Of course, she could have used sign language, but that would have been distracting - and it wouldn't have been as personal.
Sorry 'bout the language, Ma'am.
Sorry 'bout the language, Ma'am.
He dialed and spoke in a different language to the man on the other end.
If he thought to frighten the striped beast by such language he was mistaken.
God, he would have given both arms, his manhood, and his Captain Midnight whistle for one day as a pro, regardless of the language of the cheering fans.
What, however, with the idealists was an object of thought alone, the absolute, is to Lotze only inadequately definable in rigorous philosophical language; the aspirations of the human heart, the contents of our feelings and desires, the aims of art and the tenets of religious faith must be grasped in order to fill the empty idea of the absolute with meaning.
It's very romantic, even if the language is a bit stilted.
The summary of results might as well have been in a foreign language with the medical terminology, abbreviations and sprinkling of what seemed like random numbers.
She listened to his rant, peppered with language no kid Toby's age should hear.
It is written in unusually picturesque and vigorous language, and is based on the Roman de toute chevalerie, a French compilation made about 1250 by a certain Eustace or Thomas of Kent.
I had now the key to all language, and I was eager to learn to use it.
I mention these reprehensible actions to illustrate how language can divide us.
Right now it was enough to hear his deep voice, regardless of which language he spoke.
Their "native language" will become their second language.
Deidre had the sense of speaking a different language, even though she understood his words.
Deidre had the sense of speaking a different language, even though she understood his words.
The language was from his homeland of Karyan, a place he left when he was a child.
That was strange language coming from Denton.
I tried hard to teach her my sign language, but she was dull and inattentive.
They exchanged a greeting in a foreign language that sounded like Russian before he held out his hand to her.
Indeed, at one time it was believed that the best way for them to communicate was through systematized gestures, the sign language invented by the Abbe de l'Epee.
As much and as often as Annie wrote, the letters and numbers must have almost become a second language to her.
As much and as often as Annie wrote, the letters and numbers must have almost become a second language to her.
I think Greek is the loveliest language that I know anything about.
Surely some would have devoted a life to science, dissecting the Mayan language or the searching out demise of the Anasazi Empire.
Speaking in English, he displayed an eloquence and command of the language scarcely excelled by the greatest orators in their own tongue.
The Greek language occurs in their official seals down to the 13th century.
They came up to the fire, hoarsely uttering something in a language our soldiers did not understand.
Language grows out of life, out of its needs and experiences.
Miss Sullivan and I kept up a game of guessing which taught me more about the use of language than any set lessons could have done.
Jonathan had taken the time to learn sign language so that he could talk to Alex and she had kept him away from the hospital.
That was the summer he learned a third language – sign language.
In the following year he was appointed successor to the celebrated Perizonius, who had held the chair of history, Greek language and eloquence at Leiden.
I saw clearly that it was useless to try to teach her language or anything else until she learned to obey me.
It came in the form of a drone who told him in her second language that information of that kind was not available.
He lifted a small soul-tracking device off the table, a round compass whose edges were lined with symbols from a dead language too old for him to read.
The intellectual improvement which Helen has made in the past two years is shown more clearly in her greater command of language and in her ability to recognize nicer shades of meaning in the use of words, than in any other branch of her education.
Helen has had the best and purest models in language constantly presented to her, and her conversation and her writing are unconscious reproductions of what she has read.
Miss Keller's education, however, is so fundamentally a question of language teaching that it rather includes the problems of the deaf than limits itself to the deaf alone.
By experiment, by studying other children, Miss Sullivan came upon the practical way of teaching language by the natural method.
It is not enough even to be able to speak the language of that nation by which they are written, for there is a memorable interval between the spoken and the written language, the language heard and the language read.
And indeed, this is true of the language of all children.
And the whole thing has been unnatural because that cat and I are both able to talk your language, and to understand the words you say.
In 1831, from a study of the specific heats of compounds, he formulated "Neumann's law," which expressed in modern language runs: "The molecular heat of a compound is equal to the sum of the atomic heats of its constituents."
This is especially true of her earlier lessons, when her knowledge of language was so slight as to make explanation impossible.
It may be true, as some maintain, that language cannot express to us much beyond what we have lived and experienced; but I have always observed that children manifest the greatest delight in the lofty, poetic language which we are too ready to think beyond their comprehension.
The Panayano dialect of the Visayan language is spoken by most of the inhabitants.
We play a little game which I find most useful in developing the intellect, and which incidentally answers the purpose of a language lesson.
They wage war because it is the only language they speak.
Their language is the memory of the language they hear spoken in their homes.
Good work in language presupposes and depends on a real knowledge of things.
So Helen Keller's aptitude for language is her whole mental aptitude, turned to language because of its extraordinary value to her.
And the fact remains that she was taught by a method of teaching language to the deaf the essential principles of which are clearly expressed in Miss Sullivan's letters, written while she was discovering the method and putting it successfully into practice.
It is already the official language in more than fifty countries spread across every continent.
I am surprised at the mastery of language which your letter shows.
I have already told her in simple language of the beautiful and helpful life of Jesus, and of His cruel death.
Body language announced that he was emotionally reacting – something his facial expression didn't betray.
In the language of the Christian Church the word " infallibility " is used in a more absolute sense, as the freedom from all possibility of error guaranteed by the direct action of the Spirit of God.
The language of her country novels is the genuine patois of middle France rendered in a literary form.
Inscriptions show that the national language asserted its existence even after Ateste came into the hands of the Romans.
Inscriptions show that the national language asserted its existence even after Ateste came into the hands of the Romans.
She got the language from the language itself, and this is, next to hearing the language spoken, the way for any one to get a foreign tongue, more vital and, in the end, easier than our schoolroom method of beginning with the grammar.
Language has crystallized them into certain definite notions and expressions, without which we cannot proceed a single step, but which we have accepted without knowing their exact meaning, much less their origin.
No teacher could have made Helen Keller sensitive to the beauties of language and to the finer interplay of thought which demands expression in melodious word groupings.
In the treaty, language describing the border between the United States and Canada, still part of Great Britain, included this:
The end of language barriers.
French became the language of diplomacy and international affairs.
One thing is certain, the language was ineffaceably stamped upon my brain, though for a long time no one knew it, least of all myself.
It seems to me that the great difficulty of writing is to make the language of the educated mind express our confused ideas, half feelings, half thoughts, when we are little more than bundles of instinctive tendencies.
Later I read the book again in French, and I found that, in spite of the vivid word-pictures, and the wonderful mastery of language, I liked it no better.
These children were older in years, it is true, than the baby who lisps, "Papa kiss baby--pretty," and fills out her meaning by pointing to her new dress; but their ability to understand and use language was no greater.
It is true rather that she has a special aptitude for thinking, and her leaning toward language is due to the fact that language to her meant life.
Her sign language vocabulary had increased, but many things were still difficult to understand.
Many years before you came here this Land was united under one Ruler, as it is now, and the Ruler's name was always 'Oz,' which means in our language 'Great and Good'; or, if the Ruler happened to be a woman, her name was always 'Ozma.'
Now it is true that the critic must be unconscious of some of the subtlest charms and nicest delicacies of language who would exclude from humorous writing all those impressions and surprises which depend on the use of the diverse sense of words.
And if everyone you know speaks English and it is the language of the world, commerce, the Internet, and success, what will be the primary language you teach your children?
In ordinary language the name is used for any species of Siphonaptera (otherwise known as Aphaniptera), which, though formerly regarded as a suborder of Diptera, are now considered to be a separate order of insects.
Honestly, if we all spoke the same language today, would you want to change that?
These experiences are like photographic negatives, until language develops them and brings out the memory-images.
She responds quickly to the gentle pressure of affection, the pat of approval, the jerk of impatience, the firm motion of command, and to the many other variations of the almost infinite language of the feelings; and she has become so expert in interpreting this unconscious language of the emotions that she is often able to divine our very thoughts.
Helen acquired language by practice and habit rather than by study of rules and definitions.
Why not, says Miss Sullivan, make a language lesson out of what they were interested in?
Books are the storehouse of language, and any child, whether deaf or not, if he has his attention attracted in any way to printed pages, must learn.
And it can be applied by any teacher to any healthy deaf child, and in the broadest interpretation of the principles, can be applied to the teaching of language of all kinds to all children.
If Miss Keller is fond of language and not interested especially in mathematics, it is not surprising to find Miss Sullivan's interests very similar.
The only way is to hear it, especially in a language like English which is so full of unspellable, suppressed vowels and quasi-vowels.
In the very nature of things, articulation is an unsatisfactory means of education; while the use of the manual alphabet quickens and invigorates mental activity, since through it the deaf child is brought into close contact with the English language, and the highest and most abstract ideas may be conveyed to the mind readily and accurately.
Language was her liberator, and from the first she cherished it.
Let him get language and he gets the very stuff that language is made of, the thought and the experience of his race.
The language must be one used by a nation, not an artificial thing.
Here he became an instructor in German at Harvard in 1825, and in 1830 obtained an appointment as professor of German language and literature there; but his anti-slavery agitation having given umbrage to the authorities, he forfeited his post in 1835, and was ordained Unitarian minister of a chapel at Lexington in Massachusetts in 1836.
His action led to an altercation with Ossory, the son of Ormonde, in which Ossory used language for which he was compelled to apologize.
From a sick-bed, from which he never rose, he conducted this work with surprising energy, and there composed those poems, too few in number, but immortal in the English language, such as the "Song of the Shirt" (which appeared anonymously in the Christmas number of Punch, 1843), the "Bridge of Sighs" and the "Song of the Labourer," which seized the deep human interests of the time, and transported them from the ground of social philosophy into the loftier domain of the imagination.
During the leisure thus arising, Descartes one day had his attention drawn to a placard in the Dutch tongue; as the language, of which he never became perfectly master, was then strange to him, he asked a bystander to interpret it into either French or Latin.
of giving expression to general ideas; and language in that sense is not found save in man.
No theologian save Augustine has had an equal influence on the theological thought and language of the Western Church, a fact which was strongly emphasized by Leo XIII.
When John Knox visited Calvin at Geneva one Sunday, it is said that he discovered him engaged in a game; and John Aylmer (1521-1594), though bishop of London, enjoyed a game of a Sunday afternoon, but used such language "as justly exposed his character to reproach."
His action led to an altercation with Ossory, the son of Ormonde, in which Ossory used language for which he was compelled to apologize.
Under Hollywood's production code at the time, movies could not include nudity, criminal activity, or offensive language, or depict illegal drug use, venereal disease, or childbirth.
Imagine if today everyone spoke one language and I said that in the future we will speak hundreds of different languages and not be able to understand each other.
Everyone in the future will learn English because it will be the language of the Internet and thus the language of the world and commerce.
The unusual language and repetition made the story seem unreal.
But soon they learned some Dutch words; but they loved their own language and they did not want little boys and girls to forget it and learn to talk funny Dutch.
He obtains a magic glass cage, yoked with eight griffins, flies through the clouds, and, thanks to enchanters who know the language of birds, gets information as to their manners and customs, and ultimately receives their submission.
Shakespeare was undoubtedly the greatest master the English language has ever known and, quite probably, will ever know.
It would be splendid to have The Great Round World printed in "language that can be felt."
Artists have been known to use the left hand in the hope of checking the fatal facility which practice had conferred on the right; and if Hood had been able to place under some restraint the curious and complex machinery of words and syllables which his fancy was incessantly producing, his style would have been a great gainer, and much real earnestness of object, which now lies confused by the brilliant kaleidoscope of language, would have remained definite and clear.
And yet, there was something about her that suggested she was in uncharted waters - maybe body language.
They must be cultivating their own language.
He handed the glasses to the chief and spoke to him in their language.
There followed a murmured apology to the child for her language.
No need for 'em to speak the same language.
Poor Maria, as good as she is, can't be much help on the phone if she don't speak the language.
Gabriel knew they were loyal before he placed hands on their heads based on their body language.
Darkyn gave a low order in the demon language.
When did you two learn to speak sign language?
These mountaineering folk talked a different language.
It is easy to see that such conclusions ignore important distinctions, and are, indeed, to a large extent an abuse of language.
8 45, 1 333, according to whom Typhon, the "snake-footed" earth-spirit, is the god of the destructive wind, perhaps originally of the sirocco, but early taken by the Phoenicians to denote the north wind, in which sense it was probably used by the Greeks of the 5th century in nautical language; and also in Philologus, ii.
The wild and inaccessible character of the country, the fierce and lawless disposition of the people, the difficulties presented by their language and their complex social institutions, and the inability of the Turkish authorities to afford a safe conduct in the remoter districts, combine to render Albania almost unknown to the foreign traveller, and many of its geographical problems still remain unsolved.
Not less noticeable is the tenacity with which isolated fragments of the nation have preserved theirpeculiar characteristics, language, customs and traditions.
A large number still speak the Albanian language; many of the older men, and a considerable proportion of the women, even in the neighbourhood of Athens, are ignorant of Greek.
Retaining their original language and preserving the customs and institutions of remote antiquity, they present a distinct type, and differ in many essential particulars from the other nations of the peninsula.
Instruction in the Albanian language is prohibited by the Turkish government for political reasons; a single exception has been made in the case of an American school for girls at Kortcha.
An interesting and characteristic feature of the language is the definite article, which is attached to the end of the word: e.g.
The Tosks generally use the Greek language for written communications.
The earliest printed works in Albanian are those of the Catholic missionaries; the first book containing specimens of the language was the Dictionarium Latino-Epiroticum of Bianchi, printed in 1635.
As far as the difference in language will permit, there is cordial fellowship and co-operation with the Presbyterian Church of England.
The language is Spanish.
The population is about 2200, the natives being Polynesian, though their language has been classified as Melanesian.
His principal fault was a want of tenacity and resolution; his tendency to unguarded language undoubtedly increased the number of his enemies.
The Loyalty islanders are Melanesians; the several islands have each its separate language, and in Uea one tribe uses a Samoan and another a New Hebridean form of speech.
It remains, therefore, to ask whether any information can be had about the language of this primitive -COfolk, and whether they can be identified as the authors of any of the various archaeological strata now recognized on Italian soil.
The alleged language.
No word exists in their language for such general terms as tree, bird or fish; yet they have invented a name for every species of vegetable and animal they know.
It was provided that a person was to be prohibited from landing in Australia who failed to write in any prescribed language fifty words dictated to him by the commonwealth officer supervising immigration.
The efficacy of this legislation is in its administration, the language in which coloured aliens are usually tested being European.
The language is Visayan.
He was a great Hebrew teacher: his Grammar of the Hebrew Language (1861, revised 1888) was a distinct improvement in method on Gesenius, Roediger, Ewald and Nordheimer.
Saxon was at this period the common title of all the north German tribes; there was but little difference between Frisians and Saxons either in race or language, and they were closely united for some four centuries in common resistance to the encroachments of the Frankish power.
This charter provided that no war could be declared nor marriage concluded by the sovereign, nor taxes raised without the assent of the states, that natives were alone eligible for high office, and that the national language should be used in public documents.
As a thorough Spaniard who did not even understand the language of his Netherland subjects Philip was from the first distrusted and his acts regarded with suspicion.
Few men have been so courageous, and his influence was magnetic. Even the rough Szeklers, though they did not understand the language of their "little father," regarded him with superstitious reverence.
In their own language they usually have only three numerals, viz.
An examination of their language seems to indicate that, it belongs to the Mon-Khmer group of languages, and the anthropological information forthcoming concerning the Sakai points to the conclusion that they show a greater affinity to the people of the Mon-Khmer races than to the Malayan stock.
When the Democrats, however, declared such language incendiary he tried to explain it away, and by so doing offended his friends without appeasing his opponents.
Burnet declares he had little Latin, but he was able to converse with the Dutch ambassador in that language.
"Perhaps you think," he exclaimed, "that this is not parliamentary language; I confess it is not, neither are you to expect any such from me."
English was the language of the settlers, and they regarded themselves as a British colony.
"To read Plautus is to be once for all disabused of the impression that Latin is a dry and uninteresting language" (Skutsch, in Die Cultur der Gegenwart; 1905).
Pidgin English is the common language along the coast.
1 They are particularly important in that they counteracted the popular and interestingly written books of Max Muller: for instance, Muller, like Renan and Wilhelm von Humboldt, regarded language as an innate faculty and Whitney considered it the product of experience and outward circumstance.
At this time also he developed an ardent love of France, a country which was politically in antagonism with his own, though so closely linked to it geographically, socially and by language.
Rajasthani is the chief language of the country, one or other of its dialects being spoken by 7, 0 3 5,093 persons or more than 72% of the total population.
The first real advance towards their interpretation was made by Otfried Muller (Die Etrusker, 1828), who pointed out that though their alphabet was akin to the Etruscan their language was Italic. Lepsius, in his essay De tabulis Eugubinis (1833), finally determined the value of the Umbrian signs and the received order of the Tables, pointing out that those in Latin alphabet were the latest.
init.) between the'Os/3poi of, say, Herodotus and the language of Iguviuin, of which we may now offer some description, using the term Umbrian strictly in this sense.
- At least four periods in the history of the dialect can be distinguished in the records we have left to us, by the help of the successive changes (a) in alphabet and (b) in language, which the Tables exhibit.
a and b would be in themselves too slight to prove an earlier date, but they have perhaps some weight as confirming the evidence of the language.
The evidence of date derived from changes in the language is more difficult to formulate, and the inquiry calls for the most diligent use of scientific method and critical judgment.
Hence we frequently meet with forms which had passed out of the language that was spoken at the time they were engraved, side by side with their equivalents in that language.
Leo, the saint's favourite disciple and companion on Mount Alverno at the time, which describes the circumstances of the stigmatization; Elias of Cortona, the acting superior, wrote on the day after his death a circular letter wherein he uses language clearly implying that he had himself seen the Stigmata, and there is a considerable amount of contemporary authentic second hand evidence.
The three great islands of Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica are closely connected with Italy, both by geographical position and community of language, but they are considered at length in separate articles.
The Albanians of the southern provinces still employ the Greek rite and the Greek language in their public worship, and their priests, like those of the Greek Church, are allowed to marry.
To the latter category it is now possible to refer with certainty only the Etruscans (for the chronology and limits of their occupation of Italian soil see ETRURIA: section Language).
(I) It is probable, though not very clearly demonstrated, that Venetic, East Italic and Messapian are connected together and with the ancient dialects spoken in Illyria, so that these might be provisionally entitled the Adriatic group, to which the language spoken.
(2) Too little is known of the Sicel language to make clear more than its Indo-European character.
(3) It is doubtful whether there are any actual inscriptions which can be referred with certainty to the language of the Ligures, but some other evidence seems to link them with the -CO- peoples, whose early distribution is discussed under VoLscI and LIGURIA.
Latin will be counted the language of the earlier plebeian stratum of the population of Rome and Latium, probably once spread over a large area of the peninsula, and akin in sijme degree to the language or languages spoken in north Italy before either the Etruscan or the Gallic invasions began.
It would follow, on the other hand, that what is called Oscan represented the language of the invading Sabines (more correctly Safines), whose racial affinities would seem to be of a distinctly more northern cast, and to mark them, like the Dorians or Achaeans in Greece, as an early wave of the invaders who more than once in later history havevitally influenced the fortunes of the tempting southern land into which they forced their way.
At his court Italian started into being as a language.
The humanistic movement had created a common culture, a common language and sense of common nationality.
But the king and Cavour were terribly upset by this move, which meant peace without Venetia; Cavour hurried to the kings headquarters at Monzambano Armistice and in excited, almost disrespectful, language implored ~0ranca~ him not to agree to peace and to continue the war alone, relying on the Piedmontese army and a general Italian revolution.
Martinengo Cesarescos Liberation of Italy (London, 1895) is to be strongly recommended, and is indeed, for accuracy, fairness and synthesis, as well as for charm of style, one of the very best books on the subject in any language; Bolton Kings History of Italian Unity (2 vols., London, 1899) is bulkier and less satisfactory, but contains a useful bibliography.
He doubtless foresaw that the language of Favre and Crmieux would not be endorsed by the French Clericals.
Doubts, however, soon sprang up as to its effect upon the minds of Austrian statesmen, since on the 8th of November the language employed by Kllay and Count Andrssy to the Hungarian delegations on the subject of Irredentism was scarcely calculated to soothe Italian susceptibilities.
The older, which extends to 150 B.C., set forth, in bald, unattractive language, without any pretensions to style, but with a certain amount of trustworthiness, the most important events of each successive year.
As a general rule the annalists wrote in a spirit of uncritical patriotism, which led them to minimize or gloss over such disasters as the conquest of Rome by Porsena and the compulsory payment of ransom to the Gauls, and to flatter the people by exaggerated accounts of Roman prowess, dressed up in fanciful language.
At first they wrote in Greek, partly because a national style was not yet formed, and partly because Greek was the fashionable language amongst the educated, although Latin versions were probably published as well.
His language was antiquated and his style dry, but his work was considered important.
His German sermons, of which seventy-one have been preserved, are among the most powerful in the language, and form the chief monuments of Middle High German prose.
So far as this is true, theism (proper) would seem to be an accident of language.
He is a most difficult writer; different readers understand him differently; and he uses in the earlier parts of his Critique of Pure Reason much of the language of intuitionalism.
Why should not God, a spirit like our own, though greater, speak to us in this language ?
Though all descended from one stock, there are twelve distinct tribes of the Andamanese, each with its own clearly-defined locality, its own distinct variety of the one fundamental language and to a certain extent its own separate habits.
Yet again the Andamanese can be grouped according to certain salient characteristics: the forms of the bows and arrows, of the canoes, of ornaments and utensils, of tattooing and of language.
Attempts have been made to show that they were of German origin, but although they were doubtless subject to Germanic influences, they spoke a Celtic language.
Celtic names, and St Jerome, who had lived in Trier, declares that their language in his day (c. 370) resembled that of the Galatians.
Pregnant hints are given respecting a natural development of language which has its germs in sounds of quadrupeds and birds, of religious ideas out of dreams and waking hallucinations, and of the art of music by help of the suggestion of natural sounds.
PALI, the language used in daily intercourse between cultured people in the north of India from the 7th century B.C. It continued to be used throughout India and its confines as a literary language for about a thousand years, and is still, though in a continually decreasing degree, the literary language of Burma, Siam, and Ceylon.
Their language bore the same relation to the Vedic speech as the various Italian dialects bore to Latin.
The welding together of the great Kosala kingdom, more than twice the size of England, in the very centre of the settled country, led insensibly but irresistibly to the establishment of a standard of speech, and the standard followed was the language used at the court at Savatthi in the Nepalese hills, the capital of Kosala.
A result followed somewhat similar to the effect, on the German language, of the Lutheran reformation.
It probably means "row, line, canon," and is used, in its exact technical sense, of the language of the canon, containing the documents of the Buddhist faith.
But when Pali first became known to Europeans it was already used also, by those who wrote in Pali, of the language of the later writings, which bear the same relation to the standard literary Pali of the canonical texts as medieval does to classical Latin.
The resemblance was so close that Prinsep called the alphabet he was deciphering the Pali alphabet, and the language expressed in it he called the Pali language.
The name here used by the chronicler for Pali is "the Magadhi tongue," by which expression is meant, not exactly the language spoken in Magadha, but the language in use at the court of Asoka, king of Kosala and Magadha.
With this use of the word, philologically inexact, but historically quite defensible, may be compared the use of the word English, which is not exactly the language of the Angles, or of the word French, which is not exactly the language of the Franks.
The present writer has suggested that the word Pali should be reserved for the language of the canon, and other words used for the earlier and later forms of it; 1 but the usage generally followed is so convenient that there is little likelihood of the suggestion being followed.
He shows that in the 3rd century B.C. the language used throughout northern India was practically one, and that it was derived directly from the speech of the Vedic Aryans, retaining many Vedic forms lost in the later classical Sanskrit.
His list of such forms is much more complete than that given by Childers in the introduction to his Dictionary of the Pali Language.
Franke also shows that there were local peculiarities in small matters of spelling and inflexion, and that the particular form of the language used in and about the Avanti district, of which the capital was Ujjeni (a celebrated pre-Buddhistic city), was the basis of the language used in the sacred texts as we now have them.
It would seem that up to the 4th century of our era the Sinhalese had written exclusively in their own tongue; that is to say that for six centuries they had studied and understood Pali as a dead language without using it as a means of literary expression.
C. Childers, Dictionary of the Pali Language (London, 1872-1875); Ernst Kuhn, Beitrage zur Pali Grammatik (Berlin; 18 75); E.
Translations exist in almost every language; that of George Long (London, 1862, re-edited 1900) has been superseded by those of G.
Of the 131,361 inhabitants in 1897 the Talyshes (35,000) form the aboriginal element, belonging to the Iranian family, and speaking an independently developed language closely related to Persian.
ferns, horse-tails, club mosses, &c., and Phanerogams or Flowering Plants) the main plant-body, that which we speak of in ordinary language as the plant, is called the sporophyte because it bears the asexual reproductive cells or spores.
The plant formation may be designated in technical language ph the termination -ion added to a stem denoting the habitat.
The legends are in Aramaic characters and Persian (Pahlavi) language; among them occur Artaxerxes, Darius (from a dynast of this name the town Darabjird, "town of Darius," in eastern Persia seems to derive its name), Narses, Tiridates, Manocihr and others; the name Vahuburz seems to be identical with Oborzos, mentioned by Polyaenus vii.
SAHEL (Arabic for "shore"); a common place-name in countries where Arabic is the dominant language.
The varieties of coast-lines were reduced to an exact classification by Richthofen, who grouped them according to the height and slope of the land into cliff-coasts (Steilkiisten)- narrow beach coasts with cliffs, wide beach coasts with cliffs, and 1 Rumpf, in German, the language in which this distinction was first made.
Existing classifications, however, do not take account of any difference in kind between mountain and hills, although it is common in the German language to speak of Hiigelland, Mittelgebirge and Hochgebirge with a definite significance.
Professor Keane groups man round four leading types, which may be named the black, yellow, red and white, or the Ethiopic, Mongolic, American and Caucasic. Each may be subdivided, though not with great exactness, into smaller groups, either according to physical_; characteristics, of which the form of the head is most important, or according to language.
The word does not occur in any other Teutonic language.
Susa once more became a capital, and on the establishment of the Persian empire remained one of the three seats of government, its language, the Neo-Susian, ranking with the Persian of Persepolis and the Semitic of Babylon as an official tongue.
We see in them the thought of the ancient Church taking shape in the minds of her bishops and doctors; and in many cases they express the results of the great doctrinal controversies of their age in language which leaves little to be desired.6 Authorities.
Properly speaking, "Hebrew Literature" denotes all works written in the Hebrew language.
In catalogues and bibliographies, however, the expression is now generally used, conveniently if incorrectly, as synonymous with Jewish literature, including all works written by Jews in Hebrew characters, whether the language be Aramaic, Arabic or even some vernacular not related to Hebrew.
One consequence of the Mendelssohn movement was that many writers used their vernacular language besides or instead of Hebrew, or translated from one to the other.
Patriotic efforts are made to encourage the use of Hebrew both for writing and speaking, but the continued existence of it as a literary language depends on the direction in which the future history of the Jews will develop.
The religion and language have both died out, being only preserved by a few priests of the old cult; but even among them the tradition of the pronunciation of the language has been lost.
The Ahom language is the oldest member of the Tai branch of the Siamese-Chinese linguistic family of which we have any record.
The language had an alphabet of its own, which was clearly related to that of Burmese.
He went to Rome after the termination of the civil wars, and spent twenty-two years in studying the Latin language and literature and preparing materials for his history.
The language is Ilocano.
The rites of Ceres were Greek in language and form.
Their national character remains largely the same; but they have adopted a new religion, a new language, a new system of law and society, new thoughts and feelings on all matters.
The 10th century is the time of the settlement of the Northmen in Gaul, and of the change in religion and language of which the softening of the name is the outward sign.
where the.y gradually lost themselves among the people whom they conquered; they adopted the language and the national feelings of the lands in which they settled; but at the same time they often modified, often strengthened the national usages and national life of the various nations in which they were finally merged.
His disappearance in both cases is an illustration of one of the features which we have spoken of in the Norman character, the tendency which in fact made Normans out of Northmen, the tendency to adopt the language and manners of the people among whom they found themselves.
By the end of the 12th century the Normans in England might fairly pass as Englishmen, and they had largely adopted the use of the English language.
We speak of the Saracen very much as we speak of the Norman; for of the Mussulman masters of Sicily very many must have been only artificial Arabs, Africans who had adopted the creed, language and manners of Arabia.
The use of language and nomenclature during the time of Norman rule in the two countries forms a remarkable contrast, and illustrates the circumstances of the two as they have just been sketched.
If a man of one people knew the speech of any of the others, he knew it strictly as a foreign language.
French, the language which the Normans brought with them, did not become an official language in England till after strictly Norman rule had passed away.
Fauna.-Among wild animals the tiger or ounce-called in the Guarani language the ja-gud or "big dog"-and the puma are found on the frontier of Brazil and on the wooded islets and banks of the larger rivers.
In the Guarani language "Charrua" means turbulent, and by their enemies the Charruas were accounted as such, and even ferocious, although admitted to be generous to their captives.
German Language >>
The case is again often misunderstood because the words "patrician" and "plebeian," like so many other technical Roman and Greek words, have come in modern language to be used in a way quite unlike their original sense.
F.)/n==Authorities== - Selden's Titles of Honor (London, 1672) remains the best comparative account in the English language of the nobility of various countries up to his date.
Cassiodorus, magister ofiiciorum under Theodoric and the intimate acquaintance of the philosopher, employs language equally strong, and Ennodius, the bishop of Pavia, knows no bounds for his admiration.
Three of them express in the strongest language the orthodox faith of the church in opposition to the Arian heresy, and these three put in unmistakable language the procession of the Holy Spirit from both Father and Son.
The language of government and trade is English, which is understood far and wide throughout Liberia.
The admission is now general that the Bible cannot be expected to use the language of scientific astronomy.
While they had no written language, a considerable oral literature of songs, legends and traditions existed.
The Balinese language belongs to the same group of the Malayan class as the Javanese, Sundanese, Madurese, &c., but is as distinct from each of these as French is from Italian.
It is most nearly akin to the Sasak language spoken in Lombok and on the east coast of Bali.
Javanese influence is also traceable in the use of three varieties of speech, as in the Javanese language, according to the rank of the people addressed.
The sacred literature of the Balinese is written in the ancient Javanese or Kawi language, which appears to be better understood here than it is in Java.
It is difficult to allow the appositeness of this special illustration; on the other hand, Ford has even in this case shown his art of depicting sensual passion without grossness of expression; for the exception in Annabella's language to Soranzo seems to have a special intention, and is true to the pressure of the situation and the revulsion produced by it in a naturally weak and yielding mind.
The language is Cebu-Visayan.
There is an edition of his De modis significandi or Grammatica speculativa, the first attempt to investigate the general laws of language, by F.
Ethnologically the Bulgarians ought perhaps to come here; but, as a large admixture of Slav blood flows in their veins and they speak a distinctly Slav language, they have in this table been grouped with the Slays.
Moreover, notwithstanding the unity of language, it is easy to detect among the Great Russians themselves two separate branches, differing from one another by slight divergences of language and type and deep diversities of national character - the Central Russians and the Novgorodians.
Until recent times these various nationalities were allowed to retain unmolested the language, religion and peculiar local administration of their ancestors; but when the new nationality doctrine came into fashion, attempts were made to spread among them the language, religion and administrative institutions of the dominant race.
The local institutions were assimilated to those of the purely Russian provinces; the use of the Russian language was made obligatory in the administration, in the tribunals and to some extent in the schools; the spread of Eastern Orthodoxy was encouraged by the authorities, whilst the other confessions were placed under severe restrictions; foreigners were prohibited from possessing landed property; and in some provinces administrative measures were taken for making the land pass into the hands of Orthodox Russians.
Finnish diet ought to refer to the imperial legislature not only all military matters - as the tsar demanded (Rescript of October 14) - but the question of the use of the Russian language in the grand-duchy, the principles of the Finnish administration, police, justice, education, formation of business companies and of associations, public meetings, the press, the customs tariff, the monetary system, means of communication, and the pilot and lighthouse system.
Russian Language >>
It is not likely that he would write in support of Cardinal Beaton's policy, and the dialect is an exaggerated form of Latinized Middle Scots, differing materially from the language of the Compendious Book.
The Samoan language is soft and liquid in pronunciation, and has been called "the Italian of the Pacific."
The characteristic of the 18th and 19th centuries is the endeavour, connected with the name of Moses Mendelssohn, to bring Judaism more into relation with external learning, and in using the Hebrew language to purify tend- and develop it in accordance with the biblical standard.
The Tell el-Amarna despatches are crowded with evidences of Canaanite forms and idioms impressed on the Babylonian language of these cuneiform documents.
The process of transference was facilitated by two potent causes: (a) Both Canaanite and Hebrew spoke a common language; (b) the name Baal is not in reality an individual proper name like Kemosh (Chemosh), Ramman or Hadad, but is, like El (Ilu)" god," an appellative meaning " lord," " owner " or " husband."
The reaction into idolatry and Babylonian star worship in the long reign of Manasseh synchronized and was connected with vassalage 1 There is some danger in too strictly construing the language of the prophets and also the psalmists.
Ezekiel, who borrowed both Jeremiah's language and ideas, expresses the same thought in the well-known words that Yahweh would give the people instead of a heart of stone a heart of flesh (Ezek.
The language is Pampango.
Cyprian had none of that character which makes the reading of Tertullian, whom he himself called his magister, so interesting and piquant, but he possessed other qualities which Tertullian lacked, especially the art of presenting his thoughts in simple, smooth and clear language, yet in a style which is not wanting in warmth and persuasive power.
The " true mother of his mind as well as of his health " was a maiden aunt - Catherine Porten by name - with respect to whom he expresses himself in language of the most grateful remembrance.
But this difficulty was soon removed by the pupil's diligence; the very exigencies of his situation were of service to him in calling forth all his powers, and he studied the language with such success that at the close of his five years' exile he declares that he " spontaneously thought " in French rather than in English, and that it had become more familiar to " ear, tongue and pen."
It is well known that in after years he had doubts whether he should not compose his great work in French; and it is certain that his familiarity with that language, in spite of considerable efforts to counteract its effects, tinged his style to the last.
In London he seems to have seen but little select society - partly from his father's taste, "which had always preferred the highest and lowest company," and partly from his own reserve and timidity, increased by his foreign education, which had made English habits unfamiliar, and the very language 2 The affair, however, was not finally broken off till 1763.
His remains were laid in the burial place of the Sheffield family, Fletching, Sussex, where an epitaph by Dr Parr describes his character and work in the language at once of elegance, of moderation and of truth.
Its long and noble resistance, told by the Roman historian Livy in no less noble language, ranks with the Spanish defence of Saragossa in the Peninsular War.
They were not considered to be of the same blood as the Carians, and were, therefore, excluded from the temple of the Carian Zeus at Mylasa, which was common to the Carians, Lydians and Mysians, though their language was the same as that of the Carians proper.
The language, so far as it has been deciphered, is "Asianic" and not Indo-European.
Sayce, "The Karian Language and Inscriptions" (T.S.B.A.
the Grand Porte), displacing all others in the popular language.
Although his making religion the sole factor of this evolution was a perversion of the historical facts, the book was so consistent throughout, so full of ingenious ideas, and written in so striking a style, that it ranks as one of the masterpieces of the French language in the 19th century.
Their language differs very slightly from Roman Latin of that date; for apparently contracted forms like Fougno instead of Fucino may really only be a matter of spelling.
1 3Xaa477uLa, profane language, slander, probably derived from root of Ovi rrEt y, to injure, and 017µr7, speech), literally, defamation or evil speaking, but more peculiarly restricted to an indignity offered to the Deity by words or writing.
The principal language is Tagalog.
2 - Already in the 15th century B.C. Palestine was inhabited by a settled people whose language, thought and religion were not radically different several hundred years later.
Assyrian) script and language were now used, not merely in the diplomatic correspondence between Egypt and Asia, but also for matters of private and everyday life among the Palestinian princes themselves.
3 From Tema in north Arabia, also, there is monumental evidence of the 5th century B.C. for Babylonian and Assyrian influence upon the language, cult and art.
Its treatment of the monarchy is only part of a great and now highly complicated literary undertaking (traceable in the books Joshua to Kings), inspired with the thought and coloured by language characteristic of Deuteronomy (especially the secondary portions), which forms the necessary introduction.
The language of Polybius suggests that he was acquainted with other Jewish communities and with the fame of the Temple: in his view they are not an organized state.
In Germany Jews are still rarely admitted to the rank of officers in the army, university posts are very difficult of access, Judaism and its doctrines are denounced in medieval language, and a tone of hostility prevails in many public utterances.
At this time they were speaking Oscan as well as Greek, and two of three Oscan inscriptions in Greek alphabet still testify to the language spoken in the town in the 3rd century B.C. We know, however, that the Bruttians, though at this date speaking the same language (Oscan) as the Samnite tribe of the Lucani, were not actually akin to them.
The influence of Hellenism over them is shown by finds in the tombs and the fact that they spoke the Greek language as well as their own (bilingues in Ennius).
In the easternmost district of Crete, where the aboriginal " Eteocretan " element survived to historic times (Praesus, Palaikastro), later inscriptions have been discovered belonging to the 5th and succeeding centuries B.C., written in Greek letters but in the indigenous language (Comparetti, Mon.
There is evidence, moreover, that the script and with it the indigenous language did not die out during this period, and that therefore the days of Hellenic settlement at Cnossus were not yet.
In the extreme east and west of the island the aboriginal Eteocretan" element, however, as represented respectively by the Praesians or Cydonians, still held its own, and inscriptions written in Greek characters show that the old language survived to the centuries immediately preceding the Christian era.
Under the Venetian government Candia, a fortress originally built by the Saracens, and called by them " Khandax," became the seat of government, and not only rose to be the capital and chief city of the island, but actually gave name to it, so that it was called in the official language of Venice " the island of Candia," a designation which from thence passed into modern maps.
p. 176), at least as regards language, for many words and names are common to both.
His obsequious language on this occasion, and the favours with which it was rewarded, formed a too violent contrast to the determined attitude of the university of Paris, which, tired of the schism, was even then demanding the resignation of the two pontiffs.
However, the language of the bishop of Cambrai seems on this occasion to have been lacking in decision; however that may be, it led to no felicitous result.
The panegyrics of Aldus Manutius require to be received with some caution, since he was given to exaggerating the merits of his friend, and uses almost the same language about a young Pole named Stanilaus Niegosevski; see John Black's Life of Torquato Tasso, ii.
Syriac is the eastern dialect of the Aramaic language which, during the early centuries of the Christian era, prevailed in Mesopotamia and the adjoining regions.
Its main centres were at Edessa and Nisibis, but it was the literary language of practically all the Christian writers in the region east of Antioch, as well as of the Christian subjects of the Persian empire.
1 The vowels, which are ten in number (a a e e i i o o u u), were, as usual in the Semitic languages, indicated only partially by the use of consonants as vowel-letters 2 and by means of certain diacritical points, so long as Syriac remained a living language.
As regards this crossing of s and sh, Arabic has with it the other south Semitic language, Ethiopic: the evidence as to the other north Semitic language, Assyrian, is conflicting.
There are only two genders and two numbers: the neuter gender is entirely wanting, and the dual number is not recognized in Syriac grammar, though there are plain traces of it in the language.
The Turks are Mahommedans; their tribes extend up the Oxus to the borders of Afghanistan and Persia, and to the Caspian, and under the name of Kirghiz into Russia, and their language is spoken over a large part of western Asia.
The Manchus and Mongols are chiefly Buddhist, with letters derived from the ancient Syriac. The Manchus are now said to be gradually falling under the influence of Chinese civilization, and to be losing their old nomadic habits, and even their peculiar language.
They are partially Buddhist, and have a peculiar monosyllabic, uninflected language, with writing consisting of symbols, which represent words, not letters.
They are written from left to right, exception being made of Urdu or Hindostani, the mixed language of the Mahommedan conquerors of northern India, the character used for writing which is the Persian.
The language of the Punjab does not differ very materially from that of Upper India.
West of the Indus the dialects approach more to Persian, which language meets Arabic and Turki west of the Tigris, and along the Turkoman desert and the Caspian.
These Tajiks (as they are usually called) form the underlying population of Persia, Baluchistan, Afghanistan and Badakshan, and their language (in the central districts of Asia) is found to contain words of Aryan or Sanskrit derivation which are not known in Persian.
The language of the Kirghiz is Turki and their religion that of Mahomet.
The Turkoman is the purest form of the Turk element, and his language is the purest form of the Turkish tongue, which is represented at Constantinople by a comparatively mongrel, or mixed, dialect.
It is generally agreed that this civilization can be traced back to an earlier race, the Sumero-Akkadians, whose language seems allied to the agglutinative idioms of central Asia.
While using the same language as the Babylonians, the Assyrians had an individuality which showed itself in art and religion.
Korea received its civilization and religion from China, but differs in language, and to some extent in customs. An alphabet derived from Indian sources is in use as well as Chinese writing.
- The Persians, with whom are often coupled the Medes, appear to be pure Aryans in origin, and the earliest form of their language and religion offers remarkable analogies to the Vedas.
The language and writing of the Semites who, at an unknown period, settled in what is now Abyssinia, show affinities with those of South Arabia, and these Semites may have been immigrants into Africa from that region.
(iv.) The Siamese or Thai, who speak a monosyllabic language of the Chinese type, but written in an Indian alphabet, represent a late invasion from southern China, whence they descended about the 13th century.
Pali, though only a form of Hindu literature, has a separate history, for it died in India and was preserved in Ceylon, whence it was imported to Burma and Siam as the language of religion.
But the Simons were obviously grotesquely unfit guardians for a prince, and they doubtless caused much suffering to the impressionable child, who was made on occasion to eat and drink to excess, and learnt the language of the gutter.
In logical language, he denies the actuality of the abstract particular.
The language of the prose Lancelot is good, easy and graceful, but the adventures lack originality and interest, and the situations repeat themselves in a most wearisome manner.
Here in 1743 Christopher Sauer, one of the sect's first pastors, and a printer by trade, printed the first Bible (a few copies of which are still in existence) published in a European language in America.
In spite of his surname, and of his knowledge of the French language, his attitude towards foreigners attests that he was of English birth.
Perhaps the most characteristic example of unsystematic pessimism is the language of Ecclesiastes, who concludes that "all is vanity."
On the other hand he speaks of the great anti-Teuton emperor Justinian, and of his reversal of the German conquests of the 5th century, in language which would certainly have grated on the ears of Totila and his heroes.
Ignorant of the English language, and firmly attached to their ancestral forms of worship, they were yet compelled to attend a service they considered profane, conducted in a language they could not understand.
Many of Bentham's phrases, such as "international," "utilitarian," "codification," are valuable additions to our language; but the majority of them, especially those of Greek derivation, have taken no root in it.
Of his numerous publications the following are of special importance: - Assyrian Grammar for Comparative Purposes (1872); Principles of Comparative Philology (1874); Babylonian Literature (1877); Introduction to the Science of Language (1879); Monuments of the Hittites (1881); Herodotus i.-iii.
He also gained a thorough acquaintance with the French language.
At present the language of economics is for the ordinary Englishman like a foreign language of exceptional difficulty, because he is constantly meeting with words which suggest to his mind a whole world of associations quite different form those with which economic theory has clothed them.
Leasing-making - a Scottish term for seditious language - was to be sternly punished.
Moved by this language and conscious of the weakness of Edward, the pope exhorted him to make peace with Scotland, and three years later Randolph, now earl of Moray, procured the recognition of Bruce as king from the papal see by promising aid for a crusade.
Firdousi's own education eminently qualified him for the gigantic task which he subsequently undertook, for he was profoundly versed in the Arabic language arid 1'itefature and had also studied deeply the Pahlavi or Old Persian, and was conversant with the ancient historical records which existed in that tongue.
Firdousi accepted the challenge, and the three poets having previously agreed upon three rhyming words to which a fourth could not be found in the Persian language, 'Ansari began "Thy beauty eclipses the light of the sun"; Farrakhi added "The rose with thy cheek would comparison shun"; 'Asjadi continued "Thy glances pierce through the mailed warrior's johsun"; 1 and Firdousi, without a moment's hesitation, completed the quatrain "Like the lance of fierce Giv in his fight with Poshun."
While not using threats of personal violence, as was generally reported at the time, his language was threatening and offensive.
Therefore their language and writing are called by the later Persians " Pehlevi," i.e.
It only remains to be added that there is some ground for supposing that the language spoken in Crete before the later Doric was non-Hellenic, but Indo-European.
Their language may prove to be that of the Linear tablets.
1 They speak the languages of the localities in which they are settled (Arabic or Persian), but the language of their sacred books is an Aramaic dialect, which has its closest affinities with that of the Babylonian Talmud, written in a peculiar character suggestive of the old Palmyrene.
The chief merit of the latter work lies in its forty plates, whereon the heads and feet of many birds are indifferently figured .2 But, while the successive editions of Linnaeus's great work were revolutionizing natural history, and his example of precision in language producing excellent effect on scientific writers, several other authors were advancing the study of ornithology in a very different way - a way that pleased the eye even more than his labours were pleasing the mind.
Yet his followers, if not he himself, were ever making use of language in the highest degree metaphorical, and were always explaining facts in accordance with preconceived opinions.
Wagner foresaw the use that would be made of this discovery by the adherents of the new philosophy, and, in the usual language of its opponents at the time, strove to ward off the " misinterpretations " that they would put upon it.
This insulting behaviour, and the language of the letter with which Andrew reappeared, marked the mission a failure: King Louis, says Joinville, "se repenti fort."
Nothing whatever is known of their language, but some scholars explain the names Toramana and Jauvla as Turkish.
Pauli and Kretschmer, proceeding on the basis of language, have reached conclusions which in the main are identical.
Pauli, who has published all the known inscriptions of the Heneti, holds that the language is Illyrian, closely connected with Messapian.
Kretschmer goes further and divides the Illyrian language into two sharply defined dialects, the northern dialect being represented by the Heneti.
The necessity of accurate acquaintance with any foreign language and of obtaining good texts, is a subject Bacon is never weary of descanting upon.
A translator should know thoroughly the language he is translating from, the language into which he is translating, and the subject of which the book treats.
The Arabian tribes began to take possession of the partly cultivated lands east of Canaan, became masters of the Eastern trade, gradually acquired settled habits, and learned to speak and write in Aramaic, the language which was most widely current throughout the region west of the Euphrates in the time of the Persian Empire (6th-4th century B.C.).
The bulk of the population was of Arab race, and though Aramaic was used as the written language, in common intercourse Arabic had by no means disappeared.
The language spoken at Palmyra was a dialect of western Aramaic, and belongs to the same group as Nabataean and the Aramaic spoken in Egypt.
All instruction was communicated orally, but for ordinary purposes they had a written language in which they used the Greek characters.
The language throughout southern and middle Syria as high as Killis is Arabic, which has entirely ousted Aramaic and Hebrew from common use, and tends to prevail even over the speech of recent immigrants like the Circassians.
Syriac Language >>
A large proportion of the people can read and write Sesuto (as the Basuto language is called) and English, and speak Dutch, whilst a considerable number also receive higher education.
A few betray, not more by the antiquity of their language than by their natural and simple tone, traces of an earlier age and a freer national life.
The decisive considerations for the determination of the date are the language, the historical background and the thought.
The language belongs to the post-classical period of Hebrew.
For the purposes of this article, however, only those among these races which bear the name of Orang Malayu, speak the Malayan language, and represent the dominant people of the land, can be included under the title of Malays.
Their language, which is neither monosyllabic nor tonic, has nothing in common with that of the MonAnnam group. It has, moreover, been pointed out that had the Malays been driven southwards by the stronger races of the mainland of Asia, it might be expected that the people inhabiting the country nearest to the border between Siam and Malaya would belong to the Malayan and not to the Mon-Annam or Mon-Khmer stock.
John Crawfurd, in the Dissertation to his Dictionary of the Malay Language, published in 1840, noted the prevalence of Malayan terms in the Polynesian languages, and attributed the fact to the casting away of ships manned by Malays upon the islands of the Polynesian Archipelago.
Malay Language And Literature The Malay language is a member of the Malayan section of the Malayo-Polynesian class of languages, but it is by no means a representative type of the section which has taken its name from it.
Where Javanese is the principal language, Malay is sometimes found written with Javanese characters; and in Palembang, in the Menangkabo country of Middle Sumatra, the Rechang or Renchong characters are in general use, so called from the sharp and pointed knife with which they are cut on the smooth side of bamboo staves.
Malay is essentially, with few exceptions, a dissyllabic language, and the syllabic accent rests on the penultimate unless that syllable is open and short; e.g.
In every other respect the language is characterized by great simplicity and indefiniteness.
The history of the Malays amply accounts for the number and variety of foreign ingredients in their language.
The Malay language abounds in idiomatic expressions, which constitute the chief difficulty in its acquisition.
santap, to eat (of a raja) instead of makan; beradu, to sleep, instead of tidor; gring, unwell, instead of sakit; mangkat, to die, instead of mati, &c. The use is different as regards the term Jawi as applied to the Malay language.
This has its origin in the names Great Java and Lesser Java, by which the medieval Java and Sumatra were called, and it accordingly means the language spoken along the coasts of the two great islands.
- Hugh Clifford, In Court and Kampong (London, 1897); Studies in Brown Humanity (London, 1898); In a Corner of Asia (London, 1899); Bush-whacking (London 1901); Clifford and Swettenham, Dictionary of the Malay Language, parts i.
Taiping (Perak, 1894-1898); John Crawfurd, History of the Indian Archipelago (3 vols., Edinburgh, 1820); Grammar and Dictionary of the Malay Language (2 vols., London, 1852); A Descriptive Dictionary of the Indian Islands and Adjacent Countries (London, 1856); Journal of the Indian Archipelago (12 vols., Singapore, 1847-1862); Journal of the Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 33 Nos.
C. Klinkert, Nieuw Maleisch-Nederlandisch Woorden boek (Leiden, 1893); John Leyden, Malay Annals (London, 1821); William Marsden, The History of Sumatra (London, 181 I); Malay Dictionary (London, 1824); Sir William Maxwell, A Manual of the Malay Language (London, 1888); T.
According to another story, she fell to the lot of Odysseus, as a slave, and in despair threw herself into the Hellespont; or, she used such insulting language towards her captors that they put her to death (Dictys Cretensis v.
C. Watson's Theoretical Astronomy is the most complete in the English language.
D6rpfeld's identification of the Dionysium, Ev Xt pvats cannot be regarded as proved; his view that another Pythium and another Olympieum existed in this neighbourhood is still less probable; but the inconclusiveness of these theories does not necessarily invalidate his identification of the Enneacrunus, with regard to the position of which the language of Thucydides is far from clear.
The existence of any third wall was denied by Leake, according to whose theory the southern parallel wall would be identical with the Phaleric. The language of Thucydides, however, seems decisive with regard to the existence of three walls.
The letters of Acominatus, archbishop of Athens, towards the close of the 12th century, bewail the desolate condition of the city in language resembling that of Jeremiah in regard to Jerusalem.
The semi-civilized aborigines, who adopted the Chinese language, dress and customs, were called Pe-pa-hwan (Anglice Pepo-hoans), while their wilder brethren bear the name of Chin-hwan or" green savages," otherwise Sheng-fan or " wild savages."
They appear to belong to the Malay stock, and their language bears out the supposition.
They are broken up into almost countless tribes and clans, many of which number only a few hundred individuals, and their language consequently presents a variety of dialects, of which no classification has yet been effected: in the district of Posia alone a member of the Presbyterian mission distinguished eight different mutually unintelligible dialects.
In England the word "snail" in popular language is associated with Gasteropods which inhabit land or fresh water, and which possess large conspicuous spiral shells; terrestrial Gasteropods, in which the shell is rudimentary and concealed, are distinguished as "slugs."
Their language is Bicol.
Owing to the diversity of race, the diversity of language is equally great.
More than £8000 was expended upon the venture; and the work was performed for the first time in the French language and with the new Venusberg music on the 13th of March 1861.
In both, also, Tychicus carries the letter, and in almost identical language the readers are told that he will by word of mouth give fuller information about the apostle's affairs (Eph.
The influence of its language is probably to be seen in Ignatius, Polycarp and Hermas, less certainly in the epistle of Barnabas.
They were no doubt expelled or absorbed by the Hittites, but we have the proof of their existence and of the fallacy of the statement that the Semite never crossed the Taurus, in the cuneiform tablets written in their language which have been found near Kaisariyeh and are now being published by various scholars.
Whether the national hieroglyphic system of the Hittites expressed the same Indo-European language as, according to Hrozny, their cuneiform does, we do not know, as further attempts to elucidate it made by Campbell Thompson 11 and Cowley," while in themselves very interesting experiments, do not seem to take us further than previous attempts by Sayce and others.
"Alike both in race and language," says Walther Schultze, "the Chatti and the Hessi are identical."
This is occasioned by the y-sound with which u now begins, and is carried further in dialect than in the literary language, sue and suit, for example, being pronounced in Scotland like the Eng.
In language and manners the courts of Alexander's successors were Greek.
These (distinguished by the use of a special language and by the profession of Mohammedanism) are descendants of natives of the Banda islands who fled eastward before the encroachments of the Dutch.
The treaty with the Latins is mentioned by Dionysius of Halicarnassus alone, who had not seen it himself; indeed, it is doubtful whether it was then in existence, and in any case, considering the changes which the language had undergone, it would have been unintelligible.
The strife was often conducted on both sides with a zeal and bitterness of language which were characteristic of the period.
It has abandoned its peculiarities of dress and language, as well as its hostility to music and art, and it has cultivated a wider taste in literature.
Of late years the stringency of the Quaker discipline has been relaxed: the peculiarities of dress and language have been abandoned; marriage with a non-member or between two nonmembers is now possible at a Quaker meeting-house; and marriage elsewhere has ceased to involve exclusion from the body.
Hunter, Grammar of the Somal Language (Bombay, 1880); E.
de Larajasse and C. de Sampont, A Practical Grammar of the Somali Language (London, 1897); E.
Yet general sentiment seems to have given a stronger sanction to this sort of connexion; the names of husband and wife are freely used in relation to slaves on the stage, and even in the laws, and in the language of the tombs.
He made his appeal to the conscience in the clearest language, with the most cogent argument, and with all the weight of personal conviction.
In the year 1459 John Argyropoulos was lecturing on the Greek language and literature at Florence, and Marsilio became his pupil.
On the Arab conquest of Egypt in the 7th century, the manufacture was continued, and the protocols were marked at first, as it appears, with inscriptions in both Greek and Arabic, and later in the latter language alone.
The Norse language and customs survived in Foula till the end of the 18th century, and words and phrases of Norse origin still colour their speech.
It is all so dark there that the language of the prophet (Ps.
They are to be distinguished from Christian catacombs only by the character of their decorations, the absence of Christian symbols and the language of their inscriptions.
The conjunction of the Sephiroth, or, according to the language of the Kabbalah, the union of the crowned King and Queen, produced the universe in their own image.
Whatever punishment Sulla may have inflicted, Nola, though it lost much of its importance, remained a municipium with its own institutions and the use of the Oscan language.
They deal chiefly with the games of the circus and works of art, and the language shows the author to have been well acquainted with the legends and antiquities of the classical period of Rome.
The figurative nature of the language respecting the future makes it difficult to determine precisely the thought of the book on this point; but it seems to contemplate continued existence hereafter for both righteous and wicked, and rewards and punishments allotted on the basis of moral character.
English was made the official language.
In popular language the different portions of the island are distinguished as the Vuelta Abajo (" lower turn "), W.
Even in the 19th century reports were spread of communities in which Indian blood was supposedly still plainly dominant; but the conclusion of the competent scientists who have investigated such rumours has been that at least absolutely nothing of the language and traditions of the aborigines has survived.
Spanish is a comomon language of the Jews, whose ancestors fled hither, during the 16th century, to escape the Inquisition.
All alike belong to the Serbo-Croatian branch of the Slavonic race; and all speak a language almost identical with Servian, though written by the Roman Catholics in Latin instead of Cyrillic letters.
A full account of this language, and its literature, is given under Servia and Croatia-Slavonia.
Its central bureau, with departments of the interior, religion and education, finance and justice, was established at Serajevo; and its members were largely recruited among the Austrian Sla y s, who were better able than the Germans to comprehend the local customs and language.
Except where the litigants and witnesses are German, the Serbo-Croatian language is used.
Below him ranked the newly converted Moslem aristocracy, who adopted the dress, titles and etiquette of the Turkish court, without relinquishing their language or many of their old customs. They dwelt in fortified towns or castles, where the vali was only admitted on sufferance for a few days; and, at the outset, they formed a separate military caste, headed by 48 kapetans - landholders exercising unfettered authority over their retainers and Christian serfs, but bound, in return, to provide a company of mounted troops for the service of their sovereign.
In a tract entitled The Absolute Unlawfulness of Stage Entertainments (1726) Law was tempted by the corruptions of the stage of the period to use unreasonable language, and incurred some effective criticism from John Dennis in The Stage Defended.
Russia and England hereupon used threatening language, and Turkey replaced the hospodars.
Moreover, the Porte was thrown into a suspicious mood by the contrast between the friendly language of the western powers and the active sympathy of the western peoples for the Greeks, who were supported by volunteers and money drawn from all Europe.
Thus Persian became the language of their court and government, and when by-and-by they pushed their conquests into Asia Minor, and founded there the Seljuk Empire of Ram, they carried with them their Persian culture, and diffused it among the peoples newly brought under their sway.
They set the fashion of ghazel-writing; and their appearance was the signal for a more regular cultivation of poetry and a greater attention to literary style and to refinement of language.
His work is unhappily for the greater part in the Persian language; the excellence of what he has done in Turkish makes us regret that he did so little.
His language, which is very peculiar, seems to be a sort of mixture of the Ottoman and Azerbaijan dialects of Turkish, and was most probably that of the Persian Turks of those days.
The chief poets of the transition are Fazil Bey, Wasif, notable for his not altogether unhappy attempt to write verses in the spoken language of the capital, `Izzet Molla, Pertev Pasha, `Akif Pasha, and the poetesses Fitnet and Leyla.
More intimate relations with western Europe and a pretty general study of the French language and literature, together with the steady progress of the reforming tendency fairly started under Mahmud II., resulted in the birth of the new or modern school, whose objects are truth and simplicity.
(For the Turkish language see Turks.) (E.
He was one of those who made the Latin language into a great organ of literature.
The principal language is Pangasinan.
In discussing marriage he refuses to use any but the plainest language.
It holds two sessions every year, and the discussions are entirely in the Eskimo language.
They profess Christianity, and speak a language closely resembling that of the Sagai Tatars.
They speak a language with an admixture of Tatar words, and some of their stems contain a large Tatar element.
features, their Turkish language and their distinctive dress.
The king's language and the royal writing, and also religious words are, however, apparently of Aryan origin and akin to Pali.
Some centuries before the Christian era, immigrants from the east coast of India began to exert a powerful influence over Cambodia, into which they introduced Brahmanism and the Sanskrit language.
There are some living who still hear in every page of Stevenson the voice of the man himself, and see in every turn of his language his flashing smile.
So far, however, as it is possible to disengage one's self from this captivation, it may be said that the mingling of distinct and original vision with a singularly conscientious handling of the English language, in the sincere and wholesome self-consciousness of the strenuous artist, seems to be the central feature of Stevenson as a writer by profession.
He had mastered his manner and, as one may say, learned his trade, in the exercise of criticism and the reflective parts of literature, before he surrendered himself to that powerful creative impulse which had long been tempting him, so that when, in mature life, he essayed the portraiture of invented character he came to it unhampered by any imperfection of language.
Crowds of persons attended his addresses, on whom his energy, command of language, powerful voice and impassioned gestures made a profound impression.
Though a foreigner, he soon acquired a thorough knowledge of Rumanian, and was instrumental in helping to introduce that language into the church as its official language.
A man of great oratorical power, Anthim delivered a series of sermons (Didahii), and some of his pastoral letters are models of style and of language as well as of exact and beautiful printing.
His attainments included Latin, which he could both read and write; he knew something of the English laws and language, and it may have been from an interest in natural history that he collected, during his reign, the Woodstock menagerie which was the admiration of his subjects.
The Chiquito language was adopted as the means of communication among the converts, who soon numbered 50,000, representing nearly fifty tribes.
37 is textually uncertain) testify, in harmony with other considerations, that their language was Semitic, closely allied to Hebrew and to the language of the Moabites.
They, however, retained certain privileges, such as the use of their own language; and their treatment by their conquerors generally suggested that the latter believed themselves of Aymara blood.
In his Letter the saint in very strong language urges the Christian subjects of the British king not to have any dealings with their ruler and his bloodthirsty followers until full satisfaction should have been made.
His importance in the history of Ireland and the Irish Church consists in the fact that he brought Ireland into touch with western Europe and more particularly with Rome, and that he introduced Latin into Ireland as the language of the Church.
The place-names became entirely Germanic; the Latin language disappeared; and the Christian religion suffered a check, for the Franks were to a man pagans.
The Roman civilization and the Latin language disappeared from the countries which they occupied; indeed it seems that the actual boundaries of the German and French languages nearly coincide with those of their dominion.
A more intimate acquaintance with the language commonly used by many of the more extreme "Ritualists" would have shown him that there has been, and is, no lack of such intention.
The attempt of the king to enforce the official use of the Dutch language, and the foundation of the so-called philosophical college at Louvain helped to exacerbate the growing discontent.
The knights and nobles of Bohemia and Moravia, who were in favour of church reform, sent to the council at Constance (September 2nd, 1415) a protest, known as the "protestatio Bohemorum" which condemned the execution of Huss in the strongest language.
Yakutsk is thoroughly Yakutic; marriages of Russians with Yakut wives are common, and in the middle of the 19th century the Yakut language was predominant among the Russian merchants and officials.
They speak the Buriat language as often as Russian, and in a Buriat dress can hardly be distinguished from the Buriats.
There are accordingly parts of Siberia, especially among the Raskolniks or Nonconformists, where the north Russian, the Great Russian and the Ukrainian (or southern) types have maintained themselves in their full purity, and only some differences in domestic architecture, in the disposition of their villages and in the language and character of the population remind the traveller that he is in Siberia.
The special features of the language and partly also of the national character are due to the earliest settlers, who came mostly from northern Russia.
According to Radlov, the earliest inhabitants of Siberia were the Yeniseians, who spoke a language different from the Ural-Altaic; some few traces of them (Yeniseians, Sayan-Ostiaks, and Kottes) exist among the Sayan Mountains.
The theory brought forward has not yet found a place in any systematic treatise in any language, so that it has been judged proper to give a fairly complete account of it.'
a n - 2 - 3) (P2P4...pn_2)ï¿½ The expression just written is in fact a partition of a partition, and to avoid confusion of language will be termed a separation of a partition.
He also mastered the English language and studied English literature.
At Abuzabel, near Cairo, he founded a hospital and schools for all branches of medical instruction, as well as for the study of the French language; and, notwithstanding the most serious religious difficulties, instituted the study of anatomy by means of dissection.
These were drawn up in the language of the country, a Romance dialect (1288 being the date of the most ancient written code), and are remarkable for the manner in which they define the rights of the sovereign, determining the reciprocal obligations of the viscount and his subjects or vassals.
According to the language in common use, 95% of the population was German, 4.66% was Czech, and the remainder was composed of Poles, Slovaks, Ruthenians, Croatians and Italians.
A discussion of the interesting question relating to the non Semitic so-called Sumero-Akkadian language and race will be found in the article Sumer.
8) and other authors, the official and administrative language used the word Africa in a narrower sense, which is noticed below.
The term was certainly borrowed by the Romans from the language of the natives.
The Berber tribes, whose racial unity is attested by their common spoken language and by the comparatively numerous Berber inscriptions that have come down to us, bore in ancient times the generic names of Numidians, Gaetulians and Moors or Maurusiani.
During the Roman period the ancient Carthaginians of Phoenician origin and the bastard population termed by ancient authors Libyo-Phoenicians, like the modern Maltese, invariably formed the predominant population of the towns on the littoral, and retained the Punic language until the 6th century of the Christian era.
The second solution is that every sensation has its specific affective quality, though by reason of the poverty of language many of these have no name.
It is said that Robert Bruce held within its walls the last parliament in which the Gaelic language was used.
In any case the classification must be to some extent provisional, since scholars are still divided as to the original language, date and place of composition of some of the books which must come under our classification.'
As to the language of this original, scholars are divided.
The language was Western Aramaic, the mother tongue of Jesus and his apostles.
Other similar short treatises are: Die Griindung Roms (1868); Daduchos (1875), on the language of the myths and mythical buildings; Die Wanderungen der Inachostochter Io (1880); Prolegomena zur Mythologie als Wissenschaft and Lexikon der Mythensprache (1891).
The style of Joel is clear (which hardly favours an early date), and his language presents peculiarities which are evidences of a late origin.
25 the locusts are spoken of in the plain language of chap. i.
On the language of Joel, see Holzinger, Z.
His model is Thucydides (according to Bekker, Herodotus); his language is tolerably pure and correct, his style simple and clear.
He sometimes succeeded in toning down the hard, abrupt language of Napoleon's communications, and in every way proved a useful intermediary.
One special and necessary rule is in regard to the language to be employed.
2 it was agreed that the written and printed memoranda should be in English but might be accompanied by a translation into the language of the power on whose behalf they were put in.
3 French was the official language throughout, but the parties were allowed to make any communication to the tribunal, in French, English, German or Japanese.
4 French was again the official language, but the counsel and agents of both parties were allowed to address the tribunal in English.
The language of the reservation is open to more interpretations than one.
1 In Anglo-French documents the word counte was at all times used as the equivalent of earl, but, unlike the feminine form "countess," it did not find its way into the English language until the 16th century, and then only in the sense defined above.
KO,unros); the comes sacrarum largitionum (count of the sacred bounties) was called at Constantinople b K6pns TWV aaKpt v XapyLTUJP Wv and the comes rerum privatarum 1 The exact significance of a title is difficult to reproduce in a foreign language.
He enjoyed a triple wergeld, but had no definite salary, being remunerated by the receipt of certain revenues, a system which contained the germs of discord, on account of the confusion of his public and private 1 The changing language of this epoch speaks of civitates, subsequently of pagi, and later of comitatus (counties).
The singular adaptability of the Portuguese language to poetical expression, coupled with the imaginative temperament of the people, has led to an unusual production and appreciation of poetry.
Thence he proposed going to Benares, to study the language, antiquities, and sacred laws of the Hindus; but the capture of Pondicherry obliged him to quit India.
32) allow a layman to preach, if he be skilful and reverent, and the language of St Ignatius (Ad Smyrn.
The serio-comic epic of Peder Paars, the earliest of the great classics of the Danish language, appeared in 1719.
When he arrived in the country, the Danish language was never heard in a gentleman's house.
He wrote poems of all kinds in a language hitherto employed only for ballads and hymns; he instituted a theatre, and composed a rich collection of comedies for it; he filled the shelves of the citizens with works in their own tongue on history, law, politics, science, philology and philosophy, all written in a true and manly style, and representing the extreme attainment of European culture at the moment.
The institutions adopted were to be as far as possible in accordance with the wishes of the people, but it was a fundamental condition " that there should not be in the eye of the law any distinction or disqualification whatever, founded on mere difference of colour, origin, language or creed."
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.