To meet this combination Rudolph entered into alliance with Ladislaus IV.
Kanter, Die Ermordung Konig Ladislaus (1906); Novotry, Uber den Tod Konig Ladislaws Postumus (1906).
The Roman king, who was an unsuccessful candidate, took up arms, drove the Hungarians from Austria, and regained Vienna, which had been in the possession of Matthias since 1485; but he was compelled by want of money to retreat, and on the 7th of November 14 9 1 signed the treaty of Pressburg with Ladislaus, king of Bohemia, who had obtained the Hungarian throne.
The bishopric was founded in the 1th century by King Ladislaus I.
But now George discomfited all his enemies by suddenly excluding his own son from the throne in favour of Ladislaus, the eldest son of Casimir IV., thus skilfully enlisting Poland on his side.
During the interval between these peaces, Matthias, in self-defence, again made war on the emperor, reducing Frederick to such extremities that he was glad to accept peace on any terms. By the final arrangement made between the contending princes, Matthias recognized Ladislaus as king of Bohemia proper in return for the surrender of Moravia, Silesia and Upper and Lower Lusatia, hitherto component parts of the Czech monarchy, till he should have redeemed them for 400,000 florins.
Dying in 1387, he transmitted Naples to his son Ladislaus, who had no children, and was followed in 1414 by his sister Joan II.
high, erected in 1831-1834 by the archbishop Ladislaus Pyrker (1772-1847); the church of the Brothers of Mercy, opposite which is a handsome minaret, 115 ft.
King Ladislaus would have made the book-loving youth a monk, and even designated him for the see of Eger; but Coloman had no inclination for an ecclesiastical career, and, with the assistance of his friends, succeeded in escaping to Poland.
On the death of Ladislaus (1095), he returned to Hungary and seized the crown, passing over his legitimately born younger brother Almos, the son of the Greek princess Sinadene.
In foreign affairs he preserved the policy of St Ladislaus by endeavouring to provide Hungary with her greatest need, a suitable seaboard.
The defeat which the Polish king Ladislaus inflicted upon the knights at Tannenberg in 1410 was crushing.
It brought Ladislaus little immediate gain; but it stimulated the elements of unrest in Prussia to fresh activity.
As pope, he concluded a treaty with his rival at Marseilles, by which a general council was to be held at Savona in September, 1408, but King Ladislaus of Naples, who opposed the plan from policy, seized Rome and brought the negotiations to nought.
Gregory, still supported by Naples, Hungary, Bavaria, and by Rupert, king of the Romans, found protection with Ladislaus, and in a synod at Cividale del Friuli banned Benedict and Alexander as schismatical, perjured and scandalous.
John XXIII., having succeeded to the claims of Alexander in 1410, concluded a treaty with Ladislaus, by which Gregory was banished from Naples on the 31st of October 1411.
The pope urged the king of Hungary to take advantage of this favourable opportunity by breaking the truce solemnly agreed upon, and nineteen days after it had been concluded a coalition was formed against the Turks; a large army headed by Ladislaus I., king of Hungary, Hunyadi, voivode of Walachia, and Cardinal Cesarini crossed the Danube and reached Varna, where they hoped to be joined by the Greek emperor.
The efforts of Ladislaus of Hungary to mediate were vain, and the years 1497 and 1498 were marked by a terrible devastation of Poland by the Ottomans; only the bitter winter, which is said to have killed 40,000 Turks, prevented the devastation from being more complete.
(1409); Ladislaus of Naples, therefore, as a supporter of the pope, seized the opportunity to make incursions on Sienese territory, laying it waste and threatening the city.
A troubled forty years (1038-1077) divides the age of St Stephen from the age of St Ladislaus.
The immediate result of the papal alliance was to enable Hungary, under both Ladislaus and his capable successor Coloman [Kalman] (1095-1116), to hold her own against all her enemies, and extend her dominion abroad by conquering Croatia and a portion of the Dalmatian coast.
In the internal administration both Ladislaus I.
Ladislaus planted large Petcheneg colonies in Transylvania and the trans-Dravian provinces, and established military cordons along the constantly threatened south-eastern boundary, the germs of the future banates 1 (bansagok) which were to play such an important part in the national defence in the following century.
As the grandson of St Ladislaus, Manuel had Hungarian blood in his veins; his court was the ready and constant refuge of the numerous Magyar malcontents, and he aimed not so much at the conquest as at the suzerainty of Hungary, by placing one of his Magyar kinsmen on the throne of St Stephen.
(1270-1272) to a Kumanian girl, and during the r ein of her son Ladislaus IV.(1272-1290)the court g was certainly more pagan than Christian.
of Bohemia, and Ladislaus materially contributed to his utter overthrow at Durnkriit in 1278), neither of them was strong enough to make head against the disintegrating influences all around them.
Stephen contrived to hold his own by adroitly contracting an alliance with the powerful Neapolitan Angevins who had the ear of the pope; but Ladislaus (q.v.) was so completely caught in the toils of the Kumanians, that the Holy See, the suzerain of Hungary, was forced to intervene to prevent the relapse of the kingdom into barbarism, and the unfortunate Ladislaus perished in the crusade that was preached against him.
22) the queen-widow gave birth to a son who, six weeks later, as Ladislaus V.
At this very time northern Hungary, including the wealthy mining towns, was in the possession of the Hussite mercenary Jan Giszkra, who held them nominally for the infant king Ladislaus V., still detained at Vienna by his kinsman the emperor.
The judicial murder of Laszlo Hu.iyadi (q.v.) by the enemies of his house (March 16, 1457) was therefore a stupid blunder as well as the foulest of crimes, and on the death of his chief assassin, Ladislaus V., six months later (Nov.
In 1849 Stephen Ladislaus Endlicher (1804-1849), better known as a botanist than as a historian, published a collection of documents, Rerum hungaricarum monumenta Arpadiana.
Amongst other important codices are the Jorddnszky Codex (1516-1519), an incomplete copy of the translation of the Bible made by Ladislaus Batori, who died about 1456; and the Dobrentei or Gyulafehervdr Codex (1508), containing a version of the Psalter, Song of Solomon, and the liturgical epistles and gospels, copied by Bartholomew Halabori from an earlier translation (KSrnyei, A Magyar nemzeti irodalomtortenet vdzlata, 1861, p. 30).
Another pleasing lyric poet of this period was Ladislaus Amade, the naturalness and genuine sentiment of whose lightly running verses are suggestive of the love songs of Italian authors.
To these may be added the names of Charles Berecz, Joseph Zalar, Samuel Nyilas, Joseph Vida, Lewis Tolnai, the sentimental Ladislaus Szelestey, and the talented painter Zoltan Balogh, whose romantic poem Alpdri was published in 1871 by the Kisfaludy society.
This feature is noticeable also in the Koltemenyek (1873) of Ladislaus Torkos and the Modern Mesa (1874) of Ladislaus Nevy.
The subject, taken from the age of Hungarian chivalry, is artistically worked out from medieval legends, and gives an excellent description of the times of St Ladislaus of Hungary.
The Beszelyek (Tales)] of Ladislaus Beiithy were produced in the same year, his Pusztdk fia (Son of the Pusztas) in 1857.
Specially meritorious among these are Michael Horvath, Ladislaus Szalay, Paul Jaszay and Count Joseph Teleki.
Ladislaus Szalay's Magyarorszdg tortenete (History of Hungary), vols.
(Pozsony, 1847), John Czech, Gustavus Wenczel, Frederick Pesty and Paul Szlemenics as writers on legal history; Joseph Bajza, who in 1845 commenced a History of the World; Alexander Szilagyi, some of whose works, like those of Ladislaus KOvary, bear on the past of Transylvania, others on the Hungarian revolution of 1848-1849; Charles L, nyi and John Pauer, authors of treatises on Roman Catholic ecclesiastical history; John Szombathi, Emeric Revesz and Balogh, writers on Protestant church history; William Fraknoi, biographer of Cardinal Pazman, and historian of the Hungarian diets; and Anthony Gevay, Aaron Sziladi, Joseph Podhradczky, Charles Szabo, John Jerney and Francis Salamon, who have investigated and elucidated many special historical subjects.
As compilers of useful manuals may be mentioned also Joseph Szvorenyi, Zoltan Betithy, Alexander Imre, Paul Jambor, Ladislaus Nevy, John Kornyei and Joseph Szinnyei, junior.
A coat-of-arms was given to the inhabitants by Ladislaus for their courage during the storming of Milan; and the place is mentioned as a royal town under Ottokar II.
of Hohenzollern, burgrave of Nuremberg, and in 1391 did the same for the Teutonic Order against Ladislaus V., king of Poland and prince of Lithuania.
The struggle, however, entered on a new phase with the appearance at Prague in May 141 2 of the papal emissary charged with the proclamation of the papal bulls by which a religious war was decreed against the excommunicated King Ladislaus of Naples, and indulgence was promised to all who should take part in it, on terms similar to those which had been enjoyed by the earlier crusaders to the Holy Land.
By his bold and thorough-going opposition to this mode of procedure against Ladislaus, and still more by his doctrine that indulgence could never be sold without simony, and could not be lawfully granted by the church except on condition of genuine contrition and repentance, Huss at last isolated himself, not only from the archiepiscopal party under Albik of Unitschow, but also from the theological faculty of the university, and especially from such men as Stanislaus of Znaim and Stephen Paletz, who until then had been his chief supporters.
of Austria, and at the death of her brother King Ladislaus in 1414 she succeeded to the Neapolitan crown.
The queen now sent Sforza to re-establish her authority in Rome, whence the Neapolitans had been expelled after the death of Ladislaus; Sforza entered the city and obliged the condottiere Braccio da Montone, who was defending it in the pope's name, to depart (1416).
(1326-1382), called "the great," king of Hungary and Poland, was the third son of Charles Robert, king of Hungary, and Elizabeth, daughter of the Polish king, Ladislaus Lokietek.
Of the books relating to the Polish Vasas the most notable is Szajnocha's Two Years of our History, 1646-1648 (Lemberg, 1865), which deals exhaustively with the little-known but remarkable attempt (the last practical attempt of its kind) of Ladislaus IV.
Eight years before the death of Vegio, Aeneas Sylvius Piccolomini (Pius II.) had composed a brief treatise on education in the form of a letter to Ladislaus, the young king of Bohemia and Hungary.
For a brief period, in the 7th and 8th centuries, the conquering Sla y s made it one of their Zupanates, or governments; but in the 10th century it was sacked by the Magyars, and in 1092 its territories were bestowed upon the cathedral chapter of Agram by Ladislaus I., king of Hungary.
The town is mentioned in the 12th century, when Judith, queen of Ladislaus I.
It was founded by Casimir the Great in 1364, and completed by Ladislaus Jagiello in 1400.
of Bohemia and was held by the Bohemians until, in 1305, the Polish king Ladislaus Lokietek recovered it from Wenceslaus III.
Ladislaus made it his capital, and from this time until 1764 it remained the coronation and burial place of the Polish kings, even after the royal residence had been removed by Siegmund III.
(1175-1235), king of Hungary, son of Bela III., king of Hungary, succeeded his nephew, the infant Ladislaus III., in 1205.
In May 1390 Ladislaus, the son of Charles of Durazzo, who had been assassinated in the February of 1386, received the royal crown at the hands of a papal legate.
closely attached himself; and his support of the king against the Angevins cost him enormous sums, without which Ladislaus could not have secured his victory over the French claimant.
However, the adventure failed; and by the aid of Ladislaus, the castles of the Colonnas in the vicinity of Rome were destroyed.
The capture of Rome by King Ladislaus of Naples had compelled John XXIII.
Since John's most immediate need was now protection and assistance against his terrible opponent Ladislaus, he sent, towards the close of August 1413, Cardinals Chalant and Francesco Zabarella, together with the celebrated Greek Manuel Chrysoloras, to King Sigismund, and commissioned them to determine the time and place of the forthcoming council.
LADISLAUS IV., The Kumanian (1262-1290), king of Hungary, was the son of Stephen V., whom he succeeded in 1272.
In this terrible school Ladislaus matured precociously.
During the earlier part of his reign, Ladislaus obsequiously followed the direction of the Neapolitan court in foreign affairs.
Ladislaus was not really a pagan, or he would not have devoted his share of the spoil of Durnkriit to the building of the Franciscan church at Pressburg, nor would he have venerated as he did his aunt St Margaret.
See Karoly Szabo, Ladislaus the Cumanian (Hung.), (Budapest, 1886); and Acsady, History of the Hungarian Realm, i.
The latter is, however, too favourable to Ladislaus.
Ladislaus V >>
In 109 4 Agram was founded by Ladislaus I.
He died in 1439, and just after his death a son was born to him, who was called Ladislaus Minority Posthumus, and succeeded to the duchy of Austria and to the kingdoms of Hungary and Bohemia.
The estates of Austria were equally discontented and headed an open revolt, the object of which was to remove Ladislaus from Frederick's charge and deprive the latter of the regency.
Frederick, who had hurried back from Italy, was besieged in August in the Vienna Neustadt, and was forced to deliver Ladislaus to Count Ulrich, whose influence had meanwhile eclipsed that of Eiczing.
Ladislaus now ruled nominally himself, under the tutelage of Count Ulrich.
Ulrich of Cilli was killed before Belgrade in November 1456; a year later Ladislaus himself died (November 1457).
Meanwhile Styria and Carinthia were equally unfortunate under the rule of Frederick and Albert; and the death of Ladislaus led to still further complications.
Frederick, who succeeded Albert as German king, and was soon crowned emperor as Frederick III., acted as guardian for Sigismund of Tirol, who was a minor, and also became regent of Austria in consequence of the Regency of the infancy of Ladislaus.
The solitary success amid the general disorder in the Empire was the expedition undertaken in 1142 by Conrad into Bohemia, where he restored his brother-in-law Ladislaus to this throne.
An attempt, however, to perform the same service for another brother-in-law, also called Ladislaus, who had been driven from his Polish dukedom, ended in failure.
In later years, however, hope of obtaining aid from Poland in his struggle against King Matthias induced him to offer the succession to the Bohemian throne to Vladislav (Wladislaus, Ladislaus), son of Casimir, king of Poland.
It was ruled by the Bosnian king, Tvrtko, from 1390 to 1391; and in 1402 the famous and powerful Bosnian prince, Hrvoje or Harvoye, received the dukedom of Spalato from Ladislaus of Naples, the claimant to the Hungarian throne.
In 1413, after the overthrow of Ladislaus by the emperor Sigismund, Hrvoje was banished; but a large octagonal tower, the Torre d'Harvoye, still bears his name.
This prince during the earlier part of his reign sought a counterpoise to Hungarian influence in close alliance with King Ladislaus V.
The overlordship over the country was, however, contested by the king of Poland, and their rival claims were a continual source of dispute between the two kingdoms. In 1412 a remarkable agreement was arrived at between Sigismund, in his quality of king of Hungary, and King Ladislaus II.
It is situated in a plain on both banks of the river Sebeskoros, and is the seat of a Roman Catholic and of a Greek (Old-United) bishopric. Among its principal buildings are the St Ladislaus parish church, built in 1723, which contains the remains of the king St Ladislaus (d.
Its bishopric was founded by St Ladislaus in 1080.
Stephen died suddenly on the 6th of August Charles, the son of Charles of Anjou, was to marry Stephen's daughter Maria, while Stephen's infant son Ladislaus was to marry Charles's daughter Elizabeth.
1272, just as he was raising an army to recover his kidnapped infant son Ladislaus from the hands of his rebellious vassals.
The chief events in its annals are the defeat of the Turks in 1621 by Ladislaus IV., of Poland, in 1673 by John Sobieski, of Poland, and in 1739 by the Russians under Miinnich; the defeat of the Russians by the Turks in 1768; the capture by the Russians in 1769, and by the Austrians in 1788; and the occupation by the Russians in 1806.
appealed for aid to her brother Ladislaus I., king of Hungary..
Ladislaus took possession of the country in 1091.
His successor Ladislaus of Poland (1490 - I 516) added Slavonia to the kingdoms named in the royal title, which now included the words "King of Dalmatia and Croatia and Slavonia" (Rex Dalmatiae et Croatiae et Slavoniae).
of Poland incorporated Galicia and Lemberg; on Casimir's death in 1370 Louis the Great of Hungary, in accordance with previous treaties, became king of Poland, Galicia and Lodomeria; and in 1382, by the marriage of Louis's daughter with Ladislaus II., Galicia, which he had regarded as part of his Hungarian rather than of his Polish possessions, became definitively assigned to Poland.
of Anjou engaged with Ladislaus of Durazzo, king of Sicily, and Gregory XII.'s chief protector in Italy, at first went in John's favour.
After the brilliant victory of Roccasecca (May 19, 1411) he had the satisfaction of dragging the standards of Pope Gregory and King Ladislaus through the streets of Rome.
to abandon the French claimant to the throne of Sicily; he recognized Ladislaus, his former enemy, as king of Naples, and Ladislaus did not fail to salute John XXIII.
Less than a year after the treaty concluded with Ladislaus of Durazzo, the latter forced his way into Rome (June 8, 1413), which he sacked, expelling John, to whom even the Florentines did not dare to throw open their gates for fear of the king of Sicily.
It was in vain that, on the death of Ladislaus, which took place unexpectedly (August 6, 1414), John was inspired with the idea of breaking his compact with Sigismund and returning to Rome, at the same time appealing to Louis of Anjou.
(1440), and thus came into collision with the powerful Cilleis, the chief supporters of Albert's widow Elizabeth and her infant son, Ladislaus V.
(see Cillei, Ulrich; and Ladislaus V.).
At the diet which met in February 1445 a provisional government, consisting of five Magyar captain-generals, was formed, Hunyadi receiving Transylvania and the ultra-Theissian counties as his district; but the resulting anarchy became unendurable, and on the 5th of June 1446 Hunyadi was unanimously elected governor of Hungary in the name of Ladislaus V., with regal powers.
In 1450 Hunyadi went to Pressburg to negotiate with Frederick the terms of the surrender of Ladislaus V., but no agreement could be come to, whereupon the Cilleis and Hunyadi's other enemies accused him of aiming at the throne.
He shut their mouths by resigning all his dignities into the hands of the young king, on his return to Hungary at the beginning of 1453, whereupon Ladislaus created him count of Bestercze and captain-general of the kingdom.
1619), who was sent as ambassador to Poland to offer the Russian crown to Prince Ladislaus.
By this treaty it was agreed that Maximilian should succeed to the crown in case Ladislaus left no legitimate male issue.
The diet of Cologne discussed the question of reform in a halting fashion, but afforded the king supplies for an expedition into Hungary, to aid his ally Ladislaus, and to uphold his own influence in the East.
Maximilian has been called the second founder of the house of Habsburg, and certainly by bringing about marriages between Charles and Joanna and between his grandson Ferdinand and Anna, daughter of Ladislaus, king of Hungary and Bohemia, he paved the way for the vast empire of Charles V.
On the death of his father he was inveigled to Buda by the enemies of his house, and, on the pretext of being concerned in a purely imaginary conspiracy against Ladislaus V., was condemned to decapitation, but was spared on account of his youth, and on the king's death fell into the hands of George PodÃ©brad, governor of Bohemia, the friend of the Hunyadis, in whose interests it was that a national king should sit on the Magyar throne.
An historical poem of a somewhat philosophical nature was produced in 1814 by Andreas Horvath under the title of Zircz emlekezete (Reminiscence of Zircz); but his Arpdd, in 12 books, finished in 1830, and published at Pest in the following year, is a great national epic. Among other poets of this period were Alois Szentmiklossy, George Gaal, Emil Buczy, Joseph SzÃ¡sz, Ladislaus Toth and Joseph Katona, author of the much-extolled historical drama Bank Ban.'
6 Besides the various translators from the English, as for instance William Gyori, Augustus Greguss, Ladislaus Arany, Sigismond Acs, Stephen Fejes and Eugene Rakosy, who, like those already incidentally mentioned, assisted in the Kisfaludy society's version of Shakespeare's complete works, metrical translations from foreign languages were successfully made by Emil Abranyi, Dr Ignatius Barna, Anthony Varady, Andrew Szabo, Charles Berczy, Julius Greguss, Lewis Doczi, Bela Eredi, Emeric Gaspar and many others.
Of the novels produced by other authors between 1870 and 1880, we may mention A hol az ember kezdodik (Where the Man Begins), by Edward Kavassy (1871), in which he severely lashes the idling Magyar nobility; Az en ismeroseim (My Acquaintances), bi Lewis Tolnai (1871); and Anatol, by Stephen Toldy (1872); the versified romances Deli babok hOse (Hero of the Fata Morgana), generally ascribed to Ladislaus Arany, but anonymously published, A szerelem hOse (Hero of Love), by John Vajda (1873), and Talalkozdsok (Rencounters) by the same (1877), and A Tiinderov (The Fairy Zone), by John Bulla (1876), all four interesting as specimens of narrative poetry; Kalozdy Bela (1875), a tale of Hungarian provincial life, by Zoltan Beothy, a pleasing writer who possesses a fund of humour, and appears to follow the best English models; Edith tortenete (History of Edith), by Joseph Prem (1876); Nyomorusag iskoldja (School of Misery), by the prolific author Arnold Vertesi (1878); Tilkolt szerelem (Secret Love), by Cornelius Abranyi (1879), a social-political romance of some merit; and Uj idOk, avult emberek (Modern Times, Men of the Past), by L.
As compilers and authors of works in various scientific branches allied to history, may be particularly mentioned-in statistics and geography, Alexius Fenyes, Emeric Palugyay, Alexander Konek, John Hunfalvy, Charles Galgoczy, Charles Keleti, Leo Beothy, Joseph Korosi, Charles Ballagi and Paul Kiraly, and, as regards Transylvania, Ladislaus Kovary; in travel, Arminius Vambery, Ignatius Goldziher, Ladislaus Magyar, John Xantus, John Jerney, Count Andrassy, Ladislaus Podmaniczky, Paul Hunfalvy; in astronomy, Nicholas Konkoly; in archaeology, Bishop Arnold Ipolyi, Florian Romer, Emeric Henszlmann, John Erdy, Baron Albert Nyary, Francis Pulszky and Francis Kiss; in Hungarian mythology, Bishop Ipolyi, Anthony Csengery,' and Arpad Kerekgyarto; in numismatics, John Erdy and Jacob Rupp; and in jurisprudence, Augustus Karvassy, Theodore Pauler, Gustavus Wenczel, Emeric Csacsk6, John Fogarasi and Ignatius Frank.
In Hungary itself a large party was in favour of the Germans, but the civil wars which raged between the two factions from 1276 to 1278 did not prevent Ladislaus, at the head of 20,000 Magyars and Kumanians, from co-operating with Rudolph of Habsburg in the great battle of Durnkri t (August 26th, 1278), which destroyed, once for all, the empire of the Pfemyslidae.
Political enmity was largely responsible for the movement against him, yet the result of a very careful investigation (1279-1281) by Philip, bishop of Fermo, more than justified many of the accusations brought against Ladislaus.
Two magnificent marble ambones, the larger dating from 1175, a large 11th-century altar frontal in the south aisle, having scenes from the Bible carved on thirty ivory tablets, with 13th-century mosaics in the apse, given by Giovanni da Procida, the promotor of the Sicilian Vespers, and the tomb of Pope Gregory VII., and that of Queen Margaret of Durazzo, mother of King Ladislaus, erected in 1412, deserve to be mentioned.
publicly offered indulgences for sale at Prague, wishing to raise money for the pope's campaign against King Ladislaus of Naples, an adherent of the antipope of Avignon.
The election was opposed at Rome by a considerable party, but peace was maintained by the aid of Ladislaus of Naples, in return for which Innocent made a promise, inconsistent with his previous oath, not to come to terms with the antipope Benedict XIII., except on condition that he should recognize the claims of Ladislaus to Naples.
Other churches with interesting monuments are Sant' Anna dei Lombardi, built in 1411 by Guerrello Origlia, which contains some splendid marble sculpture, especially Rosellino's " Nativity " in the Cappella Piccolomini; Sant' Angelo a Nilo, which contains the tomb of Cardinal Brancaccio, the joint work of Donatello and Michelozzo; San Giovanni a Carbonara, built in 1344 and enlarged by King Ladislaus in 1400, which contains among much other remarkable sculpture the tomb of the king, the masterpiece of Andrea Ciccione (1414), and that of Sergiami Caracciolo, the favourite of Joanna II., who was murdered in 1432 (the chapel in which it stands is paved with one of the earliest majolica pavements in Italy); San Lorenzo (1324), the Royal Church of the House of Anjou; and, for purely archaeological interest, the Church of Sant' Aspreno, thought to be the oldest Christian church in Italy, in the crypt of the new Borsa or exchange.
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