Landowners sentence example
The water is there in abundance, the land is well adapted for irrigation, but as there is a considerable rainfall, it is doubtful whether the scheme would prove remunerative, and a large section of the landowners have hitherto opposed it, as likely to waterlog the country.
Those rendered by landowners seem to have been known as feorm or fostor, and consisted of a fixed quantity of articles paid in kind.
The services required of landowners were very manifold in character.
We need scarcely doubt also that the labour of repairing fortifications and bridges, though it is charged against the landowners, was in reality delegated by them to their dependents.
Moreover, after the knight's liability to personal service in war had been modified in the 12th century by the scutage system, it became necessary in the first quarter of the r3th to compel landowners to take up the knighthood which in theory they should have coveted as an honour - a compulsion which was soon systematically enforced (Distraint of Knighthood, 1278), and became a recognized source of royal income.Advertisement
The parliament was to consist of two houses; the first comprising the great hereditary landowners, government officials and nominees of the crown; the second, elected on a very narrow franchise, representatives of the small land-owners, the towns and the peasants.
Besides the tithes dealt with by local acts as already mentioned, certain other kinds of tithes are outside the scope of the Commutation Acts, namely, tithes of fish and fishing, personal tithes other than tithes of mills, and mineral tithes, unless the landowners and tithe-owners consent to make a parochial agreement for commutation before the confirmation of an apportionment after a compulsory award in such parish.
In each parish is a council composed of all landowners who irrigate.
His reliance upon the knights, or middle-class landowners, who now for the first time appear in the political foreground, is all the more interesting because it is this class who, either as members of parliament or justices of the peace, were to have the effective rule of England in their hands for so many centuries.
Thus, in Prussia, the representative assembly of the Circle (Kreistag) is composed of delegates of the rural communes, as well as of the large landowners and the towns, while the members of the provincial diet (Provinziallandtag) are chosen by the Kreistage and by such towns as form separate Kreise.Advertisement
Whereas in Prussia, however, the Regierung is purely official, with no representative element, the Regierungsbezirk in Bavaria has a representative body, the Landrat, consisting of delegates of the district assemblies, the towns, large landowners, clergy andin certain casesthe universities; the president is assisted by a committee (Landratsausschuss) of six members elected by the Landrat.
These dukes acquired large tracts of land of which they gave grants on conditions of military service to persons on whom they could rely; while many independent landowners sought their protection on terms of vassalage.
This brought about a curious situation, the measures being only carried by the support of the Centre, the Radicals, and the Socialists, against the violent opposition of those classes, especially the landowners in.
In order to prevent the commercial treaty with Russia, a great agricultural league was founded in 1893, the Bund der Laudwirte; some 7000 landowners joined it immediately.
Yet even if all the wealthy landowners resided on their estates, their number would not be sufficient to enable them to play in local public life a part corresponding to that of the English gentry.Advertisement
The policy of the government is to maintain the small proprietors, and to do nothing tending to oust the native in favor of European landowners.
The development of the poll-tax imposed on members of tolerated cults seems to be due to various causes, chief of them the acquisition of land by Moslems, who were not at first allowed to possess any, the conversion of Coptic landowners to Islam, and the enforcement (towards the end of the 1st century of Islam) of the poll-tax on monks.
The introduction of English officials and English influence into all the administrative departments was resented by the native officials, and the action of the irrigation officers in preventing the customary abuses of the distribution of water was resented by the great landowners, who had been, from time immemorial, in the habit of taking as much as they wanted, to the detriment of the fellahin.
His charters to landowners and burghs (charters not being novel in Scotland, but now more lavishly conferred) substituted written documents for the unwritten customs of Celtic tenure, and converted the under kings of provinces into earls of the king, while vice-comites, or sheriffs, administered local justice in the king's name, though Celtic custom still prevailed, under a thin veneer of law, in the Celtic regions, as in Galloway.
In the first volume, Le Regime seigneurial (1886), he depicts the triumph of individualism and anarchy, showing how, after Charlemagne's great but sterile efforts to restore the Roman principle of sovereignty, the great landowners gradually monopolized the various functions in the state; how society modelled on.Advertisement
It was only after long inquiry amongst local cultivators and landowners that, about 2 m.
The cultivators, including landowners, tenants, hired labourers and slaves, represent the working population of the country, and as industrious and successful agriculturists they are unsurpassed in Asia.
One of the largest and wealthiest landowners in Sicily, he managed his estates on liberal lines, and was never troubled by agrarian disturbances.
These ceorls, sitting on gafol-land, were, though personally free, considered as a lower order of men, and lapsed gradually into more or less oppressive subjection in respect of the great landowners.
No proprietary rights superior to those of the actual landowners are recognized.Advertisement
Indeed, even prior to the definite establishment of the caste-system, the mingling of the lower race with the upper classes, especially with the aristocratic landowners and still more so with the yeomanry, had probably been going on to such an extent as to have resulted in two fairly well-defined intermediate types of colour between the priestly order and the servile race and to have facilitated the ultimate division into four" colours "(varna).
The gentry and landowners are all, broadly speaking, members of the established Church, but it is impossible to name any other class of society as belonging definitely either to " Church " or " Chapel."
Nor are the Welsh landowners and gentry devoid of this new spirit of nationalism, and although some generations ago they ceased as a body to speak the native tongue, they have shown a strong disposition to study once more the ancient language and literature of their country.
From that time for nearly six hundred years or more the Esthonians were practically reduced to a state of serfdom to the German landowners.
This peculiar system of military tenure (indelningsverket) originated in the 17th century, when certain landowners were exempt from other military obligations if they provided and maintained armed men.
Agriculture was the one resource of the colony, and wheat was grown for export to Peru, but the land was concentrated in the hands of a few big landowners, and the cultivation of the vine and olive was forbidden.
The oligarchy composed of the great landowners have always been an important factor in the political life of the republic; when President Balmaceda found that he was not a persona grata to this circle he determined to endeavour to govern without their support, and to bring into the administration a set of men who had no traditions and with whom his personality would be all-powerful.
Until then the gipsies had been treated as slaves and owned by the Church or by private landowners; they had been bought and sold in the open market.
Every Persian able to bear arms is bound to serve the king the great landowners on horseback, the commonalty on foot.
The Fula portion of this province, held like the other Hausa states under a feudal system of large landowners or fief-holders, has been organized and assessed for taxation on the system accepted by the emirs throughout the protectorate, and the populations are working harmoniously under British rule.
The emperors actually tried in their legislation to prevent the landowners from evicting their coloni and from raising their rents.
The regulations in question, although entered in a legal text, are not a legislative enactment but the result of a slow process of adjustment of claims between the ecclesiastical landowners and masters on one side and their rural dependents on the other.
A certain balance had to be struck in most cases between the greed and selfishness of the class of landowners and the necessary requirements and human aspirations of the subjects.
A third aspect of the question must also not be desregarded, namely, the keen competition between landowners trying to attract settlers to their estates at the expense of their needy or less powerful neighbours.
The ultimate result was, however, not only the fixity of peasant tenures, but the subjection of the entire peasant population as a separate class (Krepostrie) to the personal sway of the landowners.
To the last the landowners were not disturbed in their economic predominance, and succeeded very well in working their estates by the help of agricultural labourers and farmers.
He looked askance at all projects for the emancipation of the serfs, but, as one of the largest landowners of Denmark, he did much service to agriculture by lightening the burdens of the countrymen and introducing technical and scientific improvements which greatly increased production.
In many places they have the monopoly of the wine and spirit shops, and retail trade generally; and as they are always willing to advance money on usury, and are more intelligent and better educated than the ordinary peasant, there is little doubt that in a country where the large landowners are proverbially extravagant, and the peasant proprietors needy, the soil would soon fall into the hands of the Jews were it not for the stringent laws which prevent them from owning land outside the towns.
Among other less judicious measures, a decree was passed ostensibly directed against all vagabond foreigners, but really aimed at the Jews, large numbers of whom, including many respected landowners and men of business, were imprisoned, or expelled, from Jassy, Bacau and other parts of Moldavia.
Cosbuc, who has risen more recently to fame, is the poet of the unfortunate Rumanian peasant, emancipated only in name and on paper, and a prey to greedy landowners and to a medieval administration.
Apart from the wealthier landowners, who speak French fluently, and send their children to be educated in France, they use the Catalan dialect of Spanish.
The Public Money Drainage Acts 1846-1856 authorized the advance of public money to landowners to enable them to make improvements in their lands, not only by draining, but by irrigation, the making of permanent roads, clearing, erecting buildings, planting for shelter, &c. The rapid absorption of the funds provided by these acts led to further legislative measures by which private capital was rendered available for the improvement of land.
The repressive efforts of the government, however, culminated in the bill, introduced in the session of 1907 by Prince Billow, providing for the compulsory expropriation of Polish landowners in favour of Germans.
The landowners had either to build a house within it for their own inhabiting, or to provide that a competent substitute dwelt there to represent them.
At first the English landowners who had not actually served in Harolds host were permitted to buy back their lands, by paying a heavy fine to the new king and doing him homage.
The landowners found thousands of the crofts on which their villeins had been wont to dwell vacant, and could not fill them with new tenants.
And landowners were empowered to seize all vagrant able-bodied men, and to compel them to work at the statutory wages.
Gradually the landowners discovered that the only practical way out of their difficulties was to give up the old custom of working the manorial demesne by the forced labor of their villeins, and to cut it up into farms which were rented out to free tenants, and cultivated by them.
In the districts which took arms two main causes of insurrection may be differentiated; the first and the most widespread was the discontent of the rural population with the landowners and the Statute of Laborers.
It consisted of a small committee of ministers, privy councillors and judges, which sat to deal with offences that seemed to lie outside the scope of the common law, or more frequently with the misdoings of men who were so powerful that the local courts could not be trusted to, execute justice upon them, such as great landowners, sheriffs and other royal officials, or turbulent individuals who were the terror of their native districts.
The predominant landowners preferred the grant of an excise, which would be taken out of all pockets, to a land-tax which would exclusively be felt by those who were relieved by the abolition of the tenures.
The landowners, who formed the majority of the House, were not elected directly, as was the case with the nobility of the French states-general, by their own class, but by electors who, though generally loyal to them, would have broken off from them if they had attempted to make themselves masters of their fellow citizens.
In appearance the great Whig landowners gave their support to Pitt, and in 1794 some of their leaders, the duke of Portland, Lord Fitzwilliam, and Windham, entered the cabinet to serve under him.
Both Houses of Parliament were in the main assemblies of aristocrats and landowners; but agriculture was ceasing to be the characteristic industry of the country and the Parliaold semi-feudal relations of life were in process of meat and rapid dissolution.
But the Berlin Treaty (1878) stipulated that Servia should construct part of the international railway to Constantinople and to Salonica, and should pay the Turkish landowners an indemnity for the estates which had been taken from them and divided among their Servian tenants.
The Connaught g g y g tr and Munster landowners were shamelessly forced to Strafford.
The Government of Ireland Bill gave no protection to landowners, but as the crisis was mainly agrarian, it would have been hardly decent to make no show of considering them.
In May 1903 there were outbreaks of rioting in Agram, Sissek and other towns, besides serious agrarian disturbances directed against the Magyarist landowners; in a debate in the Reichsrath (18th May) an Austrian deputy named Bianchini unsuccessfully attempted to induce the imperial government to intervene.
The bishops, the real inheritors of the imperial idea of government, had become great landowners through enormous donatkins made to the Church, and allied as they were to the aristocracy, whence their ranks were continually recruited, they had gradually identified themselves with the interests of their class and had adopted its customs; while thanhi to long minorities and civil wars the aristocracy of the high officials had taken an equally important social position.
They thought that by granting immunity they would strengthen their direct control; in reality they established the local independence of the great landowners, by allowing royal rights to pass into their hands.
In order to farm these, the Church and the rich landowners granted back the holdings on the temporary and conditional terms of tenancy-at-will or of the beneficium, thus multiplying endlessly the land subject to their overlordship and the men who were dependent upon them as tenants.
These various benefactions were, as a rule, merely the indirect methods which the great landowners employed in order to absorb the small proprietor.
This would be preeminently the case with the smaller landowners who formed the curiales, and who were in reality serfs of the fisc, for on them fell the main weight of taxation, and they were confined to their position by oppressive laws.
The great landowners who formed the ordo senatorius had almost as much to fear from the agrarian insurgents known as bagaudac, who are indeed found acting with the Suebi, as from the barbarians.
The great landowners, to whom patriotism was unknown and whose religious faith was tepid, were as ready to pay tribute to the caliph as to render service to one of their own body who had become king by violence or intrigue.
Everywhere landowners made the bargain, and the monasteries and the cities followed their example.
The nobles of Castile and Leon were not feudal vassals, but great landowners claiming and exercising rights oi jurisdiction on their estates.
It was in no sense a movement for political rights, but an attack by Rising of the the sailors, the workmen of the towns, and the Uermania in Christian peasants on the landowners and their Valencia.
Similar letters were sent to the Wendish or Baltic cities, and to the bishops and landowners of Livonia and Esthonia.
It is also employed generally as a term of respect in addressing wealthy men of leisure, landowners, &c.
The oldest governing authority was the meeting of the heritors or landowners of the parish.
The diet (Landtag) is composed of thirty-six members, of whom two are appointed by the duke, eight are representatives of landowners paying the highest taxes, two of the highest assessed members of the commercial and manufacturing classes, fourteen of the other electors of the towns and ten of the rural districts.
He encouraged adjacent landowners to install some signs.
You need to liaise with various landowners in order to obtain access to suitable ground.
Landowners will often offer moorings for a small charge, and in addition to these overnight berths are available at most marinas.
None of them survived as landowners after the arrival of Spanish colonialism.
I recognize that there are many landowners, farmers and crofters who remain genuinely concerned about public access.
By the 18th century, wealthy landowners were responsible for the building of several large country houses in the lower dale.
If you can obtain the necessary easements from the relevant landowners, you can lay this sewer.
Commercial salmon fishers dominated inland waters until Nineteenth century landowners realized they could make more money from anglers.
Specific action has also been undertaken by English Nature to survey and promote the importance of purple ramping fumitory among arable farmers and landowners.
Peasants refused to wait for government decrees that compensated the rich landowners - they seized the land for themselves.
A significant part of his work includes the refinancing and restructuring of agricultural businesses, advising landowners as well as banks and lenders.
Muirburn warning after weekend of fires Police are urging landowners to take care when burning heather on their land.
These factors strengthened the princes, who no longer faced a challenge to their position as great feudal landowners.
The principal landowners are Lord Lonsdale, lord of the manor; Richard Grice, Esq.
Liaison with Mendip DC Rights of Way officer, and permission sought from adjacent landowners to install some signs.
Iraq effectively demilitarized and Arabs of Iraq became traders, shopkeepers, scholars and absentee landowners.
Until 1916 the country was ruled by an oligarchy of landowners who operated a parliament on a restricted suffrage.
The wayleave agreements that NIE have with landowners however do not prohibit the planting of trees in proximity to OELs.
Instead of creating left-right polity, the laboring classes became small landowners, which resulted in the creation of a large rural conservative society.
After 3 generations the property reverted to the landowners.
Landowners switched tenants and retooled live-in servants as short-term hires.
Many were only forced into indentured servitude, laboring in apple orchards for large landowners.
The earliest hereditary surnames began mostly with landowners taking their name from their property.
The impropriated tithes, which belonged to the earl of Lonsdale, have nearly all been redeemed by the different landowners.
The serfs were liberated entirely from the arbitrary rule of the landowners and became proprietors of the communal land; the old tribunals which could be justly described as " dens of iniquity and incompetence," were replaced by civil and criminal lawcourts of the French type, in which justice was dispensed by trained jurists according to codified legislation, and from which the traditional bribery and corruption were rigidly excluded; and the administration of local affairs - roads, schools, hospitals, &c. - was entrusted to provincial and district councils freely elected by all classes of the population.
During the famine of 1770-1771 he enforced on landowners "the obligation of relieving the poor" and especially the metayers dependent upon them, and organized in every province ateliers and bureaux de charite for providing work for the able-bodied and relief for the infirm, while at the same time he condemned indiscriminate charity.
His mother was a native of Caen; his father, who came of a family of small Norman landowners, had been a citizen of Rouen, but migrated to London before the birth of Thomas, and held at one time the dignified office of portreeve, although he ended his life in straitened circumstances.
On the occasion of the Galician outbreak of 1845, when the Ruthenian peasantry massacred some hundreds of Polish landowners, an outbreak generally attributed to the machinations of the Austrian government, Wielopolski wrote his famous Lettre d'un gentilhomme polonais au prince de Metternich (Brussels, 1846), which caused a great sensation at the time, and in which he attempted to prove that the Austrian court was acting in collusion with the Russian in the affair.
The Corn Laws had great political strength, serving as they did the interests of the landowners, whose hold on parliament was still very strong; but the general economic situation in Great Britain, from the rapid growth of the manufacturing population and the imperative need of more food, made the abolition inevitable.
Persuading the king to forgo £120,000 of his civil list, and his colleagues in the cabinet to relinquish part of their ministerial stipends, he effected savings amounting to £2,400,000, proposed new taxation to the extent of £1,600,000, and induced landowners to pay one year's instalment of the land tax in advance.
First they camped gaily before Vilna, making acquaintance with the Polish landowners, preparing for reviews and being reviewed by the Emperor and other high commanders.
There were also small scratch groups of foot and horse, and groups of peasants and landowners that remained unknown.
He was as careful of the sowing and reaping of the peasants' hay and corn as of his own, and few landowners had their crops sown and harvested so early and so well, or got so good a return, as did Nicholas.
These landowners are the beneficiaries of massive subsidies through the Common Agricultural Policy of the EU.
Landowners are eligible for compensation, but there is no relief for thousands of poor landless laborers who tilled the earth.
As landowners were required to covert to the Catholicism, the Catholic Church also recorded the nuptials.
In return for the help of the landowners they are given financial compensation when the endangered animals kill livestock as prey.
They use monetary donations to help with the purchase of land and also for compensating landowners in return for not killing endangered animals that have killed their livestock.
As time passed, many of the landowners built a second house in town, called a "Sunday House".
Alas for his father's intentions, the Heralds are notably more tolerant of diversity than the petty landowners.
Cattle-raising, however, has received some attention and is the principal industry of the landowners.
The principal landowners, who reside in fortified houses, are all Moslems; their estates are cultivated on the metayer system.
Interest was rarely charged on advances by the temple or wealthy landowners for pressing needs, but this may have been part of the metayer system.
On an average Italian landowners pay nearly 25% of their revenues from land in government and local land tax.
The proportion of landowners is a very large one, and the prosperous condition of the Groningen farmer is attested by the style of his home, his dress and his gig.
In the college itself the voting - secret and by ballot throughout - is by majority; and since this majority consists, under the actual system, of very conservative elements (the landowners and urban delegates having 8ths of the votes), the progressive elements - however much they might preponderate in the country - would have no chance of representation at all save for the curious provision that one member at least in each government must be chosen from each of the five classes represented in the college.
The ukaz allowed peasants with the requisite qualifications to vote as landowners.
The justices of the peace, who must be landowners' or (in towns) persons of moderate property, are elected by the municipal dumas in the towns, and by the zemstvos Justices in the country districts, for a term of three years.
The three-field system of cropping a patch of land until its fertility is exhausted, and then allowing it to revert to the primeval condition, is still pursued, and both landowners and peasantry suffer from want of capital and lack of agricultural training.
The landowners are often poor, and suffer from want of capital and lack of enterprise.
The company therefore promotes a bill, which is considered first by select committees of the two houses of parliament, and afterwards by the two houses themselves, during which period it faces the opposition, if any, of rival concerns, of local authorities and of hostile landowners.
It v e mires very little moisture, grows luxuriantly on the thin calcareous soil of Yucatan and is cultivated almost exclusively by the large landowners.
In early Attica, and even down to the time of Pericles, the landowners lived in the country.
The Hussite movement was also a democratic one, an uprising of the peasantry against the landowners at a period when a third of the soil belonged to the clergy.
It was not an equal tax falling on all landowners, but the question as to whether a certain estate was to be taxed or not was decided according to the quality of the property, and not that of the owner.
Owing to the improvidence of the Hungarian landowners and the poverty of the peasants the soil of the country is also gradually passing into their hands.3 The Gipsies, according to the special census of 1893, numbered 2 74,94 0.
In royal Hungary the same object was aimed at by innumerable indictments against the richer landowners, indictments supported by false title-deeds and carried through by forged or purchased judgments of the courts.
Moreover, a neo-acquisita commissio was constituted to inquire into the title-deeds of the Magyar landowners in the old Turkish provinces, and hundreds of estates were transferred, on the flimsiest of pretexts, to naturalized foreigners.
The Radicals of Serbia being conservative in all but name, made a working alliance with the clericals of Zagreb and Ljubljana, and under the leadership of Protic favoured decentralization, combined with concessions to the expropriated landowners.
The old citizens thus gradually grew into an exclusive or aristocratic body, called yauopoc or landowners.
The Tsar's Government under the electoral statute of 1905 granted the four-class franchise (landowners, peasants, townsmen and workmen) in such wise as to favour the rural population.
As the imperial ukase which followed the dissolution of the second Duma in 1907 conferred more power upon the great landowners, it was modified as regards Lithuania by a nationality clause which provided that the total of electors of each class should be in proportion to the amount of land possessed by the respective nationalities in the district.
Step by step, and in spite of the efforts of the emperors at Constantinople, the great imperial officials became landowners, the owners of land - kinsmen or at least associates of these officials - intruded on the imperial administration, while the necessity for providing for the defence of the imperial territories against the Lombards led to the formation of local militias, who at first were attached to the imperial regiments, but gradually became independent.
Diehl is of opinion that the exercitus was formed of the ancient "possessores," or landowners and free townsmen, who were of a less rank than the ordo senatorius.
The great landowners who were developing into feudal lords, and the smaller freemen who were becoming independent burghers, broke the imperial.
The king was secured a minimum civil list of £1500 a year out of the native revenues; pensions were accorded to other members of the Buganda royal family; the salaries of ministers and governing chiefs were guaranteed; compensation in money was paid for removing the king's control over waste lands; definite estates were allotted to the king, royal family, nobility and native landowners; the native parliament or " Lukiko " was reorganized and its powers were defined; and many other points in dispute were settled.
The first settlement in the locality was made about 1730, and twenty years later a town was laid out by one of the landowners, George Steitz, and named Steitztown in his honour.
Even a certain number of the monastic establishments came in this way into the possession of the feudal landowners, who nominated abbots and abbesses as they appointed the incumbents of their churches.
The Church at first refrained from contesting the rights of the landowners over their own churches, and concentrated her attack upon investiture.
Evelyn put in a plea for afforestation, and besides producing a valuable work on arboriculture, he was able to assert in his preface to the king that he had really induced landowners to plant many millions of trees.
On the 30th of May 1847, immediately after his return from the House of Commons, where he had given evidence as to the refusal of sites for Free Churches by Scottish landowners, he was found dead in bed.
Notwithstanding the frequency of long, destructive droughts, cattle-raising is a preferred industry among the landowners of the northern states, and especially near the American frontier.
Another inundation, in 1604, suggested the transfer of the city to Tacubaya, but the landowners opposing and the city being again inundated in 1607, the Nochistongo tunnel was begun under the auspices of a Jesuit, Enrico Martinez, and roughly completed in eleven months.
The removal of the city was again mooted and; though sanctioned by the king of Spain, successfully opposed by the landowners.
As representative of the landowners of Berar and Bengal he took an important part in the discussion on the Bengal Tenancy Bill.
On his arrival in Norway Haakon gained the support of the landowners by promising to give up the rights of taxation claimed by his father over inherited real property.
Landowners refused sites, and in the Isle of Wight the people worshipped for many months in a quarry.
The inhabitants were plainly as various - a few of them great nobles and wealthy landowners, others small farmers or possibly bailiffs.
The diet, elected for six years, consists of 24 members, of whom 4 are elected by the largest landowners, 4 by those who pay tax on incomes of £150 or more, and 16 by the other electors.
The Roman Catholic landowners lost their estates, all or part according to their degree of guilt, and these were distributed among Cromwell's soldiers and the creditors of the government; Cromwell also invited new settlers from home and from New England, two-thirds of the whole land of Ireland being thus transferred to new proprietors.
Landowners frequently cultivated their land themselves but might employ a husbandman or let it.
Loans on mortgage may also be granted to landowners and agricultural unions, with a view to the introduction of agricultural improvements.
Meanwhile large numbers of landowners were forced to adopt one of two alternatives.
Contemporary with Tull was Charles, a nd Viscount Townshend, a typical representative of the large landowners to whom the strides made by agriculture in the 18th century were due.