots in place of the scales.
Poplar and larch are much more abundant in the western than in the eastern half of the state, and pine is much more abundant in the eastern than in the western half.
buzzard's nest in a larch tree about 300 years from the house.
Similarly, there are small woods dominated by birch with sycamore, hazel and ash and with planted elm and larch.
heartwood of larch.
Suitable conifers include Scots pine, and introduced species such as Sitka spruce, European larch and hybrid larch.
Thanks to Alistair's good management we have been able to accept an offer from the builder to upgrade the floor using European larch.
More recently, areas have been planted with commercial crops, including larch.
larch planted in 1940.
The closely related Japanese larch (also planted) has leaves with two conspicuous white lines beneath.
The house is clad in untreated, locally sourced larch and finished in an environmentally-friendly lime wash.
These, made from local larch, were put together in the workshops on site, and the finishing touches added in situ.
Go through a gate and follow the track as it winds gently left through open fell, with scattered mature larch.
larch tree plantation.
larch trees on your RIGHT.
larch woods this is my target for the day a female goshawk!
larch forest above.
larch cladding stained in a dark oak color.
larch pole to use as a suet log.
The species are larch, norway and sitka spruce, douglas fir and scots pine.
pirn mill, which turned out larch and birch bobbins for Mr Clark in Glasgow, was burnt completely in a fire.
spruce, European larch and hybrid larch.
Sitka spruce is the dominant species with Norway spruce, lodgepole pine and Japanese larch also common.
Bt genes have been engineered into a wide range of species, including poplar, European larch, white spruce and walnut.
Poplars, willows, lime, mountain-ash, maples, are favourite habitats, and it is also found on many other trees, including cedar of Lebanon and larch.
Pines, larch, birch are the principal trees on the moun tains; willow, alders and poplars on the lower ground.
In places suited to its growth it seems to flourish nearly as well as in the woods of Norway or Switzerland; but as it needs for its successful cultivation as a timber tree soils that might be turned to agricultural account, it is not so well adapted for economic planting in Britain as the Scotch fir or larch, which come to perfection in more bleak and elevated regions, and on comparatively barren ground, though it may perhaps be grown to advantage on some moist hill-sides and mountain hollows.
Piles of elm, oak, white poplar or larch were driven into this clay to the depth of 16 to 20 ft.
The larch remains free from parasitism so long as its covering is intact, but as soon as this is punctured by insects, or its continuity interfered with by cracks or fissures, the Peziza penetrates, and before long brings about the destruction of the branch.
Most of the pine that formerly grew on the Archean at the northern fringe of the settlements has been cut, but the lumberman is still advancing northwards and approaching the northern limit of the famous Canadian white pine forests, beyond which spruces, tamarack (larch) and poplar are the prevalent trees.
From Labrador it ranges to the southern shores of Hudson's Bay and to those of the Great Bear Lake, and to the valley of the Yukon and the coast of Alaska, forming with the aspen, the larch, the balsam poplar, the banksian pine, the black and white spruces and the balsam fir, the great subarctic transcontinental forest; and southward it ranges through all the forest region of the Dominion of Canada and the northern states."
LARCH (from the Ger.
The Siberian larch has smooth grey bark and smaller cones, approaching in shape somewhat to those of the American hackmatack; it seems even hardier than the Alpine tree, growing up to latitude 68Ã‚°, but, as the inclement climate of the polar shores is neared, dwindling down to a dwarf and even trailing bush.
The larch, though mentioned by Parkinson in 1629 as"nursed up " by a few " lovers of variety " as a rare exotic, does not seem to have been much grown in England till early in the 18th century.
Where there is complete freedom from stagnant water in the ground, and abundant room for the spread of its branches to light and air, the larch will flourish in a great variety of soils, stiff clays, wet or mossy peat, and moist alluvium being the chief exceptions; in its native localities it seems partial to the debris of primitive and metamorphic rocks, but is occasionally found growing luxuriantly on calcareous subsoils; in Switzerland it attains the largest size, and forms the best timber, on the northern declivities of the mountains; but in Scotland a southern aspect appears most favourable.
The larch suffers from several diseases caused by fungi; the most important is the larch-canker caused by the parasitism of Peziza Willkommii.
high; this form is the red larch, the epinette rouge of the French Canadians.
pedunculata, Ehrh.), which grows only on the south coast; the poplar (Populus tremula); and the Siberian larch, introduced in culture in the 18th century.
His trees included the false larch, the Chinese plum yew, the umbrella pine and the Cryptomeria.
For instance unseasoned larch, its rough qualities will enhance your home's character unlike any other treated or manufactured woods.
It is much employed for house-building; most of the picturesque log-houses in Vaud and the adjacent cantons are built of squared larch trunks, and derive their fine brown tint from the hardened resin that slowly exudes from the wood after long exposure to the summer sun; the wooden shingles, that in Switzerland supply the place of tiles, are also frequently of larch.
It answers well for fence-posts and river piles; many of the foundations of Venice rest upon larch, the lasting qualities of which were well known and appreciated, not only in medieval times, but in the days of Vitruvius and Pliny.
A peculiarity of larch wood is the difficulty with which it is ignited, although so resinous; and, coated with a thin layer of plaster, beams and pillars of larch might probably be found to justify Caesar's epithet " igni impenetrabile lignum "; even the small branches are not easily kept alight, and a larch fire in the open needs considerable care.
When these fires occur while the trees are full of sap, a curious mucilaginous matter is exuded from the half-burnt stems; when dry it is of pale reddish colour, like some of the coarser kinds of gum-arabic, and is soluble in water, the solution resembling gumwater, in place of which it is sometimes used; considerable quantities are collected and sold as " Orenburg gum "; in Siberia and Russia it is occasionally employed as a semi-medicinal food, being esteemed an antiscorbutic. For burning in close stoves and furnaces, larch makes tolerably good fuel, its value being estimated by Hartig as only one-fifth less than that of beech; the charcoal is compact, and is in demand for iron-smelting and other metallurgic uses in some parts of Europe.
In the trunk of the larch, especially when growing in climates where the sun is powerful in summer, a fine clear turpentine exists in great abundance; in Savoy and the south of Switzerland, it is collected for sale, though not in such quantity as formerly, when, being taken to Venice for shipment, it was known in commerce as " Venice turpentine."
Real larch turpentine is a thick tenacious fluid, of a deep yellow colour, and nearly transparent; it does not harden by time; it contains 15% of the essential oil of turpentine, also resin, succinic, pinic and sylvic acids, and a bitter extractive matter.
The bark of the larch is largely used in some countries for tanning; it is taken from the trunk only, being stripped from the trees when felled; its value is about equal to that of birch bark; but, according to the experience of British tanners, it is scarcely half as strong as that of the oak.
The young shoots of the larch are sometimes given in Switzerland as fodder to cattle.
The larch, though mentioned by Parkinson in 1629 as "nursed up" by a few "lovers of variety " as a rare exotic, does not seem to have been much grown in England till early in the 18th century.
The larch of Europe is essentially a mountain tree, and requires not only free air above, but a certain moderate amount of moisture in the soil beneath, with, at the same time, perfect drainage, to bring the timber to perfection.
The best variety for culture in Britain is that with red female flowers; the light-flowered kinds are said to produce inferior wood, and the Siberian larch does not grow in Scotland nearly as fast as the Alpine tree.
The larch is raised from seed in immense numbers in British nurseries; that obtained from Germany is preferred, being more perfectly ripened than the cones of home growth usually are.
The larch is said not to succeed on arable land, especially where corn has been grown, but experience does not seem to support this view; that against the previous occupation of the ground by Scotch fir or Norway spruce is probably better founded, and, where timber is the object, it should not be planted with other conifers.
On the Grampians and neighbouring hills the larch will flourish at a greater elevation than the pine, and will grow up to an altitude of 1700 or even 1800 ft.; but it attains its full size on lower slopes.
The growth of the larch while young is exceedingly rapid; in the south of England it will often attain a height of 25 ft.
The annual increase in girth is often considerable even in large trees; the fine larch near the abbey of Dunkeld figured by Strutt in his Sylva Britannica increased 22 ft.
In the south of England, the larch is much planted for the supply of hop-poles, though in parts of Kent and Sussex poles formed of Spanish chestnut are regarded as still more lasting.
The best month for larch planting, whether for poles or timber, is November; larches are sometimes planted in the spring, but the practice cannot be commended, as the sap flows early, and, if a dry period follows, the growth is sure to be checked.
The thinnings of the larch woods in the Highlands are in demand for railway sleepers, scaffold poles, and mining timber, and are applied to a variety of agricultural purposes.
The young seedlings are sometimes nibbled by the hare and rabbit; and on parts of the highland hills both bark and shoots are eaten in the winter by the roe-deer; larch woods should always be fenced in to keep out the hill-cattle, which will browse upon the shoots in spring.
The " woolly aphis," " American blight," or " larch blight " (Eriosoma laricis) often attacks the trees in close valleys, but rarely spreads much unless other unhealthy conditions are present.
Considerable quantities of larch timber are imported into Britain for use in the dockyards, in addition to the large home supply.
For the landscape gardener, the larch is a valuable aid in the formation of park and pleasure ground; but it is never seen to such advantage as when hanging over some tumbling burn or rocky pass among the mountains.
The oak requires shelter in the early stages of growth; in England the Scotch pine is thought best for this purpose, though Norway spruce answers as well on suitable ground, and larch and other trees are sometimes substituted.
All chlorophyll plants require light, but in very different degrees, as exemplified even in the United Kingdom by the shade-bearing beech and yew contrasted with the light-demanding larch and birch; and as with temperature so with light, every plant and even every organ has its optimum of illumination.
The seriousness of the damage done is illustrated by the ravages of the larch disease, apple canker, &c.
On the other hand, several Asiatic species (Siberian pine, larch, cedar) grow freely in the N.E., while numerous shrubs and herbaceous plants, originally from the Asiatic steppes, have found their way into the S.E.
The bark and young cones afford a tanning material, inferior indeed to oakbark, and hardly equal to that of the larch, but of value in countries where substances more rich in tannin are not abundant.
Some of these are: Jack pine (Pinus Banksiana), Rocky Mountain pine (Pinus flexilis), black pine (Pinus Murrayana), white spruce (Picea alba), black spruce (Picea nigra), Engelman's spruce (Picea Engelmanni), mountain balsam (Abies subalpina), Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga Douglasii), mountain larch (Larix Lyallis).
The larch becomes predominant chiefly in two new species (Larix sibirica and L.
On the high plateau the larch predominates over all other species of conifers or deciduous trees; the wide, open valleys are thickly planted with Betula nana and B.
The Siberian larch predominates also in the alpine tracts fringing the plateau on the north, intermingled with the fir, stone-pine, aspen and birch.
This same character is also exhibited by the bottoms of the broad valleys, while the more elevated and hilly portions of the territory, especially on their northern slopes, are covered with larch, cedar, pine and deciduous trees belonging to the Siberian flora; where the forests fail they are marshy or assume the character of Alpine meadows - e.g.
The tree, as with the rest of the fir-tribe, except the larch, is evergreen; new leaves are developed every spring, but their fall is gradual.
The props used are preferably of small oak or English larch, but large quantities of fir props, cut to the right length, are also imported from the north of Europe.
In the Adirondack region the trees were principally white pine, spruce, hemlock and balsam, but mixed with these were some birch, maple, beech and basswood, and smaller numbers of ash and elm; in the swamps of this region were also larch and cedar.
slope of the Cascades the red fir ceases to be the dominant tree, and between this elevation and the region of perpetual snow, on a few of the highest peaks, rise a succession of forest zones containing principally: (1) yellow pine, red and yellow fir, white fir and cedar; (2) lodgepole pine, white pine, Engelmann spruce and yew; (3) subalpine fir, lovely fir, noble fir, Mertens hemlock, Alaska cedar and tamarack; (4) white-bark pine, Patton hemlock, alpine larch and creeeping juniper.
slope of the Cascades and most of the Okanogan Highlands are clothed with light forests consisting chiefly of yellow pine, but containing also Douglas fir, cedar, larch, tamarack and a very small amount of oak.
In the eastern part of the Okanogan Highlands there is some western white pine, and here, too, larch is most abundant.
The mountain valleys are covered with little except grasses; on the higher parts of the mountains there are barren rocks or only a scant growth of timber; but many of the lower mountain slopes, especially those along the western border, are clothed with heavy timber, ponderosa pine, lodgepole pine, Douglas-fir and western larch being the principal species.
Other species include - western red cedar, Engelmann spruce, alpine fir, whitebark pine, limber pine, alpine larch and occassionally western white pine.
larix), a name applied to a small group of coniferous trees, of which the common larch of Europe is taken as the type.
The common larch (L.
When standing in an open space, the larch grows of a nearly conical shape, with the lower branches almost reaching the ground, while those above gradually diminish in length towards the top of the trunk, presenting a very symmetrical form; but in dense woods the lower parts become bare of foliage, as with the firs under similar circumstances.
The larch abounds on the Alps of Switzerland, on which it flourishes at an elevation of 5000 ft., and also on those of Tirol and Savoy, on the Carpathians, and in most of the hill regions of central Europe; it is not wild on the Apennine Branchlet of Larch (Larix europaea).
The Siberian larch has smooth grey bark and smaller cones, approaching in shape somewhat to those of the American hackmatack; it seems even hardier than the Alpine tree, growing up to latitude 68°, but, as the inclement climate of the polar shores is neared, dwindling down to a dwarf and even trailing bush.
The larch, from its lofty straight trunk and the high quality of its wood, is one of the most important of coniferous trees; its growth is extremely rapid, the stem attaining a large size in from sixty to eighty years, while the tree yields good useful timber at forty or fifty; it forms firm heartwood at an early age, and the sapwood is less perishable than that of the firs, rendering it more valuable in the young state.
The only drawback to these good qualities is a certain liability to warp and bend, unless very carefully seasoned; for this purpose it is recommended to be left floating in water for a year after felling, and then allowed some months to dry slowly and completely before sawing up the logs; barking the trunk in winter while the tree is standing, and leaving it in that state till the next year, has been often advised with the larch as with other timber, but the practical inconveniences of the plan have prevented its adoption on any large scale.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.