Landgrave sentence example
He supported Frederick in his struggle with the anti-kings, Henry Raspe, landgrave of Thuringia, and William II., count of Holland, and was put under the papal ban by Pope Innocent IV., Bavaria being laid under an interdict.
In 1389 it was purchased by the landgrave of Thuringia, and with this district it formed part of Saxony.
Attempts were made to seize Tyndale at Worms, but he found refuge at Marburg with Philip, landgrave of Hesse.
It was recovered by the landgrave of Thuringia in 1388, but soon reverted to Hesse, and it became the residence of one of the branches of the Hessian royal house, a branch which died out in 1655.
His grandmother then wished him to enter the army of the landgrave of Hesse, but he declined to serve "a tyrant," and a year later slipped away from Geneva and embarked for the United States.Advertisement
About 1120 another Giso, count of Gudensberg, secured possession of the lands of the Werners; on his death in 1137 his daughter and heiress, Hedwig, married Louis, landgrave of Thuringia; and from this date until 1247, when the Thuringian ruling family became extinct, Hesse formed part of Thuringia.
In the following year Sophia handed over Hesse to her son Henry (1244-1308), who, remembering the connexion of Hesse and Thuringia, took the title of landgrave, and is the ancestor of all the subsequent rulers of the country.
Dietrich married Jutta, daughter of Hermann I., landgrave of Thuringia, and was succeeded in 1221 by his infant son Henry, surnamed the Illustrious; who on arriving at maturity obtained as reward for supporting the emperor Frederick II.
In Germany, at his instigation, the archbishops with a few of the secular nobles in 1246 elected Henry Raspe, landgrave of Thuringia, German king; but the "priests' king," as he was contemptuously called, died in the following year, William II., count of Holland, being after some delay elected by the papal party in his stead.
He was on his way back to Switzerland when tile landgrave of Hesse Cassel named him professor of history.Advertisement
But it was obvious that a permanent coalition could not be expected unless some definite understanding on the debated point could be attained; and on the very same day the landgrave despatched to Zwingli an invitation to a colloquy, and received his prompt acquiescence.
The landgrave, however, was so far successful that the beginning of October (1529) saw the colloquy opened in the castle at Marburg.
In the beginning of the 13th century the village received municipal rights; in 1232 it was captured and burned by the landgrave Conrad of Thuringia and his allies; in 1631 it was taken by William of Hesse; in 1760 it was successfully defended by General Luckner against the French; and in 1761 it was occupied by the French and unsuccessfully bombarded by the Allies.
He assisted the first efforts of the Reformation at Magdeburg (1524), at Goslar (I 531) and at Einbeck (1534); took an active part in the debates at Schmalkalden (1537), where he defended the use of the sacrament by the unbelieving; and (1539) spoke out strongly against the bigamy of the landgrave of Hesse.
In 1438 the landgrave of Hesse obtained rights of suzerainty over Waldeck, and the claims arising from this action were not finally disposed of until 1847, when it was decided that the rights of Hesse over Waldeck had ceased with the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire.Advertisement
Among these the chief were the new elector of Saxony, John (who, unlike his brother, Frederick the Wise, had openly espoused the new doctrines), and the energetic Philip, landgrave of Hesse.
After a short apostasy, during which he supported Henry Raspe, landgrave of Thuringia, Conrad returned to the side of the Hohenstaufen and aided Conrad IV.
The landgrave of Hesse brought the two Reformers together in vain at Marburg in October 1529, and the whole Protestant movement broke into two camps, with the result that the attempt made at Schmalkalden in 1530 to form a comprehensive league of defence against all foes of the Reformation was frustrated.
In it stands a marble statue of the landgrave Frederick II.
Among other public places and buildings worthy of notice are the Roman Catholic church, with a splendid interior; the Kiinigs-platz, with a remarkable echo; the Karls-platz, with the statue of the landgrave Charles; and the Martins-platz, with a large church - St Martin's - with twin towers, containing the burial-vaults of the Hessian princes.Advertisement
The park was first formed by the landgrave Frederick II., the husband of Mary, daughter of George II.
The fortifications of the town were restored by the landgrave Philip the Magnanimous and his son William IV.
In 1762 Cassel was captured by the Germans from the French; after this the fortifications were dismantled and New Cassel was laid out by the landgrave Frederick II.
He died in 1525 while the Peasants' War was desolating his land, and was succeeded by his brother John, who was an enthusiastic supporter of the reformed faith and who shared with Philip, landgrave of Hesse, the leadership of the league of Schmalkalden.
He got an answer couched in somewhat ironical terms to the effect that Protestantism owed its existence in a measure to the house of Saxony, from which the prince descended, seeing that this house and that of the landgrave of Hesse had stood quite alone against Europe in upholding Luther and his cause.Advertisement
His son Louis was appointed landgrave of Thuringia in 1130 by the emperor Lothair II.; by his marriage with Hedwig of Gudensberg in 1137 he obtained a large part of Hesse.
The next landgrave (1217-1227) was his son Louis IV.
Henry, however, found himself obliged to defend his title against Sophia, wife of Henry II., duke of Brabant, who was a daughter of the landgrave Louis IV., and it was not till 1263 that an arrangement was made by which Thuringia and the Saxon palatinate fell to Henry.
Balthasar's son, Frederick the Peaceful, became landgrave in 1406 but left the government largely to his father-in-law Gunther, count of Schwarzburg.
In 1806, during the long reign of the landgrave Frederick V., which extended from 1751 to 1820, Hesse-Homburg was mediatized, and incorporated with Hesse-Darmstadt; but in 1815 by the congress of Vienna the latter state was compelled to recognize the independence of Hesse-Homburg, which was increased by the addition of Meisenheim.
In January 1541 he married Agnes, daughter of Philip, landgrave of Hesse.
He also edited Coeli et siderum in eo errantium observationes Hassiacae (1618), containing the astronomical observations of Landgrave William IV.
Although defeated near Frankfort in August 1246 by the anti-king, Henry Raspe, landgrave of Thuringia, he obtained help from the towns and from his father-in-law Otto II., duke of Bavaria, and drove Henry Raspe to Thuringia.
With Maurice, elector of Saxony, he persuaded Philip, landgrave of Hesse, to surrender to Charles after the imperial victory at Muhlberg in April 1547, and pledged his word that the landgrave would be pardoned.
It was captured by the landgrave of Meissen in 1476, and belonged thenceforth to Saxony, until it was ceded to Prussia in 1815.
Frederick I., the next landgrave (1730-1751), had become by marriage king of Sweden, and on his death was succeeded in the landgraviate by his brother William VIII.
The Order of the Golden Lion was founded in 1770 by the landgrave Frederick II.
In 1821 a small mediate principality was formed out of the old lordship of Ratibor and certain ecclesiastical domains, and was conferred upon Victor Amadeus, landgrave of Hesse-Rotenburg, as compensation for some Hessian territory absorbed by Prussia.
In 1457 he arranged a marriage between his eldest son John, and Margaret, daughter of William III., landgrave of Thuringia, who inherited the claims upon Hungary and Bohemia of her mother, a granddaughter of the emperor Sigismund.
Little is known of his early years, but in 1180 he joined a coalition against Henry the Lion, duke of Saxony, and with his brother, the landgrave Louis III., suffered a short imprisonment after his defeat at Weissensee by Henry.
In consequence of this step the Saxons attacked Thuringia, but the landgrave was saved by Frederick's arrival in Germany in 1212.
By her he had four sons, two of whom, Louis and Henry Raspe, succeeded their father in turn as landgrave.
Having declared Frederick deposed at the council of Lyons in 1245, Gregorys successor, Innocent IV., induced a number of princes to choose as their king the landgrave of Thuringia, Henry Raspe, who had served as regent of Germany.
Meissen, which he claimed as a vacant fief of the Empire, and Thuringia, which he bought from the landgrave Albert II., seemed to offer a favorable field for this undertaking, and he spent a large part of his short reign in a futile attempt to carry out his plan.
About this time the military forces of the league were organized, their heads being the elector of Saxony and the landgrave of Hesse.
Edward granted him a subsidy, but owing to a variety of reasons Adolph did not take the field against France, but turned his arms against Thuringia, which he had purchased from the landgrave Albert II.
The document sanctioning the bigamy of the landgrave was signed by Martin Bucer, Luther and Melanchthon, and is a humiliating paper.
In 1526 John, elector of Saxony, Philip, landgrave of Hesse, and other Protestant princes formed a league against the Roman Catholics, and the Torgau articles, drawn up here by Luther and his friends in 1530, were the basis of the confession of Augsburg.
In 1627 he became councillor to the emperor and to the archbishop-elector of Treves, and in 1633 passed to the service of the landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt.
In other cases the title of landgrave is borne by German sovereigns as a subsidiary title; e.g.
Having assisted to suppress the rising led by Thomas Munzer in 1525, he helped Philip, landgrave of Hesse, to found the league of Gotha, formed in 1526 for the protection of the Reformers.
Gustavus Adolphus gave the abbey as a principality to William, landgrave of Hesse, but William's rule only lasted for ten years.
To the right of the entrance to the palace gardens is the tomb of the "great landgravine," Caroline Henrietta, wife of the landgrave Louis IX., surmounted by a marble urn, the gift of Frederick the Great of Prussia, bearing the inscription femina sexu, ingenio vir.
The Concord of Wittenberg, made in 1536, was favourable for these schemes, but after five years spent in assiduous preparation war was prevented by the serious illness of the landgrave and the lukewarmness of his allies.
The peace between the emperor and the landgrave was soon broken.
The duchy was quickly overrun, and Henry - a Catholic prince - driven out; but the good understanding between the emperor and the landgrave was destroyed, and the relations between Protestants and Catholics became worse than before.
This advice passed unheeded, and when Charles suddenly showed his hand, and in July 1546 issued the imperial ban against the landgrave and the elector, it was seen that the two princes were almost isolated.
After this defeat the landgrave was induced to surrender to Charles in June by his son-in-law, Maurice, now elector of Saxony, and Joachim II., elector of Brandenburg, who promised Philip that he should be pardoned, and were greatly incensed when the emperor refused to assent to this condition.
Although less active than formerly, the landgrave did not cease to intrigue on behalf of the Protestants while continuing the work of reforming and organizing the Church in Hesse.
The latter had, about the time of the recognition of Ferdinand as king of the Romans, and partly in consequence of that event, formed at Schmalkalden a league, of which John Frederick, elector of Saxony, and Philip, landgrave of Hesse, were the leaders.
By marriage it passed to the landgrave of Thuringia, and after 1056 it formed for a while an independent country.
The disaffection soon spread and led to the so-called " disorganizing" assembly in 1672, which went so far as to choose James Carteret, a landgrave of Carolina and presumably a natural son of Sir George, as " President."
In 1803 the abbey was secularized, in 1815 its lands were given to Prussia, and in 1822 they were bestowed on Victor Amadeus, landgrave of HesseRotenburg, by whom they were bequeathed, in 1834, to Prince Victor of Hohenlohe-Schillingsfurst, duke of Ratibor.
Aided by Philip, landgrave of Hesse, and other Protestant princes, he fought a victorious battle against Ferdinand's troops at Lauffen in May 1534, and then by the treaty of Cadan he was again recognized as duke, but was forced to accept his duchy as an Austrian fief.
The landgrave built at Cassel in 1561 the first observatory with a revolving dome, and worked for some years at a star-catalogue finally left incomplete.
In 1764 he entered the service of the landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt at Hanau, becoming professor of mathematics at the military academy, head of the civil engineering department of the state, director of the theatre and (1774) of the mint.
The remains of the saint were deposited in a rich silver-gilt sarcophagus, which may still be seen, and were afterwards visited by myriads of pilgrims, until the Protestant zeal of Landgrave Philip the Generous caused him to remove the body to some unknown spot in the church.
Marburg is first historically mentioned in a document of the beginning of the 13th century, and received its municipal charter from the landgrave Louis of Thuringia in 1227.
Homburg consists of an old and a new town, the latter, founded by the landgrave of Hesse-Homburg Frederick II.
Henry Raspe, landgrave of Thuringia, was chosen German king in opposition to Frederick in May 1246, but neither he nor his successor, William II count of Holland was successful in driving the Hohenstaufen from Germany.
Hermann's daughter Agnes married the elector Valdemar, and on the death of her only brother, John VI., in 1317, the possessions of the Saltzwedel branch of the family passed to Valdemar, together with Landsberg and the Saxon Palatinate, which had been purchased from Albert the Degenerate, landgrave of Thuringia.
Since the landgrave, however, was reluctant to see the colloquy brought to an absolutely fruitless close, he requested Luther to draw up a list of the most important points of doctrine on which it might yet be possible to arrive at some degree of unanimity.
He wished to make Apitz his successor in Thuringia, a plan which was resisted by his two elder sons, and a war broke out which lasted until 1307, when he abandoned Thuringia, in return for a yearly payment, but retained the title of landgrave (see Thuringia).
Luther and other persons of influence stood aloof from the movement; on the other hand, several princes, including Philip, landgrave of Hesse, united their forces against the knights, and in May 1523 Sickingen was defeated and slain.
When in 1540 Philip the Magnanimous, the reforming Landgrave of Hesse, determined (with his wife's approval, she being a confirmed invalid) to marry a second wife, Luther and Melanchthon approved "as his personal friends, though not as doctors of theology"; while Martin Bucer assisted at the marriage.
In 1509 William's young son, Philip, became landgrave, and by his vigorous personality brought his country into prominence during the religious troubles of the 16th century.