Of more general interest, however, are his labours in pure mathematics, which appear for the most part in Crelle's Journal from 1828 to 1858.
He frequently declares that this discovery was the result of the literary labours of his whole life.
The whole of this large series of reforms was conducted under his own personal supervision, and upon no part of his multifarious labours did he dwell in his letters home with greater pride.
The scene of his labours for fifteen years was Languedoc, the Vivarais, and Dauphine.
About the same time, having shown too open sympathy with the revolutionary or reforming tendencies of 1848, he was for; olitical reasons obliged to leave Berlin and retire to the seclusion of Wiirzburg, the medical school of which profited enormously by his labours as professor of pathological anatomy, and secured a wide extension of its reputation.
In this third part Aquinas discusses the person, office and work of Christ, and had begun to discuss the sacraments, when death put an end to his labours.
Vaughan, St Thomas of Aquin, his Life and Labours (London, 1872): other lives by P. Cavanagh (London, 1890); E.
Despite the fact that with the exception of the period of the "Great Awakening" (1740-1742), when he preached as an itinerant in several neighbouring colonies, his active labours were confined to his own parish, his influence on the religious thought of his time in America was probably surpassed only by that of his old friend and teacher Jonathan Edwards.
Meanwhile, he assisted his father in his financial labours, but still found time to write some of his earliest works.
Judged in other ways, however, the influence of the assembly's labours has been very great.
Man's life here is incomplete, and the more lofty his aims, the more worthy his labours, the more incomplete will it appear to be.
In the south (of the Netherlands) Christianity was spread by the labours of devoted missionaries, foremost amongst whom were St Amandus, St Bavon and St Eligius, and bishoprics were set up at Cambrai, Tournai, Arras, Therouanne and Liege.
His labours were continued with even more striking results by another Englishman, Winfred, better known as St Boniface, the Apostle of the Germans, who suffered martyrdom at Dokkum in A.D.
The Council of Trent had recently brought its long labours to a close (December 4, 1563), and Philip resolved to enforce its decrees throughout his dominions.
with wireless telegraph transmitters, in which the oscillatory discharge of a condenser is used to create oscillations in an antenna, labours under the disadvantage that the time occupied by the oscillations is a very small fraction of the total time of actuation.
As the friars became more and more numerous their missionary labours extended wider and wider, spreading first over Italy, and then to other countries.
Stocqueler, Life and Labours of Dr Leitner (1875).
Moreover, whatever the value of Goethe's labours in that field, they were not published before 1820, long after evolutionism had taken a new departure from the works of Treviranus and Lamarck - the first of its advocates who were equipped for their task with the needful large and accurate knowledge of the phenomena of life as a whole.
During the rapid development of physical geography many branches of the study of nature, which had been included in the cosmography of the early writers, the physiography of Linnaeus and even the Erdkunde of Ritter, had been as so much advanced by the labours of specialists that their connexion was apt to be forgotten.
Ptolemy Euergetes (247-222 B.C.) rendered the greatest service to geography by the protection and encouragement of Eratosthenes, whose labours gave the first ap proximate knowledge of the true size of the spherical The .
The three voyages of Vasco da Gama (who died on the scene of his labours, at Cochin, in 1524) revolutionized the commerce of the East.
D'Anville's map contained all that was then known, but ten years afterwards Major Rennell began his surveying labours, which extended over the period from 1763 to 1782.
i.) for their warm mutual love, their heroism, and their labours on behalf of the people.
This reproach was subsequently to a great extent removed by his own labours.
In view of this contingency the Russian and French military authorities studied the military questions in common, and the result of their labours was the preparation of a military convention, which was finally ratified in 1894.
In connexion with the Monumenta Pertz also began the publication of a selection of sources in octavo form, the Scriptores rerum germanicarum in usum scholarum; among his other literary labours may be mentioned an edition of the Gesammelte Werke of Leibnitz, and a life of Stein.
As results of Roberval's labours outside the department of pure mathematics may be noted a work on the system of the universe, in which he supports the Copernican system and attributes a mutual attraction to all particles of matter; and also the invention of a special kind of balance which goes by his name.
The feelings with which he brought his labours to a close must be described in his own inimitable words: " It was on the day, or rather night, of the 27th of June 1787, between the hours of eleven and twelve, that I wrote the last lines of the last page in a summer house in my garden.
His unremitting labours impaired his health and shortened his splendid career at Durham.
Wollaston starts with the assumption that religion and morality are identical, and labours to show that religion is "the pursuit of happiness by the practice of truth and reason."
Bernoulli, this theory was advanced by the successive labours of John Herapath, J.
The labours of Golgi, Marchiafava, Celli and others established the nature of the parasite and its behaviour in the blood; they proved the fact, guessed by Rasori so far back as 1846, that the periodical febrile paroxysm corresponds with the development of the organisms; and they showed that the different forms of malarial fever have their distinct parasites, and consequently fall into distinct groups,.
These useful labours were interrupted in 1838 by complications in Afghanistan, which excited the fears.
The chief glory of the place is its splendid cathedral, dedicated to the Virgin; it was begun before 1285, perhaps by Arnolfo di Cambio, on the site of an older church; and from the 13th till the 16th century was enriched by the labours of a whole succession of great Italian painters and sculptors.
3 Scientific biblical historical study, nevertheless, is still in a relatively backward condition; and although the labours of scholars since Ewald constitute a distinct epoch, the trend of research points to the recognition of the fact that the purely subjective literary material requires a more historical treatment in the light of our increasing knowledge of external and internal conditions in the old Oriental world.
The sabbath, once a festival, had become more strictly observed, and when he found the busy agriculturists and traders (some of them from Tyre) pursuing their usual labours on that day, he pointed to the disasters which had resulted in the past from such profanation, and immediately took measures to put down the evil (Neh.
Although these and other phenomena cannot yet be safely placed in a historical frame, the methodical labours of past scholars have shed much light upon the obscurities of the exilic and post-exilic ages, and one must await the more comprehensive study of the two or three centuries which are of the first importance for biblical history and theology.
The North Carolina State Hospital (for the insane) at Raleigh was opened in 1856 as a result of the labours of Miss Dorothea Lynde Dix (1805-1887); in connexion with it there is an epileptic colony.
Their labours ended, however, in another provincial government by a Council of Safety, and the drafting of North Carolina's first state constitution was left to a constitutional convention which assembled at Halifax on the 12th of November.
In these professional labours the Indian surveyors have been assisted by such scientific geographers as General Sir A.
The labours of Charles Doughty and Arabia.
the scene of the earliest labours of Protestant missionaries in India.
The wild excesses of his youth and their terrible punishment had weakened his strong constitution, and his parliamentary labours completed the work.
Although bitterly opposed by the partisans of scholastic routine, Genovesi found influential patrons, amongst them Bartolomeo Intieri, a Florentine, who in 1754 founded the first Italian or European chair of political economy (commerce and mechanics), on condition that Genovesi should be the first professor, and that it should never be held by an ecclesiastic. The fruit of Genovesi's professorial labours was the Lezioni di Commercio, the first complete and systematic work in Italian on economics.
His episcopal labours were still more arduous.
(1488), " two hundred persons were occupied and lived of their lawful labours, now there are occupied two or three herdsmen, and the residue fall into idleness "; therefore it is ordained that houses which within three years have been let for farms, with twenty acres of land lying in tillage or husbandry, shall be upheld, under the penalty of half the profits, to be forfeited to the king or the lord of the fee.
These associations were soon aided in their important labours by numerous local societies which sprang up in all parts of the kingdom.
We must include the pioneers of the historical school, the economic historians, the socialists, the statisticians, and others whose contributions to economics are now appreciated, and without whose labours the science as we know it now would have been impossible.
Dakiki's labours were brought to a sudden stop by his own assassination, and the fall of the Samanian house happened not long after, and their kingdom passed into the hands of the Ghaznevids.
The exegetical labours of Origen extend over the whole of the Old and New Testaments.
Feuerbach labours under the same difficulty as Fichte; both thinkers strive in vain to reconcile the religious consciousness with subjectivism.
He extended his labours to the cantons of Neuchatel and Vaud.
The first is entitled Externarum et internarum principalium humani corporis Tabulae, &c. while the second, which is the most valuable, is merely appended to the Lectiones Gabrielis Fallopii de partibus similaribus humani corporis, &c., and thus, the scope of each work being regarded as medical, the author's labours were wholly overlooked by the mere naturalhistorians who followed, though Coiter introduced a table, " De differentiis Auium," furnishing a key to a rough classification of such birds as were known to him, and this as nearly the first attempt of the kind deserves notice here.
The author was well acquainted with the labours of his predecessors, as his list of over one hundred of them testifies.
This foundation was laid by the joint labours of Francis Willughby (1635-1672) and John Ray (1628-1705), for it is impossible to separate their share of work in natural history more than to say that, while the former more especially devoted himself to zoology, botany was the favourite pursuit of the latter.
The chief merit of the latter work lies in its forty plates, whereon the heads and feet of many birds are indifferently figured .2 But, while the successive editions of Linnaeus's great work were revolutionizing natural history, and his example of precision in language producing excellent effect on scientific writers, several other authors were advancing the study of ornithology in a very different way - a way that pleased the eye even more than his labours were pleasing the mind.
He seems to have regarded the work just named as a necessary precursor to his own labours in ornithology.
4 Taking his labours as a whole, there cannot be a doubt that he enormously enlarged the purview of naturalists, and, even if limited to birds, that, on the completion of his work upon them in 1783, ornithology stood in a very different position from that which it had before occupied.
Gmelin availed himself of every publication he could, but he perhaps found his richest booty in the labours of Latham, neatly condensing his English descriptions into Latin diagnoses, and bestowing on them binomial names.
cation of which the same author has issued a Manual of the Birds of New Zealand (8vo, 1882), founded on the former; but justice requires that mention be made of the labours of G.
Moreover, it veiled the honest attempts that were making both in France and Germany to find real grounds for establishing an improved state of things, and consequently the labours of De Blainville, Etienne, Geoffroy St-Hilaire and L'Herminier, of Merrem, Johannes Muller and Nitzsch-to say nothing of others-were almost wholly unknown on this side of the Channel, and even the value of the investigations of British ornithotomists of high merit, such as Macartney and Pvlacgillivray, was almost completely overlooked.
It is now for us to trace the rise of the present more advanced school of ornithologists, whose labours yet give signs of far greater promise.
Following the chronological order we are here adopting, we next have to recur to the labours of Nitzsch, who, in 1820, in a treatise on the nasal glands of birds - a subject that Nitzsch had already attracted the attention of Jacobson (Nouv.
p. 266), so that Englishmen need no excuse for not being aware of one of Nitzsch's labours, though his more advanced work of 1829, presently to be mentioned, was not referred to by Sir R.
Upon these descriptions he was still engaged till death, in 1837, put an end to his labours, when his place as Naumann's assistant for the remainder of the work was taken by Rudolph Wagner; but, from time to time, a few more, which he had already completed, made their posthumous appearance in it, and, in subsequent years, some selections from his unpublished papers were through the care of Giebel presented to the public. Throughout the whole of this series the same marvellous industry and scrupulous accuracy are manifested, and attentive study of it will show how many times Nitzsch anticipated the conclusions of modern taxonomers.
Consequently his labours had attained to a certain degree of completeness in this direction, and it may therefore be expedient here to name the different groups which he thus thought himself entitled to consider established.
The latter's name seems not to be even mentioned by him, but Nitzsch was in Paris in the summer of 1827, and it is almost impossible that he should not have heard of L'Herminier's labours, unless the relations between the followers of Cuvier to whom Nitzsch attached himself, and those of De Blainville, whose pupil L'Herminier was, were such as to forbid anv communication between the rival schools.
We can best judge of his labours from an abstract reprinted in the Comptes rendus (iii.
It is obvious that both these investigators had the genius for recognizing and interpreting the value of characters; but their labours do not seem to have met with much encouragement; and a general arrangement of the class laid by Blyth before the Zoological Society at this time 1 does not appear in its publications.
On the whole Brandt's labours were of no small service in asserting the principle that consideration must be paid to osteology; for his position was such as to gain more attention to his views than some of his less favourably placed brethren had succeeded in doing.
It seems that this was issued as much with the object of inviting assistance from others in view of future labours, since the materials at his disposal were comparatively scanty, as with that of making known the results to which his researches had already led him.
To begin with, 1 Though not relating exactly to our present theme, it would be improper to dismiss Nitzsch's name without reference to his extraordinary labours in investigating the insect and other external parasites of birds, a subject which as regards British species was subsequently elaborated by Denny in his Monographia Anoplurorum Britanniae (1842) and in his list of the specimens of British Anoplura in the collection of the British Museum.
Looking on Miller's labours as we now can, we see that such errors as he committed are chiefly due to his want of special knowledge of ornithology, combined with the absence in several instances of sufficient materials for investigation.
In the evolution of these laws Dr Cornay had most laudably studied, as his observations prove, a vast number of different types, and the upshot of his whole labours, though not very clearly stated, was such as to wholly subvert the classification at that time generally adopted by French ornithologists.
The final disposition of the " Sub-class Insessores " - all the 2 On the other hand, Muller makes,several references to the labours.
Here he continued his labours in experimental science and also in the composition of complete treatises.
The outgoing must leave for the incoming tenant convenient housing and other facilities for the labours of the year following; the incoming must procure for the outgoing tenant conveniences for the consumption of his fodder and for the harvests remaining to be got in.
Valuable summaries of the labours of Malpighi, Swammerdam and other early entomologists are given in L.
There he continued his literary and scientific labours, enjoying congenial intercourse with such men as Matthew Boulton, James Keir, James Watt and Erasmus Darwin at the periodical dinners of the Lunar Society.
The fresh insight into the history of the church evinced by this work at once drew attention to its author, and even before he had terminated the first year of his academical labours at Heidelberg, he was called to Berlin, where he was appointed professor of theology.
At Berlin Harnack continued his literary labours.
In the course of his fifty-two years' editorship of the Annalen Poggendorff could not fail to acquire an unusual acquaintance with the labours of modern men of science.
This knowledge, joined to what he had gathered by historical reading of equally unusual extent, he carefully digested and gave to the world in his Biographisch-literarisches Handworterbuch zur Geschichte der exacten Wissenschaften, containing notices of the lives and labours of mathematicians, astronomers, physicists, and chemists, of all peoples and all ages.
Athens, however, was the favourite site of his architectural labours; here he built the temple of Olympian Zeus, the Panhellenion, the Pantheon, the library, a gymnasium and a temple of Hera.
In the midst of his labours came the news that the senate had refused to confirm his appointment as peace commissioner.
To this period also belong the labours of Richard Pococke and Richard Dalton, Richard Chandler, E.
The frieze of the entablature contains sculptures only in the metopes of the east front and in those of the sides immediately adjoining it; the frontal metopes represent the labours of Heracles, the lateral the exploits of Theseus.
It is unnecessary in this place to recapitulate the many results which had accumulated by the end of the 18th century, or to discuss the labours and theories of individual workers since these receive attention under biographical headings; in this article only the salient features in the history of our science can be treated.
Berzelius, who, fired with enthusiasm by the original theory of Dalton and the law of multiple proportions, determined the equivalents of combining ratios of many elements in an enormous number of compounds.2 He prosecuted his labours in this field for thirty years; as proof of his industry it may be mentioned that as early as 1818 he had determined the combining ratios of about two thousand simple and compound substances.
These elements occur in the minerals columbite and tantalite, and their compounds became known in the early part of the 19th century by the labours of C. Hatchett, A.
But that he was sufficiently alert as the principal adviser of the elector the results of his labours in that capacity amply prove.
In this institution they were both housed and fed, and they not only supported themselves by their labours but earned a surplus for the benefit of the electoral revenues.
The displeasure of the master sometimes dismissed his domestics to the more oppressive labours of the mill or the mine.
The Epicurean had no scruple about the servitude of those whose labours contributed to his own indulgence and tranquillity.
The list of grievances presented by Wesley's enemies to the Grand Jury at Savannah gives abundant evidence of his unwearying labours for his flock.
Joachim, however, was unable to continue his abbatial functions in the midst of his labours in prophetic exegesis, and, moreover, his asceticism accommodated itself but ill with the somewhat lax discipline of Corazzo.
Levi Coffin (1798-1877), a native of North Carolina (whose cousin, Vestal Coffin, had established before 1819 a "station" of the Underground near what is now Guilford College, North Carolina), in 1826 settled in Wayne County, Ohio; his home at New Garden (now Fountain City) was the meeting point of three "lines" from Kentucky; and in 1847 he removed to Cincinnati, where his labours in bringing slaves out of the South were even more successful.
The report drawn up by the commission on the results of its labours was submitted to the Council of Ministers, which then finally drew up a general summary of the definitive budget and submitted it by mazbata (memorandum) for the imperial sanction.
A member of his expeditions, de Flotte Rocquevaire, made a triangulation of part of the western portion of the main Atlas, his labours affording a basis for the co-ordination of the work of previous explorers.
Widely varying views have been held by modern scholars with regard to his activity, some going so far as to treat all the accounts of his labours as the fictitious creation of a later age.
Landing on the shores of Strangford Lough, he commenced his labours in the plain on the south-west side of that inlet.
Although the Arctic Ocean had been reached as early as the first half of the 17th century, the exploration of its coasts by a series of expeditions under Ovtsyn, Minin, Pronchishev, Lasinius and Laptev - whose labours constitute a brilliant page in the annals of geographical discovery - was begun only in the 18th century (1735-1739).
The results of all these labours have been published, from about 1850 onwards, annually, and, indeed, almost from day to day, in various scientific periodicals.
In addition to his Sunday labours he lectured throughout the States, and prosecuted his wide studies, collecting particularly the materials for an opus magnum on the development of religion in mankind.
To this entire branch of knowledge, in short, he successfully imparted that character of generality and completeness towards which his labours invariably tended.
His genius was one of generalization and abstraction; and the aspirations of the time towards unity and perfection received, by his serene labours, an embodiment denied to them in the troubled world of politics.
When he is an emperor, a king, or a president of a republic, it is not expected that he will act personally; he may appoint a delegate or delegates to act on his behalf, and avail himself of their labours and views, the ultimate decision being his only in name.
of Doune, on the right bank of the Teith, was the scene of the labours of James Smith (1789-1850), the agricultural engineer, who was also manager of the cotton mills established there in 1785.
The more important contributions to our present knowledge of Brazil, however, have been obtained through the labours of foreign naturalists.
In the spring he returned to Copenhagen with recovered health and spirits, and worked quietly at his protean literary labours until the great fire of 1728.
The pupil, entering into his master's labours, was able from the first to take a more comprehensive survey of the whole field; and in addition he was doubtless endowed with an intellect which was finer, though it might not be more powerful, than his master's.
His labours were as various as they were incessant - now guiding the councils of the league, now addressing crowded and enthusiastic meetings of his supporters in London or the large towns of England and Scotland, now invading the agricultural districts and challenging the landlords to meet him in the presence of their own farmers, to discuss the question in dispute, and now encountering the Chartists, led by Feargus O'Connor.
His first intention was to seek complete seclusion in Egypt or Italy, to recover health and strength after his long and exhausting labours.
Throughout his long labours in behalf of unrestricted commerce he never lost sight of this, as being the most precious result of the work in which he was engaged, - its tendency to diminish the hazards of war and to bring the nations of the world into closer and more lasting relations of peace and friendship with each other.
The most valuable part of his property still consisted of flocks and herds, or the products of the labours of his serfs, a large proportion of whom were bee-keepers, hunters and fishers employed in and around the interminable virgin-forests of the rough-hewn young monarchy.
The Uralian travels of Anthony Reguly (1843-1845), and the philological labours of Paul Hunfalvy and Joseph Budenz, may be said to have established it, and no doubt has been thrown on it by recent research, though most authorities regard the Magyars as of mixed origin physically and combining Turkish with Finno-Ugric elements.
The Calvinist Albert Molnar, already mentioned, was more remarkable for his philological than for his theological labours.
The philosophical labours of the already mentioned John Erdelyi and of Augustus Greguss won for them well-deserved recognition, the latter especially being famous for his aesthetical productions, in which he appears to follow out the principles of Vischer.
The labours of Stephen Horvath in the preceding period had prepared the way for future workers in the field of historical literature.
He is, moreover, the warm advocate of the theory of its Ugrio-Finnic origin, as established by the Uralian traveller Anthony Reguly, the result of whose labours Hunfalvy published in 1864, under the title A Vogul fold es nep (The Vogul Land and People).
The discordance of their results incited Laplace to a searching examination of the whole subject of planetary perturbations, and his maiden effort was rewarded with a discovery which constituted, when developed and completely demonstrated by his own further labours and those of his illustrious rival Lagrange, the most important advance made in physical astronomy since the time of Newton.
Legendre there was a feeling of "more than coldness," owing to his appropriation, with scant acknowledgment, of the fruits of the other's labours; and Dr Thomas Young counted himself, rightly or wrongly, amongst the number of those similarly aggrieved by him.
It is impossible to enumerate or to give due consideration to all the names in the army of anatomical and embryological students of the middle third of the 19th century whose labours bore fruit in the modification of zoological theories and in the building up of a true classification of animals.
As a result of these labours there is now in the Bohemian portion of the river a minimum depth of 2 ft.
Though the science was certainly not advanced by their labours, it was saved from total oblivion, and many ancient medical works were preserved either in Latin or vernacular versions.
roso); his labours were directed chiefly to the less important and less bulky Arabian authors, of whom Haly was the most noted; the real classics were not introduced till later.
Joseph Skoda (1805-1881) extended, and in some respects corrected, the art of auscultation as left by Laennec. Karl Rokitansky (1804-1878), by his colossal labours, placed the science of morbid anatomy on a permanent basis, and enriched it by numerous discoveries of detail.
By his eminent labours in cellular pathology, Virchow, and Metchnikoff later, gave the last blow to the mere humoral pathology which, after an almost unchallenged prevalence for some two thousand years, now finds a resting-place only in our nurseries.
Perhaps no advance in medicine has done so much as the study of tuberculosis to educate the public in the methods and value of research in medical subjects, for the results, and even the methods, of such labours have been brought home not only to patients and their friends, but also to the farmer, the dairyman, the butcher, the public carrier, and, indeed, to every home in the land.
In the midst of these multifarious labours Giry found time for extensive archaeological researches, and made a special study of the medieval treatises dealing with the technical processes employed in the arts and industries.
The labours of the regular clergy here lie largely in the direction of social reform, and churches and missions have been established and are maintained by colleges, such as Christ Church, Oxford, schools and other bodies.
The sweepers continued their labours night after night, gradually extending the fairway up which heavy craft could safely venture.
Apart from Liebig's labours for the improvement of chemical teaching, the influence of his experimental researches and of his contributions to chemical thought was felt in every branch of the science.
The legend of his missionary labours in Cyprus, including martyrdom at Salamis, is quite late and untrustworthy.
An opponent of the Tubingen school, his defence of the genuineness and authenticity of the gospel of St John is among the ablest that have been written; and although on some minor points his views did not altogether coincide with those of the traditional school, his critical labours on the New Testament must nevertheless be regarded as among the most important contributions to the maintenance of orthodox opinions.
The region most thoroughly explored is Yemen, in the southwest corner of the peninsula, where the labours of a succession of travellers from Niebuhr in 1761 to E.
The original aim was to influence the old Nestorian Church rather than to set up a new religious body, but the wide difference between Presbyterians and an Oriental Church rendered the attempt abortive, and the result of the labours of the Americans has been the establishment since 1862 of a Syrian Protestant community in Persia, with some adherents in Turkey.
A list of Peruvian authors in viceregal times occupies a long chapter in the life of St Toribio 1 by Montalvo; and the bibliographical labours of the Peruvian Leon Pinelo are still invaluable to Spanish students.
The topographical labours of Cosme Bueno and Unanue were ably continued at Lima by Admiral Don Eduardo Carrasco, who compiled annual guides of Peru from 1826.
Among other missionary labours of his later years, he helped the Free Church mission on Lake Nyassa, travelled to Syria to inspect a mission at Lebanon, and assisted Lady Aberdeen and Lord Polwarth to establish the Gordon Memorial Mission in Natal.
It was this which made him add to his labours the burden of delivering every year from 1831 to 1848 a course of gratuitous lectures on astronomy for a popular audience.
This object is to show the sciences as branches remodel the whole science, yet not the less will they recognize the merit of the first work which has facilitated their labours."- Congreve.
In 1762, at the age of eighteen, he went up to Konigsberg with the intention of studying medicine, but finding himself unequal to the operations of the dissecting-room, he abandoned this object, and, by the help of one or two friends and his own self-supporting labours, followed out his earlier idea of the clerical profession by joining the university.
Released from the labours of office, Gladstone, living in chambers in the Albany, practically divided his time between his parliamentary duties and study.
His episcopate, which lasted some thirty years, was characterized by great missionary zeal, and by so much success that, according to the (doubtless somewhat rhetorical) statement of Gregory of Nyssa, whereas at the outset of his labours there were only seventeen Christians in the city, there were at his death only seventeen persons in all who had not embraced Christianity.
Dlugosz's literary labours did not interfere with his political activity.
His labours coincided in time with the great development of biology under the stimulus of the Darwinian theory, and the sympathizers with the new views, feeling the need of a comprehensive survey of the world as a whole, very widely accepted Spencer's philosophy at its own valuation, both in England and, still more, in America.
The sculptures from the stage front, now in the museum, have the labours of Heracles as their subject.
to) and the priests waited in their office, but still a curse seemed to rest on the nation's labours (iii.
Besides aiding his brother in his literary labours, he published, in 1749-1760, Codex Liturgicus Ecclesiae Universae in xv.
His literary labours were very extensive.
These scholarly labours, however, did not take up his whole time, and it was almost impossible for Jerome to be long anywhere without getting into a dispute.
The first result of their joint labours was the much-needed codification of the laws of Great and Little Poland in 1347.
Of the principal later writers whose works are extant, and to whom we owe what little knowledge we possess of the labours of their predecessors, mention will be made hereafter.
But it required the arduous labours of the archaeologist to prove a proposition that, once proven, seems self-evident.
8vo, a colossal monument of the learning and labours of various members of the Benedictine Congregation of Saint-Maur.
In the labours of this office he spent the remaining years of his life.
His labours in the decline of life were chiefly directed to the doctrine of probabilities in reference to practical purposes, and in particular to economical subjects, as, for example, to inoculation, and to the duration of married life in the two sexes, as well as to the relative proportion of male and female births.
It is matter for regret to the student that Adamson's active labours in the lecture room precluded him from systematic production.
From this point of view he would have been perhaps the first historian of philosophy of his time, had his professional labours been less exacting.
Dr Temple's tenancy of the bishopric of London was marked, if possible, by more strenuous labours than ever.
(d) The remaining chapters carry on the story of the labours of both Ezra and Nehemiah.
3), and the obscure interval of twelve years in his work corresponds very closely to that which now separates the records of Ezra's labours.
The labours of these scholars, though to the superficial student they seem to prove that everything is possible and nothing certain, have certainly thrown great light on the literary character of the Apocalypse.
The astronomical department is famous, owing partly to the labours of F.
See also for a very valuable survey of Garrick's labours as an actor, with a bibliography, C. Gaehde, David Garrick als Shakespeare-Darsteller, &c. (Berlin, 1904).
Speranski's labours also bore fruit in the constitutions granted by Alexander to Finland and Poland.
Griesbach, and worked up into an elaborate system by the latter critic. Bengel's labours on the text of the Greek Testament were received with great disfavour in many quarters.
These philological labours were of great indirect importance, for they led immediately to the study of the natural sciences, and in particular to a more accurate knowledge of geography andhistory.
Valuable also are his papers on Abelian transcendents, and his investigations in the theory of numbers, in which latter department he mainly supplements the labours of K.
This study would include industries connected with capture, those that worked up into products the results of capture, the social organizations and labours which were involved in pursuit of animals, the language, skill, inventions and knowledge resulting therefrom, and, finally, the religious conception united with the animal world, which has been named zootheism.
In Mexico the former labours of Pimentel and Orozco y Berra are supplemented by those of Bandelier, Penafiel, Herrera and Alfredo Chavero.
He had already begun his labours as a historian, but after serving his sentence in 1837, found himself debarred till 1839 from completing his course at Halle, where in 1842 he obtained a professorship. Elected to the National Assembly at Frankfort in 1848, he joined the Right Centre party, and was chosen reporter of the projected constitution.
His labours were incessant; practically every military document in the archives of the committee was Carnot's own work, and he was repeatedly in the field with the armies.
Thus began the cycle of the twelve labours.
Most of the labours lead to various adventures called 7rapepya.
This account of the hero's principal labours, exploits and crimes is derived from the mythologists Apollodorus and Diodorus, who probably followed the Heracleia by Peisander of Rhodes as to the twelve labours or that of Panyasis of Halicarnassus, but sundry variations of order and incident are found in classical literature.
The third and twelfth labours may be solar, the horned hind representing the moon, and the carrying of Cerberus to the upper world an eclipse, while the last episode of the hero's tragedy is possibly a complete solar myth developed at Trachis.
St Paul's heroic labours (30-64) had gradually gained full recognition and separate organization for the universalist strain in our Lord's teaching; and he who had never seen the earthly Jesus, but only the heavenly Christ, could even declare that Christ " though from the Jewish fathers according to the flesh " had died, " so that henceforth, even if we have known Christ according to the flesh, now we no further know Him thus," " the Lord is the Spirit," and " where the Spirit of the Lord is, there is liberty."
The fruit of his labours was his `IaTopiac in 29 books, the first universal history, beginning with the return of the Heraclidae to Peloponnesus, as the first well-attested historical event.
Bethulie, 1686, on the Orange river, in the " Conquered Territory," has been the scene of the labours of French Protestant missionaries since 1832, and possesses a fine park.
The volume of his letters and his writings in books, articles for the press and speeches and official messages, is enormous, and yet this work was done in the midst of the executive labours of a long political career.
Ultramontanism, too, labours systematically to bring the whole educational organization under ecclesiastical supervision and guidance; and it manifests the greatest repugnance to allowing the future priest to come into touch with the modern spirit.
The International Exhibition of 1851, the creation of the Museum and Science and Art Department at South Kensington, the founding of art schools and picture galleries all over the country, the spread of musical taste and the fostering of technical education may be attributed, more or less directly, to the commission of distinguished men which began its labours under Prince Albert's auspices.
The saint's labours in Scotland must be regarded as a manifestation of the same spirit of missionary enterprise with which so many of his countrymen were imbued.
The precise details, except in a few cases, are unknown, or obscured by exaggeration and fiction; but it is certain that the whole of northern Scotland was converted by the labours of Columba, and his disciples and the religious instruction of the people provided for by the erection of numerous monasteries.
Lord Selborne's literary labours included the publication in 1862 of a selection of hymns, under the title of The Book of Praise, a work in which he was greatly assisted by Daniel Sedgwick (1814-1879), a bookseller and publisher in the city of London.
In the course of his labours as editor of this volume he was struck by the unity which was presented by Christian hymnody, "binding together by the force of a common attraction, more powerful than all causes of difference, times ancient and modern, nations of various race and language, Churchmen and Nonconformists, Churches reformed and unreformed" (Preface).
The resumption of agricultural labours after the deluge was commemorated in the twelfth month, and a mystical association of the fishes, which were its Pisces.
The " zodiac of labours " was replaced in French castles and hotels by a " zodiac of pleasures," in which hunting, hawking, fishing and dancing were substituted for hoeing, planting, reaping and ploughing.8 It is curious to find the same sequence of symbols employed for the same decorative purposes in India as in Europe.
Besides his labours as an author, he was for fourteen years editor of Fraser's Magazine.
For the collection of data he necessarily relied upon the labours of a corps of assistants, and the publications named represent, properly speaking, an encyclopaedia rather than a unified history; but as a storehouse of material their value is great and is likely to be enduring.
This opened up a new field of research, and led the way in the study of Cryptogamic reproduction, which has since been much advanced by the labours of numerous botanical inquiries.
Mag.,1863-1864(whose avowed object was "to raise a noble and a suffering man to the position which his labours entitled him to occupy"), and in E.
In Cambridge he completed his work on the New Testament, the Letters of Jerome, and Seneca; and then in 1514, when there seemed no prospect of ampler preferment, he determined to transfer himself to Basel and give the results of his labours to the world.
For his literary labours and his extensive correspondence he required one or more amanuenses.
Christ was soon to return, and the employments and labours and pleasures of this age were of small concern.
It was this book which first put before the world, with Schwegler's characteristic boldness and clearness, the results of the critical labours of the earlier representatives of the new Tubingen school in relation to the first development of Christianity.
Legendre had pursued the subject which would now be called elliptic integrals alone from 1786 to 1827, the results of his labours having been almost entirely neglected by his contemporaries, but his work had scarcely appeared in 1827 when the discoveries which were independently made by the two young and as yet unknown mathematicians Abel and Jacobi placed the subject on a new basis, and revolutionized it completely.
was indeed an unceasing struggle against all the forces of anarchy and disintegration; but the fruits of his labours were richly reaped by his son Casimir III.
To say nothing of the labours of the Cistercians as colonists, pioneers and churchbuilders, or of the missions of the Dominicans and Franciscans (the former of whom were introduced into Poland by Ivo, bishop of Cracow,' the personal friend of Dominic), the Church was the one stable and unifying element in an age of centrifugal particularism.
He began his labours with The Age of Casimir the Great (1848), and Boleslaw the Brave (1849), following these with Jadwiga and Jagiello, in three volumes (1855-1856) - a work which Spasovich, in his Russian History of Slavonic Literature, compares in vigour of style and fullness of colour with Macaulay's History of England and Thierry's Norman Conquest.
But the besiegers were still weak in numbers and their labours were very exhausting.
The remainder of his life he spent partly in preaching throughout Bavaria and the adjoining districts, partly in retirement in the various houses of his order; in 1270 he preached the eighth Crusade in Austria; almost the last of his labours was the defence of the orthodoxy of his former pupil, Thomas Aquinas.
His editorial labours included the publication of various works of his predecessors, and of Epistolae ecclesiasticae praestantium ac eruditorum virorum (Amsterdam, 1684), chiefly by Jakobus Arminius, Joannes Uytenbogardus, Konrad Vorstius (1569-1622), Gerhard Vossius (1577-1649), Hugo Grotius, Simon Episcopius (his grand-uncle) and Gaspar Barlaeus; they are of great value for the history of Arminianism.
In addition to his labours on neurological and even physiological problems he made many contributions to other branches of medicine, his published works dealing, among other topics, with liver and kidney diseases, gout and pulmonary phthisis.
2 Their labours further included the 'compilation of a number of notes, to which the term Massorah is now usually applied.
Their work may be said to culminate in the vocalized text which resulted from the labours of Rabbi Aaron ben Asher in the 10th century.
As in the case of Aquila, our knowledge of the works of Theodotion and Symmachus is practically limited to the fragments that have been preserved through the labours of Origen.
Indeed, the result of his monumental labours has been to impede rather than to promote the restoration of the genuine Septuagint.
By this time he was launched on his missionary labours; he had founded a number of churches, and he was going on to found others.
In his labours on this undertaking, which was completed in 1829, he became convinced of the superiority of the "natural" system of A.
At the very outset of his labours he had been profoundly impressed with a sense of his responsibility towards the numerous outcast children who were growing up around him in ignorance and crime.
It originated in a proposal made to the committee of the Religious Tract Society, by the Rev. Thomas Charles of Bala, who found that his evangelistic and philanthropic labours in Wales were sorely hindered by the dearth of Welsh Bibles.
"Productive" is by no means equivalent to "useful": the labours of the magistrate, the soldier, the churchman, lawyer and physician, are, in Smith's sense, unproductive.
In agriculture "Nature labours along with man," and not only the capital of the farmer is reproduced with his profits, but also the rent of the landlord.
We shall pass over here the labours of Adam Sedgwick (1785-1873) and Sir Roderick Murchison (1792-1871) in the Palaeozoic of England, which because of their close relation to stratigraphy more properly concern geology; but must mention the grand contributions of Joachim Barrande (1799-1883), published in his Systeme silurien du centre de la Boheme, the first volume of which appeared in 1852.
Then the stage of novelty suddenly shifted to South America, where after the pioneer labours of Darwin, Owen and Burmeister, the field of our knowledge was suddenly and vastly extended by explorations by the brothers Ameghino (Carlos and Florentino).
Even in the spiritual labours which the Society shares with the other orders, its own ways of dealing with persons and things result from the system of training which succeeds in forming men to a type that is considered desirable.
But Tyndale continued his labours undaunted.
It is supposed to have been revised by Tyndale while in prison in the castle of Vilvorde, being the last of his labours in connexion with the English Bible.
From Matthew's Bible - itself a combination of the labours of Tyndale and Coverdale - all later revisions have been successively formed " (op. cit.
The first fruits of these labours was a New Testament issued in June 1557, with an introduction by Calvin, probably the work of William Whittingham.
While employed in the university library of Warsaw he studied bibliography, and the fruits of his labours may be seen in his Bibliograficznych Ksiag dwoje (A Couple of Books on Bibliography) (2 vols., Vilna, 1823-1826).
His edition of the celebrated Codex vaticanus, completed in 1838, but not published (ostensibly on the ground of inaccuracies) till four years after his death (1858), is the least satisfactory of his labours and was superseded by the edition of Vercellone and Cozza (1868), which itself leaves much to be desired.
It has been the scene of missionary labours since the early years of the 19th century.
Of early works the most valuable are David Livingstone, Missionary Travels in South Africa (London, 1857); Robert Moffat, Missionary Labours and Scenes in Southern Africa (London, 1842); J.
Herschel (and for some time Sir James South) had observed them, but their labours were eclipsed by Struve.
His imagination, thus kindled, animated him to those severe labours of which his great discoveries were the fruit.
His labours there as well as in Persia were not without result.
The continuation of these labours was seen in a Dictionary of Sects and Heresies (1874), an Annotated Bible (3 vols., 1878-1879), and a Cyclopaedia of Religion (1884), and received recognition in the shape of the D.D.
Further, in comparing the labours of Archimedes and Vieta, the effect of increased power of symbolical expression is very noticeable.
Thus in connexion with the subject a genus of workers became possible who may be styled " ur-computers or circle-squarers " - a name which, if it connotes anything uncomplimentary, does so because of the almost entirely fruitless character of their labours.
He died about fifty years before Abu `Ubaida and al-Asma`i, to whose labours posterity is largely indebted for the arrangement, elucidation and criticism of ancient Arabian verse; and his anthology was put together between fifty and sixty years before the compilation by Abu Tammam of the Ilamasa (q.v.).
Papa Stronsay (16) commemorates in its name, as others of both the Orkneys and Shetlands do, the labours of the Celtic papae, or missionaries, who preached the Christian gospel before the arrival of the Northmen.
Camborne was the scene of the scientific labours of Richard Trevithick (1771-1833), the engineer, born in the neighbouring parish of Illogan, and of William Bickford, the inventor of the safety-fuse, a native of Camborne.
Besides his scientific labours Robins took an active part in politics.
He held his canonry at Westminster in conjunction with the regius professorship. The strain of the joint work was very heavy, and the intensity of the interest and study which he brought to bear upon his share in the labours of the Ecclesiastical Courts Commission, of which he had been appointed a member, added to his burden.
Historic facts illustrative of the labours and sufferings of its members in the 16th and 17th centuries, 1877 (i.
To the unbroken splendours of his military career, to his honourable and conscientious labours as a parliamentary statesman, life unusually prolonged added an evening of impressive beauty and calm.
The next three years he spent at Brantwood, mainly in retirement, and unhappy in finding nearly all his labours interrupted by his broken health.
Tenison, according to Gilbert Burnet, "endowed schools, set up a public library, and kept many curates to assist him in his indefatigable labours."
O'Bryan commenced his labours in north Devon, and in 1815 a small society was formed at Lake Farm, Shebbear.
The success which followed his labours not only in the town of Utrecht, but also in Zwolle, Deventer, Kampen, Amsterdam, Haarlem, Gouda, Leiden, Delft, Zutphen and elsewhere, was immense; according to Thomas Kempis the people left their business and their meals to hear his sermons, so that the churches could not hold the crowds that flocked together wherever he came.
On the 31st of March 1820 missionaries of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions - two clergymen, two teachers, a physician, a farmer, and a printer, each with his wife - and three Hawaiians educated in the Cornwall (Connecticut) Foreign Missionary School, arrived from America and began their labours at Honolulu.
He therefore confined his attention to several practical arts and trades; and to these labours we owe his Beitrdge zur Geschichte der Erfindungen (1780-1805), translated into English as the History of Inventions - a work in which he relates the origin, history and recent condition of the various machines, utensils, &c., employed in trade and for domestic purposes.
For seven of these years he wrought among the Visigoths beyond the Danube, till the success which attended his labours drew down the persecution of the still pagan chief of the tribe.
The large proportion of Wesley's members had been gathered by the labours of himself and his helpers.
At the same time the crowning reward of his labours was the effacing of the last traces of the schism.
Zinzendorf's death (1760) had left room and need for his labours at home.
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