The only great noble who rose was Henri, duc de Montmorenci, governor of Languedoc, and his defeat at Castelnaudary on the 1st of September 1632 was followed by his speedy trial by the parlement of Toulouse, and by his execution.
On the 21st of August 1715 he summoned all the preachers in the Cevennes and Lower Languedoc to a conference or synod near the village of Monoblet.
The scene of his labours for fifteen years was Languedoc, the Vivarais, and Dauphine.
Synods were held in 1718, 1723, 1726 and 1727; and in a remote spot in Bas Languedoc in 1 744 a national synod assembled - the first since 1660 - which consisted of representatives from every province formerly Protestant.
Some of these are on the south-west coast, in the Landes, as Carcans, Lacanau, Biscarosse, Cazau, Sanguinet; but more are to be found in the south and south-east, in Languedoc and Provence, as Leucate, Sigean, Thau, Vaccars, Berre, &c. Their want of depth prevents them from serving as roadsteads for shipping, and they are useful chiefly for fishing or for the manufacture of bay-salt.
The great governments were: Alsace, Saintonge and Angoumois, Anjou, Artois, Aunis, Auvergne, Beam and Navarre, Berry, Bourbonnais, Bourgogne (Burgundy), Bretagne (Brittany),, Champagne, DauphinC, Flandre, Foix, Franche-Comt, Guienne and Gascogne (Gascony), Ile-de-France, Languedoc, Limousin, Lorraine, Lyonnais.
Languedoc; Gascogne (Comminges).
Languedoc (Vclay); Auvergne; Lyonnais.
- Roussillon; Languedoc.
- Languedoc (Albigeois).
Guienne; Gascogne; Languedoc.
He received, however, the province of Languedoc. The peasant revolt of the Tuchins and Coquins, as the insurgents were called, was suppressed with great harshness, and the duke exacted from the states of Languedoc assembled at Lyons a fine of f i 5,000.
visited Languedoc in 13891 39 0, and enquired into his uncle's government.
The duke was deprived of the government of Languedoc, and his agent, Betizac, was burnt.
GERSONIDES, or BEN Gerson (Gershon), Levi, known also as Ralbag (1288-1344), Jewish philosopher and commentator, was born at Bagnols in Languedoc, probably in 1288.
charged them to preach among the Albigensian heretics in Languedoc. For ten years (1205-1215) this mission in Languedoc was the work of Dominic's life.
He was for eight years professor of theology in the Protestant college of Nimes; but in 1661, having successfully opposed a scheme for re-uniting Catholics and Protestants, he was forbidden to preach in Lower Languedoc. In 1662 he obtained a post at Montauban similar to that which he had lost; but after four years he was removed from this also.
284-299; Devic and Vaissete, Histoire generale de Languedoc, pp. 514-522 (Toulouse, 1876); E.
At the French court he was held in high estimation by King Francis I., and was consecrated bishop of Mirepoix in Languedoc in December 1537.
Soult's position to the north and east of the Toulouse, city was exceedingly strong, consisting of the canal April10, of Languedoc, some fortified suburbs, and (to the 1814.
The Secondary and Tertiary beds of the Languedoc were crushed against the central plateau and were frequently overfolded.
For the Armagnacs see Paul Dognon, "Les Armagnacs et les Bourguignons, le comte de Foix et le dauphin en Languedoc" (1416-1420) in Annales du Midi (1889); Rameau, "Guerre des Armagnacs dans le Maconnais" (1418-1435) in the Rev. soc. lit.
JEAN ASTRUC (1684-1766), French physician and Biblical critic, was born on the 19th of March 1684 at Sauve, in Languedoc.
Subsequently he was appointed successively superintendent of the mineral waters of Languedoc (1721), first physician to the king of Poland (1729), and regius professor of medicine at Paris (1731).
His father, Louis Chenier, a native of Languedoc, after twenty years of successful commerce in the Levant as a cloth-merchant, was appointed to a position equivalent to that of French consul at Constantinople.
1455), seigneur de Boussargues, bailli of Viviers and Valence, and viguier of Bagnols and Pont St Esprit in Languedoc, acquired the estate of Luynes (dep. of Indre-et-Loire) in the 16th century.
1592), seigneur de Luynes, was in the service of the three last Valois kings and of Henry IV., and became colonel of the French bands, commissary of artillery in Languedoc and governor of Beaucaire.
In 1380 he was sent into Languedoc to suppress disturbances and brigandage, provoked by the harsh government of the duke of Anjou.
agreed, but insisted that Sidney should return to Languedoc. In illustration of his austere principles it is related that, Louis having taken a fancy to a horse belonging to him and insisting on possessing it, Sidney shot the animal, which, he said, " was born a free creature, had served a free man, and should not be mastered by a king of slaves."
ANTOINE-FRANCOIS, COUNT ANDREOSSY (1761-1828), French soldier and diplomatist, was born at Castelnaudary, in Languedoc, on the 6th of March 1761.
He was of Italian extraction, and his ancestor Francois Andreossy (1633-1688) had been concerned with Riquet in the construction of the Languedoc Canal in 1669.
JEAN BARBEYRAC (1674-1744), French jurist, the nephew of Charles Barbeyrac, a distinguished physician of Montpellier, was born at Beziers in Lower Languedoc on the 15th of March 1674.
Agenais and southern Saintonge, which fell to the Crown by the death of Alfonse of Poitiers in 1276, as part of his vast possessions in Aquitaine and Languedoc, were ceded to Edward I.
MAGNUS GABRIEL DE LA GARDIE, Count (1622-1686), Swedish statesman, the best-known member of an ancient family of French origin (the D'Escouperies of Languedoc) which had been settled in Sweden since the 14th century.
It embraces the old countship of Foix, and a portion of Languedoc and Gascony.
On two occasions he was obliged to leave France for conspiring against the government of his mother and of Cardinal Richelieu; and after waging an unsuccessful war in Languedoc, he took refuge in Flanders.
excommunicated the sectaries of Languedoc and their abettors, Alexander even sending armed missions to hunt them down and punish them.
In 1705 he commanded against the Camisards in Languedoc, and when on this expedition he is said to have carried out his orders with remorseless rigour.
(Guillaume Grimoard or Grimaud de Beauvoir), pope from the 28th of October 1362 to the 19th of December 1 3 70, was born in 1309 near Lozere in Languedoc, and entered the Benedictine priory of Chiriac. After receiving orders he became successively professor of canon law at Avignon and Montpellier, vicar-general of the dioceses of Clermont and Uzes, abbot of St Germain d'Auxerre, abbot of St Victor at Marseilles,.
In 522 the young Amalaric was proclaimed king, and four years later, on Theodoric's death, he assumed full royal power in Spain and a part of Languedoc, relinquishing Provence to his cousin Athalaric. He married Clotilda, daughter of Clovis; but his disputes with her, he being an Arian and she a Catholic, brought on him the penalty of a Frankish invasion, in which he lost his life in 531.
The duke then made him lieutenant-general in Languedoc and Guienne.
He afterwards led the French forces in Italy, but after his defeat before Alessandria in 1657 retired to Languedoc, where he devoted himself to study and mysticism until his death.
FIRMIN ABAUZIT (1679-1767), a learned Frenchman, was born of Protestant parents at Uzï¿½ in Languedoc. His father died when he was but two years of age; and when, on the revocation of the edict of Nantes in 1685, the authorities took steps to have him educated in the Roman Catholic faith, his mother contrived his escape.
He was recognized as king in Touraine, Berry and Poitou, in Languedoc and other provinces of southern France; but the English power in the north was presently increased by the provinces of Champagne and Maine, as the result of the victories of Crevant (1423) and Verneuil (1424).
He was made colonel-general of the Swiss regiment, governor of Languedoc and master of the hounds of France.
See Dom Vaissete, Histoire generale de Languedoc, ed.
Sent by his father in 1439 to direct the defence of Languedoc against the English, and to put down the brigandage in Poitou, he was induced by the rebellious nobles to betray his trust and place himself at the head of the Praguerie.
Bretagne Paris Languedoc Bourgogne Bretagne Lobineau 1707 Felibien and Lobi neau 1725 Vaissette and de Vic1730-1745Plancher (1-3), Merle 1739-1748, (4) 1781 Morice 1742-1756255 4 5 [[History And Antiquities Of France A]].
He treated Simon de Montfort as if he were a royal bailli; but it was not in virtue of any deep-laid scheme of his that in the end Amaury de Montfort, Simon's son, resigned himself to leave his lands to the Crown of France, and gave the Crown a power it had never before possessed in Languedoc.
the work is allowed to stand still while the writer is being transported from Shandy Hall to Languedoc. The only progress we make is in the illustration of the buoyant and joyous temper of Tristram himself, who, after all, is a member of the Shandy family, and was due a volume for the elucidation of his character.
ANTOINE DE RIVAROL (1753-1801), French writer and epigrammatist, was born at Bagnols in Languedoc on the 26th of June 1753, and died at Berlin on the 11th of April 1801.
And in several cities of the Languedoc, each of the two classes composing the population retained its separate laws and customs. It is matter of dispute whether vestiges of Roman institutions had survived in these parts down to the time when the new constitutions sprang into being; but all investigators are pretty well agreed that in no case did such remnants prove of any practical importance.
Farther south, around the old lands of Languedoc, equivalents of the two upper divisions of the Cambrian have been recorded; and the uppermost members of the system appear in Herault.
The great canal of Languedoc was planned and constructed by Pierre Paul Riquet (1604-1680) under his patronage.
In 1151, however, some Henricians still remained in Languedoc, for Matthew Paris relates (Chron.
VOLCAE, a Celtic people in the province of Gallia Narbonensis, who occupied the district between the Garumna (Garonne), Cerbenna mons (CÃ©vennes), and the Rhodanus (or even farther to the east in earlier times), corresponding roughly to the old province of Languedoc. They were divided into two tribes, the Arecomici on the east and the Tectosages (whose territory included that of the Tolosates) on the west, separated by the river Arauris (HÃ©rault) or a line between the Arauris and Orbis (Orbe).
in v aded Artois while the Black Prince was pillaging Languedoc. In 1356 the battle of Poitiers (September 19), in which John was taken prisoner, was the signal for conflicts in Paris between Stephen Marcel and the dauphin, and for the outbreak of the Jacquerie.
Guillaume De BONNE-CARRERE (1754-1825), French diplomatist, was born at Muret in Languedoc on the 13th of February 1754.
The title of consul, in the sense in which it is used in international law, is derived from that of certain magistrates, in the cities of medieval Italy, Provence and Languedoc, charged with the settlement of trade disputes whether by sea or land (consules mercatorum, consules artis maxis, &c.).
The system of French foreign consulships, for instance, all but died out after the crushing of the independent life of the south and the incorporation of Provence and Languedoc under the French crown; while, with the establishment of Venetian supremacy in the Levant, the baylo developed into a diplomatic agent of the first class at the expense of the consuls of rival states.
The duke of Berry, excluded by this arrangement, was compensated by the government of Languedoc and Guienne.
The Maillotins, as the Parisian insurgents were named from the weapon they used, gained the upper hand in Paris, and were able temporarily to make terms, but the commune of Rouen was abolished, and the Tuchins, as the marauders in Languedoc were called, were pitilessly hunted down.
Two years later he deprived the duke of Berry of the government of Languedoc. The opening years of Charles VI.'s effective rule promised well, but excess in gaiety of all kinds undermined his constitution, and in 1392 he had an attack of madness at Le Mans, when on his way to Brittany to force from John V.
This marked him out as a capable editor for the new edition of L'histoire generale de Languedoc by Dom Vaissete: he superintended the reprinting of the text, adding notes on the feudal administration of this province from 900 to 1250, on the government of Alphonso of Poitiers, brother of St Louis from 1226 to 1271, and on the historical geography of the province of Languedoc in the middle ages.
He also wrote a Bibliographie du Languedoc, which was awarded a prize by the Academie des inscriptions et belleslettres, but remained in manuscript.
H.-S.) Ardeche, an inland department of south-eastern France, formed in 1790 from the Vivarais, a district of Languedoc. Pop. (1906) 347,140.
Raids of the Black Prince in Languedoc led to the states-general of 1355, which readily voted money, but sanctioned the right of resistance against all kinds of pillage - a distinct commentary on the incompetence of the king.
Edward, prince of Wales, ravaged Languedoc as far as the Mediterranean, while his younger brother John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, executed a less ambitious raid in Picardy and Artois.
The Canal du Midi, or Languedoc canal, uniting the Garonne with the Mediterranean, passes under the walls of the town, and the mouth of the Herault forms a harbour which is protected by a fort.
MICHEL BAUDIER (c. 1589-1645), French historian, was born in Languedoc. During the reign of Louis XIII.
It is extraordinary that Louis should have escaped final destruction, considering that Henry had subdued Scotland, retaken Anjou from his brother Geoffrey, won a hold over Brittany, and schemed successfully for Languedoc. But the Church once more came to the rescue of her devoted son.
The feudalism of Languedoc was all that now remained to conquer.
When the Church and the needy and fanatical nobles of northern and central France destroyed the feudal dynasty of Toulouse and the rich civilization of the south in the Albigensian crusade, it was for Philip Augustus that their leader, Simon de Montfort, all unknowing, conquered Languedoc. At last, instead of the two Frances of the langue doc and the lax gue dorl, there was but one royal France comprising the whole kingdom.
small pains procured him the succession of Amaury de Montfort, and the Languedoc of the counts of Toulouse, if not the whole of Gascony.
The duke of Berry seized upon Languedoc and the wine-tax.
In Burgundy, Dijon saw her municipal liberties restricted in 1631; the provincial assembly of Dauphin was suppressed from 1628 onward, and that of Languedoc in 1629; that of Provence was in 1639 replaced by communal assemblies, and that of Normandy was prorogued from 1639 to 1642.
In the cities of Languedoc and Opponents Provence, to which they had been driven by Spanish of A ver- roism.
Bentham, Catalogue des plantes indigenes des Pyrenees et de Bas Languedoc (1826).
Catalan, by its most characteristic features, belongs to the Romance of southern France and not to that of Spain; it is legitimate, therefore, to regard it as imported into Spain by those His pani whom the Arab conquest had driven back beyond the mountains into Languedoc, and who in the 9th century regained the country of their origin; this conclusion is confirmed by the fact that the dialect is also that of two French provinces on the north of the PyreneesRoussillon and Cerdagne.
The estates of Languedoc, summoned to Toulouse, also made protests against misgovernment, but they agreed to raise a war-levy on terms to which the dauphin acceded.
The Apostles continued their propaganda in Italy, Languedoc, Spain and Germany.
The people were attached to the bons hommes, whose asceticism imposed upon the masses, and the anti-sacerdotal preaching of Peter of Bruys and Henry of Lausanne in Perigord, Languedoc and Provence, only facilitated the progress of Catharism in those regions.
Moreover, two years afterwards a Catharist synod, in which heretics from Languedoc, Bulgaria and Italy took part, was held at St Felix de Caraman, near Toulouse, and their deliberations were undisturbed.
Vaissete, Histoire de Languedoc, vols.
Most of the towns and villages in the Languedoc region hold numerous fetes and festivals during the year.
He was born at St Germain, entered the priesthood and was successively cure of Elan near Mezieres, vicar-general of Pontoise (1747), bishop of Evreux (1753) and archbishop of Toulouse (1758), archbishop of Narbonne in 1763, and in that capacity, president of the estates of Languedoc. He devoted himself much less to the spiritual direction of his diocese than to its temporal welfare, carrying out many works of public utility, bridges, canals, roads, harbours, &c.; had chairs of chemistry and of physics created at Montpellier and at Toulouse, and tried to reduce the poverty, especially in Narbonne.
Audibret, Le Dernier President des Etats du Languedoc, Mgr.
A sense of failure appears in Dominic's last sermon in Languedoc: "For many years I have exhorted you in vain, with gentleness, preaching, praying and weeping.
On the revocation of the Edict of Nantes he was sent to Languedoc to confirm the new converts in the Catholic faith, and he had extraordinary success in this delicate mission.
Richelieu had sent to the block the first noble of France, the last of a family illustrious for seven centuries, the feudal head of the nobility of Languedoc; then, unmoved by threats or entreaties, inexorable as fate itself, he cowed all opposition by his relentless vengeance.
AUDE, a maritime department of southern France, formed in 1790 from part of the old province of Languedoc. Area, 2448 sq.
See the documentary Histoire gene'rale de Languedoc by De Vie and Vaissette, vol.
1635), French courtier, was born of an old Languedoc family.
FIRMIN ABAUZIT (1679-1767), a learned Frenchman, was born of Protestant parents at UzÃ¯¿½ in Languedoc. His father died when he was but two years of age; and when, on the revocation of the edict of Nantes in 1685, the authorities took steps to have him educated in the Roman Catholic faith, his mother contrived his escape.
VOLCAE, a Celtic people in the province of Gallia Narbonensis, who occupied the district between the Garumna (Garonne), Cerbenna mons (CÃƒ©vennes), and the Rhodanus (or even farther to the east in earlier times), corresponding roughly to the old province of Languedoc. They were divided into two tribes, the Arecomici on the east and the Tectosages (whose territory included that of the Tolosates) on the west, separated by the river Arauris (HÃƒ©rault) or a line between the Arauris and Orbis (Orbe).
By the treaty of Meaux (1229), her diplomacy combined with the influence of the Church to prepare effectually for the annexation of Languedoc to the kingdom,,, supplementing this again by a portion of Champagne; and the marriage of her son to Margaret of Provence definitely broke the ties which held the country within the orbit of the German empire.
The inquisitor of Languedoc, Bernard Gui, persecuted them unremittingly (see Gui's Practica Inquisitions).
There were indeed some outbursts of rebellion, some fomented by the nobles of Languedoc (1240-1242), and others emanating from the people of the towns, who were embittered by confiscations and religious persecutions (e.g.
Bordeaux ranks second in France to the Languedoc region as far as acres of land (approximately 300,000 acres) dedicated to wine grapes.
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