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labour

labour

labour Sentence Examples

  • He liked neither the labour itself nor its object.

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  • He liked neither the labour itself nor its object.

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  • This subsequently formed the first plank of the Labour platform.

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  • The general administration of the Factories and Shops Acts, to which the special boards owe their being, is vested in a chief inspector of factories, subject to the control of the minister of Labour in matters of policy.

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  • His early years were spent in the performance of such labour as fell to the lot of every farmer's son in the new states, and in the acquisition of such education as could be had in the district schools held for a few weeks each winter.

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  • The Labour movement in Australia may be traced back to the early days when transportation was in vogue, and the free immigrant and the time-expired convict objected to the competition of the bond labourer.

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  • The Labour movement in Australia may be traced back to the early days when transportation was in vogue, and the free immigrant and the time-expired convict objected to the competition of the bond labourer.

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  • Either party, or the minister for Labour, may refer a determination to the court of industrial appeals, and the court, in the event of a special board failing to make a determination, may itself be called upon to frame one.

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  • SAMUEL BAMFORD (1788-1872), English labour politician, was born at Miston, near Middleton, Lancashire, on the 28th of February 5788.

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  • SAMUEL BAMFORD (1788-1872), English labour politician, was born at Miston, near Middleton, Lancashire, on the 28th of February 5788.

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  • Either party, or the minister for Labour, may refer a determination to the court of industrial appeals, and the court, in the event of a special board failing to make a determination, may itself be called upon to frame one.

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  • "PHILLIP SNOWDEN (1864-), British Labour politician, was born at Cowling, Yorks, July 18 1864.

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  • The antagonism between free labour and slave labour became the theme of many of his speeches.

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  • In 1920 she went to Russia as a member of one of the various Labour delegations invited to inspect Soviet conditions of government.

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  • On the formation of the Commonwealth a Labour party was established in the federal houses.

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  • The party therefore determined that they would refuse to support any person standing in the Labour interests who refused to pledge himself to vote on all occasions in such way as the majority of the party might decide to be expedient.

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  • This was called the " solidarity pledge," and, united under its sanction, what was left of the Labour party contested the general election of 1894.

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  • It is possible that the London dockers' strike was not without its influence on the minds of the Australian Labour leaders.

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  • The antagonism between free labour and slave labour became the theme of many of his speeches.

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  • The release of a Hebrew servant after six years' labour (Exod.

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  • It was not long, however, before the party itself became divided on the fiscal question; and a Protectionist government coming into power, about half the Labour members gave it consistent support and enabled it to maintain office for about three years, the party as a political unit being thus destroyed.

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  • The Labour unions were able to secure in these years many concessions both as to hours and wages.

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  • Much labour was bestowed by him upon facilitating the computation of the movements of the asteroids.

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  • The events of these three years taught the Labour leaders that a parliamentary party was of little practical influence unless it was able to cast on all important occasions a solid vote, and to meet the case a new method was devised.

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  • By means of bond labour roads and bridges were con structed, and a route opened into the interior beyond Rise of the Blue Mountains.

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  • A strike of the Newcastle miners, after lasting twenty-nine weeks, came to an end in January 1890, and throughout the rest of the year there was great unrest in Labour circles.

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  • It supports the government as the power alone capable of promoting legislation, but its support is given only so long as the measures of the government are consistent with the Labour policy.

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  • On the 6th of September the silver mines closed down, and a week later a conference of employers issued a manifesto which was met next day by a counter-manifesto of the Intercolonial Labour Conference, and almost immediately afterwards by the calling out of 40,000 men.

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  • I thought, however, that the advantage she would derive would not repay her for the time and labour that such an experiment would cost.

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  • After the year 1884 Labour troubles became very frequent, the New South Wales coal miners in particular being at war with the colliery owners during the greater part of the six years intervening between then and what is called the Great Strike.

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  • Before coming, however, to the history of federation, and the evolution of the Labour party, we must refer briefly to some other questions which have been of general interest very soon after the gold discoveries, the European miners objecting strongly to the presence of these aliens upon the diggings.

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  • The one ideal which has just been described represents the Labour party from the New South Wales standpoint.

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  • The problem has been how to accomplish this work with the minimum of labour consistent with the desired accuracy.

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  • The steps by which the practice of resting from labour on the Lord's day instead of on the Sabbath was established in Christendom and received civil as well as ecclesiastical sanction are dealt with under Sunday; it is enough to observe here that this practice is naturally and even necessarily connected with the religious observance of the Lord's day as a day of worship and religious gladness, and is in full accordance with the principles laid down by Jesus in His criticism of the Sabbath of the Scribes.

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  • A special board may be formed at the request of any union of employers or of workmen, or on the initiative of the Labour department.

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  • A special board may be formed at the request of any union of employers or of workmen, or on the initiative of the Labour department.

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  • He sat on various royal commissions, including those on the Civil Service and Venereal Diseases, and from 1917 to 1919 was again chairman of the Independent Labour party.

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  • It was at such an inopportune time that the most extensive combination of Labour yet brought into action against capital formulated its demands.

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  • The Labour party held power in the Commonwealth for a short period, and has had the balance of power in its hands ever since the formation of the Commonwealth.

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  • It was at such an inopportune time that the most extensive combination of Labour yet brought into action against capital formulated its demands.

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  • Naturally, however, as the ideals of the members of the party are the same, the members of the Labour party will be generally found voting together on all important divisions, the chief exception being with regard to free trade or protection.

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  • He unsuccessfully contested Blackburn in 1900 and Wakefield in 1902, and in 1903 he became chairman of the Independent Labour party.

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  • During the whole period from 1873 onwards, prices, other than of labour, were steadily tending downwards, so that the cost of living in 1890 was much below that of 1873.

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  • During the whole period from 1873 onwards, prices, other than of labour, were steadily tending downwards, so that the cost of living in 1890 was much below that of 1873.

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  • When the excitement consequent on the gold finds had subsided, there was a considerable reaction against the claims of Labour, and this was greatly helped by the congested state of the labour market; but the principle of an eight-hours day made progress, and was conceded in several trades.

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  • To the Labour party in that state are admitted only persons who have worked for their living at manual labour, and this qualification of being an actual worker is one that was strongly insisted upon at the formation of the party and strictly adhered to, although the temptation to break away from it and accept as candidates persons of superior education and position has been very great.

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  • New South Wales was the first country which endeavoured to settle its labour grievances through the ballot-box and to send a great party to parliament as the direct representation of Labour, pledged to obtain through legislation what it was unable to obtain by strikes and physical force.

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  • Another disturbing influence has been the high protective tariffs, adopted during the closing years of the century, which increased the costs of living more rapidly than the wages for labour, and compelled thousands of immigrants to seek employment elsewhere.

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  • The two features of the Labour party in New South Wales are its detachment from other parties and the control of the caucus.

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  • Magnetite occurs in great abundance in Western Australia, together with haematite, which would be of enormous value if cheap labour were available.

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  • The colonies were, however, to have other and bitter experiences of strikes before Labour recognized that of all means for settling industrial Australians in South America.

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  • After ten years' graduated labour the convict is given a ticket-of-leave and becomes selfsupporting.

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  • Several attempts had been made by individuals belonging to the Labour party to enter the New South Wales parliament, but it was not until 1891 that the occurrence of a general election gave the party the looked-for opportunity for concerted action.

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  • Several attempts had been made by individuals belonging to the Labour party to enter the New South Wales parliament, but it was not until 1891 that the occurrence of a general election gave the party the looked-for opportunity for concerted action.

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  • The years 1865-1870 were occupied with assiduous labour.

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  • In a desperate battle, the natives were defeated with great slaughter, and the territory surrounding the town was divided into ranches, in which the conquered natives had to labour.

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  • SABBATH, the day of cessation from work,' which among the Hebrews followed six days of labour and closed the week.

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  • He served as chairman of many commissions dealing with public health, prohibition, and labour.

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  • An illness brought on by toil and privation forced him to leave his work to others for nearly a year, but in August 1598 he returned to his field of labour, and in October of that year practically the whole country was Catholic again.

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  • He returned to Savoy, and after three years more of unwearying labour died at Lyons on the 28th of December 1622.

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  • The use of cranes is of great antiquity, but it is only since the great industrial development of the 19th century, and the introduction of other motive powers than hand labour, that the crane has acquired the important and indispensable position it now occupies.

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  • The landlord found land, labour, oxen for ploughing and working the wateringmachines, carting, threshing or other implements, seed corn, rations for the workmen and fodder for the cattle.

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  • Despite the multitude of slaves, hired labour was often needed, especially at harvest.

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  • He had a right to their labour in return for their keep. He might hire them out and receive their wages, pledge them for debt, even sell them outright.

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  • He profited by the son's labour.

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  • Marconi's successes and the demonstrations he had given of the thoroughly practical character of this system of electric wave telegraphy stimulated other inventors to enter the same field of labour, whilst theorists began to study carefully the nature of the physical operations involved.

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  • Frequently half his nights were spent in reading, after the labour of his most strenuous days.

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  • In Christian theology, much labour has been spent upon vindicating man's freedom against God's intrusion, or upon blotting out human power in order to leave room for the divine.

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  • have been set apart for regular forest operations which are carried on by convict labour.

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  • Balfour put forward the view that the polyp was the more primitive type, and that the medusa is a special modification of the polyp for reproductive purposes, the result of division of labour in a polypcolony, whereby special reproductive persons become detached and acquire organs of locomotion for spreading the species.

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  • - p elagic floating Hydrozoa with great differentiation of parts, each performing a special function; generally regarded as colonies showing differentiation of individuals in correspondence with a physiological division of labour.

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  • The registry of the citizens, the suppression of litigation, the elevation of public morals, the care of minors, the retrenchment of public expenses, the limitation of gladiatorial games and shows, the care of roads, the restoration of senatorial privileges, the appointment of none but worthy magistrates, even the regulation of street traffic, these and numberless other duties so completely absorbed his attention that, in spite of indifferent health, they often kept him at severe labour from early morning till long after midnight.

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  • This condition of mind can be obtained only by "living conformably to nature," that is to say, one's whole nature, and as a means to that man must cultivate the four chief virtues, each of which has its distinct sphere - wisdom, or the knowledge of good and evil; justice, or the giving to every man his due; fortitude, or the enduring of labour and pain; and temperance, or moderation in all things.

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  • It is in some such manner as these that the natural conditions of regions, which must be conformed to by prudence .and utilized by labour to yield shelter and food, have led to the growth of peoples differing in their ways of life, thought and speech.

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  • The discovery and production of commodities require a knowledge of the distribution of geological formations for mineral products, of the natural distribution, life-conditions and cultivation or breeding of plants and animals and of the labour market.

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  • Meditating, it is probable, emigration upon his release, he turned his attention while in prison to colonial subjects, and acutely detected the main causes of the slow progress of the Australian colonies in the enormous size of the landed estates, the reckless manner in which land was given away, the absence of all systematic effort at colonization, and the consequent discouragement of immigration and dearth of labour.

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  • In 1846 Wakefield, exhausted with labour, was struck down by apoplexy, and spent more than a year in complete retirement, writing during his gradual recovery his Art of Colonization.

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  • Much labour has been bestowed by A.

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  • In this mode of treating the question the order of the terms is numerical, and though the amount of labour is such as might well have deterred a younger man, yet the details were easy, and a great part of it might be entrusted to a mere computer.

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  • He is assisted by a council of ministers representing the departments of the interior, foreign affairs, finance, war and marine, industry, labour and instruction and public works.

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  • friendly relations are maintained with Spain, as the Spanish plantations in Fernando Po are to a great extent worked by Liberian labour.

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  • Boats could be conveyed over flat and easy portages from one river-basin to another, and these portages were subsequently transformed with a relatively small amount of labour into navigable canals, and even at the present day the canals have more importance for the traffic of the country than have most of the railways.

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  • For these allotments the peasants had to pay, as before, either by personal labour or by a fixed rent.

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  • The redemption was not calculated on the value of the allotments of land, but was considered as a compensation for the loss of the compulsory labour of the serfs; so that throughout Russia, with the exception of a few provinces in the S.E., it was - and still remains, notwithstanding a very great increase in the value of land - much higher than the market value of the allotment.

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  • Every year more than half the adult males (in some districts three-fourths of the men and one-third of the women) quit their homes and wander throughout Russia in search of labour.

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  • Accustomed to the use of compulsory labour, they have failed to accommodate themselves to the new conditions.

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  • One of the most serious of these is caused not by the unfavourable character of the climate but by the shortness of labour.

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  • Here again both capital and labour are short, and the cultivation of the soil suffers from the fact that, owing to the absence of timber, dry dung is used for fuel instead of being employed as manure.

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  • Owing to the forced abstention from agricultural labour in the winter months the peasants of central Russia, more especially those of the governments of Moscow, Vladimir, Yaroslavl, Kostroma, Tver, Smolensk and Ryazan have for centuries carried on a variety of domestic handicrafts during the period of compulsory leisure.

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  • The first portion of the Manchurian railway, built by Russian engineers, with Chinese labour, was finished in 1902.

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  • Many believed that the end of autocracy had come, and an extemporized Council of Labour Deputies, anxious to play the part of a Comite de Salut Public, was ready to take over the supreme power and exercise it in the interests of the proletariat.

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  • For days the whole mechanism of civilized existence in Russia was at a standstill, all intercourse 4 Sazonov's sentence of twenty years' hard labour was commuted by Nicholas II.

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  • "GEORGE HENRY ROBERTS (1869-), English Labour politician, was born at Chedgrave, Norfolk, July 27 1869.

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  • He also became president of the Norwich and District Trades and Labour Council.

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  • He was elected to the Norwich School Board in 1899, being the first candidate run by the local Labour party to win a seat on a public body.

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  • When the Labour party joined the Coalition movement in 1915 he became a Lord Commissioner of the Treasury; he was parliamentary secretary to the Board of Trade 1916-7; Minister of Labour, 1917-8; Food Controller, Jan.

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  • In certain respects, on the other hand, America has gone further than the United Kingdom, especially in the matter of automatic signalling, and in the operating of points and signals by electrical power or air-pressure instead of manual labour.

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  • of track and yard room required to perform a unit of work;, it has diminished journal and rolling friction relatively to thetons hauled, since these elements of train resistance grow relatively less as the load per wheel rises; and finally, it has tended to reduce the labour costs as the train loads have become greater, because no more men are required to handle a heavy train than; a light one.

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  • According to the light railway commissioners, experience satisfied them (a) that light railways were much needed in many parts of the country and that many of the lines proposed, but not constructed, were in fact necessary to admit of the progress, and even the maintenance, of existing trade interests; and (b) that improved means of access were requisite to assist in retaining the population on the land, to counteract the remoteness of rural districts, and also, in the neighbourhood of industrial centres, to cope with the difficulties as to housing and the supply of labour.

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  • The simplicity is great; they can be quickly mounted and dismounted; the correct gauge can be perfectly maintained; the sections of rails and sleepers (which are of iron) are very portable, and skilled labour is not required to lay or to take them up; the making of a " turn-out " is easy, by taking out a 15 ft.

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  • He was nominated by his party in 1892 for re-election, but was defeated by Cleveland, this result being due, at least in part, to the labour strikes which occurred during the presidential campaign and arrayed the labour unions against the tariff party.

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  • In pursuance of his method of successive studies he began in 1823 the study of Italian literature, passing over German as demanding more labour than he could afford.

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  • The work was completed in August 1843, the five years' labour having been broken by the composition of reviews of Lockhart's Life of Scott (1838), Kenyon's Poems (1839), Chateaubriand (1839), Bancroft's United States (1841), Mariotti's Italy (1842), and Madame Calderon's Life in Mexico (1843), and by the preparation of an abridgment of his Ferdinand and Isabella in anticipation of its threatened abridgment by another hand.

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  • Some attempt has been made to improve matters by macadamizing one of the principal thoroughfares, but it will be the labour of a Hercules to cleanse this vast city from the accumulated filth of ages of neglect.

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  • In addition to public applause, he was gratified by the more select praises of the highest living authorities in that branch of literature: " the candour of Dr Robertson embraced his disciple "; Hume's letter of congratulation " overpaid the labour of ten years."

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  • These places employed 35.9% of the labour engaged in manufacturing, and the value of their products was 38.8% of the total for the state.

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  • That he was not opposed to labour was shown by his earlier support of the bill limiting the scope of injunctions against striking employees.

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  • Several decisions were particularly objectionable to organized labour.

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  • During the campaign many prominent labour leaders opposed the election of Mr Taft, on the ground that his decisions while on the bench had been unfriendly to organized labour.

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  • The result of this enormous labour, albeit worthy of a great historian, clearly showed that the author lacked all sense of historical proportion.

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  • He came into Parliament as Labour member for N.-E.

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  • Manchester in 1906, when the Labour party were returned for the first time in numerical force - over 50 in all.

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  • In consequence of the decision of the Labour party to terminate its support of the Coalition Government he resigned office in Nov.

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  • At the beginning of the session of 1919 he was elected vice-chairman of the party, and he took a considerable share in debate, speaking with a moderation and appreciation of the standpoint of other classes not always manifested by Labour members.

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  • he made a strong speech against the policy of "direct action," pointing out that Labour could capture the political machine if working men were sufficiently united and sufficiently active, but that threats would only throw back their cause and set all other classes against them.

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  • But a year later he acquiesced in the establishment of a Labour council of action, and in the threat of a general strike in case of any military or naval intervention against the Soviet Government of Russia.

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  • In 1921 he was chosen chairman of the parliamentary Labour party.

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  • Judah and Israel dwelt at ease, or held the superior position of military officials, while the earlier inhabitants of the land were put to forced labour.

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  • takes the part of his subjects against the excessive zeal of the official Gadatas, and grants freedom of taxation and exemption from forced labour to those connected with a temple of Apollo in Asia Minor (Bulletin de correspondance hellenique, xiii.

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  • Every member of the congregation of Israel must labour, as God has appointed, at some handicraft or profession to provide for his home.

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  • "ARTHUR HENDERSON (1863-), British Labour politi - cian, was born in Glasgow of working-class parents Sept.

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  • He entered Parliament for Barnard Castle as a Labour member, at a by-election in 1903.

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  • When the Labour party were first returned to Parliament in force, in 1906, he soon made his mark as one of their leaders.

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  • As chairman, at the opening of the new session in that autumn, Mr. Henderson promised the full support of organized labour in maintaining the " splendid unity " of the nation.

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  • When Mr. Asquith formed the first Coalition Ministry in 1915, he included Mr. Henderson in the Cabinet as President of the Board of Education, and also adviser of the Government on Labour questions arising out of the World War.

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  • Indeed his functions as Labour adviser so occupied his time and attention, that it was thought desirable to relieve him in Aug.

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  • He followed up this action by strongly urging the Labour party to rally in Dec. 1916 to Mr. Lloyd George, and by accepting himself the position of an original member of the War Cabinet of four without portfolio.

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  • The then Provisional Government at Petrograd favoured an international Labour and Socialist Conference, which was being promoted by the International Socialist Bureau and was to meet at Stockholm.

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  • He returned with these ideas to England, and, being still secretary of the Labour party as well as a member of the War Cabinet, used his influence as secretary to promote British Labour participation in the Conference.

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  • But though the majority of Labour men were apparently in his favour, public opinion in other classes was strongly against any conference with Germans in the midst of war.

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  • Mr. Henderson visited Paris in the company of Mr. Ramsay Macdonald to discuss the situation with Labour over there, but found that neither French, nor Belgian, nor Italian, nor American Labour was disposed to join.

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  • The attitude of Labour internationalism was maintained by Mr. Henderson out of office, and he warmly espoused the Labour policy of the latter part of 1918, to take the Labour men out of the Government and appeal for support on a Labour platform, in conjunction with the pacifist wing of the party.

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  • He was defeated by a candidate of the National Democratic party in East Ham, and none of the Pacifist Labour men with whom he had made common cause found their way into Parliament.

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  • The labour needed in this industry is supplied by Indian peons, who live in a state of semi-servitude and are paid barely enough to sustain life.

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  • The lack of mineral resources, especially of coal and iron, of a good harbour (until the improvement of Gulfport), and of an adequate supply of labour has discouraged most kinds of manufacturing.

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  • The lease system does not prevail, but the farming out of convict labour is permitted by the constitution; such labour is used chiefly for the building of railways, the convicts so employed being at 'all times cared for and guarded by state officials.

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  • The more important sectarian schools are Wake Forest College (Baptist, opened 1834 as a " manual labour and classical institute "; as a college, 1838) at Wake Forest, 16 m.

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  • However absolute a philosopher's idealism may be, he is erroneously styled a mystic if he moves towards his conclusions only by the patient labour of the reason.

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  • These workers then take on themselves the labour of the colony, some collecting food, which they transfer to their comrades within the nest whose duty is to tend and feed the larvae.

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  • Their labour often results in the complete defoliation of the tree.

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  • The climate is generally such as to secure the population the necessaries of life without severe labour; the extremes of heat and drought are such as to render the land unsuitable for pasture, and the people everywhere subsist by cultivation of the soil or commerce, and live in settled villages or towns.

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  • 3), but to severe menial labour (xii.

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  • During the Revolution he received yet more help; men were proud to labour for him, and did not murmur because he absorbed all the credit and fame.

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  • He took other men's labour as his due, and impressed their words, of which he had suggested the underlying ideas, with the stamp of his own individuality; his collaborators themselves did not complain - they were but too glad to be of help in the great work of controlling and forwarding the French Revolution through its greatest thinker and orator.

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  • Specially noteworthy in the Lezioni are the sections on human wants as the foundation of economical theory, on labour as the source of wealth, on personal services as economic factors, and on the united working of the great industrial functions.

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  • Next he sought to prepare the inactive form of the acid by artificial means; and after great and long-continued labour he succeeded, and was led to the commencement of his classical researches on fermentation, by the observation that when the inactive acid was placed in contact with a special form of mould (Penicillium glaucum) the right-handed acid alone was destroyed, the left-handed variety remained unchanged.

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  • This, after long and serious labour, he effected; the dog thus inoculated proved to be immune when bitten by a rabid animal.

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  • Not only in Paris, but in many cities throughout the world, institutes on the model of the original one have been set up and are doing beneficent work, all arising from the genius and labour of one man.

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  • But of this we may be sure, that science, in obeying the law of humanity, will always labour to enlarge the frontiers of life."

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  • Turgot was opposed to all labour associations of employers or employed, in accordance with his belief in free competition.

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  • His works can scarcely be entitled original compositions, his labour having consisted chiefly in the arrangement of his materials, but on this very account they are of considerable value as convenient books of reference, easier of access and almost as trustworthy as the original documents.

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  • His constitution, weakly in childhood, strengthened with advancing years so as to allow him to get through an incredible amount of sedentary labour, while he retained to the last the fresh and cheerful temperament of a boy.

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  • An ample inherited fortune permitted him to pursue his studies undistracted by the necessity for earning a livelihood, and to maximize the results of his time and labour by the employment of amanuenses and secretaries.

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  • This was his last labour.

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  • Isaac, too, conjoined tillage with pastoral husbandry, and that with success, for " he sowed in the land Gerar, and reaped an hundred-fold " - a return which, it would appear, in some favoured regions, occasionally rewarded the labour of the husbandman.

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  • The ox and the ass were used for labour.

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  • Sheep-raising, involving larger holdings, less supervision and less labour, was preferred by the capitalist land-holder to the cultivation of the wheat, spelt, vines or olives which were the chief crops of the country.

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  • They were bound to the soil and occupied holdings of scattered strips (amounting usually to a virgate or 30 acres) in return for a payment partly in labour and partly in kind.

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  • The diminution of the population by one-half led to a scarcity of labour and an increase of wages which deprived the landowner of his narrow margin of profit.

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  • On the much agitated question about the employment of horses or oxen in labour, the most important arguments are distinctly stated.

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  • The next work on the husbandry of Scotland is The Countryman's Rudiments, or an Advice to the Farmers in East Lothian, how to labour and improve their Grounds, said to have been written by John Hamilton, 2nd Lord Belhaven about the time of the Union, and reprinted in 1723.

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  • Among the advantages of enclosures, he observes, " you will gain much more labour from your servants, a great part of whose time was taken up in gathering thistles and other garbage for their horses to feed upon in their stables; and thereby the great trampling and pulling up and other destruction of the corns while they are yet tender will be prevented."

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  • Manual labour in farming operations began to be superseded by the use of drills, hay-makers and horse-rakes, chaff-cutters and root-pulpers.

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  • Labour difficulties, low prices of produce, bad seasons and similar causes provided inducements for leaving the land in grass for two years, or over three years or more, before breaking it up for wheat.

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  • With a variety of crops, again, the mechanical operations of the farm, involving horse and hand labour, are better distributed over the year, and are therefore more economically performed.

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  • It was found, however, that the steam work was done with less care than had been bestowed upon the horse tillage, and the result was that steam came to be regarded as an auxiliary to horse labour rather than as a substitute for it.

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  • The labour question again became acute in the early years of the 10th century, when, owing to the scarcity of hands and the high rate of wages, selfbinding harvesters were resorted to in England for the ingathering of the corn crops to a greater extent than ever before.

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  • The decrease has assumed serious proportions since 1871, as before that date the supply of rural labour exceeded the demand.

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  • The decrease in the demand for labour is attributable chiefly to the reduction of the cultivated area and the laying down to pasture of land once under the plough, and to the increasing use of agricultural machinery.

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  • It was characteristic of his nature that he should be stirred to such delight by the Revolution in France, and should labour so earnestly to make his countrymen understand with what gravity and sobriety it had been effected..

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  • Four out of the five essays are elaborate and powerful solutions of perplexing technical problems - the distribution of the gains of international commerce, the influence of consumption on production, the definition of productive and unproductive labour, the precise relations between profits and wages.

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  • Among other things, he made a more thorough study of socialist writers, with the result that, though he was not converted to any of their schemes as being immediately practicable, he began to look upon some more equal distribution of the produce of labour as a practicability of the remote future, and to dwell upon the prospect of such changes in human character as might render a stable society possible without the institution of private property.

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  • The essays in the fourth volume of his Dissertations - on endowments, on land, on labour, on metaphysical and psychological questions - were written for the Fortnightly Review at intervals after his short parliamentary career.

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  • The secret of the ardour with which he took up this question probably was his conviction that a great struggle was impending in Europe between labour and capital.

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  • In some years three or four sowings have to be made before a "plant" is produced, enormous loss in labour and cost of seed alone being thus involved.

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  • In the towns the division of labour had proceeded much further than in the rural districts, and there were in existence organized bodies, such as the Gild Merchant and the crafts, whose functions were primarily economic. But one of the most striking characteristics of town life in the middle ages was the manner in which municipal and industrial privileges and responsibilities were interwoven.

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  • In our own day labour disputes, to take another example, can scarcely ever be resolved into a question of merely pecuniary gain or loss.

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  • The ostensible cause of a modern labour dispute is frequently not the real or the most important cause.

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  • The " economic man " of the earlier writers, with his aversion from labour and his desire of the present enjoyment of costly indulgences, has been abandoned by their successors, with the result that in the opinion of many good people altruistic sentiment may be allowed to run wild over the whole domain of economics.

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  • The earlier writers generally assumed perfect mobility of labour and capital.

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  • Many of the questions of the greatest practical importance at the present time, such as the competition between old and new methods of manufacturing commodities substantially the same in kind, and equally useful to the great body of consumers, arise largely from the immobility of capital or labour, or both of them.

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  • To speak of " additional labour and capital " without reference to the kind and quality of the labour and capital, and the manner in which they are employed, organized and directed, throws very little light on agriculture.

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  • We may mention particularly Charles Booth's Life and Labour of the People in London, B.

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  • The results of more than twenty years' labour were set forth in his Hexapla and Tetrapla, in which he placed the Hebrew text side by side with the various Greek versions, examined their mutual relations in detail, and tried to find the basis for a more reliable text of the LXX.

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  • Engels and Karl Marx, were leaders in the revolt of labour against the power of capital.

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  • 2 The existence of the Mandaeans has been known since the middle 'of the 17th century, when the first Christian missionaries, Ignatius a Jesu and Angelus a Sancto, began to labour among them at Basra; further information was gathered at a somewhat later date by Pietro della Valle' and Jean de Thevenot 5 (1633-1667), and in the following century by Engelbrecht Kaempfer (1651-1716), Jean Chardin (1643-1713) and Carsten Niebuhr.

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  • The extreme of this " division of labour " is seen, in those insects whose jaws are vestigial in the winged state, when, the need for feeding all behind them, they have but to pair, to lay eggs and to die.

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  • The enormous labour required for this work seems scarcely to have been appreciated, though it remains to this day one of the most useful books in an ornithologist's library.

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  • Macleay indeed never pretended to a high position in this branch of science, his tastes lying in the direction of Entomology; but few of their countrymen knew more of birds than did Swainson and Vigors; and, while the latter, as editor for many years of the Zoological Journal, and the first secretary of the Zoological Society, has especial claims to the regard of all zoologists, so the former's indefatigable pursuit of Natural History, and conscientious labour in its behalf-among other ways by means of his graceful pencil-deserve to be remembered as a set-off against the injury he unwittingly caused.

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  • Its line to some extent may be partly made out - very clearly, for the matter of that, so far as its details have been published in the series of papers to which reference has been given - and some traces of its features are probably preserved in his Catalogue of the specimens of birds in the museum of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, which, after several years of severe labour, made its appearance at Calcutta in 1849; but, from the time of his arrival in India, the onerous duties imposed upon Blyth, together with the want of sufficient books of reference, seem to have hindered him from seriously continuing his former researches, which, interrupted as they were, and born out of due time, had no appreciable effect on the views of systematisers generally.

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  • This Tentamen, containing his complete method of classifying birds in general, naturally received much attention, the more so perhaps, since, with its appendices, it was nearly the last labour of its respected author, whose industrious life came to an end in the course of the following year.

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  • The corn spirit is also said to be hiding in the barn till the corn is threshed, or it may be said to reappear at midwinter, when the farmer begins to think of his new year of labour and harvest.

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  • Leland said that it is easier to collect the leaves of the Sibyl than the titles of the works written by Roger Bacon; and though the labour has been somewhat lightened by the publications of Brewer and Charles, referred to below, it is no easy matter even now to form an accurate idea of his actual productions.

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  • It is probable that up to 1875, at least, there had been a larger outlay of labour, material and money, in reducing, levelling and reclaiming territory, and in straightening and widening thoroughfares 1 in Boston, than had been expended for the same purposes in all the other chief cities of the United States together.

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  • The basin here excavated by ten years of labour, lying 385 ft.

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  • In Plymouth alone a fleet of some two hundred boats,assembles; and on the French side of the Channel no less capital and labour are invested in it, the vessels employed being, though less in number, larger in size than on the English side.

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  • The tenant may have added to its value by buildings, by labour applied to the land, or by the use of fertilizing manures, but, whatever be the amount of the additional value, he is not entitled to any compensation whatever.

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  • He and his family escaped, but his material possessions were destroyed and the labour of years annihilated.

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  • Slave labour disappeared, and under new and more promising auspices a fresh career of progress began.

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  • The cultivation of cotton on a commercial scale is quite new in Nyasaland, and although general conditions of soil and climate appear favourable the question of transport is serious and labour is not abundant.

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  • If the fishing operation is unsuccessful the well has to be abandoned, often after months of labour, unless it is found possible to drill past the tools which have been lost.

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  • There is no penitentiary; the convicts are hired to the one highest bidder who contracts for their labour, and who undertakes, moreover, to lease all other persons convicted during the term of the lease, and sub-leases the prisoners.

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  • Manual labour was adopted at first as a means for students to defray their college expenses.

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  • 2 The coffer is of fine hard sandstone of superior quality, and has been hollowed out, at the cost of vast labour and expense, from a solid block of rock.

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  • His programme included the collective ownership of the means of production and the international association of labour, but when in June 1899 he entered Waldeck-Rousseau's cabinet of "republican defence" as minister of commerce he limited himself to practical reforms, devoting his attention to the improvement of the mercantile marine, to the development of trade, of technical education, of the postal system, and to the amelioration of the conditions of labour.

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  • Labour questions were entrusted to a separate department, the Direction du Travail, and the pension and insurance office was also raised to the status of a "direction."

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  • The introduction of trades-union representatives on the Supreme Labour Council, the organization of local labour councils, and the instructions to factory inspectors to put themselves in communication with the councils of the trades-unions, were valuable concessions to labour, and he further secured the rigorous application of earlier laws devised for the protection of the working-classes.

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  • The ruthless methods by which the Spaniards forced the natives to labour for them caused a change in the attitude of the erstwhile friendly Borinquenos.

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  • Here a remnant of the Borinquenos, assisted by the Caribs, maintained a severe struggle with the conquerors, but in the end their Indian allies were subdued by English and French corsairs, and the unfortunate natives of Porto Rico were left alone to experience the full effect of forced labour, disastrous hurricanes, natural plagues and new diseases introduced by the conquerors.

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  • Of recent years the introduction of various organic compounds as precipitants or reagents has reduced the labour of the process; and advantage has also been taken of the fairly complex double salts which these metals form with compounds.

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  • 40 The first season's labour, under the direction of Prof. T.

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  • Hence the world will last for six thousand years of toil and labour; then will come one thousand years of Sabbath rest for the people of God in the kingdom of the Messiah."

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  • In the hunter period the savage warrior does not enslave his vanquished enemy, but slays him; the women of a conquered tribe he may, however, carry off and appropriate as wives or as servants, for in this period domestic labour falls almost altogether on their sex.

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  • It is in proportion as a sedentary life prevails, and agricultural exploitation is practised on a larger scale, whilst warlike habits continue to exist, that the labour of slaves is increasingly introduced to provide food for the master, and at the same time save him from irksome toil.

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  • It is not merely that in its first establishment slavery was an immense advance by substituting for the immolation of captives, often accompanied by cannibalism, their occupation in labour for the benefit of the victor.

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  • But it is not so well understood that slavery discharged important offices in the later social evolution - first, by enabling military action to prevail with the degree of intensity and continuity requisite for the system of incorporation by conquest which was its final destination; and, secondly, by forcing the captives, who with their descendants came to form the majority of the population in the conquering community, to an industrial life, in spite of the antipathy to regular and sustained labour which is deeply rooted in human nature.

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  • It was in general cheaper to buy a slave than to rear one to the age of labour.

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  • If ransomed, the victim became by Athenian law the slave of his redeemer till he paid in money or labour the price which had been given for him.

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  • In manufactures and commerce, also, servile gradually displaced free labour.

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  • But the extension of properties in the hands of the patricians, and the continued absences of citizens required by the expanding system of conquest, necessarily brought with them a demand for slave labour, which was increasingly supplied by captives taken in war.

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  • The lighter punish ments inflicted by masters were commonly personal chastisement or banishment from the town house to rural labour; the severer were employment in the mill (pistrinum) or relegation to the mines or quarries.

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  • Free labour was discountenanced.

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  • Cato, Varro and Columella all agree that slave labour was to be preferred to free except in unhealthy regions and for large occasional operations, which probably transcended the capacity of the permanent familia rustica.

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  • Freedmen of humbler rank, on the other hand, filled the minor offices in the administrative service, in the city cohorts, and in the army; and we shall find that they entered largely into the trades and professions when free labour began to revive.

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  • (2) The diminished supply of slaves further acted in the direction of the rehabilitation of free labour.

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  • In the factories or workshops kept by wealthy persons slave labour was mainly employed; but free artisans sometimes offered their services to these establishments or formed associations to compete with them.

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  • They paid a fixed proportion of the produce (pars agraria) to the owner of the estate, and gave a determinate amount of labour (operae) on the portion of the domain which he kept in his own hands (mansus dominicus).

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  • In no case could the rent or the labour dues be increased.

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  • The slaves were bound to work for their masters during this period for three-fourths of the day, and were to be liable to corporal punishment if they did not give the due amount of labour.

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  • The closing of the traffic made the labour of the slaves more severe, and led to the employment on the plantations of many who before had been engaged in domestic work; but the slavery of Brazil had always been lighter than that of the United States.

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  • The natives were decoyed into the labour ships under false pretences, and then detained by force; or they were seized on shore or in their canoes and carried on board.

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  • For its economic effects, when it is regarded as an organization of labour, reference may be had to Smith's Wealth of Nations, book iii.

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  • He says, "From the year 1725 to 1729, I preached much, but saw no fruit to my labour.

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  • John was sent out by the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, and hoped to labour as a missionary among the Indians, but though he had many interesting conversations with them the mission was found to be impracticable.

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  • The memorable arrangement in Bristol was made a few weeks before Wesley's field of labour was extended to the north of England in May 1742.

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  • His childhood and youth were passed in poverty, and his health was early impaired by hard manual labour.

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  • He was back in Johannesburg in December 1903, and had to consider the crisis in the gold-mining industry caused by the shortage of native labour.

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  • A confiscation bill was passed in August 1861 discharging from his service or labour any slave employed in aiding or promoting any insurrection against the government of the United States.

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  • The industrial activity of the state has required more labour than has been available.

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  • Owing to the inadequate supply of labour two important immigration leagues of business men were formed in 1904 and 1905, and in 1907 the state government began officially to attempt to secure desirable foreign immigration, sending agents abroad to foster it.

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  • Under the conditions of free labour, the development of railways abroad, the improvement of machinery both in cane and beet producing countries, the general competition of the beet, and the fall of prices, it was impossible for the Cuban industry to survive without radical betterment of methods.

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  • A comparatively low cost of labour, the fact that labour is not, as in the days of slavery, that of unintelligent blacks but of intelligent free labourers, the centralized organization and modern methods that prevail on the plantations, the remarkable fertility of the soil (which yields 5 or 6 crops on good soil and with good management, without replanting), and the proximity of the United States, in whose markets Cuba disposes of almost all her crop, have long enabled her to distance her smaller West Indian rivals and to compete with the bounty-fed beet.

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  • Even in the time of slavery tobacco was generally a white-man's crop; for it requires intelligent labour and intensive care.

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  • In 1544 the Indians, so far as they had not succumbed to the labour of the mines and fields to which they were put by the Spaniards, were proclaimed emancipated.

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  • Like a true Hegelian he saw three stages in the development of labour: the ancient and feudal period, which, through the subjection of the labourer, sought solidarity without freedom; the reign of capital and the middle classes, established in 1789, which sought freedom by destroying solidarity; and the new era, beginning in 1848, which would reconcile solidarity with freedom by introducing the principle of association.

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  • This position he founded on the law of wages formulated by Ricardo, and accepted by all the leading economists, that wages are controlled by the ordinary relations of supply and demand, that a rise in wages leads to an increase in the labouring population, which, by increasing the supply of labour, is followed by a corresponding fall of wages.

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  • Unfortunately the want both of labour and of roads renders it.

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  • Ovando, the governor of Hispaniola (Haiti), who had exhausted the labour of that island, turned his thoughts to the Bahamas, and in 1509 Ferdinand authorized him to procure labourers from these islands.

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  • The begs and agas continued to exact their forced labour and one-third of their produce; the central government imposed a tithe which had become an eighth by 1875.

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  • Three kinds of cattle-tax, the tax for exemption from military service, levied on every newborn male, forced labour on the roads, forced loan of horses, a heavy excise on grapes and tobacco, and a variety of lesser taxes combined to burden the Christian serfs; but even more galling than the amount was the manner in which these dues were exacted - the extortionate assessments of tax-farmers and excisemen, the brutal licence of the soldiery who were quartered on recalcitrant villagers.

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  • On the desertion of schoolmastering as a profession, Thoreau became a lecturer and author, though it was the labour of his hands which mainly supported him through many years of his life: professionally he was a surveyor.

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  • In the effort to reduce the practice of economy to a fine art he arrived at the conviction that the less labour a man did, over and above the positive demands of necessity, the better for him and for the community at large; he would have had the order of the week reversed - six days of rest for one of labour.

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  • Desirous of proving to himself and others that man could be as independent of this kind as the nest-building bird, Thoreau retired to a hut of his own construction on the pine-slope over against the shores of Walden Pond - a but which he built, furnished and kept in order entirely by the labour of his own hands.

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  • " Prestations " are payments in lieu of services (apart from military service) to the state, such as maintenance of highways, &c. - in effect, purchase of exoneration from forced labour.

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  • A vast sum of money and the labour of thousands of men were employed to clear harbours for them, at and near Boulogne.

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  • At the same time he was prominent in the movement for the formation of labour unions, and at the congress of working men at Nantes in 1894 he secured the adoption of the labour union idea against the adherents of Jules Guesde.

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  • from the city, takes the place of workhouses, and has many cottages in which live those of the city's poor who were formerly classed as paupers and were sent to poorhouses, and who now apply their labour to the farm and are relieved from the stigma that generally attaches to inmates of poorhouses.

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  • At the same time it was decided that the deputies to that convention should be elected by all Frenchmen 25 years old, domiciled for a year and living by the product of their labour.

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  • His character developed unanticipated strength on the practical side; he became a vigorous employer of labour, an active planter, above all a powerful and benignant island chieftain.

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  • A law of 1909 provides for a women's and children's department in the state bureau of labour.

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  • After five years' labour he completed his play, which he took to London for Garrick's opinion.

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  • The bulk of the foreign trade of Servia passes through Belgrade, but the industrial output of the city itself is not large, owing to the scarcity both of labour and capital.

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  • Among these are the precise extent of demand, the limit of the inevitable fall in price with largely increased production, the cost of labour as increasing amounts are required, and the effect of changed conditions on the output of " wild " rubber and the competition of the new plantations which are being established in tropical America.

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  • Difficulties in the supply of labour in the East may hinder the further development of the rubber-planting industry, especially at a period when a reduction in the cost of production may be the chief problem.

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  • Having regard to the present cost of producing " plantation " rubber, and to the probability that, apart from a possible increase in the price of labour, this cost is susceptible of further reduction, it may be concluded that rubber production will continue to be profitable even should a considerable fall in market value take place.

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  • He represented " Centre " thought in Australian politics and for a long time was a reconciling influence between the Conservatives and the Labour party.

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  • In working downwards in open quarries and in tortuous shafts and passages much of the mica is damaged, and a large amount of labour is expended in hauling waste material to the surface.

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  • He also presided, as an eminent constitutional lawyer, over a committee set up in that year to consider the reconstruction of the House of Lords, and spent much labour in a task which all parties were disposed to shirk.

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  • For forty-five years his labour was incessant; his first memoir was published in 1825 when he was yet a student; his last appeared shortly after his death on the 4th of April 1870.

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  • The original Pattinson process has been in many cases replaced by the LuceRozan process (1870), which does away with arduous labour and attains a more satisfactory crystallization.

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  • In 1892 he presided over the Labour Commission, but his health never recovered an attack of influenza which he had in 1891, and he died at Knowsley on the 21st of April 1893.

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  • In the Democratic national convention at Chicago in 1896, during a long and heated debate with regard to the party platform, Bryan, in advocating the "plank" declaring for the free coinage of silver, of which he was the author, delivered a celebrated speech containing the passage, "You shall not press down upon the brow of labour this crown of thorns; you shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold."

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  • No purely astronomical enterprise was ever carried out on so Transits of P large a scale or at so great an expenditure of money and labour as was devoted to the observations of these transits, and for several years before their occurrence the astronomers of every leading nation were busy in discussing methods of observation and working out the multifarious details necessary to their successful application.

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  • In order to save arithmetical labour it is convenient to be provided with conversion factors for reducing variously expressed results to the standard form.

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  • Other colonies were founded in Bahia, Espirito Santo and Rio de Janeiro during the same period, but they were unsuccessful, partly because of the competition of slave labour.

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  • No other country has been able to equal Brazil in the production of coffee, and under better labour conditions the country might compete with the foremost in the production of cane sugar, cotton and tobacco.

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  • jaboticaba, Mart.), cocoa-nuts, mangos, fruitas de conde (Anona squamosa), plantains, &c., are produced in abundance and with little labour.

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  • All this excessive labour for the stage had undermined the great poet's health, and in 1725 he had determined to take the baths at Aix-la-Chapelle; but instead of going thither he wandered through Belgium to Paris, and spent the winter there.

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  • To deepen the channel over the bar at Durban so that steamers might enter the harbour was the cause of labour and expenditure for many years.

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    0
  • The election, which witnessed the return of four Labour members, resulted in a ministerial majority of a somewhat heterogeneous character, and in November 1906 Mr Smythe resigned, being succeeded by Mr F.

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  • This commission reported in 1909, its general conclusion being that in the interests of Natal the importation of indentured Indian labour should not be discontinued.

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  • The finest work is excessively trying to the eyes of the plaiters, who can at most give to it two or three hours' labour daily.

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  • At last, however, after nearly twelve months' incessant labour, the work was completed in November 1860.

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  • He advocated the repeal of the corn-laws, not essentially in order to make food cheaper, but because it would develop industry and enable the manufacturers to get labour at low but sufficient wages; and he assumed that other countries would be unable to compete with England in manufactures under free trade, at the prices which would be possible for English manufactured products.

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  • Their importance is out of all proportion to their number, since they monopolize a large portion of the trade, are with the Germans the chief employers of labour, and control not only the finances but to a great extent the government and press of the country.

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  • During his primacy (1616-1637), when he had the whole influence of the court, and the sympathy and the assistance of the Catholic world behind him, he put the finishing touches to his life's labour by founding a great Catholic university at Nagyszombat (1635), and publishing a Hungarian translation of the Bible to counteract the influence of Gaspar Karoli's widely spread Protestant version.

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  • (1853-1857), the result of thirty years' labour and research.

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  • Biot, who assisted in the correction of its proof sheets, remarked that it would have extended, had the demonstrations been fully developed, to eight or ten instead of five volumes; and he saw at times the author himself obliged to devote an hour's labour to recovering the dropped links in the chain of reasoning covered by the recurring formula.

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  • Bodin showed a more rational appreciation than many of his contemporaries of the causes of this revolution, and the relation of the variations in money to the market values of wares in general as well as to the wages of labour.

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  • At Mile End the king met Wat Tyler; a lengthy and tumultuous conference, during which several persons were slain, took place, in which Tyler demanded the immediate abolition of serfdom and all feudal services, and the removal of all restrictions on freedom of labour and trade, as well as a general amnesty for the insurgents.

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  • He sent the celebrated Franciscan missionary, John of Monte Corvino, with some companions to labour among the Tatars and Chinese.

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    0
  • In 1905 when a full supply of labour was again available the output was 4,760,000 oz., in which year the sum distributed in dividends to shareholders in the Rand mines was over £4,800,000.

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  • One of the least results of E Depression this depression was that the second war loan and Chinese arranged by Mr Chamberlain was never issued, Labour.

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    0
  • Great Britain finally (in 1906) abandoning all her claims. The commercial depression was due to many causes; of these the most apparent was the shortage of labour at the Rand mines.

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  • Nevertheless, the labour available continued to be very much below the needs of the mines.

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  • Mr Alfred Lyttelton (who had succeeded Mr Chamberlain as secretary of state for the colonies) endeavoured to meet the wishes of the Transvaal by sanctioning legislation which would greatly restrict the immigration of Indians, but he would allow 1 A careful summary of the facts regarding the shortage of labour and of the economic situation in the Transvaal at that time, together with the debates in the legislative council, will be found in The Annual Register for 1903, from the pen of Mr H.

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  • At the same time successful efforts were made by the ministry to increase the supply of Kaffir labour for the mines.

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  • In 1891 labour troubles brought about military intervention and consequent bloodshed.

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  • The result is that practically all the trade of these states is in the hands of Bangkok Chinese firms, of a certain number of European houses and others, while most of the manual labour connected with the teak industry is done by Ka Mus, who migrate in large numbers from the left bank of the Mekong.

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  • The alluvial deposits are almost invariably worked opencast, those of the Malay Peninsula and Archipelago chiefly by Chinese labour: in a few instances hydraulic mining has been resorted to, and in other cases true underground mining is carried on; but the latter is both exceptional and difficult.

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  • After many years of labour and at a great expenditure of money the Great Western railway has constructed a fine breakwater and railway pier at Goodwick across the lower end of the bay, and an important passenger and goods traffic with Rosslare on the opposite Irish coast was inaugurated in 1906.

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    0
  • In these his language is vigorous and dignified; he states the results of his labour and thought with freshness and lucidity; tells numberless stories in a most delightful manner, and exhibits a wonderful talent for the representation of personal character; the many portraits of historic persons of all orders which he draws in these prefaces are as brilliant in execution as they are exact and convincing.

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    0
  • The plant is indigenous and grows well, but, unlike cacau, it requires much manual labour in its cultivation and picking and does not seem to be favoured by the planters.

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    0
  • The marshes near the Danube and Theiss were cleared, roads and canals were built at great expense of labour, German artisans and other settlers were attracted to colonize the district, and agriculture and trade encouraged.

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    0
  • He now set to work to repair his fortune by unremitting literary labour.

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    0
  • Thus the reciprocity of the various organs, maintained throughout the divisions of physiological labour, is not merely a mechanical stability; it is also a mutual equilibration in functions incessantly at work on chemical levels, and on those levels of still higher complexity which seem to rise as far beyond chemistry as chemistry beyond physics.

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    0
  • In spite, therefore, of the encyclopaedic tradition which has persisted from Aristotle through the Arab and medieval schools down to Herbert Spencer, it is forced upon us in our own day that in a pursuit so manysided as medicine, whether in its scientific or in its practical aspect, we have to submit more and more to that division of labour which has been a condition of advance in all other walks of life.

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    0
  • That the division of labour, which may seem to disintegrate the calling of the physician, really unites it, is well seen in the clinical laboratories which were initiated in the later 19th century, and which are destined to a great future.

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    0
  • Reid (Lord Loreburn) as lord chancellor, Mr Augustine Birrell as education minister (afterwards Irish secretary), Mr Lloyd-George as president of the Board of Trade, Mr Herbert Gladstone as home secretary, and Mr John Burns - a notable rise for a Labour leader - as president of the Local Government Board.

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    0
  • At the general election in January 1906 an overwhelming Liberal majority was returned, irrespective of the Labour and Nationalist vote, and Sir Henry himself was again elected for Stirling.

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    0
  • The Liberals numbered 379, the Labour members 51, the Nationalists 83, and the Unionists only 157.

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    0
  • From a party-political point of view the period of Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman's premiership was chiefly marked by the continued controversies remaining from the general election of 1906, - tariff reform and free trade, the South African question and the allied Liberal policy for abolishing Chinese labour, the administration of Ireland, and the amendment of the Education Act of 1902 so as to remove its supposed denominational character.

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    0
  • Besides attending to the spiritual needs of the lepers, he managed, by the labour of his own hands and by appeals to the Hawaian government, to improve materially the water-supply, the dwellings, and the victualling of the settlement.

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    0
  • The first of these divisions in order, not the least in bulk, and, though not the first in merit, inferior to none in the amount of congenial labour spent on it, is the theatre.

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    0
  • The Board of Trade and the County Council must each, under the act, consult with representatives of labour as to the appointment of one of the members, in order that labour may be represented on the Port Authority.

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    0
  • But though the plans of Wren and Hooke were not adopted, it was to these two fellows of the Royal Society that the labour of rebuilding London was committed.

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    0
  • The principal item in mining cost is that of labour, which is expended chiefly in breaking down the mineral, either by the use of hand tools or with the aid of powder.

    0
    0
  • Labour is also expended in handling the mineral in the workingplaces and in bringing it to the mine-cars in which it is brought to the surface.

    0
    0
  • This can be done in inclined deposits, it can often be done by the aid of mechanical appliances, though sometimes at an expense not warranted in the saving in the labour of loading.

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    0
  • In this method of mining the different stopes must be kept close together; otherwise there is much added labour in shovelling the broken ore down to the main level.

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    0
  • With soft material, pillars must be large, even at moderate depths below the surface, and it involves less labour to leave long rectangular pillars than to form numerous Pillar- square ones.

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    0
  • When loaded by shovel the car is made low to economize labour.

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    0
  • 1 In 1673 Aubrey began his "Perambulation" or "Survey" of the county of Surrey, which was the result of many years' labour in collecting inscriptions and traditions in the country.

    0
    0
  • As rice has to be transplanted as well as sown and irrigated, it needs a considerable amount of labour expended on it; and the Burman has the reputation of being a somewhat indolent cultivator.

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    0
  • In works, however, in which most of the goods are moulded, and where less skilled labour is required, the proportion of boy labour is increased.

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    0
  • Although spherical forms can be obtained without the use of moulds, moulds are now largely used for even the simplest kinds of tableware in order to economize time and skilled labour.

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    0
  • They ensure absolute regularity in form and save both time and labour.

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  • 463 and 477), writing about 1770, says that there was then a glass-house at Peking, where every year a good number of vases were made, some requiring great labour because nothing was blown (rien n'est souffle), meaning no doubt that the ornamentation was produced not by blowing and moulding, but by cutting.

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  • Finding himself unequal to the labour of teaching, he resigned his professorship in 1785, and devoted himself to the revision of his lectures, which he published (1792) under the title of Principles of Moral and Political Science.

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    0
  • Care was taken that the natives enjoyed security of land tenure - though ownership remained with the State - and the right to dispose of their own labour freely.

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    0
  • Labour disturbances are frequent, for, like Barcelona, Alcoy has become one of the centres of socialistic and revolutionary agitation, while preserving many old-fashioned customs and traditions, such as the curious festival held annually in April in honour of St George, the patron saint of the town.

    0
    0
  • The protection afforded to the planters by their government, however, enables them to pursue the industry with considerable profit, notwithstanding the poor return for their labour in saleable produce.

    0
    0
  • Great improvements have been made in the means of feeding the mills with canes by doing away with hand labour and substituting mechanical feeders or rakes, which by means of a simple steam-driven mechanism will rake the canes from the cane waggons on to the cane-carriers.

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    0
  • By the adoption of this system in one large plantation in the West Indies, crushing upwards of 1200 tons of canes per day, the labour of sixty-four hands was dispensed with, and was thus made available for employment in the fields.

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    0
  • The claying system involved the expense of large curing houses and the employment of many hands, and forty days at least were required for completing the operation and making the sugar fit for the market, whereas with centrifugals sugar cooked to-day can go to market to-morrow, and the labour employed is reduced to a minimum.

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  • The vacuum pan is erected at a height which commands the crystallizers, each of which will, as in days gone by in Cuba, hold the contents of the pan, and these in their turn are set high enough to allow the charge to fall into the feeding-trough of the centrifugals, thus obviating the necessity of any labour to remove the raw sugar from the time it leaves the vacuum pan to the time it falls into the centrifugals.

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    0
  • The use of sulphurous acid gas is entirely abandoned, and instead of three carbonatations with corresponding labour and plant only one is required.

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    0
  • Large doors at the side of the cistern are then opened, and as soon as the bags are cool enough they are removed at the expense of very exacting labour and considerable time, and fresh bags and sheaths are fixed in their places ready for filtering fresh liquor.

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    0
  • The former perhaps produce a little better char, but the latter, working almost automatically, require less labour and attention for an equal amount of work, and on the whole have proved very satisfactory.

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    0
  • The religious feature of this philosophy, against which has often been brought the accusation of excluding religion, resides in the consciousness of the unity of all and of the perpetual creation of the world by the spirit, as though it were a poem that the spirit is eternally composing, to which each individual contributes his strophe, or it may be only his line or his word: this poem has its end in itself and in its rhythm has beauty and joy, as well as labour and sorrow.

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    0
  • Cheap agricultural labour is supplied by the convicts, by the liberated convicts, the Kanakas, and (to some extent) labourers from the New Hebrides.

    0
    0
  • The greater the commercial and industrial prosperity of a town, the more rapid was the multiplication of craft gilds, which was a natural result of the ever-increasing division of labour.

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    0
  • Many master craftsmen now became wealthy employers of labour, dealing extensively in the wares which they produced.

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    0
  • Officers, commonly called wardens in England, were elected by the members, and their chief function was to supervise the quality of the wares produced, so as to secure good and honest workmanship. Therefore, ordinances were made regulating the hours of labour and the terms of admission to the gild, including apprenticeship. Other ordinances required members to make periodical payments to a common fund, and to participate in certain common religious observances, festivities and pageants.

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    0
  • The journeymen combined to protect their special interests, notably as regards hours of work and rates of wages, and they fought with the masters over the labour question in all its aspects.

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    0
  • During this period, until the plants begin to ripen, the tilth is maintained and weeds checked first by horse cultivators or horsehoes, and, as the plants increase in size, by hand labour.

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    0
  • The use of gas-fired furnaces greatly simplifies manual labour.

    0
    0
  • On a direct-fired furnace at least one man, the brigadier, must be an expert in all the operations involved; but with a gas furnace a division of labour is possible.

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  • Furthermore, with the large furnaces which gas-firing makes possible mechanical appliances may be substituted for manual labour in many operations, such as removing and replacing broken retorts, mixing and conveying the charge, drawing and casting the metal, charging and emptying the retorts, and removing the residues and products.

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  • - The cultivation of sugar was first introduced in the middle of the 17th century, and owing to the cheapness of labour, the extreme fertility of the soil and the care bestowed on its cultivation, became the staple product of the island.

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    0
  • These later historians had valuable help from the biographies of famous men and special histories of countries and cities, dynasties and princes, on which much labour was spent from the 4th century from the Flight onwards.

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    0
  • The whole field of labour and contracts was covered by minute regulations, which, good in theory, were absurd in practice, and which failed altogether, but not until labour had been disorganized for several years.

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    0
  • His Geschichte des Volkes Israel, the result of thirty years' labour, was epoch-making in that branch of research.

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    0
  • He joined Mr. Watson's Labour Cabinet of 1904 as Minister for Trade and Customs, and when Mr. Watson in 1907 resigned his leadership of the Labour party Mr. Fisher succeeded him.

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  • Others were afterwards supplied by Benozzo Gozzoli and men of lesser note, and the labour of ornamentation was only discontinued in 1464.

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    0
  • His great work, Britannia Romana, or the Roman Antiquities of Britain (London, 1732), one of the scarcest and most valuable of its class, contains the result of patient labour.

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    0
  • All the heavy labour in the coast provinces was performed by them down to 1855, when African slavery was abolished.

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    0
  • These works appear to have been erected by powerful sovereigns with unlimited command of labour, possibly with the object of giving employment to subjugated people, while feeding the vanity or pleasing the taste of the conqueror.

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  • In addition to the tribute, which was in accordance with native usage, there was the " mita," or forced labour in mines, farms and manufactories.

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  • During her short course she gathered round her a devoted company of men and women trained to labour for the reformation of the individual, the church and the state.

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  • It has recently become the seat of a considerable manufacture of carpets, owing to the cheapness of labour.

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  • He relegated many of the brethren to a quieter retreat outside the city, only retaining in Florence those best fitted to aid in intellectual labour.

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    0
  • Horses do not live, and all wheeled traffic is done by manual labour - hammocks and sedan-chairs are the customary means of locomotion.

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    0
  • Under an act of the 12th of April 1883, as amended on the 4th of April 1902, education is compulsory for children between the ages of seven and fifteen, but the maximum limit is reduced to thirteen for children who are employed at lawful labour.

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  • The results of this enthusiasm and this labour of the artist appeared in the volume of Poems, chiefly Lyrical, published in 1830.

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    0
  • The condition of the poor demanded special attention; labour should receive adequate remuneration; and he thought favourably of the " allotment of cottage grounds."

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  • labour.

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  • The general election resulted o in a majority of forty for Home Rule, heterogeneously composed of Liberals, Labour members and Irish.

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  • He was selected by the Records Commission to re-edit Rymer's Foedera, a task which after ten years' labour (1808-1818) he had to resign.

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  • should take an oath to the constitution, a progressive incometax and a fair adjustment of the interests of capital and labour.

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  • He also supervised the compilation of a comprehensive series of volumes by various writers on Descriptive Sociology, of which by 1881 eight parts on different racial areas had been published (at a loss to him of £3250) as the result of fourteen years of labour.

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    0
  • The writings of Cassiodorus evince great erudition, ingenuity and labour, but are disfigured by incorrectness and an affected artificiality, and his Latin partakes much of the corruptions of the age.

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    0
  • Sparta in particular remained, even after the reforms of Lycurgus, and on into historic times, simply the isolated camp of a compact army of occupation, of some s000 families, bearing traces still of the fusion of several bands of invaders, and maintained as an exclusive political aristocracy of professional soldiers by the labour of a whole population of agricultural and industrial serfs.

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  • 1 In the United Kingdom ex-criminals are now received in the ordinary labour homes and factories.

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  • Then, in addition to this, Christians were already found in all ranks and occupations - in the Imperial palace, among the officials, in the abodes of labour and the halls of learning, amongst slaves and freemen.

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    0
  • Its causes and results are fundamental for the study of ethnology (formation and mixture of races), of political and social history (formation of states and survival of institutions), and of political economy (mobility of labour and utilization of productive forces).

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    0
  • Effects of Emigration.-There are two views with regard to emigration: one unfavourable, viz., that it is a drain on population, reducing its economic strength and disturbing social and political relations; the second looking upon it as a relief from over-population and a congested labour market.

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    0
  • It is difficult to analyse closely the economic effect of emigration, because so much depends upon the character of the emigrants and the condition of the labour market.

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    0
  • Emigration affords a natural outlet for the superfluous labour force of a country.

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    0
  • The supply of labour is somewhat reduced, but wages are kept up for those who remain.

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    0
  • It adds directly to their available labour force, that is, to the number of adults engaged in the work of producing wealth.

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    0
  • If we add to these the native whites of foreign parentage (5,300,924) we have 11,152,323 persons of foreign extraction or 39'4% of the total labour force.

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  • The labour force of the United States is thus made up very largely of immigrants and the children of immigrants.

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  • So, too, the immigrant is worth his future net earnings to the community only if there is a demand for his labour.

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  • (b) Immigration sometimes increases the competition in the labour market, and thus lowers wages.

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    0
  • In 1885 the United States passed what is called the Contract Labor Law, forbidding the landing of any person who is under contract to perform labour in the United States.

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    0
  • With the growth of manufactures, industrial centres spring up where the division of labour can be fully provided for.

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  • In modern times two factors have accelerated this process, viz.: (I) the building of railways, which have developed commerce to a very great degree and favoured the large towns at the expense of the small; and (2) the invention of machinery, which has greatly increased the possibility of division of labour and manufactures on a large scale.

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  • The old handicraftsman has been superseded by machine labour and the village artisan by the factory hand.

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    0
  • At the same time improvements in agriculture and the opening up of new countries have enabled the modern community to gain its food and raw material with a less expenditure of labour force, and the surplus agricultural population has gone to the city.

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  • With him, however, Manning found less sympathy than with his predecessor, though Manning's advocacy of the claims of labour attracted Leo's attention, and influenced the encyclical which he issued on the subject.

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  • In the cause of labour he was active for many years, and in 1872 he set an example to the clergy of all the churches by taking a prominent part in a meeting held in Exeter Hall on behalf of the newly established Agricultural Labourers' Union, Joseph Arch and Charles Bradlaugh being among those who sat with him on the platform.

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  • The result of all this labour was the Latin translation of the Scriptures which, in spite of much opposition from the more conservative party in the church, afterwards became the Vulgate or authorized version; but the Vulgate as we have it now is not exactly Jerome's Vulgate, for it suffered a good deal from changes made under the influence of the older translations; the text became very corrupt during the middle ages, and in particular all the Apocrypha, except Tobit and Judith, which Jerome translated from the Chaldee, were added from the older versions.

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  • Versions.) Notwithstanding the labour involved in translating the Scriptures, Jerome found time to do a great deal of literary work, and also to indulge in violent controversy.

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    0
  • The increased freedom of trade with which Ireland was favoured, the introduction of the cotton manufacture by Robert Joy and Thomas M`Cabe in 1777, the establishment in 1791 of shipbuilding on an extensive scale by William Ritchie, an energetic Scotsman, combined with the rope and canvas manufacture already existing, supplied the inhabitants with employments and increased the demand for skilled labour.

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  • The fields are small and composed of terraces by which the soil has been walled up along the contours of the hills, with enormous labour, to save it from being washed away.

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  • But such inferences as these are but a vague return for the labour expended, and an almost cruelly inadequate response to seemingly well-founded expectations.

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  • The labour devoted to an investigation is with Hallam no excuse for dwelling on the result, unless that is in itself important.

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  • The farms are generally small, and are for the most part tilled by manual labour.

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  • In the hive-bee and among ants, on the other hand, there are constant structural distinctions between queen and worker, and the function of the queen bee in a hive is confined to egg-laying, the labour, of the community being entirely done by the workers.

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  • These methods were chiefly advocated in vineyards of the first class, where it was worth while to spend a good deal of money and labour to preserve the old and famous vines: the Château Leoville Poyferre and Clos Vougeot are instances.

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  • Corporations cannot be created by a special act of the legislature, and no corporation may issue stock except for an equivalent value of money, labour or property.

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    0
  • In 1899 a county workhouse was established in New Castle county, in which persons under sentence must labour eight hours a day, pay being allowed for extra hours, and a diminution of sentence for good behaviour.

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  • The actual cutting of the coal is chiefly performed by manual labour, the tool employed being a sharp-pointed double-armed pick, which is nearly straight, except when required for use in hard rock, when the arms are made with an « „ inclination or anchored.

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  • The process of holing in coal is one of the severest kinds of human labour.

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    0
  • The substitution of machinery for hand labour in cutting coal has long been a favourite problem with inventors, the earliest plan being that of Michael Meinzies, in 1761, who proposed to work a heavy pick underground by power transmitted from an engine at the surface, through the agencies of spear-rods and chains passing over pulleys; but none of the methods suggested proved to be practically successful until the general introduction of compressed air into mines furnished a convenient motive power, susceptible of being carried to considerable distances without any great loss of pressure.

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  • The removal of the coal broken at the working face to the pit bottom may in small mines be effected by hand labour, but more Under.

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  • For a Labour bibliographical lists for each division of the text.

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  • He was appointed secretary of the Labour party in 1900 and held the position for r r years; and editor of the " Socialist Library " in 1905.

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  • In 1906 he was elected to Parliament as Labour member for Leicester, and held the seat for a dozen years.

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  • It was as chairman of the Independent Labour party - the section led by Mr. Keir Hardie - that he entered the House of Commons; and he explained at the congress of the party in April 1907 that its object was to mould society into the socialist State.

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  • In that year he became the chairman of the Labour party in Parliament.

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    0
  • His devotion, indeed, to the ideal of international socialism caused him, at the outbreak of the World War, to lose touch not only with British public feeling in general, but even with the sentiment of the Labour party which he led.

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  • He found, however, that the bulk of the Labour party were convinced by the words of Sir Edward Grey and by the action of Germany; and he resigned the leadership of his party, being succeeded by Mr. Arthur Henderson.

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  • He remained a pacifist throughout the war, and used his influence in this direction in the labour and socialist movement, but he seldom spoke in Parliament, though he associated himself with the occasional anti-war demonstrations of Mr. Snowden and Mr. Arthur Ponsonby, and claimed the right of public meeting and free speech for pacifists.

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  • He endeavoured unsuccessfully to prevent the Labour Conference in Jan.

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    0
  • He was active in the summer of 1917 in promoting the participation of representatives of the English Labour and Socialist parties in an International Socialist Conference at Stockholm, to which German representatives were coming, and he went to Paris with bIr.

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  • Mr. Macdonald published several works on socialism and labour, besides a couple of books on India, which he visited in 1913 as a member of the Public Services Commission.

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    0
  • Gold, copper, iron and manganese are also found in various parts of the district, and there are tin mines at Maliwun, upon which European methods have been tried without much profit, owing to the cost of labour.

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  • Wetzel, are: that money as coin may have more than its bullion value; that natural interest is determined by the rent of land valued at the sum of money loaned - an anticipation of Turgot; that high wages are not inconsistent with a large foreign trade; that the value of an article is determined by the amount of labour necessary to produce the food consumed in making the article; that manufactures are advantageous but agriculture only is truly productive; and that when practicable (as he did not think it practicable at the end of the War of Independence) state revenue should be raised by direct tax.

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    0
  • For certain public works the Germans enforce a system of compulsory labour.

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    0
  • The plantations are all worked by native labour.

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    0
  • It was the fruit of twenty years' labour, and exhibits with a brevity of expression, which, it has been said, "condenses more matter into a line than can be extracted from pages of other writers," the results of his study.

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  • Species of Palaquium, the genus from which, in the Indian Archipelago, the best gutta-percha is obtained, occur on the hills, and from their cultivation there might in time be obtained a large revenue independently of European labour.

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  • " By forbidding appeals to a council the pope treats us like slaves, and wishes to take for his own pleasures all that we and our ancestors have accumulated by honest labour.

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  • " It is a shame which cries to heaven, this oppression by tithes, dues, penalties, excommunication, and tolls of the peasant, on whose labour all men depend for their existence."

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  • The " parsons " must be killed, and the lords reduced to earn their bread by daily labour.

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    0
  • As there proved to be a large number in the town councils who did not sympathize with the plans of organization recommended by Calvin and his colleagues, the town preachers were, after a year and a half of unsatisfactory labour, forced to leave Geneva.

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    0
  • taken their places, they have sought other occupations, largely in the manufacture of small wares in the cities, and particularly in departments of trade where skilled labour is essential.

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    0
  • Natives heavily predominated in agriculture and the professions, slightly in trade, and held barely more than half of all governmental positions; but in transportation, personal service, manufactures, labour and domestic service, the predominance of the foreign element warranted the assertion of the state Bureau of Statistics of Labour that " the strong industrial condition of Massachusetts has been secured and is held not by the labour of what is called the 'native stock,' but by that of the immigrants."

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  • In addition to the usual state boards of education (1837), agriculture (1852), railroad commissioners (1869), health (1869), statistics of labour, fisheries and game, charity (1879), the dairy bureau (1891), of insanity (1898), prison, highways, insurance and banking commissions, there are also commissions on ballot-law, voting machines, civil service (1884), uniformity of legislation, gas and electric lighting corporations, conciliation and arbitration in labour disputes (1886), &c. There are efficient state boards of registration in pharmacy, dentistry and medicine.

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    0
  • In the settlement of labour disputes conciliatory methods were successful in the formative period, when the parties to disputes adopted customary attitudes of hostility and fought to the end unless they were reconciled by the Board to a final agreement or to an agreement to arbitrate.

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    0
  • In the same period the mediation of the Board settled disputes affecting 5560 establishments; and in the latter half of this period labour disputes involving hostilities and of the magnitude contemplatedby the statute governing the Board of Conciliation and Arbitration had almost disappeared.

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    0
  • The laws relating to labour are full, but, as compared with those of other states, present few features calling for comment.

    0
    0
  • Stringent legislation controls prison labour.

    0
    0
  • Since 1885 a large expenditure has been incurred in the abolition of grade For a summary statement of state labour laws in the United States in 1903 see Bulletin 54 of the United States Bureau of Labor, September 1904; and for a summary of labour laws in force at the end of 1907 see 22nd Annual Report (for 1907) of the U.S. Commissioner of Labor (Washington, 1908).

    0
    0
  • Since 1850 truant and compulsory attendance laws (the first compulsory education law was passed in 1642) have been enforced in conjunction with laws against child labour.

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    0
  • European plants and animals were introduced into Hispaniola and Cuba, and sugar plantations were set up. But the main object of the Spaniards, who could not labour in the tropics even if they had wished to do so, was always gold, to be won by slave labour.

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    0
  • Forced labour was required to work them and the natives were driven to the toil.

    0
    0
  • An encomienda was required by anyone who wished to exact labour, i.e.

    0
    0
  • A great majority of all the family names in America were from animal totems. The division of labour among the sexes was based on zootechny.

    0
    0
  • Labour organizations for hunting, communal hunt and migrations had to do with the animal world.

    0
    0
  • However, looking over the whole field of North American achievement, architectural and non-architectural, composite and monolithic, the palm for boldness, magnitude of proportions and infinity of labour, must go to the sculptured mosaics of Yucatan.

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  • "WILL THORNE (1857-), British Labour politician, was born at Birmingham Oct.

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    0
  • In 1900 he contested West Ham unsuccessfully in the Labour interest, but in 1906 was elected to Parliament and came to the front as an active and energetic member of his party.

    0
    0
  • Among the consequences of the panic was a reduction of wages in many employments, accompanied by labour troubles more or less serious.

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    0
  • Modern writers rather dwell on the perfect organization demanded by his scheme, the training of a nation to combined labour, the level attained here by art and in the fitting of masonry, and finally the fact that the Great Pyramid was the oldest of the seven wonders of the ancient world and now alone of them survives.

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    0
  • How little his heart was with it was shown by the labour he soon undertook of translating and prefacing Schleiermacher's essay on the Gospel of St Luke.

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    0
  • He had still to go on doing literary task-work, but his labour was much worse paid in Leipzig than in Leiden.

    0
    0
  • Irrespective of the large number of clerks, village scribes and state and municipal employes which can be drawn upon with but slight interruption of official routine, there is a fair supply of casual literary labour up to the moderate standard required.

    0
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  • The law has allowed the Federal census office in its discretion to compile and publish the birth statistics of divisions in which they are accurately kept; one Federal report on the statistics of marriages and divorces throughout the country from 1867 to 1886 inclusive was published in 1889, and a second for the succeeding twenty-year period was published in part in 1908; an annual volume gives the statistics of deaths for about half the population of the country, including all the states and cities which have approximately complete records of deaths; Federal agencies like the bureau of labour and the bureau of corporations have been created for the purpose of gathering certain social and industrial statistics, and the bureau of the census has been made a permanent statistical office.

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  • He must be credited with the finest and most original treatment of division of labour since the Wealth of Nations.

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  • The fifth labour seems to symbolize some great improvement in the drainage of Elis.

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  • Under the present system, therefore, there is a biennial election (in even-numbered years) of a governor, a lieutenant-governor, a secretary of state, a state comptroller, a state treasurer, an attorney-general and a state engineer and surveyor; and the governor appoints, subject to the approval of the Senate, a superintendent of public works, a superintendent of state prisons, a superintendent of insurance, a superintendent of banks, a commissioner of excise, a commissioner of agriculture, a forest, fish and game commissioner, a commissioner of health, a commissioner of labour, a state architect, a state historian, a state librarian, two public service commissions, a civil service commission, a board of charities, a commission of prisons, a commission in lunacy, three tax commissioners and several other boards and commissions.

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  • 1 For further regulations relating to the employment of women and children see the Labour Law enacted in 1909 and the subsequent amendments.

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  • Eight hours constitute a legal day's work for all employees except those engaged in farm labour or domestic service.

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  • For children under sixteen years of age who are so employed the hours of labour are limited to eight a day and the days to six a week, and such children must not begin work before eight o'clock in the morning or continue after five o'clock in the evening.

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  • For children between sixteen and eighteen years of age and for women the hours of labour in a factory are limited to ten a day, unless to prepare for a short day or a holiday, and the days to six a week.

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  • In order to minimize competition between prison labour and free labour, articles manufactured in the state prisons, the reformatories and the penitentiaries, are sold only to the institutions and departments of the state and its political divisions.

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  • It may eve nbe stacked without tying into sheaves, though this course involves greater expenditure of labour in carrying and afterwards in threshing.

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  • Broken as is the surface, poor as is the soil of certain tracts, there is but little of the island which will not ultimately be cultivated with profit as pumice and clay-marl yield to labour.

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  • But the socialistic labour wave of later years had not yet gathered strength.

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  • The number of labour members thus elected to the general assembly was small, never more than six, and no independent labour party of any size was formed.

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  • But the influence of labour in the Progressive or, as it preferred to be called, Liberal party, was considerable, and the legislative results noteworthy.

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  • Before this the Ballance ministry had organized two new departments, those of labour and agriculture.

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  • The former supervises the labour laws and endeavours to deal with unemployment; the latter has done much practical teaching, inspection, &c. Butter, cheese and New Zealand hemp are by law graded and branded by departmental inspectors before export.

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  • The party headed by Ballance, Seddon and Ward held office without a break for more than seventeen years, a result mainly due to the general support given to its agrarian and labour policy by the smaller farmers and the working classes.

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  • After the suppression of the Kapp troubles and the return of the Ministry to Berlin it was impossible for Noske to remain in office, as the labour masses, who by the general strike against the Kapp " Government " had for the moment obtained a decisive influence upon affairs, regarded him as having been too tolerant of reaction in the army and as having manifested excessive ruthlessness in the suppression of the Communist bands.

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  • Say is considered to have brought out the importance of capital as a factor in production more distinctly than the English economists, who unduly emphasized labour.

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  • Objecting, as Germain Gamier had, to Smith's distinction between productive and unproductive labour, he maintains that, production consisting in the creation or addition of a utility, all useful labour is productive.

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  • The best summing up and ripest fruit of the critical labour since then are Professor H.

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  • Greeley dissented from many of Fourier's propositions, and in later years was careful to explain that the principle of association for the common good of working men and the elevation of labour was the chief feature which attracted him.

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  • A series of popular essays on the subject were published over his own signature in The Tribune in 1869, and subsequently republished in book form, with a title-page describing protection to home industry as a system of national co-operation for the elevation of labour.

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  • For the settlement of disputes between labourers and employers there is a state board, appointed by the governor and consisting of an employer of labour, a labourer and a disinterested citizen.

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  • The present article is restricted to arbitration under municipal law; but a separate article is also devoted to the use of arbitration in labour disputes (see Arbitration And Conciliation).

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  • Ample provision is made in America for the arbitration of labour disputes.

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  • At present, besides the president, who has usually a seat in the cabinet,' and whose salary is 5000 a year, there is a parliamentary secretary with a salary of 1200, a permanent secretary (salary X1500, rising to £1800), and four assistant secretaries (each with a salary of i 200) for the harbour, marine, commercial, labour and statistical, and railway departments.

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  • The Commercial, Labour and Statistical Department is the real remains of the original board of trade, as it combines the charge of the trade statistics with the general consultative duties with which King Charles II.'s board was originally entrusted.

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  • The statistical work includes compiling abstracts, memoranda, tables and charts relating to the trade and industrial conditions of the United Kingdom, the colonies and foreign countries, the supervision of the trade accounts, the preparation of monthly and annual accounts of shipping and navigation, statistics as to labour, cotton, emigration and foreign and colonial customs, tariffs and regulations.

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  • The labour statistics published by the department are exhaustive, dealing with hours of labour, the state of the labour market, the condition of the working classes and the prices of commodities; annual reports are also ' Since 1882 there have been only two occasions on which the president of the board was not included in the cabinet.

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  • The staff comprises a controller-general (salary £1200 rising to £1500), a deputy controller-general and labour commissioner, a principal for statistics, a principal of the commercial department, an assistant labour commissioner, a chief staff officer for commercial intelligence, a chief labour correspondent, a special inquiry officer, and a staff of investigators and labour correspondents.

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  • There are also branches which deal with the census of production, labour exchanges, &c.

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  • The central authorities, which as early as the 18th century worked together in a common mother cell of the State chancery, became differentiated so soon as the growing tasks of administration called for specialization; in 1869 there were seven departments, and in the concluding decade of the Austrian Empire there were set up Ministries of Labour, Food, Public Health and Social Care.

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  • social reforms with regard to female and night labour, and an extension of the participation of the State in the exploitation of the coal-mines."

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  • A good general impression of the economic situation can easily be gained from the returns of the state of the labour market.

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  • Thus during the first weeks of the war there was very great unemployment in parts of the industrial regions, since the dismissals far exceeded the proportion of enrolments in the army, while agriculture, which was already occupied with the harvest, suffered from a serious shortage of labour.

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  • Tillage was also made compulsory, but this had little effect on production owing to the shortage of labour, draft animals, manures and agricultural implements, together with the oppressive restrictions caused by the fixing of maximum prices.

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  • 20, 25), or the exalted position of the Israelites as officials and overseers, while the remnant of the pre-Israelite inhabitants serve in labour gangs (ix.

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  • Neither husband nor wife has any interest in the separate property of the other and the wife may convey her real estate, other than a homestead, without her husband's consent, but the husband must support his wife out of his property or by his labour if he is able, and if he is unable the wife must support him so far as possible out of her property.

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  • Returning to his cell he continued a labour in which he had been engaged, the transcription of the Psalter.

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  • On the ground that the aim of every prosperous community should be to have a large proportion of hardy country yeomen, and that horticulture and agriculture demand such a high ratio of labour, as compared with feeding and breeding cattle, that the country population would be greatly increased by the substitution of a fruit and vegetable for an animal dietary.

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  • The other administrative officers are a secretary of state, auditor, treasurer, superintendent of public instruction, commissioner of insurance, three commissioners of railways, attorney general and commissioner of agriculture and labour; each of these officers is chosen biennially and must be at least twenty-five years of age.

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  • Hagerty, Commissioner of Immigration; North Dakota: A Few Facts concerning its Resources and Advantages (Bismarck, 1892), prepared by the Commissioner of Agriculture and Labour; Glimpses of North Dakota (Buffalo, 1901), published by the North Dakota Pan-American Exposition Company; The Story of the Prairies; or, The Landscape Geology of North Dakota (Chicago, 1902), by D.

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  • Nearly all the French cathedrals of the 12th and 13th centuries exhibit on their portals a species of rural calendar, in which each month and sign has its corresponding labour.

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  • Though able and intelligent cultivators they do not take kindly to any form of labour other than agricultural, with the result that most of the industries and trades of the country are in the hands of Chinese.

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  • He never conceals nor wilfully misrepresents anything, and he reckoned no labour too great which might help him to draw a truthful picture of the past.

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  • Agricultural labour is very carefully regulated by law, in the enforcement of which the residents and lower officials have wide powers.

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  • One day's gratuitous labour out of seven or more can be demanded of labourers either on private or on government estates; but in 1882 this form of labour was for the most part abolished as far as government estates were concerned, each labourer so exempted paying one guilder per year.

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  • The use of slave labour, and the application of the corvee system to natives who were nominally free, enabled the company to lower the cost of production, while the absence of competition enabled it to raise prices.

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