She heard several different languages spoken before those she passed fell silent.
He took in the different manners of dress, the different features and colors, and the variety of accents and languages he heard as he walked.
I speak fifteen languages.
He devoted himself particularly to the study of the classical languages, and became unusually proficient in Latin composition.
After a few years the father quarrelled with the Russian government, and went to England, where he obtained a professorship of natural history and the modern languages at the famous nonconformist academy at Warrington.
floccus, but many Teutonic languages have the same word in various forms), a tuft of wool, cotton or similar substance.
Papers by him have appeared in the mathematical journals of Italy, France, Germany and England, and he has published several important works, many of which have been translated into other languages.
He knew something of six languages, and could discuss art, music, literature or theology.
According to the New English Dictionary, although the origin of the word "cat" is unknown, yet the name is found in various languages as far back as they can be traced.
The romance of Alexander is found written in the languages of nearly all peoples from the Indian Ocean to the Atlantic, but all these versions are derived, mediately or immediately, from the Greek original which circulated under the false name of Callisthenes.
The Alexander legend was the theme of poetry in all European languages; six or seven German poets dealt with the subject, and it may be read in French, English, Spanish, Danish, Swedish, Icelandic, Flemish and Bohemian.
flOd, a word common to Teutonic languages, cf.
It is common to all Germanic languages; cf.
In Ulfilas' Gothic version of the Bible, the earliest extant literary monument of the Germanic languages, the Syrophoenician woman (Mark vii.
Albanian is peculiarly interesting as the only surviving representative of the so-called Thraco-Illyrian group of languages which formed the primitive speech of the peninsula.
Notwithstanding certain points of resemblance in structure and phonetics, Albanian is entirely distinct from the neighbouring languages; in its relation to early Latin and Greek it may be regarded as a co-ordinate member of the Aryan stock.
There are two conjugations; the passive formation, now wanting inmost Indo-European languages, has been retained, as in Greek; thus kerko-iy, " I seek," forms kerko-n -em, " I am sought."
His courage, his bodily strength and size, his skill in the use of weapons, in riding, and in the chase, his speed of foot, his capacity for eating and drinking, his penetrating intellect and his mastery of 22 languages are celebrated to a degree which is almost incredible.
French literature passed through the same phase, from which indeed it was later in emerging; and the ultimate consequence was the enrichment of both languages.
The doctrines of Presbyterianism are those generally known as evangelical and Calvinistic. The supreme standard of belief is the Word of God in the original languages.
The Phddon was an immediate success, and besides being often reprinted in German was speedily translated into nearly all the European languages, including English.
The Bretons, who most nearly represent the Celts, and the Basques, who inhabit parts of the western versant of the Pyrenees, have preserved their distinctive languages and customs, and are ethnically the most interesting sections of the nation; the Flemings of French Flanders where Flemish is still spoken are also racially distinct.
During the second period the pupil has a choice of four courses: (1) Latin and Greek; (2) Latin and sciences; (3) Latin and modern languages; (4) sciences and modern languages.
houses, ran through several Spanish editions in a year, and was soon translated into a number of foreign languages.
Yet it is noteworthy that the languages of their several tribes are different.
There is evidence in the languages, too, which supports the physical separation from their New Zealand neighbours and, therefore, from the Polynesian family of races.
This linguistic poverty proves that the Australian tongue has no affinity to the Polynesian group of languages, where denary enumeration prevails: the nearest Polynesians, the Maoris, counting in thousands.
Hunter states that the Dravidian tribes were driven southwards in Hindustan, and that the grammatical relations of their dialects are " expressed by suffixes," which is true as to the Australian languages.
On 1 The Languages of India (1875).
The grammatical structure of some north Australian languages has a considerable degree of refinement.
The number and diversity of separate languages is bewildering.
They had united under their sway a number of provinces with different histories and institutions and speaking different languages, and their aim was to centralize the government.
In 1869-1879 he was professor of Hebrew in the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary (first in Greenville, South Carolina, and after 1877 in Louisville, Kentucky), and in 1880 he became professor of Hebrew and Oriental languages in Harvard University, where until 1903 he was also Dexter lecturer onzbiblical literature.
An examination of their language seems to indicate that, it belongs to the Mon-Khmer group of languages, and the anthropological information forthcoming concerning the Sakai points to the conclusion that they show a greater affinity to the people of the Mon-Khmer races than to the Malayan stock.
The writer of Acts ii., anxious to prove that Providence from the first included the Gentiles in the Messianic Kingdom, assumes that the gift of tongues was a miraculous faculty of talking strange languages without having previously learned them.
The faithful talking with tongues were taken by bystanders for drunken men, but intoxicated men do not talk in languages of which they are normally ignorant.2 Paul on the whole discouraged glossolaly.
He early developed a gift for languages, becoming familiar not only with Latin and Greek but also with Hebrew, Syriac, Persian, Turkish and other Eastern tongues.
The care of his diocese and of his new foundation were not enough for his ardent charity, and in 1609 he published his famous introduction to a Devout Life, a work which was at once translated into the chief European languages and of which he himself published five editions.
The term came in time to mean " a beggar " and with that meaning has passed through Aramaic and Hebrew into many modern languages; but though the Code does not regard him as necessarily poor, he may have been landless.
have been collected (I) the points which separate all the Italic languages from their nearest congeners, and (2) those which separate Osco-Umbrian from Latin.
The precocious lad quickly mastered the German, Latin and principal Slavonic languages, frequently acting as his father's interpreter at the reception of ambassadors.
Ancient Languages and Peoples 27.2 B.
Taking the term Italy to comprise the whole peninsula with the northern region as far as the Alps, we must first distinguish the tribe or tribes which spoke Indo-European languages from those who did not.
Latin will be counted the language of the earlier plebeian stratum of the population of Rome and Latium, probably once spread over a large area of the peninsula, and akin in sijme degree to the language or languages spoken in north Italy before either the Etruscan or the Gallic invasions began.
The Andaman languages are extremely interesting from the philological standpoint.
Portman, Record of the Andamanese (Ii volumes MS. in India Office, London, and Home Department, Calcutta), 18 931898, Andamanese Manual (1887), Notes on the Languages of the South Andaman Group of Tribes (1898), and History of our Relations with the Andamanese (1899); S.
He spoke, read and wrote twentyfive languages.
Two factors combined to give Pali its importance as one of the few great literary languages of the world: the one political, the other religious.
The terms employed, especially for the subdivisions, cannot be easily translated into other languages, and the English equivalents in the following table are only put forward tentatively Richthofen'S Classification Of Mountains I.
A less definite though very practical boundary is that formed by the meeting-line of two languages, or the districts inhabited by two races.
Unlike his contemporaries in Spain, he seems to have confined himself wholly to Jewish learning, and to have known nothing of Arabic or other languages except his native French.
The meanings of the monosyllables were differentiated, as in the other Tai languages and in Chinese, by a system of tones, but these were rarely indicated in writing, and the tradition regarding them is lost.
Semitic Languages >>
We can see also that, though several languages were in use in England during the time of Norman rule, yet England was not a land of many languages in the same sense in which Sicily was.
In the 12th century three languages were certainly spoken in London; yet London could not call itself the "city of threefold speech," as Palermo did.
The Rarotongas call themselves Maori, and state that their ancestors came from Hawaiki, and Pirima and Manono are the native names of two islands in the Samoan group. The almost identical languages of the Rarotongas and the Maoris strengthen the theory that the two peoples are descended from Polynesians migrating, possibly at widely different dates, from Samoa.
(Yuriev or Dorpat, Kazan, Kharkov, Kiev, Moscow, Odessa, St Petersburg, Warsaw and Tomsk), with 19,400 students, 6 medical academies (one for women), 6 theological academies, 6 military academies, 5 philological institutes, 3 Eastern languages institutes,.
Even in European Russia the regions near the frontier contain a great variety of nationalities, languages and religions.
In Finland the population is composed of Finnish-speaking and Swedish-speaking Protestants; the Baltic provinces are inhabited by German-speaking, Lettspeaking and Esth-speaking Lutherans; the inhabitants of the south-western provinces are chiefly Polish-speaking Roman Catholics and Yiddish-speaking Jews; in the Crimea and on the Middle Volga there are a considerable number of Tatarspeaking Mahommedans; and in the Caucasus there is a conglomeration of races and languages such as is to be found on no other portion of the earth's surface.
- The history of Russia, especially that of the last few years, has formed the subject of a vast number of works, of very varying authority, in many languages.
It is common to Teutonic languages, cf.
His boyhood was spent with a grandmother in Middletown, Connecticut; and prior to his entering college he had read widely in English literature and history, had surpassed most boys in the extent of his Greek and Latin work, and had studied several modern languages.
He graduated at Harvard in 1863, continuing to study languages and philosophy with zeal; spent two years in the Harvard law school, and opened an office in Boston; but soon devoted the greater portion of his time to writing for periodicals.
'PHYSIOLOGUS, the title usually given to a collection of some fifty Christian allegories much read in the middle ages, and still existing in several forms and in about a dozen Eastern and Western languages.
fisc, a word common to Teutonic languages, cf.
The name of the festival in other languages (as Fr.
Urquhart (in his Discovery of a most exquisite jewel) states that while in Paris Crichton successfully held a dispute in the college of Navarre, on any subject and in twelve languages, and that the next day he won a tilting match at the Louvre.
At Berlin (1844-1846) and Halle (1846-1847) he studied theology, philosophy and oriental languages.
In 1866 he received three years' leave of absence to collect fresh materials, and in 1869 succeeded Heinrich Ewald as professor of oriental languages at Gottingen.
Like Ewald, Lagarde was an active worker in a variety of subjects and languages; but his chief aim, the elucidation of the Bible, was almost always kept in view.
All the Semitic languages' are built up from triliteral roots: that is, the great majority of the words are derived from a simple verbal form, of which the essential elements are three consonants.
The form q`tal illustrates one main peculiarity of Aramaic, as opposed to the other Semitic languages, viz.
1 The vowels, which are ten in number (a a e e i i o o u u), were, as usual in the Semitic languages, indicated only partially by the use of consonants as vowel-letters 2 and by means of certain diacritical points, so long as Syriac remained a living language.
Where the same root exists in Arabic, Syriac and Hebrew, its fundamental consonants are usually the same in all three languages.
- As in the other Semitic languages, these stand almost entirely outside the system of triliteral roots, being mainly derived from certain demonstrative letters or particles.
The name of Aryan has been given to the races speaking languages derived from, or akin to, the ancient form of Sanskrit, who now occupy the temperate zone extending from the Mediterranean, across the highlands of Asia Minor, Persia and Afghanistan, to India.
The races speaking the languages akin to the ancient Assyrian, which are now mainly represented by Arabic, have been called Semitic, and occupy the countries south-west of Aryans.
Though the languages of these races are very different they cannot be regarded as physically distinct, and they are both without doubt branches of the Melanochroi, modified by admixture with the neighbouring races, the Mongols, the Australoids and the Xanthochroi.
The spoken languages of northern India are very various, differing one from another in the sort of degree that English differs from German, though all are thoroughly Sanskritic in their vocables, but with an absence of Sanskrit grammar that has given rise to considerable discussion.
The languages of the south are Dravidian, not Sanskritic. The letters of both classes of languages, which also vary considerably, are all modifications of the ancient Pali, and probably derived from the Dravidians, not from the Aryans.
The most recent authorities are of opinion that the Kolarians and Dravidians represent a single physical type; but, whatever the historical explanation may be, they certainly have different languages and show different stages of civilization.
(iii.) The Khmers or Cambodians, whose languages appear to belong to the Man-Annam group, form a relatively ancient kingdom, much reduced in the last few centuries by the advance of the Siamese and now a French protectorate.
At present it occupies the extremity of the Malay Peninsula, Java, Sumatra, Borneo, the Philippines and other islands of the Malay Archipelago as well as Madagascar, while the inhabitants of most islands in the South Seas, including New Zealand and Hawaii, speak languages which if not Malay have at least undergone a strong Malay influence.
India has also a considerable medieval and modern literature in various languages.
Though Greek and Slavonic almost ceased to be written languages under Turkish rule, Europeans showed no disposition to replace them by Ottoman or Arabic literature.
Some authorities hold that Egyptian civilization came from Babylonia, and that the so-called Hamitic languages are older and less specialized members of the Semitic family.
Some authorities hold that Peruvian civilization had no connexion with the north and was an entirely indigenous product, but Kechua is in structure not unlike the agglutinative languages of central and northern Asia.
And in regard to Reid's favourite proof of the principles in question by reference to "the consent of ages and nations, of the learned and unlearned," it is only fair to observe that this argument assumes a much more scientific form in the Essays, where it is almost identified with an appeal to "the structure and grammar of all languages."
"The structure of all languages," he says, "is grounded upon common sense."
From about 1796 Ampere gave private lessons at Lyons in mathematics, chemistry and languages; and in 1801 he removed to Bourg, as professor of physics and chemistry, leaving his ailing wife and infant son at Lyons.
In 1789 he was chosen professor ordinarius of Oriental languages at Jena.
According to the languages spoken the populations of Caucasia admit of being classified as follows,' according to Senator N.
All this time he was studying various branches of science, and languages both ancient and modern.
Translations of the Works or of separate treatises have appeared in most European languages.
The Ladder has been translated into several foreign languages - into English by Father Robert, Mount St Bernard's Abbey, Leicestershire (1856).
It is true that at present very little work of this kind has been done in England, but innumerable books, many of them about England, have been written by thoroughly competent economists, in French, German and other languages.
Studies of particular questions, both concrete and theoretical, in foreign languages are too numerous to specify, and much of the best modern work is to be found in economic periodicals.
Languages he disliked, but he spent much of his spare time in reading history, especially Plutarch.
Throughout life Carteret not only showed a keen love of the classics, but a taste for, and a knowledge of, modern languages and literatures.
1 They speak the languages of the localities in which they are settled (Arabic or Persian), but the language of their sacred books is an Aramaic dialect, which has its closest affinities with that of the Babylonian Talmud, written in a peculiar character suggestive of the old Palmyrene.
Stevens (London, 1740), and into other European languages.
His studies were chiefly in Oriental languages and the textual criticism of the New Testament, though his work as a bibliographer showed such results as the exhaustive list of writings (5300 in all) on the doctrine of the future life, appended to W.
The Heath grammar school was founded in 1585 under royal charter for instruction in classical languages.
He secured an excellent set of scientific apparatus and improved the instruction in the natural sciences; he introduced courses in Hebrew and French about 1772; and he did a large part of the actual teaching, having courses in languages, divinity, moral philosophy and eloquence.
Bacon, accordingly, withdrew from the scholastic routine and devoted himself to languages and experimental research.
He also devoted considerable attention to the German languages, and his researches in this direction attracted the favourable notice of Leibnitz.
The study of Oriental languages began in connexion with the Christian missions of the East; Raymond Lull, the indefatigable missionary, induced the council of Vienne to decide on the creation of six schools of Oriental languages in Europe (13 I I).
This persecution gave the book an extraordinary vogue, and it passed through twenty-two editions in three years, besides being translated into several languages; there is an English translation by Lord Falconbridge, son-in-law of Oliver Cromwell.
John Crawfurd, in the Dissertation to his Dictionary of the Malay Language, published in 1840, noted the prevalence of Malayan terms in the Polynesian languages, and attributed the fact to the casting away of ships manned by Malays upon the islands of the Polynesian Archipelago.
Malay Language And Literature The Malay language is a member of the Malayan section of the Malayo-Polynesian class of languages, but it is by no means a representative type of the section which has taken its name from it.
But the Arabic character is even less suited to Malay than to the other Eastern languages on which it has been foisted.
fears, a word common to Teutonic languages, cf.
Thirty languages and a hundred and six dialects are found in the Central Provinces alone, and twenty-eight languages and sixty-eight dialects in Berar.
The chief of these languages are Western Hindi, Eastern Hindi, Rajasthani, Marathi, Oriya, Telugu and Dravidian dialects.
There are also the Munda languages, of which the chief are Korku, Kharia and Munda or Kol.
The chief languages of Berar are Marathi, Urdu, Gondi, Banjari, Hindi, Marwari, Telugu, Korku and Gujarati.
z) readily passes° into r in many languages: compare the Eng.
Hence in transcription from foreign languages and in works on phonetics it is represented by s or š.
The skull is I There are no native names either in Teutonic or Celtic languages; such words as German Kaninchen or English cony are from the Latin cuniculus, while the Irish, Welsh and Gaelic are adaptations from English.
In Italian, Spanish and Portuguese the word mappa has retained its place, by the side of carta, for marine charts, but in other languages both kinds of maps 1 are generally known by a word derived from the Latin charta, as carte in French, Karte in German, Kaart in Dutch.
A knowledge of the languages in which the accounts of travellers are written, and even of native languages, is almost indispensable.
Names in languages not using the Roman alphabet, or having 'no written alphabet should be spelt phonetically, as pronounced on the spot.
An elaborate universal alphabet, abounding in diacritical marks, has been devised for the purpose by Professor Lepsius, and various other systems have been adopted for Oriental languages, and by certain missionary societies, adapted to the languages in which they teach.
It was the first collection of marine maps, lived through many editions, was issued in several languages and became known as Charettier and Waggoner.
Translated into the chief modern languages, many thousands of copies were circulated among the working classes in Catholic countries.
Though the fondness of this species for the seeds of flax (Linum) and hemp (Cannabis) has given it its common name in so many European languages,' it feeds largely, if not chiefly in Britain on the seeds of plants of the order Compositae, especially those growing on heaths and commons.
In 1782 she returned to the Russian capital, and was at once taken into favour by the empress, who strongly sympathized with her in her literary tastes, and specially in her desire to elevate Russ to a place among the literary languages of Europe.
The predominant languages spoken, besides the Arabic of the natives, are Greek, French, English and Italian.
In this sense the word " catacomb " has gained universal acceptance, and has found a place in most modern languages.
De Rossi's Ronia sotterranea, on which most of the accounts in other languages than Italian have been based.
and the early Reformers were alike captivated by the charms of the Kabbalah as propounded by Reuchlin, and not only divines, but statesmen and warriors, began to study the Oriental languages in order to be able to fathom the mysteries of Jewish theosophy.
This book was widely read by Christians; it was rendered into various languages, and in 1650 was translated into English by Edward Chilmead.
Great confusion prevailed in the first years of American dominion owing to the diversities of languages and the grafting of such Anglo-Saxon institutions as the jury upon the older system.
The Serb and Moslem delegates, who had started on the same day for Budapest, to present their petition to the emperor, learned from the rescript that the government intended to concede to their compatriots "a share in the legislation and administration of provincial affairs, and equal protection for all religious beliefs, languages and racial distinctions."
He is said to have been of a merry and even jocular disposition, to have afforded a generous patronage to learning, and, strange to say for a sultan, to have been master of six languages.
Many of his works have been translated into English and other languages.
Having studied theology and oriental languages at the universities of Wittenberg and GÃ¶ttingen, he went in 1755 as a tutor to Stockholm, and afterwards to Upsala; and while in Sweden he wrote in Swedish an Essay on the General History of Trade and of Seafaring in the most Ancient Times (1758).
He was a man of great talents and spoke and wrote many Oriental and European languages.
ARK (a word common to Teutonic languages, cf.
There are various journals and periodicals, five languages being represented.
The Roman civilization and the Latin language disappeared from the countries which they occupied; indeed it seems that the actual boundaries of the German and French languages nearly coincide with those of their dominion.
The Old English word is cweorn; it is a word common to Teutonic languages, cf.
qvarn and various forms in Old German; cognate words are found in Slavonic languages pointing to a pre-Aryan root.
The book attained an almost unprecedented popularity both in America and in Europe, where it was translated into several languages; and it came to be considered a classic. Immediately after the appearance of this book Dana began the practice of law, which brought him a large number of maritime cases.
Middendorff's journey (1844-1845) to north-eastern Siberia - contemporaneous with Castren's journeys for the special study of the Ural-Altaian languages - directed attention to the far north and awakened interest in the Amur, the basin of which soon became the scene of the expeditions of Akhte and Schwarz (1852), and later on (1854-1857) of the Siberian expedition to which we owe so marked an advance in our knowledge of East Siberia.
An official newspaper is published in the Yoruba and English languages.
His Literary Remains, edited by Lady Strangford, were published in 1874, consisting of nineteen papers on such subjects as "The Talmud," "Islam," "Semitic Culture," "Egypt, Ancient and Modern," "Semitic Languages," "The Targums," "The Samaritan Pentateuch," and "Arabic Poetry."
His journal and letters show that he had made acquaintance with a large number of languages, including Hebrew, Chaldee, Syriac, Arabic, Coptic, Ethiopic, as well as the classical and the principal modern European languages.
JOHANN DAVID MICHAELIS (1717-1791), German biblical scholar and teacher, a member of a family which had the chief part in maintaining that solid discipline in Hebrew and the cognate languages which distinguished the university of Halle in the period of Pietism.
Reiske (1716-1774); and, though for many years the most famous teacher of Semitic languages in Europe, he had little of the higher philological faculty, and neither his grammatical nor his critical work has left a permanent mark, with the exception perhaps of his text-critical studies on the Peshitta.
From 1 The word is common to the Teutonic languages, cf.
The judgment was drawn up in both languages.
He was educated for the priesthood in Paris and Utrecht, but his taste for Hebrew, Arabic, Persian, and other languages of the East 7 Anorthite.
His diligent attendance at the Royal Library attracted the attention of the keeper of the manuscripts, the Abbe Sallier, whose influence procured for him a small salary as student of the oriental languages.
The Abbe Barthelemy procured for him a pension, with the appointment of interpreter of oriental languages at the Royal Library.
The son was sent in 1812 to the Protestant gymnasium at Pressburg, where he came in contact with the philologist S afafik and became a zealous student of the Slav languages.
- There is in Hungary just as great a variety of religious confessions as there is of nationalities and of languages.
To the school so perfectly represented by 3 This will appear even more striking by a consideration of the number of periodical publications published in Hungary in languages other than Magyar.
He had conceived the project of a work which should set in a new light the phenomena, especially the languages and mythologies, of the ancient world; and, after his father's death, he went to Paris in order to be near the necessary books.
Badakshan proper is peopled by Tajiks, Turks and Arabs, who speak the Persian and Turki languages, and profess the orthodox doctrines of the Mahommedan law adopted by the Sunnite sect; while the mountainous districts are inhabited by Tajiks, professing the Shiite creed and speaking distinct dialects in different districts.
Among these may be mentioned his Brief Outline of the Evidences of the Christian Religion (1825), which passed through several editions, and,; was translated into various languages; The Canon of the Old and New Testament Ascertained; or the Bible Complete without the Apocrypha and Unwritten Traditions (1826); A History of the Israelitish Nation (1852), and Outlines of Moral Science (1852), the last two being published posthumously.
Resigning in 1882 owing to conscientious scruples, he became professor extraordinarius of oriental languages in the faculty of philology at Halle, was elected professor ordinarius at Marburg in 1885, and was transferred to Gottingen in 1892.
His education, begun under a private tutor, was continued (1712) at Trinity Hall, Cambridge; here he remained little more than a year and seems to have read hard, and to have acquired a considerable knowledge of ancient and modern languages.
It is quite impossible to connect with our musical system the utterance of the sounds of which the Chinese and Annamese languages are composed.
But the character being ideographic, the words which express them are dissimilar in the two languages, and official text is read in Chinese by a Chinese, in Annamese by an Annamese.
He studied with great distinction at Greif swald and at Wittenberg, and having made a special study of languages, theology and history, was appointed professor of Greek and Latin at Coburg in 1692, professor of moral philosophy in the university of Halle in 1693, and in 1705 professor of theology at Jena.
"God" is a word common to all Teutonic languages.
Similar works, in Latin or other languages, exist in manuscript in all the great European libraries.
The best-known is the rhyming Latin poem on health by Joannes de Meditano, Regimen sanitatis Salerni, professedly written for the use of the "king of England," supposed to mean William the Conqueror; it had an immense reputation in the middle ages, and was afterwards many times printed, and translated into most European languages.
His work, entitled Observations on the Diseases of an Army, was translated into many European languages and became the standard authority on the subject.
(For the Zulu speech, see Bantu Languages.) Towns.
The Meditationes sacrae (1606), a work expressly devoted to the uses of Christian edification, has been frequently reprinted in Latin and has been translated into most of the European languages, including Greek.
During an illness, which kept him virtuous by confining him to his room, he studied French and English, gaining a mastery of these languages which, at that time exceedingly rare, opened up for him opportunities for a diplomatic career.
In 1767, against Hume's advice, he published his Essay on the History of Civil Society, which was well received and translated into several European languages.
He had studied Arabic, Turkish, Greek, the vernacular languages of India and Sind, and perhaps even Hebrew; he had visited Multan and Lahore, and the splendid Ghaznavide court under Sultan Mahmud, Firdousi's patron.
Palaeography, history and Romance languages are among the other subjects to which especial importance is given.
Educated abroad, with his elder brother Mikhail, at Copenhagen and Berlin, he especially distinguished himself in languages and the applied sciences.
Breasted, "The Monuments of Sudanese Nubia," in American Journal of Semitic Languages (October 1908), and the work of E.
Martensen was a distinguished preacher, and his works were translated into various languages.
The names of sugar in modern European languages are derived through the Arabic from the Persian shakar.
We have no clue to the ethnic character and relations of the Pisidians, except that we learn from Strabo that they were distinct from the neighbouring Solymi, who were probably a Semitic race, but we find mention at an early period in these mountain districts of various other tribes, as the Cabali, Milyans, &c., of all which, as well as the neighbouring Isaurians and Lycaonians, the origin is wholly unknown, and the absence of monuments of their languages must remain so.
No inscriptions in these other languages are known.
The works of Croce have been translated into many languages.
The languages of the different tribes are mutually unintelligible.
It appears in many Teutonic languages, cf.
His father sent him in his sixteenth year to the gymnasium at Lubeck, where he became so much interested in ancient languages that he abandoned his idea of a legal career and resolved to devote himself to the study of theology.
The 19th century has brought to the museums of Europe (especially to aondon, Paris, Berlin and Vienna) a number of inscriptions in the languages of Minea and Saba, and a few in those of Hadramut and Katabania (Qattabania).
The languages employed have been the subject of much study (cf.
The town's inhabitants are farmers, and rice is the principal crop. Pangasinan and Ilocano are the languages spoken.
C. Tychsen he devoted himself specially to the study of Oriental languages.
In 1831 he was promoted to the position of professor ordinarius in philosophy; in 1833 he became a member of the Royal Scientific Society, and in 1835, after Tychsen's death, he entered the faculty of theology, taking the chair of Oriental languages.
Nine languages are used: Hebrew, Chaldee, Samaritan, Syriac, Arabic, Persian, Ethiopic, Greek and Latin.
An article on the Tunisian Sahara, the Tunisian Cave-Dwellers and Berber Languages, &c., by Sir H.
The first historical records show us these people already possessed of a considerable civilization, and speaking two allied languages, Aymara and Quichua.
At an early age he showed remarkable aptitude for acquiring languages, but straitened circumstances compelled him to earn his own living.
Meanwhile he supported himself by teaching on a very small scale, but his progress was such that at sixteen he had a good knowledge of Hungarian, Latin, French and German, and was rapidly acquiring English and the Scandinavian languages, and also Russian, Servian and other Slavonic tongues.
At the age of twenty he had obtained sufficient knowledge of Turkish to lead him to go to Constantinople, where he set up as teacher of European languages, and shortly afterwards became a tutor in the house of Pasha Hussein Daim.
After spending six years in Constantinople, where he published a Turkish-German Dictionary and various linguistic works, and where he acquired some twenty Oriental languages and dialects, he visited Teheran; and then, disguised as a dervish, joined a band of pilgrims from Mecca, and spent several months with them in rough and squalid travel through the deserts of Asia.
Returning to Hungary, he was appointed professor of Oriental languages in the university of Budapest: there he settled down, contributing largely to periodicals, and publishing a number of books, chiefly in German and Hungarian.
His travels have been translated into many languages, and his Autobiography was written in English.
To render the convent self-supporting, he opened schools for various branches of art, and promoted the study of Oriental languages.
contribution to the comparative philology of the Semitic languages - Hebrew and Arabic, infi particular.
This change has, however, taken place in all Romance languages except Sardinian.
In some foreign words like cicala the ch- (tsh) value is given to c. In the transliteration of foreign languages also it receives different values, having that of tsh in the transliteration of Sanskrit and of is in various Slavonic dialects.
He was not a fine scholar, in that restricted sense of the term which implies a special aptitude for turning English into Greek and Latin, or for original versification in the classical languages.
Though ardent in his pastoral work, he found time for diligent study of Hebrew and other Oriental languages, undertaken chiefly with the view of qualifying himself for the great work of his life, his Commentary on the Holy Scriptures (8 vols., 1810-1826).
If then the languages of Korea and Japan had a common stock, they must have branched off from it at a date exceedingly remote.
There are also polite and ordinary forms of expression, often so different as to constitute distinct languages; and there are a number of honorifics which frequently discharge the duty of pronouns.
There are three languages to be acquired:
Incidentally they are hastening the assimilation of the written and the spoken languages (genbun itchi) which may possibly prelude a still greater reform, abolition of the ideographic script.
About forty volumes are available in English, and many have been translated into most of the European languages as well as into Arabic, Hindi and Japanese.
The most prominent members of the family were Mircea (1386-1418), who accepted Turkish suzerainty; Neagoe, the founder of the famous cathedral at Curtea de Argesh; Michael, surnamed the Brave (1592-1601); and Petru Cercel, famous for his profound learning, who spoke twelve languages and carried on friendly correspondence with the greater scholars and poets of Italy.
St Petersburg, 1776-1802); Novae species quadrupedum, 1778 - 1779; Pallas's contributions to the dictionary of languages of the Russian empire, 1786-1789; Icones insectorum, praesertim Rossiae Siberiaeque peculiarium, 1781-1806; Zoographia rossoasiatica (3 vols., 1831); besides many special papers in the Transactions of the academies of St Petersburg and Berlin.
A useful select list, including all languages, is J.
The alveolar sound is frequent also in the languages of India, which possess both this and the dental sound.
At Eton he did no more work than was acceptable to him, but he had an inborn love of literature, and he laid the foundation of that knowledge of the classic languages which in after years was the delight of his life.
He studied Biblical exegesis and oriental languages at the university of Strassburg under E.
The word, as applied to the animal here described, occurs in most Germanic and Romanic languages: German, marder; Dutch, marter; Swedish, mard; Danish, maar; English, marteron, martern, marten, martin and martlett; French, marte and martre; Italian, martora and martorella; Spanish and Portuguese, marta.
In the 12th century the significant feature is the growing use of the various national languages in competition with the hitherto universal Latin.
Bantu languages >>
Bishop Challoner was the author of numerous controversial and devotional works, which have been frequently reprinted and translated into various languages.
Joseph Aloysius, brother of Joseph Simon, and professor of Oriental languages at Rome.
Simon, grandnephew of Joseph Simon, was born at Tripoli in 1752, and was professor of Oriental languages in Padua.
This was conducted according to the principles enunciated in Locke's Thoughts concerning Education, and the method of teaching Latin and Greek conversationally was pursued with such success by his instructress, Mrs Elizabeth Birch, that at the age of eleven, it is said, Ashley could read both languages with ease.
He was interested in the theological disputes and schisms in Galatia, in the two languages spoken in Cilicia, &c. At Antioch the party remained some time.
Mr Savona's attempt to teach the Maltese children simultaneously two foreign languages (of which they were quite ignorant, and their teachers only partially conversant) without first teaching how to read and write the native Maltese systematically was continued for some years under an eminent archaeologist, Dr A.
One of the languages of this inscription was Persian; another, as it now appeared, was Assyrian, the language of the newly discovered books from the libraries of Nineveh.
His principal work, Wahres Christentum (1606-1609), which has been translated into most European languages, has served as the foundation of many books of devotion, both Roman Catholic and Protestant.
3 Sometimes wrongly styled Chaldee; see Semitic Languages.
Philologists do not know of any related word in Semitic languages.
Pictet, however, recognizes allied forms in Celtic languages, e.g.
Equivalent terms, which are not necessarily identical or literal translations, were adopted for the English, French and German languages, the equivalence being closest and most systematic between the English and German terms.
The root kol is common to all the Teutonic nations, while in French and other Romance languages derivatives of the Latin carbo are used, e.g.
The variety of languages and the dispersion of mankind were regarded as a curse, and it is probable that, as Prof. Cheyne (Encyclopaedia Biblica, col.
The Esthonian myth of " the Cooking of Languages " (Kohl, Reisen in die Ostseeprovinzen, ii.
Beginning in 1733 Franklin taught himself enough French, Italian, Spanish and Latin to read these languages with some ease.
The more important are: Ordo Temporum, a treatise on the chronology of Scripture, in which he enters upon speculations regarding the end of the world, and an Exposition of the Apocalypse which enjoyed for a time great popularity in Germany, and was translated into several languages.
There are also versions of them in the modern Persian, Malay, Mongol and Afghan languages.
The languages spoken in the Uganda Protectorate belong to the following stocks: (1) Hamitic (Murle and Rendile of Lake Rudolf); (2) Masai (Bari, Elgumi, Turkana, Suk, &c.); (2a) Sabei, on the northern slopes of Elgon and on Mt Debasien; (2b) Nilotic (Acholi, Aluru, Gang, &c.); (3) Madi (spoken on the Nile between Aluru and Bari, really of West African affinities); (4) Bantu (Lu-ganda, Runyoro, Lu-konjo, Kuamba, Lihuku, the Masaba languages of west Elgon and Kavirondo, &c.); and lastly, the unclassified, isolated Lendu and Mbuba spoken by some of the pigmy-prognathous peoples.
Happily for him, however, he was able to acquire in his youth a knowledge of English and Dutch, and by the help of some missionaries he succeeded in obtaining books in those languages on both scientific and political subjects.
He was a strenuous advocate of reform, especially in the teaching of sciences, and supported the claims of modern languages to a place in the curriculum.
German of the 12th century, and thence passed apparently into the Romance languages, though some would reverse the process (e.g.
Their proper names show that before and even during the Persian age their languages differed only dialectically from Hebrew.
From the manner of assemblage, all American languages are agglutinative, or holophrastic, but they should not be called polysynthetic or incorporative or inflexional.
As in all other languages, so in those of aboriginal America, the sentence is the unit.
Words and phrases are the organic parts of the sentence, on which, therefore, the languages are classified.
Swanton - have studied many of these languages analytically and comparatively.
Attention is frequently called to the large number of linguistic families in America, nearly 200 having been named, embracing over 1000 languages and dialects.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.