The park borders my land on three sides.
They filled the land with terror.
I don't know anything about that land up there.
It must be nice having your land so close to the park.
Even the fact that she was born in a town where he owned land is coincidence enough.
Yeah, but here you measure the land by cows per acre, not the other way around.
If I'm stuck in the land of the living, I'm going to live a normal life.
Your father even offered you land if you would come down here to stay.
She hadn't heard the demon drop from the top of the building to land a few feet behind her.
Ha, still living in fairy-tale land, I see.
It was a beautiful land lying on both sides of the wonderful river Nile.
That girl knows no bounds and can land any man.
"I'll live off the land," he responded casually.
Why Quinn wasn't voted the least likely to land the school's prom queen beauty, I'll never know.
Maybe he was thinking about Alexia, but that was still on their land, in the old house before it was renovated.
We have much land here – about a quarter-section.
Even though she had made most of the payments on the land, he still had legal claim.
Enjoy the land, but own it not.
His fame had not been forgotten in the Land of Oz, by any means.
"I didn.t land anything," Katie said impatiently.
The plateau was too small for it to land, but it hovered near the edge.
Think, also, of the ladies of the land weaving toilet cushions against the last day, not to betray too green an interest in their fates!
Anyway, I meant I've never seen a bear on this land before.
I would give my son much land if he would come to live near me.
Of course, he liked the land around her farm - but building a house was a major investment, especially that one.
Three hundred persons took their seats in the dining room, according to their rank and importance: the more important nearer to the honored guest, as naturally as water flows deepest where the land lies lowest.
He sold out his family for money and land in Italy.
Then Dorothy wound up Tik-tok and he danced a jig to amuse the company, after which the Yellow Hen related some of her adventures with the Nome King in the Land of Ev.
He owns a large Spanish land grant – oil wells and such.
In hindsight, he didn't know why he thought the rocky beach provided a more yielding place to land than concrete.
The land would get overgrown with brush in the summer if I didn't have the goats to keep it cleared off.
The Wizard was also most heartily welcomed by the straw man, who was an important personage in the Land of Oz.
I learned how the sun and the rain make to grow out of the ground every tree that is pleasant to the sight and good for food, how birds build their nests and live and thrive from land to land, how the squirrel, the deer, the lion and every other creature finds food and shelter.
What the Giddons did on their own land was their business, yet it left her feeling uncomfortable.
We had a well-to-do homestead, plenty of land, we peasants lived well and our house was one to thank God for.
She's a friend of mine, for I met her in the Land of Ev, not long ago, and went to Oz with her.
The land went to his wife but then she died a few years later.
Then he added, "It may be part of that parcel of land they're squabbling about over at the courthouse."
We have taken the land advantage, which is all that matters.
Qatwali is distracted with the land battle and the Yirkin won't be looking where we launch.
Then he added, "It may be part of that parcel of land they're squabbling about over at the courthouse."
We have taken the land advantage, which is all that matters.
"The girl that rules the marvelous Land of Oz," was the reply.
I know I'm not much account; but I'm the only horse in all the Land of Oz, so they treat me with great respect.
A third radical method of redistribution is called land reform, which is actually a polite term for taking land from one person and giving it to another.
Nations can do this by acquiring enough military might that an attempted land grab would cost their neighbors more than they would get if successful.
He bought the land in chunks over the years.
It's stupid even fighting about any of the land before we make sure that gold-digging bitch doesn't screw us and get her hands on all of it!
There's a woman whose husband owned the land where the mine is located and she may know something helpful, Dean told her.
There's a woman whose husband owned the land where the mine is located and she may know something helpful, Dean told her.
Dorothy was herself anxious to get home, so she promised Eureka they would not stay in the Land of Oz much longer.
Do you own the land now?
You'll get to meet them all when we land tomorrow.
The people had a single aim: to free their land from invasion.
"Maybe the land is valuable for some other reason," Cynthia offered.
Finally, he asked, "What are you going to do with the land if you win the case?"
He preferred land wars to the space wars and had been returning to the main craft when the ambush occurred.
No separate room needed, I'll bunk with deceiving Mr. Donald Ryland and make sure that hissy butch doesn't jump his bones or she'll land on me.
"Maybe the land is valuable for some other reason," Cynthia offered.
It isn't everybody who gets a chance to see your Land of the Gabazoos.
I live on the fat of the land--don't I, Ozma?
I won't have any quarrelling in the Land of Oz, I can tell you!
The land around it was rugged, with only a few fields in the midst of a vast forest.
My grandfather, Caspar Keller's son, "entered" large tracts of land in Alabama and finally settled there.
Our favourite walk was to Keller's Landing, an old tumbledown lumber-wharf on the Tennessee River, used during the Civil War to land soldiers.
Here, call me back on this land line.
And it all revolves around Paul's land, doesn't it?
It's private land, not national forest or park lands, and even though you or the Dawkinses own all this, it's not posted, except for the mine tunnel.
"It would be interesting to know who wants to buy the land," Dean asked.
I gave them a few dollars for the land they've been fighting over.
"It would be interesting to know who wants to buy the land," Dean asked.
Many years before you came here this Land was united under one Ruler, as it is now, and the Ruler's name was always 'Oz,' which means in our language 'Great and Good'; or, if the Ruler happened to be a woman, her name was always 'Ozma.'
He explained how an army, ninety thousand strong, was to threaten Prussia so as to bring her out of her neutrality and draw her into the war; how part of that army was to join some Swedish forces at Stralsund; how two hundred and twenty thousand Austrians, with a hundred thousand Russians, were to operate in Italy and on the Rhine; how fifty thousand Russians and as many English were to land at Naples, and how a total force of five hundred thousand men was to attack the French from different sides.
How strange, how extraordinary, how joyful it seemed, that her son, the scarcely perceptible motion of whose tiny limbs she had felt twenty years ago within her, that son about whom she used to have quarrels with the too indulgent count, that son who had first learned to say "pear" and then "granny," that this son should now be away in a foreign land amid strange surroundings, a manly warrior doing some kind of man's work of his own, without help or guidance.
About 80,000 went in payments on all the estates to the Land Bank, about 30,000 went for the upkeep of the estate near Moscow, the town house, and the allowance to the three princesses; about 15,000 was given in pensions and the same amount for asylums; 150,000 alimony was sent to the countess; about 70,000 went for interest on debts.
Yes, but this is park land.
I'm going to take you for a ride up there and show you some land.
Maybe he wasn't a saddle bum, but only a greenhorn would think he could live off the barren land that surrounded them.
I thought you were going to live off the land.
I have some horses you can ride and there are several creeks, ponds and even a small lake on the land.
Additionally, there was a delightful backyard and three acres of land.
But I must be ever cautious with my new means of touring about the land.
Old Paul Dawkins had a California address when he bought the land.
Maybe that's why you were so damn quick to be willing to take less than fifty percent of the land!
So why the stink over the Ouray land?
Why don't you just buy the land from them and save yourself all this grief?
Paul wanted me, not them, to have the land.
Paul was only interested in the beauty of the land.
You'll have to have pictures of your land.
The land's as pretty as any place God ever created but that doesn't make it worth a lot of dollars and cents.
After all, Jennifer was born in Ouray and was connected to the disputed land.
Both Dawkins brothers were being offered excessive prices for the Lucky Pup land, from some supposedly unknown and secret purchaser.
What better way to kick up the ante for the land from the brother.
Once past the open vista, the road deteriorated, dropping into the forest on federal land.
All I really wanted was the land in the first place, and they approached me about settling.
We'll take you up to your land.
I suppose it's no surprise that wildlife is moving onto our land.
They aren't supposed to be hunting on private land without permission, and ours is posted anyway.
He strode to his office and picked up the telephone receiver of the land line.
On the third day, he decided to land.
The video game showed two holograms at once, a space battle and a land battle.
Maybe you snuck up here and helped hustle along your sweetie on her trip to never-never land.
I so hope you will sweep me off my feet and take me away from my sad, lonely life straight to fairy-tale land.
I could run a passel of cattle on that land.
The two-story home had been built in the depression years and although there was little land around it, it was comfortable, well constructed and had answered Dean's limited needs—at least "temporarily"—for the past 15 years.
This here's Detective Dean from up in Yankee land.
Before leaving, Hunter showed Dean the beach across the road where it was presumed Jeffrey Byrne took his last steps on land.
Gently laying Cynthia on his bed, he tried to revive her but it was obvious she would be in the land of dreams for quite some time.
Dean prayed it wouldn't land them both in jail.
Another added, You picked a pretty good spot to land, too.
Aren't they building that buffalo shed on your land?
The deep part of the pool was small, but years of practice had taught her where to land.
Turn your cell phone on and ignore the land line.
His house was built on a tree-covered knoll overlooking her farm, but part of Josh's land was visible from their porch.
If he wanted more land, he could afford to buy it... couldn't he?
My comments about your land were insensitive.
It was her land and she had no intention of letting him keep her off it.
It was her land and they weren't even married then.
Their land phone was dependent on electricity.
She was cleaning out the refrigerator when the land line rang in the office.
I didn't want to disturb you in the middle of chores, so I called the land line.
Who would have guessed three years ago that she would be running Elk and buffalo on her land?
They needed to get all their land fenced so no hunters would be wandering in and killing off the wildlife.
If they fenced Alex's land as well, it would provide a combined area of a quarter section - 160 acres.
On the other side of the pool was the fallen sycamore tree where Alex had made his decision to buy the land adjoining hers.
We found the demon when we took this land near the great cliffs.
Of everyone he'd known since coming to this land, Vara had been the only kind one, aside from the ancient warrior in the catacombs.
The woman not only had a book - -it was in the tongue of the land where he was born!
It was a detailed map, with the sea painted blue and the land border meticulously drawn.
They are in the mountains, in a land hard for your enemies to cross.
The land of the barbarians, his father boomed from across the ship's hull.
Alex was the reluctant heir to an enormous amount of land and money.
Excuse me, but isn't that your land and don't you know every inch of it?
Yes, I know the land, but it will ease his mind to know where I'll be.
Her father had discovered the rock cluster shortly after he bought the land.
This was her land in name only.
She was more familiar with the land than he was.
I can tell you that we have seen a black bear and a mountain lion on this land, so don't wander far from the house at night.
Her gaze left him and drifted over the land that held all his animals.
Alex wouldn't approve, but it was her land and her phone.
She opened her eyes to investigate the land on the other side.
"We do – well, actually it's part of the land Alex had when we got married," Carmen answered, cutting a sandwich in fourths for the twins.
When was the last time you had to use a gun to defend yourself on our land?
It will give you a chance to work with the horses and get to know them as well as the land.
She went to a farm supply store and purchased enough supplies to fence in a large area in the south part of their land.
You get out of here and off my land and don't ever come back!
Besides, we have a land line if he really wants to talk to me – and he obviously doesn't.
Vintage cabin on 40 acres of secluded land near Huntsville, Arkansas.
It was something about some land in Arkansas.
Memory of the land in Arkansas streaked across her mind like a comet, leaving a trail of questions in its wake.
Muldrow had said the land was overgrown with edible plants.
What if she purchased the land?
It's probably silly, but I was thinking that this land would be a good investment for a resort retreat.
Keaton bought this land from his sister shortly before you left.
Justin owned the land, and he would never sell it to her now.
You can serve me in this new land, where you will never have to hide what you are.
The stranger spoke of a land where he was accepted and never hungry, where they'd build an army to kill his father.
Sulla made him a present of land at Beneventum, and secured him against punishment for embezzlement.
He was himself fined for possessing a larger share of the public land than his own law allowed.
Chicheley now became the subject of a leading case, the court of king's bench deciding, of ter arguments reheard in three successive terms, that he could not hold his previous benefices with the bishopric, and that, spite of the maxim Papa potest omnia, a papal bull could not supersede the law of the land (Year-book ii.
The steepest slope observed occurs off the island of Sapienza, near Navarino, where 1720 fathoms has been obtained only 10 miles from land.
Autumn is warmer than spring, especially in the coastal regions, and this is exaggerated in the eastern region by local land winds, which replace the cool sea-breezes of summer: overcoats are ordinarily worn in Spain and Italy till July, and are then put aside till October.
Elsewhere local surface currents are developed, either drifts due to the direct action of the winds, or streams produced by wind action heaping water up against the land; but these nowhere rise to the dignity of a distinct current system, although they are often sufficient to obliterate the feeble tidal action characteristic of the Mediterranean.
All the land was lost in the next few years, partly by the revolt of the local farmers.
Successful feuds with the bishops of Strassburg and Basel further augmented his wealth and his reputation; rights over various tracts of land were purchased from abbots and others; and he was also the possessor of large estates in the regions now known as Switzerland and Alsace.
At this station much lower values were found for A with sea breezes than with land breezes.
he collaborated especially in the high conservative Politisches Wochenblatt, which first appeared in 1831, as well as in the Evangelische Kirchenzeitung, the Kreuzzeitung and the Volksblatt fiir Stadt and Land.
The plot of land extends on an axis from north-west to south-east over some 36,000 acres.
Although the valleys between the ridges are not always easy of access, they give broad areas of nearly level agricultural land.
Charles II.of England, in 1661, granted to a company of gentlemen the land between the Potomac and Rappahannock rivers, commonly known as the " Northern Neck."
A considerable part of this land was surveyed by George Washington between 1748 and 1751.
He lost his father prematurely; and after the battle of Philippi and the return of Octavian to Rome, Propertius, like Virgil and Horace, was deprived of his, estate to provide land for the veterans, but, unlike them, he had no patrons at court, and he was reduced from opulence to comparative indigence.
The knights strengthened Valletta and its harbour by bastions, curtain-walls, lines and forts, towards the sea, towards the land and on every available point, taking advantage in every particular of the natural rock and of the marvellous advantages of situation, rendering it then almost impregnable.
rudis, a staff), properly a rod or pole, and so used as the name of a surface measure of land.
At the same time a settlement of the land revenue on leases for five years was begun, and the police and military systems of the country were placed upon a new footing.
The economy was affected by the establishment of a land tax.
Concerning his second marriage, it suffices to say that the Baroness Imhoff was nearly forty years of age, with a family of grown-up children, when the complaisant law of her native land allowed her to become Mrs Hastings.
To this sum the land and poll-tax and other direct taxes contributed £374,630.
In the negotiations which followed, it was arranged that the bay and the land on both sides of the entrance within certain defined lines should be leased to Germany for 99 years.
1-5, refers to the expulsion of Edomites from their land) Malachi.
Of these 41,661 cultivate their own land, 15,408 are fixed tenants, 24,031 are regular labourers, and no less than 72,753 day labourers; while there are 35,056 shepherds.
Two-fifths of the land belongs to the state, and two-fifths more to the various communes; the remaining fifth is minutely subdivided among a large number of small proprietors, many of whom have been expropriated from inability to pay the taxes, which, considering the low value of the land, are too heavy; while the state is unable to let a large proportion of its lands.
The cultivation of the vine prevails far more in the province of Cagliari than in that of Sassari, considerable progress having been made both in the extent of land under cultivation and in the ratio of produce to area.
Though much land previously devoted to grain culture has been planted with vines, the area under wheat, barley, beans and maize is still considerable.
In the debate abolishing the court of wards he spoke, like most landed proprietors, in favour of laying the burden on the excise instead of on the land, and on the question of the restoration of the bishops carried in the interests of the court an adjournment of the debate for three months.
In Connecticut the Susquehanna Land Company was formed in 1753 to colonize the valley, and the Delaware Land Company was formed in 1754 for the region immediately W.
Patterson was withdrawn, the disputed territory was erected into the new county of Luzerne (1786), the land titles were confirmed (1787), and Colonel Timothy Pickering was commissioned to organize the new county and to effect a reconciliation.
But Samuel's fame rests on the service which he rendered in adapting the life of the Jews of the diaspora to the law of the land.
Two-thirds of the population are dependent entirely on cultivation for their support, and this is mainly rice on irrigated land.
The greater part of the district consists of state land, the cultivators being tenants of government, but there is a certain amount of hereditary freehold.
In other accounts, he is confined in the land of the Arimi in Cilicia (Iliad, ii.
The entrance to it was in the extreme west, on the borders of Ocean, in the mythical land of the Cimmerians.
Land area about 5.4 sq.
After ravaging the land, his own land, like a wild beast, he entered the city on the 8th of January 1570, and for the next five weeks, systematically and deliberately; day after day, massacred batches of every class of the population.
On land their general Myronides beat off two Corinthian attacks on Megara, which had been further secured by long walls drawn between the capital and its port Nisaea, nearly a mile distant.
a bribe, and hastened to reconquer Euboea; but the other land possessions could not be recovered, and in a thirty years' truce which was arranged in 445 Athens definitely renounced her predominance in Greece Proper.
The land was acquired either by confiscation from disaffected states or in exchange for a lowering of tribute.
His policy of abandoning the land defence was unpopular with the land-owning section of the people, who from the walls of Athens could see their own property destroyed by the invaders.
Below the Shatt-el-Hai the country on both sides of the river is practically a swamp, except where the palm groves have formed land.
The fleet prepared on the Hydaspes sailed in October, while a land army moved along the bank.
A Hugh de Lusignan appears in the illfated crusade of 110o-1101; another Hugh, the Brown, came as a pilgrim to the Holy Land in 1164, and was taken prisoner by Nureddin.
He describes the safe and happy establishment of the people in their own land.
I Kings vi., vii.), the sacrifices and festivals and the functions of priests and prince are prescribed, a stream issuing from under the temple is to vivify the Dead Sea and fertilize the land (this is meant literally), the land is divided into parallel strips and assigned to the tribes.
In 1871 a land company, promoted by railway officials, founded Birmingham.
Albania is perhaps the least-known region in Europe; and though more than a hundred years have passed since Gibbon described it as "a country within sight of Italy, which is less known than the interior of America," but little progress has yet been made towards a scientific knowledge of this interesting land and its inhabitants.
The Albanians, both Ghegs and Tosks, call themselves Shkiipetar, and their land Shkiipenia or Shkiiperia, the former being the Gheg, the latter the Tosk form of the word.
Arnaout), denoting the people, and Arbenia or Arberia, the land, are also, though less frequently, used by the Albanians.
There are also several Albanian settlements in European Turkey and Asia Minor, some founded by military colonists who received grants of land from successive sultans, others owing their origin to enforced migrations after insurrections in Albania.
of land, and the Toptans at Tirana.
of the Dead Sea, between the land of Moab and the Gulf of Akaba.
Indeed, until the time of Jehoram, when the land revolted (2 Kings viii.
Josephus used the name Idumaea as including not only Gobalitis, the original Mount Seir, but also Amalekitis, the land of Amalek, west of this, and Akrabatine, the ancient Acrabbim,, S.W.
There is an abundance of fertile soil and magnificent grazing land.
m., of which 64,066 are land and 9890 water.
It was devised by the Hudson's Bay Company for carrying freight, as a substitute for the less serviceable canoe, and was named after their York factory, the centre to which the traders brought down the furs for shipment to England and from which they took back merchandise and supplies to the interior of Rupert's Land.
"to spread Scriptural holiness over the land."
The parks are a fine feature of the city; by its charter a fixed percentage of all expenditures for public improvements must be used to purchase park land.
The old town is picturesquely situated on a lofty declivity, which includes the most easterly point of land in England.
South of the Bermejo the land is more elevated and drier, though large depressions covered with marshy lagoons are to be found, similar to those farther north.
As far west, therefore, as the Cordillera, there is no evidence that any part of the region was ever beneath the sea in Mesozoic times, and the plant-remains indicate a land connexion with Africa.
Below this region, where the Andean barrier is low and broken, the moist westerly winds sweep over the land freely and give it a large rainfall, good pastures and a vigorous forest growth.
The reptilians are represented in the Parana by the jacare (Alligator sclerops), and on land by the " iguana " (Teius teguexim, Podinema teguixin), and some species of lizard.
Telegraphic communication with Europe is effected by cables laid along the Uruguayan and Brazilian coasts, and by the Brazilian land lines to connect with transatlantic cables from Pernambuco.
Communication with the United States is effected by land lines to Valparaiso, and thence by a cable along the west coast.
Land bolow 600 /.it.........
Land botanic 1500 S000f..t....
Along the Atlantic coast from the mouth of the Adour to the estuary of the Gironde there stretches a monotonous line of sanddunes bordered by lagoons on the land side, but towards the sea harbourless and unbroken save for the Bay of Arcachon.
The Central Plateau has probably been a land mass ever since this period, but the rest of the country was flooded by the Palaeozoic sea.
Of the population of France some 17,000,000 depend upon agriculture for their livelihood, though only about 6,500,000 are engaged in work on the land.
The capital value of land, which greatly decreased during the last twenty years of the i9th century, is estimated at 3,120,000,000, and that of stock, buildings, implements, &c., at 340,000,000.
The value per acre of land, which exceeds 48 in the departments of Seine, Rhne and those fringing the north-west coast from Nord to Manche inclusive, is on the average about 29, though it drops to 16 and less in Morbihan, Landes, Basses-Pyrnes, and parts of the Alps and the central plateau.
Under it the cost of the necessary land was to be found as to one-third by the state and as to the residue locally, but this arrangement proved unworkable and was abandoned in 1845, when it was settled that the state should provide the land and construct the earthworks and stations, the various companies which obtained concessions being left to make the permanent way, provide rolling stock and work the lines for certain periods.
They include the land tax,1 the personal and habitation tax (contribution personnelle-mobihre), and door and window tax.
The land tax falls upon land not built upon in proportion to its net yearly revenue.
A proportion of the sums payable in return for concessions of land in municipal cemeteries.
In 1849 exclusive Moravian control of Salem's industries and trades was abolished; in 1856 land was first sold to others than Moravians, and in the same year the town was incorporated.
The presence of these giant reptiles on the group is the chief fact on which a former land connexion with the continent of America may be sustained.
in the Eocene period or later) of enormous land masses."
Past elevations of land, however (and doubtless equally great subsidences) have taken place in South America since the Eocene, and the conclusion that extensive areas of land have subsided in the Indian Ocean has long been based on a somewhat similar distribution of giant tortoises in the Mascarene region.
The two fleets met south of Cape Scropha, both drawn up from north to south, the land being close to the left flank of the Christians, and the right of the Turks.
1543), being responsible for the introduction of the reformed teaching into the land.
It was a year in which all agriculture was remitted, in which the fields lay unsown and the vines grew unpruned, only the spontaneous yield of the land might be gathered.
21); indeed, so long as the Hebrews were an agricultural people, in a land often ravaged by severe famines, the law of the Sabbatical year could not have been observed.
The difference between this and the later law is that the seventh year is not called a Sabbath, and that there is no indication that all land was to lie fallow on the same year.
of land, the smallest proportion of coast shown by any of the continents.
from the land.
The terrace closest to the land, known as the continental shelf, has an average depth of 600 ft., and connects Australia, New Guinea, and Tasmania in one unbroken sweep. Compared with other continents, the Australian continental shelf is extremely narrow, and there are points on the eastern coast where the land plunges down to oceanic depths with an abruptness rarely paralleled.
From Torres Strait to Dampier Land the shelf spreads out, and connects Australia with New Guinea and the Malay Archipelago.
The vertical relief of the land above the ocean is a very important factor in determining the climate as well as the distribution of the fauna and flora of a continent.
The land mass of Australia rises to a mean height much less than that of any other continent; and the chief mountain systems are parallel to, and not far from, the coast-line.
A further gentle rise in the high steppes leads to the mountains of the West Australian coast, and another strip of low-lying coastal land to the sea.
The Gulf of Carpentaria, situated in the north, is enclosed on the east by the projection of Cape York, and on the west by Arnheim Land, and forms the principal bay on the whole coast, measuring about 6° of long.
On the north-west of the continent the coast-line is much broken, the chief indentations being Admiralty Gulf, Collier Bay and King Sound, on the shores of Tasman Land.
These are opposite to the large estuaries of the Queensland rivers, and might be thought to have been caused by fresh water from the land.
away from land and more probably were caused by subsidence; the old river-channels known to exist below sea-level, as well as the former land connexion with New Guinea, seem to point to the conditions assumed in Darwin's well-known subsidence theory, and any facts that appear to be inconsistent with the theory of a steady and prolonged subsidence are explainable by the assumption of a slight upheaval.
The country round Lake Eyre, where some of the land is actually below sea-level, comes under this heading.
Some of these lake-beds are at or slightly below sea-level, so that a very slight depression of the land to the south of them would connect much of the interior with the Southern Ocean.
Australia is essentially the fragment of a great plateau land of Archean rocks.
The Mesozoic begins with a Triassic land period in the mainland of Australia; while the islands of the Australasian festoon contain the Triassic marine limestones, which fringe the whole of the Pacific. The Triassic beds are best known in New South Wales, where round Sydney they include a series of sandstones and shales.
The sea encroached far on the land from the Great Australian Bight and there formed the limestones of the Nullarbor Plains.
Dividing the land into zones of average summer temperature, the following are the areas which would fall to each: - Judging from the figures just given, it must be conceded that a considerable area of the continent is not adapted for colonization by European races.
of England, on which a large southern land is shown, and the tradition of a Terra Australis appears to have been current for a long period before it enters into authentic history.
In 1503 a French navigator named Binot Paulmyer, sieur de Gonneville, was blown out of his course, and landed on a large island, which was claimed to be the great southern land of tradition, although Flinders and other authorities are inclined to think that it must have been Madagascar.
They left Callao on the 21st of December 1605, and in the following year discovered the island now known as Espiritu Santo, one of the New Hebrides group, which De Quiros, under the impression that it was indeed the land of which he was in search, named La Austrialia del Espiritu Santo.
Among other early Dutch discoverers were Edel; Pool, in 1629, in the Guif of Carpentaria; Nuyts, in the " Gulde Zeepaard," along the southern coast, which he called, after himself, Nuyts Land; De Witt; and Pelsaert, in the " Batavia."
After a visit to the Mauritius, then a Dutch possession, Tasman bore away to the south-east, and on the 24th of November sighted the western coast of the land which he named Van Diemen's Land, in honour of the governor under whose directions he was acting.
Tasman doubled the southern extremity of Van Diemen's Land and explored the east coast for some distance.
But as the captain of the " Endeavour " ordered out the pinnace and prepared to land, the natives threw off their nonchalance; for on the boat approaching the shore, two men, each armed with a bundle of spears, presented themselves on a projecting rock and made threatening signs to the strangers.
without the occurrence of any event worthy of being chronicled, till suddenly one night at ten o'clock the water was found to shoal, without any sign of breakers or land.
The land was soon after made near the mouth of a small stream, which Cook called, after the ship, the Endeavour river.
On his first voyage, in 1770, Cook had some grounds for the belief that Van Diemen's Land, as Tasmania was then called, was a separate island.
A military station having been fixed by the British government at Port Victoria, on the coast of Arnheim Land, for the protection of shipwrecked mariners on the north coast, it was thought desirable to find an overland route between this settlement and Moreton Bay, in what then was the northern portion of New South Wales, now called Queensland.
Skirting the low shores of this gulf, all the way round its upper half to the Roper, Leichhardt crossed Arnheim Land to the Alligator river, which he descended to the western shore of the peninsula, and arrived at Port Victoria, otherwise Port Essington, after a journey of 3000 m., performed within a year and three months.
Mr Stuart, in 1862, made his third and final attempt to traverse the continent from Adelaide along a central line, which, inclining a little westward, reaches the north coast of Arnheim Land, opposite Melville Island.
Having crossed a table-land of sandstone which divides these streams from those running to the western shores of Arnheim Land, Mr Stuart, in the month of July, passed down what is called the Adelaide river of north Australia.
That line of more than 1800 m., having its southern extremity at the head of Spencer Gulf, its northern at Port Darwin, in Arnheim Land, passes Central Mount Stuart, in the middle of the continent, S.
He passed the Reynolds range and Lake Amadeus in that direction, but was compelled to turn south, where he found a tract of well-watered grassy land.
Van Diemen's Land, now called Tasmania, had been occupied as early as 1803.
In the latter direction, explored by Mitchell in 1834 and 1836, lay Australia Felix, now Victoria, including the well-watered, thickly-wooded country of Gipps' Land.
Taking the states as a whole, agrarian legislation has been the most important subject that has engrossed the attention of their parliaments, and every state has been more or less engaged in tinkering with its land laws.
The main object of all such legislation is to secure the residence of the owners on the land.
Epps, The Land Systems of Australia, 8vo (London, 1894); Ernest Favenc, The History of Australasian Exploration, royal 8vo (Sydney, 1885); R.
The war with France at the beginning of this reign, with its attendant evils, quartering of troops, conscription and levies of money, joined with cattle disease and scanty harvests in plunging the land again into distress, from which it recovered very slowly.
1826), who immediately made peace with Prussia and joined the North German Confederation, his land becoming a member of the new German empire in 1871.
Finance, commerce, the national armaments by sea and land, judicial procedure, church government, education, even art and science - everything, in short - emerged recast from his shaping hand.
Woolwich (Wulewich) is mentioned in a grant of land by King Edward in 964 to the abbey of St Peter at Ghent.
In Domesday the manor is mentioned as consisting of 63 acres of land.
of two parcels of land in the manor of Woolwich, called Boughton's Docks, that the foundation of the: town's prosperity was laid, the launching of the "Harry Grace de.
Land was probably acquired for a military post and store depot at Woolwich in 1667, in order to erect batteries against the invading Dutch fleet, although in 1664 mention is made of storehouses and sheds for repairing ship carriages.
Their land became a recruiting ground for the Roman armies, and a base for expeditions across the Rhine.
Three years later, however, Godfrey was murdered, and although the raids of the Northmen did not entirely cease for upwards of another century, no further attempt was made to establish a permanent dynasty in the land.
Yet despite the efforts of the government the Reformation made progress in the land.
The first successes were however to be not on land, but on the Bee Sea= Beggars.
The The siege dykes were cut, the land flooded, but again and again and relief a relieving force was baulked in its attempts to reach of Leiden.
On his way thither by land, he was attacked by the Dalmatians and with difficulty made his way to Salonae (Dalmatia).
Interprovincial wars frequently altered its boundaries, notably in 332 when the three Collas, sons of Eochaidh Doimhlein, conquered the land between the river Boyne and Lough Neagh, which became a separate kingdom under the name of Uriel (Oriel or Orgial).
If the porta hepatis was torn it prognosticated a plundering of the enemy's land.
the Malay Land), a lozenge-shaped strip of land projecting into the China Sea, and forming the most southerly portion of the continent of Asia.
On the east coast the force of the north-east monsoon, which beats upon the shores of the China Sea annually from November to February, has kept the land for the most part free from mangroves, and the sands, broken here and there by rocky headlands thickly wooded, and fringed by casuarina trees, stretch for miles without interruption.
Although the first definite endeavour to locate the Golden Chersonese thus dates from the middle of the 2nd century of our era, the name was apparently well known to the learned of Europe at a somewhat earlier period, and in his Antiquities of the Jews, written during the latter half of the 1st century, Josephus says that Solomon gave to the pilots furnished to him by Hiram of Tyre commands " that they should go along with his stewards to the land that of old was called Ophir, but now the Aurea Chersonesus, which belongs to India, to fetch gold."
m., about 43% of the land area of the state.
(4,7 2 4,4 00 acres) were included in farms. The percentage of improved farm land, as in Maine, New York and Pennsylvania, increased from 1850 until 1890 and decreased after 1890; and in 1900 out of a total acreage of 4,724,400 acres only 2,126,624 acres (45%) were improved.
A privy council decree recognizing the claims of New York was issued on the 10th of July 1764, and the settlers were soon afterwards ordered to surrender their patents and repurchase the land from the proper authorities at Albany.
lyrata, is a large tree, chiefly found on swampy land in the southern states; the lyrate leaves are dilated at the end; the globose acorns are nearly covered by the tuberculated cups.
Phellos, a rather large tree found on swampy land in the southern states, is the most important of this group; its timber is of indifferent quality.
Land (1891-1893, for which a recently discovered MS. was consulted); see also the same editor's Arnold Geulincx and seine Philosophie (1895), and article (translated) in Mind, xvi.
Irish in a league against the supporters of the parliament, and only a few scattered forts held out for the Commonwealth, while the young king was every day expected to land and complete the conquest of the island.
The Roman Catholic landowners lost their estates, all or part according to their degree of guilt, and these were distributed among Cromwell's soldiers and the creditors of the government; Cromwell also invited new settlers from home and from New England, two-thirds of the whole land of Ireland being thus transferred to new proprietors.
Cromwell's land settlement - modified by the restoration under Charles II.
Mr Robertson found them without education, without religion, without laws and without any system of government, but living comfortably on clearings of cultivated land.
On both sides of the central ridge deep troughs extend southwards from the Telegraph plateau to the Southern Ocean, the deep water coming close to the land all the way down on both sides.
Bruce, the leader of the Scottish expedition, finds that there is a ridge " extending in a curve from Madagascar to Bouvet Island, and from Bouvet Island to the Sandwich group, whence there is a forked connexion through the South Orkneys to Graham's Land, and through South Georgia to the Falkland Islands and the South American continent."
In the South Atlantic the narrow land surfaces of Africa and South America produce comparatively little effect in disturbing the normal planetary circulation.
In the North Atlantic the distribution of pressure and resulting wind circulation are very largely modified by the enormous areas of land and frozen sea which surround the ocean on three sides.
The net effect of the surrounding land is, in fact, to reverse the seasonal variations of the planetary circulation, but without destroying its type.
Where surface water is banked up against the land, as by the equatorial and Gulf Stream drift currents, it appears to penetrate to very considerable depths; the escaping stream currents are at first of great vertical thickness and part of the water at their sources has a downward movement.
On leaving Egypt he travelled by land to the Persian Gulf, disguised as a Mameluke, visiting Damascus, and entering the great mosque undetected.
Through the resultant scarcity of labor, much land fell out of cultivation.
Albert never visited the Holy Land, but he appears to have had a considerable amount of intercourse with returned crusaders, and to have had access to valuable correspondence.
CUSH, the eldest son of Ham, in the Bible, from whom seems to have been derived the name of the "Land of Cush," commonly rendered "Ethiopia" by the Septuagint and by the Vulgate.
The locality of the land of Cush has long been a much-vexed question.
Thus from a document of uncertain date, possibly about the time of Alfred the Great, and translated by Stubbs (Select Charters) as "Of people's ranks and laws," we learn:--"And if a ceorl throve, so that he had fully five hides of his own land, church and kitchen, bellhouse and burh-gate-seat, and special duty in the king's hall, then was he thenceforth of thegn-right worthy."
The whole land was full of violence, the very bishops storming rich monasteries at the head of armed retainers.
p. 551): "During 27 months I have scattered the seed of the Word of God in this miserable land; shall I say among thorns or on stony ground?
The first settlement within its present limits was made about 1672; the land was bought from the Indians in 1676; and the township was separated from East Hartford and incorporated in 1823.
With the exception of the sub-montane districts of Jodhpur, which lie immediately below the Aravallis, this division is sandy, ill-watered and unproductive, improving gradually from a desert in the northwest and west to comparatively fertile land on the east.
The whole land is covered with feudal holdings, masters of the levy, police, &c. There is a regular postal system.
On the great estates in Assyria and its subject provinces were many serfs, mostly of subject race, settled captives, or quondam slaves, tied to the soil they cultivated and sold with the estate but capable of possessing land and property of their own.
The god of a city was originally owner of its land, which encircled it with an inner ring of irrigable arable land and an outer fringe of pasture, and the citizens were his tenants.
The Code recognizes complete private ownership in land, but apparently extends the right to hold land to votaries, merchants (and resident aliens?).
But all land was sold subject to its fixed charges.
The king, however, could free land from these charges by charter, which was a frequent way of rewarding those who deserved well of the state.
It is from these charters that we learn nearly all we know of the obligations that lay upon land.
A man was only bound to serve so many (six ?) times, but the land had to find a man annually.
The king had long ceased to be, if he ever was, owner of the land.
Other land was held of the state for rent.
The tithe seems to have been the composition for the rent due to the god for his land.
Landowners frequently cultivated their land themselves but might employ a husbandman or let it.
Land might be let at a fixed rent when the Code enacted that accidental loss fell on the tenant.
Waste land was let to reclaim, the tenant being rent-free for three years and paying a stipulated rent in the fourth year.
If the tenant neglected to reclaim the land the Code enacted that he must hand it over in good tilth and fixed a statutory rent.
The landlord found land, labour, oxen for ploughing and working the wateringmachines, carting, threshing or other implements, seed corn, rations for the workmen and fodder for the cattle.
Land was leased for houses or other buildings to be built upon it, the tenant being rent-free for eight or ten years; after which the building came into the landlord's possession.
Land and Submarine Telegraphy will be considered in Part I., with a section on the commercial aspects.
In the aerial or overground system of land telegraphs the use of copper wire has become very general.
The instruments used for land telegraphs on this system are of two types - " sounders," which indicate by sound, and " recorders," which record the signals.
The first to introduce a really good practical system of duplex telegraphy, in which this difficulty was sufficiently overcome for land line purposes, was J.
It was found impossible to make the Morse ink writer so sensitive that it could record signals sent over land lines of several hundred miles in length, if the speed of transmission was very much faster than that which could be effected by hand, and this led to the adoption of automatic methods of transmission.
For working long submarine cables the apparatus ordinarily employed on land lines cannot be used, as the retarding effect of the electrostatic capacity of the cable is so marked that signals fail to be recorded except at a very slow speed of working.
The transmitted signals or electric impulses, which on a land line are sharply defined when received, become attenuated and prolonged in the case of a long cable, and are unable to actuate the.
comparatively heavy moving parts of which the land line instruments are formed.
These indications form the telegraph alphabet and are read in the same manner as in the case of the " single needle " instrument used on land.
Owing to the difficulty of maintaining perfect balance on duplexed cables, curb sending is not now used, but the signals are transmitted by means of an apparatus similar to the Wheatstone automatic transmitter used on land lines and differing from the latter only in regard to the alphabet employed; the signals from the transmitter actuate a relay having heavy armatures which in turn transmit the signals to the cable; this arrangement gives very firm signals, a point of great importance for good working.
Gisborne for a land line connecting St John's, Newfoundland, and Cape Ray, in the Gulf of St Lawrence, and proceeded himself to get control of the points on the American coast most suitable as landing places for a cable.
The total lengths of the land lines of the telegraphs throughout the world in 1907 were 1,015,894 m.
The inventions of Slaby, Braun and others were put into practice by a German wireless telegraph company, and very much work done in erecting land stations and equipping ships.
The opening of the railway enabled it to compete successfully with Alicante, and revived the mining and metallurgical industries, while considerable sums were expended on bringing the coast and land defences up to date, and adding new quays, docks and other harbour works.
Vessels go to Porman to land coke and coal, and to load iron ore and lead.
distant, but has no land communication with the national capital, except by telegraph.
By this agreement the Postmaster-General agreed to purchase all plant, land and buildings of the National Telephone Company in use at the date of the agreement or constructed after that date in accordance with the specification and rules contained in the agreement, subject to the right of the Postmaster-General to object to take over any plant not suited to his requirements.
Francis himself set out, probably in 1212, for the Holy Land to preach the Gospel to the Saracens, but he was shipwrecked and had to return.
The sultan sent him back to the Christian camp, and he passed on to the Holy Land.
In 1274 the council of Lyons imposed a tax of a tenth part of all church revenues during the six following years for the relief of the Holy Land.
The land thus circumscribed extends between the parallels of 46° 40' and 36° 38' N., and between 6° 30' and 18° 30' E.
That city, like Ravenna, originally stood in the midst of a lagoon; and the coast east of it to near Monfalcone, where it meets the mountains, is occupied by similar expanses of water, which are, however, becoming gradually converted into dry land.
The, importation has, however, enormously increased since 1882from 164,600 to 1,126,368 tons; while the extent of land devoted to corn cultivation has slightly decreased.
Income from land has diminished on the whole.
Large farms are f&und in certain of the more open districts; but in Italy generally, and especially in Sardinia, the land is very much subdivided.
In the agro Romano, or zone immediately around Rome, land is as a rule left for pasturage.
A piece of uncultivated land is made over to a peasant for from 20 to 29 years.
At the end of the contract the landlord either cultivates his land himself or leases it, repaying to the improver part of the expenditure incurred by him.
Leasehold, varying from four to six years for arable land and from six to eighteen years for forest-land, prevails also in Campania, Basilicata and Calabria.
The estaglio, or rent, is often paid in kind, and is equivalent to half the produce of good land and one-third of the produce of bad land.
The landlord lets his land to two or more persons jointly, who undertake to restore it to him in good condition with one-third of it interrozzito, that is, fallow, so as to be cultivated the following year according to triennial rotation.
The sub-tenants in their turn let a part of their land to peasants in mezzadria, thus creating a system disastrous both for agriculture and the peasants.
He holds supreme command by land and sea, appoints ministers and officials, promulgates the laws, coins money, bestows honors, has the right of pardoning, and summons and dissolves the parliament.
According to the Italian tributary system, imposts, properly so called are those upon land, T~aUon buildings and personal estate.
The impost upon land is based upon the cadastral survey independently of the vicissitudes of harvests.
Land is not so heavily burdened by the government quota as by the additional centimes imposed by the provincial and communal authorities.
On an average Italian landowners pay nearly 25% of their revenues from land in government and local land tax.
In 1869, however, a third additional tenth was added to the previously existing additional two-tenths, and, unlike the tenths of the land tax, they have not been abolished.
Since 1880, while income from the salt and lotto monopolies hai remained almost stationary, and that from land tax and octroi har - diminished, revenue derived from all other sources has notabl)
land and other taxes.
Certain banks make a special business of lending money to owners iif land or buildings (credito fo,zdiario).
The banks may buy up mortgages and advance money on current account on the security of land or buildings.
The value of their land certificates or cartetle fondiarie (representing capital in circulation) rose from 10,420,000 in 1881 to 15,560,000 in 1886, and to 30,720,000 in 1891, but fell to 29,320,000 in 1896, to 27,360,000 in 1898, and to 24,360,000 in 1907; the amount of money lent increased from 1/2Io,44o,000 in 1881 to 15,600,000 in 1886, and 30,800,000 in 1891, but fell to 29,320,000 in 1896, to 27,360,000 in 1899, and to f2I,72o,000 in 1907.
These loans are regulated by special disposition, and are guaranteed by a share of the increased value of the land after the improvements have been carried out.
Provincial revenues are drawn from provincial property, school taxes, tolls and surtaxes on land and buildings.
Like communal revenue, provincial revenue has considerably increased since 1880, principally on account of the increase in the land and building surtax.
It would follow, on the other hand, that what is called Oscan represented the language of the invading Sabines (more correctly Safines), whose racial affinities would seem to be of a distinctly more northern cast, and to mark them, like the Dorians or Achaeans in Greece, as an early wave of the invaders who more than once in later history havevitally influenced the fortunes of the tempting southern land into which they forced their way.
The first region comprised Latium (in the more extended sense of the term, as including the land of the Volsci, Hernici and Aurunci), together with Campania and the district of the Picentini.
The second region included Apulia and Calabria (the name by which the Romans usually designated the district known to the Greeks as Messapia or lapygia), together with the land of the Hirpini, which had usually been considered as a part of Samnium.
The Venetians, who contracted for the transport of the crusaders, and whose blind doge Dandolo was first to land in Constantinople, received one-half and onefourth of the divided Greek empire for their spoils.
More questionable was Josephs policy in closing and confiscating the property of 213 of the richer monasteries of the land.
Austrians blockaded the city on the land side.
By the end of May the city was blockaded by land and sea, and in July the bombardment began.
Austria undertook to guard the Adriatic on land and sea, and to help Germany by checkmating Russia on land.
Besides the realization of the formal programme of the Left, consisting of the repeal of the grist tax, the abolition of the forced currency, the extension of the suffrage and the development of the railway system Depretis laid the foundation for land tax re-assessment by introducing a new cadastral survey.
Unfortunately, the new survey was made largely optional, so that provinces which had reasor to hope for a diminution of land tax under a revised assessment hastened to complete their survey, while others, in which the average of the land tax was below a normal assessment, neglected to comply with the provisions of the scheme.
The strikes and other economic agitations at this time may be divided roughly into three groups: strikes in industrial centres for higher wages, shorter hours and better labor conditions generally; strikes of agricultural laborers in northern Italy for better contracts with the landlords; disturbances among the south Italian peasantry due to low wages, unemployment (particularly in Apulia), and the claims of the laborers to public land occupied illegally by the landlords, combined with local feuds and the struggle for power of the various influential families.
Others swim with eel-like curves through the water, while one land-leech, at any rate, moves in a gliding way like a land Planarian, and leaves, also like the Planarian, a slimy trail behind it.
4, p. 470, finds that the wisdom of the priests, in one land after another, rises to the thought of divine unity.
This, however, is only to be done after certain liabilities have been met out of the estate, including the services due to the lord of the land.
prevents the king from administering certain kinds of land when these fall into the possession of minors.
"No freeman shall be arrested, or detained in prison, or deprived of his freehold, or outlawed, or banished, or in any way molested; and we will not set forth against him, nor send against him, unless by the lawful judgment of his peers and by the law of the land."
With regard to the land and the services due therefrom a beginning was made of the policy which culminated in the statutes of Mortmain and of Quia Emptores.
The land area of the Andaman Islands is 2 508 sq.
None of the tribes ever ventures out of sight of land, and they have no idea of steering by sun or stars.
Legend associated Trier with the martyrdom of part of the Theban legion (c. 286) and with the relics found by St Helena in the Holy Land.
The ancient custom called the beklem-recht, or lease-right, doubtless accounts for the extended ownership of the land.
A mountain, usually with very steep peaks, forms the centre, if not the whole island; on all sides steep ridges descend to the sea, or, as is oftener the case, to a considerable belt of flat land.
long; it is found in New England and the milder parts of Canada, and is frequently planted in Britain; its growth is extremely rapid in moist land; the buds are covered with a balsamic secretion.
Aube is an agricultural department; more than one-third of its surface consists of arable land of which the chief products are wheat and oats, and next to them rye, barley and potatoes; vegetables are extensively cultivated in the valleys of the Seine and the Aube.
The Spermatophyta are thus land plants par excellence and have, with the few exceptions cited, lost all trace of an aquatic ancestry.
Aquatic plants occur among seed plants but these are readaptations of land plants to an aquatic environment.
types of glands also exist, either in connection with the epidermis or not, such as nectaries, digestive glands, oil, resin and mucilage glands, &c. They serve the most various purposes in the life of the plant, but they are not of significance in relation to the primary vital activities, and cannot be dealt with in the limits of the present article.l The typical epidermis of the shoot of a land plant does not absorb water, but some plants living in situations where they cannot depend on a regular supply from the roots (e.g.
arsh plants and land plants; and it seems equally obvious that F
At one time, such plants were probably of more general occurrence: now they have been extirpated in the intermediate localities, chiefly owing to the cultivation of the land in these places by man.
That wrought by man in destroying forests and cultivating the land will be no less effective, and already specimens in our herbaria alone represent species no longer to be found in a living state.
6 W., would behold at one view the greatest possible quantity of land, while the opposite hemisphere would contain the greatest quantity of water.
The furrows are the great ocean basins, and these would still persist even if the land surface were enlarged to the 1400 fathoms contour.
It was replaced by the Glossopteris flora which is assumed to have originated in a vast continental area (Gondwana land), of which remnants remain in South America, South Africa and Australia.
Both were in turn replaced by the Lower Mesozoic flora, which again is thought to have had its birth in the hypothetical Gondwana land, and in which Gymnosperms played the leading part formerly taken by vascular Cryptogams. The abundance of Cycadean plants is one of its most striking features.
That of Grinnell Land in lat.
In the attempt that has been made to map out the land surface of the earth, probable community of origin has been relied upon more than the possession of obvious characters.
"This land Persis," says Darius, in an inscription at Persepolis, "which Ahuramazda has given to me, which is beautiful and rich in horses and men, according to the will of Ahuramazda and myself it trembles before no enemy."
Epiphanes, who at the end of his reign restored once more the authority of the empire in Babylonia, Susiana and Persis; perhaps a battle, in which the satrap Numenius of Mesene (southern Babylonia) defeated the Persians on the shore of Carmania on sea and land (Plin.
He systematized the form of the land within the ring of ocean - the habitable world - by recognizing two continents: Europe to the north, and Asia to the south of the midland sea.
He also pointed out reasons for accepting a division of the land into three continents - Europe, Asia and Africa.
The method included a recognition of the causes and effects of phenomena as well as the mere fact of their occurrence, and for the first time the importance of the vertical relief of the land was fairly recognized.
Physical geography itself is divided into two parts: a general, which has to do with the earth and all that belongs to it - water, air and land; and a particular, which deals with special products of the earth - mankind, animals, plants and minerals.
Particular importance is given to the vertical relief of the land, on which the various branches of human geography are shown to depend.
Thus he demonstrated that the forms of the land exercise a directive and determining influence on climate, plant life, animal life and on man himself.
The apparent opposition of the observed fact to the assigned theory he overcame by looking upon the forms of the land and the arrangement of land and sea as instruments of Divine Providence for guiding the destiny as well as for supplying the requirements of man.
The world was henceforth viewed as a very large place stretching far on every side beyond the Midland or Mediterranean Sea, and the land journey of Alexander resulted in a voyage of discovery in the outer ocean from the mouth of the Indus to that of the Tigris, thus opening direct intercourse between Grecian and Hindu civilization.
79 Hippalus took advantage of the regular alternation of the monsoons to make the voyage from the Red Sea to India across the open ocean out of sight of land.
and the hope of gain, combined with motives of mere curiosity, induced several persons to travel by land into remote regions of the East, far beyond the countries to which the operations of the crusaders extended.
Among these was Benjamin of Tudela, who set out from Spain in i 160, travelled by land to Constantinople, and having visited India and some of the eastern islands, returned to Europe by way of Egypt after an absence of thirteen years.
Ibn Batuta went by land from Tangier to Cairo, then visited Syria, and performed the pilgrimages to Medina and Mecca.
One of the most remarkable of the Italian travellers was Ludovico di Varthema, who left his native land in 1502.
The reign of Elizabeth is famous for the gallant enterprises that were undertaken by sea and land to discover and bring to light the unknown parts of the earth.
From Cape San Lucas Cavendish steered across the Pacific, seeing no land until he reached the Ladrone Islands.
Journeys were also made by land, and, among others, the entertaining author of the Crudities, Thomas Coryate, of Odcombe in Somersetshire, wandered on foot from France to India, and died (1617) in the company's factory at Surat.
In 1642 the governor and council of Batavia fitted out two ships to prosecute the discovery of the south land, then believed to be part of a vast Antarctic continent, and entrusted the command to Captain Abel Jansen Tasman.
Tasman sailed from Batavia in 1642, and on the 24th of November sighted high land in 42° 30' S., which was named van Diemen's Land, and after landing there proceeded to the discovery of the western coast of New Zealand; at first called Staten Land, and supposed to be connected with the Antarctic continent from which this voyage proved New Holland to be separated.
He left Holland in 1718, went by land through Persia to India, and eventually made his way to Lhasa, where he resided for a long time.
Niebuhr landed at Loheia, on the coast of Yemen, in December 1762, and went by land to Sana.
In 1772 the French explorer Yves Kerguelen de Tremarec had discovered the land that bears his name in the South Indian Ocean without recognizing it to be an island, and naturally believed it to be part of the southern continent.
Cook's second voyage was mainly intended to settle the question of the existence of such a continent once for all, and to define the limits of any land that might exist in navigable seas towards the Antarctic circle.
The land from Taimyr to Cape Chelyuskin, the most northern extremity of Siberia, was mapped in many years of patient exploration by Chelyuskin, who reached the extreme point (77° 34' N.) in May 1742.
Granting that the geoid or mean surface of the ocean is a uniform spheroid, the distribution of land and water approximately indicates a division of the surface of the globe into two areas, one of elevation and one of depression.
The increasing number of measurements of the height of land in all continents and islands, and the very detailed levellings in those countries which have been thoroughly surveyed, enable the average elevation of the land above sea-level to be fairly estimated, although many vast gaps in accurate knowledge remain, and the estimate is not an exact one.
Thus the best approximation to the average depth of the ocean is little more than an expert guess; yet a fair approximation is probable for the features of sub-oceanic relief are so much more uniform than those of the land that a smaller number of fixed points is required to determine them.
Sir John Murray deduced the mean height of the land of the globe as about 2250 ft.
(or 71.4% of the surface), he found that the volume of the land above sea-level was 23,450,000 cub.
area containing all dry land, the transitional area including the submarine slopes down to 1000 fathoms, and the abysmal area consisting of the floor of the ocean beyond that depth; and Mill proposed to take the line of mean-sphere level, instead of the empirical depth of moo fathoms, as the boundary between the transitional and abysmal areas.
The area of the dry land was taken as 28.3% of the surface of the globe, and that of the oceans as 71.7%.
The mean height deduced for the land was 2300 ft.
to 2300 (the approximate mean level of 2x00 i the land), and highlands, from 2300 upwards, might 20000 y also be distinguished.
He says: " The surface of each of our great continental masses of land resembles that of a long and broad arch-like form, of which we see the simplest type in the New World.
The actual position of sea-level lies so near the summit of the crust-heap that the varied relief of the upper portion leads to the formation of a complicated coast- The con- line and a great number of detached portions of land.
Although the name of continent was not applied to large portions of land for any physical reasons, it so happens that there is a certain physical similarity or homology between them which is not shared by the smaller islands or peninsulas.
South America and North America follow this type most closely; Eurasia (the land mass of Europe and Asia) comes next, while Africa and Australia are farther removed from the type, and the structure of Antarctica and Greenland is unknown.
If the continuous, unbroken, horizontal extent of land in a continent is termed its trunk,' and the portions cut up by inlets or channels of the sea into islands and peninsulas the limbs, it is possible to compare the continents in an instructive manner.
3 In some cases a piece of land is only an island at high water, and by imperceptible gradation the form passes into a peninsula.
The varieties of coast-lines were reduced to an exact classification by Richthofen, who grouped them according to the height and slope of the land into cliff-coasts (Steilkiisten)- narrow beach coasts with cliffs, wide beach coasts with cliffs, and 1 Rumpf, in German, the language in which this distinction was first made.
A further subdivision depends on the character of the inter-relation of land and sea along the shore producing such types as a fjord-coast, ria-coast or lagoon-coast.
While the forms of the sea-bed are not yet sufficiently well known to admit of exact classification, they are recognized to be as a rule distinct from the forms of the land, and the importance Submarine of using a distinctive terminology is felt.
The extension of a trough or basin penetrating the land or an elevation is termed an " embayment " when wide, and a " gully " when long and narrow; and the deepest part of a depression is termed a " deep."
The forms of the dry land are of infinite variety, and have been studied in great detail.'
From the descriptive or topographical point of view, geometrical form alone should be con- Land sidered; but the origin and geological structure of forms. land forms must in many cases be taken into account when dealing with the function they exercise in the control of mobile distributions.
The geographers who have hitherto given most attention to the forms of the land have been trained as geologists, and consequently there is a general tendency to make origin or structure the basis of classification rather than form alone.
These may be looked The six upon as being all derived by various modifications or elementa ry arrangements of the single form-unit, the slope or inclined land forms. plane surface.
The hollow or form produced by a land surface sloping inwards from all sides to a particular lowest place, the converse of a mount.
The geological structure and the mineral composition of the rocks are often the chief causes determining the character of the land forms of a region.
It would be impracticable to go fully into the varieties of each specific form; but, partly as an example of modern geographical classification, partly because of the exceptional import of ance of mountains amongst the features of the land, one exception may be made.
If land forms may be compared to organs, the part they serve in the economy of the earth may, without straining the term, be characterized as functions.
The first and simplest function of the land surface is that of guiding loose material to a lower level.
The downward pull of gravity suffices to bring about the fall of such material, but the path it will follow and the distance it will travel before coming to rest depend upon the land form.
But where the side is not a uniform scarp, but made up of a series of ridges and valleys, the tendency will be to distribute the detritus in an irregular manner, directing it away from one place and collecting it in great masses in another, so that in time the land form assumes a new appearance.
Rain is by far the most important of the inorganic mobile distributions upon which land forms exercise their function of guidance and control.
vapour of the atmosphere is caused in part by vertical movements of the atmosphere involving heat changes and apparently independent of the surface upon which precipitation occurs; but in greater part it is dictated by the form and altitude of the land surface and the direction of the prevailing winds, which itself is largely influenced by the land.
It is on the windward faces of the highest ground, or just beyond the summit of less dominant heights upon the leeward side, that most rain falls, and all that does not evaporate or percolate into the ground is conducted back to the sea by a route which depends only on the form of the land.
Thus new land forms are created - valleys of curious complexity, for example by the " capture " and diversion of the water of one river by another, leading to a change of watershed.'
The slope of the river bed diminishes until the plain compels the river to move slowly, swinging in meanders proportioned to its size, and gradually, controlled by the flattening land, ceasing to transport material, but raising its banks and silting up its bed by the dropped sediment, until, split up and shoaled, its distributaries struggle across its delta to the sea.
This is the typical river of which there are infinite varieties, yet every variety would, if time were given, and the land remained unchanged in level relatively to the sea, ultimately approach to the type.
There is nothing more striking in geography than the perfection of the adjustment of a great river system to its valleys when the land has remained stable for a very lengthened period.
Excellent examples of the indecisive drainage of a new land surface, on which the river system has not had time to impress itself, are to be seen in northern Canada and in Finland, where rivers are separated by scarcely perceptible divides, and the numerous lakes frequently belong to more than one river system.
The action of rivers on the land is so important that it has been made the basis of a system of physical geography by Professor W.
Davis, who classifies land surfaces in terms of the three factors - structure, process and time.
By a re-elevation of a peneplain the rivers of an old land surface may be restored to youthful activity, and resume their shaping action, deepening the old valleys and initiating new ones, starting afresh the whole course of the geographical cycle.
It is, however, not the action of the running water on the land, but the function exercised by the land on the running water, that is considered here to be the special province of geography.
At every stage of the geographical cycle the land forms, as they exist at that stage, are concerned in guiding the condensation and flow of water in certain definite ways.
Thus, for example, in a mountain range at right angles to a prevailing sea-wind, it is the land forms which determine that one side of the range shall be richly watered and deeply dissected by a complete system of valleys, while the other side is dry, indefinite in its valley systems, and sends none of its scanty drainage to the sea.
The existence of lakes in hollows of the land depends upon the balance between precipitation and evaporation.
These basins of internal drainage are calculated to amount to 22% of the land surface.
The percentages of the land surface draining to the different oceans are approximately - Atlantic, 34'3%; Arctic sea, 26.5%; Pacific, 14.4%; Indian Ocean, 12.8%.'
The direct geographical elements are the arrangement of land and sea (continents and islands standing in sharp contrast) and the vertical relief of the globe, which interposes barriers of a less absolute kind between portions of the same land area or oceanic depression.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.