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labour

labour

labour Sentence Examples

  • He liked neither the labour itself nor its object.

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  • He liked neither the labour itself nor its object.

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  • This subsequently formed the first plank of the Labour platform.

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  • The general administration of the Factories and Shops Acts, to which the special boards owe their being, is vested in a chief inspector of factories, subject to the control of the minister of Labour in matters of policy.

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  • His early years were spent in the performance of such labour as fell to the lot of every farmer's son in the new states, and in the acquisition of such education as could be had in the district schools held for a few weeks each winter.

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  • The Labour movement in Australia may be traced back to the early days when transportation was in vogue, and the free immigrant and the time-expired convict objected to the competition of the bond labourer.

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  • The Labour movement in Australia may be traced back to the early days when transportation was in vogue, and the free immigrant and the time-expired convict objected to the competition of the bond labourer.

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  • SAMUEL BAMFORD (1788-1872), English labour politician, was born at Miston, near Middleton, Lancashire, on the 28th of February 5788.

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  • Either party, or the minister for Labour, may refer a determination to the court of industrial appeals, and the court, in the event of a special board failing to make a determination, may itself be called upon to frame one.

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  • SAMUEL BAMFORD (1788-1872), English labour politician, was born at Miston, near Middleton, Lancashire, on the 28th of February 5788.

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  • Either party, or the minister for Labour, may refer a determination to the court of industrial appeals, and the court, in the event of a special board failing to make a determination, may itself be called upon to frame one.

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  • In 1920 she went to Russia as a member of one of the various Labour delegations invited to inspect Soviet conditions of government.

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  • The party therefore determined that they would refuse to support any person standing in the Labour interests who refused to pledge himself to vote on all occasions in such way as the majority of the party might decide to be expedient.

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  • This was called the " solidarity pledge," and, united under its sanction, what was left of the Labour party contested the general election of 1894.

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  • "PHILLIP SNOWDEN (1864-), British Labour politician, was born at Cowling, Yorks, July 18 1864.

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  • It is possible that the London dockers' strike was not without its influence on the minds of the Australian Labour leaders.

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  • The antagonism between free labour and slave labour became the theme of many of his speeches.

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  • The antagonism between free labour and slave labour became the theme of many of his speeches.

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  • On the formation of the Commonwealth a Labour party was established in the federal houses.

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  • The release of a Hebrew servant after six years' labour (Exod.

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  • It was not long, however, before the party itself became divided on the fiscal question; and a Protectionist government coming into power, about half the Labour members gave it consistent support and enabled it to maintain office for about three years, the party as a political unit being thus destroyed.

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  • The Labour unions were able to secure in these years many concessions both as to hours and wages.

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  • Much labour was bestowed by him upon facilitating the computation of the movements of the asteroids.

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  • The events of these three years taught the Labour leaders that a parliamentary party was of little practical influence unless it was able to cast on all important occasions a solid vote, and to meet the case a new method was devised.

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  • By means of bond labour roads and bridges were con structed, and a route opened into the interior beyond Rise of the Blue Mountains.

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  • A strike of the Newcastle miners, after lasting twenty-nine weeks, came to an end in January 1890, and throughout the rest of the year there was great unrest in Labour circles.

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  • It supports the government as the power alone capable of promoting legislation, but its support is given only so long as the measures of the government are consistent with the Labour policy.

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  • On the 6th of September the silver mines closed down, and a week later a conference of employers issued a manifesto which was met next day by a counter-manifesto of the Intercolonial Labour Conference, and almost immediately afterwards by the calling out of 40,000 men.

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  • I thought, however, that the advantage she would derive would not repay her for the time and labour that such an experiment would cost.

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  • After the year 1884 Labour troubles became very frequent, the New South Wales coal miners in particular being at war with the colliery owners during the greater part of the six years intervening between then and what is called the Great Strike.

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  • Before coming, however, to the history of federation, and the evolution of the Labour party, we must refer briefly to some other questions which have been of general interest very soon after the gold discoveries, the European miners objecting strongly to the presence of these aliens upon the diggings.

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  • The one ideal which has just been described represents the Labour party from the New South Wales standpoint.

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  • The problem has been how to accomplish this work with the minimum of labour consistent with the desired accuracy.

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  • The steps by which the practice of resting from labour on the Lord's day instead of on the Sabbath was established in Christendom and received civil as well as ecclesiastical sanction are dealt with under Sunday; it is enough to observe here that this practice is naturally and even necessarily connected with the religious observance of the Lord's day as a day of worship and religious gladness, and is in full accordance with the principles laid down by Jesus in His criticism of the Sabbath of the Scribes.

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  • A special board may be formed at the request of any union of employers or of workmen, or on the initiative of the Labour department.

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  • A special board may be formed at the request of any union of employers or of workmen, or on the initiative of the Labour department.

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  • He sat on various royal commissions, including those on the Civil Service and Venereal Diseases, and from 1917 to 1919 was again chairman of the Independent Labour party.

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  • It was at such an inopportune time that the most extensive combination of Labour yet brought into action against capital formulated its demands.

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  • The Labour party held power in the Commonwealth for a short period, and has had the balance of power in its hands ever since the formation of the Commonwealth.

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  • It was at such an inopportune time that the most extensive combination of Labour yet brought into action against capital formulated its demands.

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  • Naturally, however, as the ideals of the members of the party are the same, the members of the Labour party will be generally found voting together on all important divisions, the chief exception being with regard to free trade or protection.

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  • He unsuccessfully contested Blackburn in 1900 and Wakefield in 1902, and in 1903 he became chairman of the Independent Labour party.

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  • During the whole period from 1873 onwards, prices, other than of labour, were steadily tending downwards, so that the cost of living in 1890 was much below that of 1873.

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  • During the whole period from 1873 onwards, prices, other than of labour, were steadily tending downwards, so that the cost of living in 1890 was much below that of 1873.

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  • When the excitement consequent on the gold finds had subsided, there was a considerable reaction against the claims of Labour, and this was greatly helped by the congested state of the labour market; but the principle of an eight-hours day made progress, and was conceded in several trades.

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  • To the Labour party in that state are admitted only persons who have worked for their living at manual labour, and this qualification of being an actual worker is one that was strongly insisted upon at the formation of the party and strictly adhered to, although the temptation to break away from it and accept as candidates persons of superior education and position has been very great.

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  • New South Wales was the first country which endeavoured to settle its labour grievances through the ballot-box and to send a great party to parliament as the direct representation of Labour, pledged to obtain through legislation what it was unable to obtain by strikes and physical force.

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  • Another disturbing influence has been the high protective tariffs, adopted during the closing years of the century, which increased the costs of living more rapidly than the wages for labour, and compelled thousands of immigrants to seek employment elsewhere.

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  • The two features of the Labour party in New South Wales are its detachment from other parties and the control of the caucus.

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  • Magnetite occurs in great abundance in Western Australia, together with haematite, which would be of enormous value if cheap labour were available.

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  • The colonies were, however, to have other and bitter experiences of strikes before Labour recognized that of all means for settling industrial Australians in South America.

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  • Several attempts had been made by individuals belonging to the Labour party to enter the New South Wales parliament, but it was not until 1891 that the occurrence of a general election gave the party the looked-for opportunity for concerted action.

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  • Several attempts had been made by individuals belonging to the Labour party to enter the New South Wales parliament, but it was not until 1891 that the occurrence of a general election gave the party the looked-for opportunity for concerted action.

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  • The years 1865-1870 were occupied with assiduous labour.

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  • In a desperate battle, the natives were defeated with great slaughter, and the territory surrounding the town was divided into ranches, in which the conquered natives had to labour.

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  • SABBATH, the day of cessation from work,' which among the Hebrews followed six days of labour and closed the week.

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  • He served as chairman of many commissions dealing with public health, prohibition, and labour.

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  • Having lost his money he returned to Rome penniless, and was driven to support himself by manual labour in a mill (cum ...

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  • An illness brought on by toil and privation forced him to leave his work to others for nearly a year, but in August 1598 he returned to his field of labour, and in October of that year practically the whole country was Catholic again.

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  • He returned to Savoy, and after three years more of unwearying labour died at Lyons on the 28th of December 1622.

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  • The use of cranes is of great antiquity, but it is only since the great industrial development of the 19th century, and the introduction of other motive powers than hand labour, that the crane has acquired the important and indispensable position it now occupies.

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  • The landlord found land, labour, oxen for ploughing and working the wateringmachines, carting, threshing or other implements, seed corn, rations for the workmen and fodder for the cattle.

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  • Despite the multitude of slaves, hired labour was often needed, especially at harvest.

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  • He had a right to their labour in return for their keep. He might hire them out and receive their wages, pledge them for debt, even sell them outright.

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  • He profited by the son's labour.

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  • Marconi's successes and the demonstrations he had given of the thoroughly practical character of this system of electric wave telegraphy stimulated other inventors to enter the same field of labour, whilst theorists began to study carefully the nature of the physical operations involved.

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  • Frequently half his nights were spent in reading, after the labour of his most strenuous days.

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  • In Christian theology, much labour has been spent upon vindicating man's freedom against God's intrusion, or upon blotting out human power in order to leave room for the divine.

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  • have been set apart for regular forest operations which are carried on by convict labour.

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  • After ten years' graduated labour the convict is given a ticket-of-leave and becomes selfsupporting.

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  • Balfour put forward the view that the polyp was the more primitive type, and that the medusa is a special modification of the polyp for reproductive purposes, the result of division of labour in a polypcolony, whereby special reproductive persons become detached and acquire organs of locomotion for spreading the species.

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  • - p elagic floating Hydrozoa with great differentiation of parts, each performing a special function; generally regarded as colonies showing differentiation of individuals in correspondence with a physiological division of labour.

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  • The registry of the citizens, the suppression of litigation, the elevation of public morals, the care of minors, the retrenchment of public expenses, the limitation of gladiatorial games and shows, the care of roads, the restoration of senatorial privileges, the appointment of none but worthy magistrates, even the regulation of street traffic, these and numberless other duties so completely absorbed his attention that, in spite of indifferent health, they often kept him at severe labour from early morning till long after midnight.

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  • This condition of mind can be obtained only by "living conformably to nature," that is to say, one's whole nature, and as a means to that man must cultivate the four chief virtues, each of which has its distinct sphere - wisdom, or the knowledge of good and evil; justice, or the giving to every man his due; fortitude, or the enduring of labour and pain; and temperance, or moderation in all things.

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  • It is in some such manner as these that the natural conditions of regions, which must be conformed to by prudence .and utilized by labour to yield shelter and food, have led to the growth of peoples differing in their ways of life, thought and speech.

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  • The discovery and production of commodities require a knowledge of the distribution of geological formations for mineral products, of the natural distribution, life-conditions and cultivation or breeding of plants and animals and of the labour market.

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  • Meditating, it is probable, emigration upon his release, he turned his attention while in prison to colonial subjects, and acutely detected the main causes of the slow progress of the Australian colonies in the enormous size of the landed estates, the reckless manner in which land was given away, the absence of all systematic effort at colonization, and the consequent discouragement of immigration and dearth of labour.

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  • In 1846 Wakefield, exhausted with labour, was struck down by apoplexy, and spent more than a year in complete retirement, writing during his gradual recovery his Art of Colonization.

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  • Much labour has been bestowed by A.

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  • In this mode of treating the question the order of the terms is numerical, and though the amount of labour is such as might well have deterred a younger man, yet the details were easy, and a great part of it might be entrusted to a mere computer.

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  • He is assisted by a council of ministers representing the departments of the interior, foreign affairs, finance, war and marine, industry, labour and instruction and public works.

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  • friendly relations are maintained with Spain, as the Spanish plantations in Fernando Po are to a great extent worked by Liberian labour.

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  • Boats could be conveyed over flat and easy portages from one river-basin to another, and these portages were subsequently transformed with a relatively small amount of labour into navigable canals, and even at the present day the canals have more importance for the traffic of the country than have most of the railways.

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  • For these allotments the peasants had to pay, as before, either by personal labour or by a fixed rent.

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  • The redemption was not calculated on the value of the allotments of land, but was considered as a compensation for the loss of the compulsory labour of the serfs; so that throughout Russia, with the exception of a few provinces in the S.E., it was - and still remains, notwithstanding a very great increase in the value of land - much higher than the market value of the allotment.

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  • Every year more than half the adult males (in some districts three-fourths of the men and one-third of the women) quit their homes and wander throughout Russia in search of labour.

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  • Accustomed to the use of compulsory labour, they have failed to accommodate themselves to the new conditions.

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  • One of the most serious of these is caused not by the unfavourable character of the climate but by the shortness of labour.

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  • Here again both capital and labour are short, and the cultivation of the soil suffers from the fact that, owing to the absence of timber, dry dung is used for fuel instead of being employed as manure.

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  • Owing to the forced abstention from agricultural labour in the winter months the peasants of central Russia, more especially those of the governments of Moscow, Vladimir, Yaroslavl, Kostroma, Tver, Smolensk and Ryazan have for centuries carried on a variety of domestic handicrafts during the period of compulsory leisure.

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  • The first portion of the Manchurian railway, built by Russian engineers, with Chinese labour, was finished in 1902.

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  • Many believed that the end of autocracy had come, and an extemporized Council of Labour Deputies, anxious to play the part of a Comite de Salut Public, was ready to take over the supreme power and exercise it in the interests of the proletariat.

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  • For days the whole mechanism of civilized existence in Russia was at a standstill, all intercourse 4 Sazonov's sentence of twenty years' hard labour was commuted by Nicholas II.

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  • "GEORGE HENRY ROBERTS (1869-), English Labour politician, was born at Chedgrave, Norfolk, July 27 1869.

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  • He also became president of the Norwich and District Trades and Labour Council.

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  • He was elected to the Norwich School Board in 1899, being the first candidate run by the local Labour party to win a seat on a public body.

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  • When the Labour party joined the Coalition movement in 1915 he became a Lord Commissioner of the Treasury; he was parliamentary secretary to the Board of Trade 1916-7; Minister of Labour, 1917-8; Food Controller, Jan.

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  • In certain respects, on the other hand, America has gone further than the United Kingdom, especially in the matter of automatic signalling, and in the operating of points and signals by electrical power or air-pressure instead of manual labour.

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  • of track and yard room required to perform a unit of work;, it has diminished journal and rolling friction relatively to thetons hauled, since these elements of train resistance grow relatively less as the load per wheel rises; and finally, it has tended to reduce the labour costs as the train loads have become greater, because no more men are required to handle a heavy train than; a light one.

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  • According to the light railway commissioners, experience satisfied them (a) that light railways were much needed in many parts of the country and that many of the lines proposed, but not constructed, were in fact necessary to admit of the progress, and even the maintenance, of existing trade interests; and (b) that improved means of access were requisite to assist in retaining the population on the land, to counteract the remoteness of rural districts, and also, in the neighbourhood of industrial centres, to cope with the difficulties as to housing and the supply of labour.

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  • The simplicity is great; they can be quickly mounted and dismounted; the correct gauge can be perfectly maintained; the sections of rails and sleepers (which are of iron) are very portable, and skilled labour is not required to lay or to take them up; the making of a " turn-out " is easy, by taking out a 15 ft.

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  • He was nominated by his party in 1892 for re-election, but was defeated by Cleveland, this result being due, at least in part, to the labour strikes which occurred during the presidential campaign and arrayed the labour unions against the tariff party.

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  • In pursuance of his method of successive studies he began in 1823 the study of Italian literature, passing over German as demanding more labour than he could afford.

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  • The work was completed in August 1843, the five years' labour having been broken by the composition of reviews of Lockhart's Life of Scott (1838), Kenyon's Poems (1839), Chateaubriand (1839), Bancroft's United States (1841), Mariotti's Italy (1842), and Madame Calderon's Life in Mexico (1843), and by the preparation of an abridgment of his Ferdinand and Isabella in anticipation of its threatened abridgment by another hand.

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  • Some attempt has been made to improve matters by macadamizing one of the principal thoroughfares, but it will be the labour of a Hercules to cleanse this vast city from the accumulated filth of ages of neglect.

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  • In addition to public applause, he was gratified by the more select praises of the highest living authorities in that branch of literature: " the candour of Dr Robertson embraced his disciple "; Hume's letter of congratulation " overpaid the labour of ten years."

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  • These places employed 35.9% of the labour engaged in manufacturing, and the value of their products was 38.8% of the total for the state.

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  • That he was not opposed to labour was shown by his earlier support of the bill limiting the scope of injunctions against striking employees.

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  • Several decisions were particularly objectionable to organized labour.

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  • During the campaign many prominent labour leaders opposed the election of Mr Taft, on the ground that his decisions while on the bench had been unfriendly to organized labour.

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  • The result of this enormous labour, albeit worthy of a great historian, clearly showed that the author lacked all sense of historical proportion.

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  • He came into Parliament as Labour member for N.-E.

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  • Manchester in 1906, when the Labour party were returned for the first time in numerical force - over 50 in all.

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  • In consequence of the decision of the Labour party to terminate its support of the Coalition Government he resigned office in Nov.

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  • At the beginning of the session of 1919 he was elected vice-chairman of the party, and he took a considerable share in debate, speaking with a moderation and appreciation of the standpoint of other classes not always manifested by Labour members.

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  • he made a strong speech against the policy of "direct action," pointing out that Labour could capture the political machine if working men were sufficiently united and sufficiently active, but that threats would only throw back their cause and set all other classes against them.

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  • But a year later he acquiesced in the establishment of a Labour council of action, and in the threat of a general strike in case of any military or naval intervention against the Soviet Government of Russia.

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  • In 1921 he was chosen chairman of the parliamentary Labour party.

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  • Judah and Israel dwelt at ease, or held the superior position of military officials, while the earlier inhabitants of the land were put to forced labour.

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  • takes the part of his subjects against the excessive zeal of the official Gadatas, and grants freedom of taxation and exemption from forced labour to those connected with a temple of Apollo in Asia Minor (Bulletin de correspondance hellenique, xiii.

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  • Every member of the congregation of Israel must labour, as God has appointed, at some handicraft or profession to provide for his home.

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  • "ARTHUR HENDERSON (1863-), British Labour politi - cian, was born in Glasgow of working-class parents Sept.

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  • He entered Parliament for Barnard Castle as a Labour member, at a by-election in 1903.

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  • When the Labour party were first returned to Parliament in force, in 1906, he soon made his mark as one of their leaders.

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  • As chairman, at the opening of the new session in that autumn, Mr. Henderson promised the full support of organized labour in maintaining the " splendid unity " of the nation.

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  • When Mr. Asquith formed the first Coalition Ministry in 1915, he included Mr. Henderson in the Cabinet as President of the Board of Education, and also adviser of the Government on Labour questions arising out of the World War.

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  • Indeed his functions as Labour adviser so occupied his time and attention, that it was thought desirable to relieve him in Aug.

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  • He followed up this action by strongly urging the Labour party to rally in Dec. 1916 to Mr. Lloyd George, and by accepting himself the position of an original member of the War Cabinet of four without portfolio.

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  • The then Provisional Government at Petrograd favoured an international Labour and Socialist Conference, which was being promoted by the International Socialist Bureau and was to meet at Stockholm.

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  • He returned with these ideas to England, and, being still secretary of the Labour party as well as a member of the War Cabinet, used his influence as secretary to promote British Labour participation in the Conference.

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  • But though the majority of Labour men were apparently in his favour, public opinion in other classes was strongly against any conference with Germans in the midst of war.

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  • Mr. Henderson visited Paris in the company of Mr. Ramsay Macdonald to discuss the situation with Labour over there, but found that neither French, nor Belgian, nor Italian, nor American Labour was disposed to join.

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  • The attitude of Labour internationalism was maintained by Mr. Henderson out of office, and he warmly espoused the Labour policy of the latter part of 1918, to take the Labour men out of the Government and appeal for support on a Labour platform, in conjunction with the pacifist wing of the party.

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  • He was defeated by a candidate of the National Democratic party in East Ham, and none of the Pacifist Labour men with whom he had made common cause found their way into Parliament.

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  • The labour needed in this industry is supplied by Indian peons, who live in a state of semi-servitude and are paid barely enough to sustain life.

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  • The lack of mineral resources, especially of coal and iron, of a good harbour (until the improvement of Gulfport), and of an adequate supply of labour has discouraged most kinds of manufacturing.

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  • The lease system does not prevail, but the farming out of convict labour is permitted by the constitution; such labour is used chiefly for the building of railways, the convicts so employed being at 'all times cared for and guarded by state officials.

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  • The more important sectarian schools are Wake Forest College (Baptist, opened 1834 as a " manual labour and classical institute "; as a college, 1838) at Wake Forest, 16 m.

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  • However absolute a philosopher's idealism may be, he is erroneously styled a mystic if he moves towards his conclusions only by the patient labour of the reason.

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  • These workers then take on themselves the labour of the colony, some collecting food, which they transfer to their comrades within the nest whose duty is to tend and feed the larvae.

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  • Their labour often results in the complete defoliation of the tree.

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  • The climate is generally such as to secure the population the necessaries of life without severe labour; the extremes of heat and drought are such as to render the land unsuitable for pasture, and the people everywhere subsist by cultivation of the soil or commerce, and live in settled villages or towns.

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  • 3), but to severe menial labour (xii.

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  • During the Revolution he received yet more help; men were proud to labour for him, and did not murmur because he absorbed all the credit and fame.

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  • He took other men's labour as his due, and impressed their words, of which he had suggested the underlying ideas, with the stamp of his own individuality; his collaborators themselves did not complain - they were but too glad to be of help in the great work of controlling and forwarding the French Revolution through its greatest thinker and orator.

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  • Specially noteworthy in the Lezioni are the sections on human wants as the foundation of economical theory, on labour as the source of wealth, on personal services as economic factors, and on the united working of the great industrial functions.

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  • Next he sought to prepare the inactive form of the acid by artificial means; and after great and long-continued labour he succeeded, and was led to the commencement of his classical researches on fermentation, by the observation that when the inactive acid was placed in contact with a special form of mould (Penicillium glaucum) the right-handed acid alone was destroyed, the left-handed variety remained unchanged.

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  • This, after long and serious labour, he effected; the dog thus inoculated proved to be immune when bitten by a rabid animal.

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  • Not only in Paris, but in many cities throughout the world, institutes on the model of the original one have been set up and are doing beneficent work, all arising from the genius and labour of one man.

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  • But of this we may be sure, that science, in obeying the law of humanity, will always labour to enlarge the frontiers of life."

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  • Turgot was opposed to all labour associations of employers or employed, in accordance with his belief in free competition.

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  • His works can scarcely be entitled original compositions, his labour having consisted chiefly in the arrangement of his materials, but on this very account they are of considerable value as convenient books of reference, easier of access and almost as trustworthy as the original documents.

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  • His constitution, weakly in childhood, strengthened with advancing years so as to allow him to get through an incredible amount of sedentary labour, while he retained to the last the fresh and cheerful temperament of a boy.

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  • An ample inherited fortune permitted him to pursue his studies undistracted by the necessity for earning a livelihood, and to maximize the results of his time and labour by the employment of amanuenses and secretaries.

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  • This was his last labour.

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  • Isaac, too, conjoined tillage with pastoral husbandry, and that with success, for " he sowed in the land Gerar, and reaped an hundred-fold " - a return which, it would appear, in some favoured regions, occasionally rewarded the labour of the husbandman.

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  • The ox and the ass were used for labour.

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  • Sheep-raising, involving larger holdings, less supervision and less labour, was preferred by the capitalist land-holder to the cultivation of the wheat, spelt, vines or olives which were the chief crops of the country.

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  • They were bound to the soil and occupied holdings of scattered strips (amounting usually to a virgate or 30 acres) in return for a payment partly in labour and partly in kind.

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  • The diminution of the population by one-half led to a scarcity of labour and an increase of wages which deprived the landowner of his narrow margin of profit.

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  • On the much agitated question about the employment of horses or oxen in labour, the most important arguments are distinctly stated.

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  • The next work on the husbandry of Scotland is The Countryman's Rudiments, or an Advice to the Farmers in East Lothian, how to labour and improve their Grounds, said to have been written by John Hamilton, 2nd Lord Belhaven about the time of the Union, and reprinted in 1723.

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  • Among the advantages of enclosures, he observes, " you will gain much more labour from your servants, a great part of whose time was taken up in gathering thistles and other garbage for their horses to feed upon in their stables; and thereby the great trampling and pulling up and other destruction of the corns while they are yet tender will be prevented."

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  • Manual labour in farming operations began to be superseded by the use of drills, hay-makers and horse-rakes, chaff-cutters and root-pulpers.

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  • Labour difficulties, low prices of produce, bad seasons and similar causes provided inducements for leaving the land in grass for two years, or over three years or more, before breaking it up for wheat.

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  • With a variety of crops, again, the mechanical operations of the farm, involving horse and hand labour, are better distributed over the year, and are therefore more economically performed.

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  • It was found, however, that the steam work was done with less care than had been bestowed upon the horse tillage, and the result was that steam came to be regarded as an auxiliary to horse labour rather than as a substitute for it.

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  • The labour question again became acute in the early years of the 10th century, when, owing to the scarcity of hands and the high rate of wages, selfbinding harvesters were resorted to in England for the ingathering of the corn crops to a greater extent than ever before.

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  • The decrease has assumed serious proportions since 1871, as before that date the supply of rural labour exceeded the demand.

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  • The decrease in the demand for labour is attributable chiefly to the reduction of the cultivated area and the laying down to pasture of land once under the plough, and to the increasing use of agricultural machinery.

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  • It was characteristic of his nature that he should be stirred to such delight by the Revolution in France, and should labour so earnestly to make his countrymen understand with what gravity and sobriety it had been effected..

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  • Four out of the five essays are elaborate and powerful solutions of perplexing technical problems - the distribution of the gains of international commerce, the influence of consumption on production, the definition of productive and unproductive labour, the precise relations between profits and wages.

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  • Among other things, he made a more thorough study of socialist writers, with the result that, though he was not converted to any of their schemes as being immediately practicable, he began to look upon some more equal distribution of the produce of labour as a practicability of the remote future, and to dwell upon the prospect of such changes in human character as might render a stable society possible without the institution of private property.

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  • The essays in the fourth volume of his Dissertations - on endowments, on land, on labour, on metaphysical and psychological questions - were written for the Fortnightly Review at intervals after his short parliamentary career.

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  • The secret of the ardour with which he took up this question probably was his conviction that a great struggle was impending in Europe between labour and capital.

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  • In some years three or four sowings have to be made before a "plant" is produced, enormous loss in labour and cost of seed alone being thus involved.

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  • In the towns the division of labour had proceeded much further than in the rural districts, and there were in existence organized bodies, such as the Gild Merchant and the crafts, whose functions were primarily economic. But one of the most striking characteristics of town life in the middle ages was the manner in which municipal and industrial privileges and responsibilities were interwoven.

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  • In our own day labour disputes, to take another example, can scarcely ever be resolved into a question of merely pecuniary gain or loss.

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  • The ostensible cause of a modern labour dispute is frequently not the real or the most important cause.

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  • The " economic man " of the earlier writers, with his aversion from labour and his desire of the present enjoyment of costly indulgences, has been abandoned by their successors, with the result that in the opinion of many good people altruistic sentiment may be allowed to run wild over the whole domain of economics.

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  • The earlier writers generally assumed perfect mobility of labour and capital.

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  • Many of the questions of the greatest practical importance at the present time, such as the competition between old and new methods of manufacturing commodities substantially the same in kind, and equally useful to the great body of consumers, arise largely from the immobility of capital or labour, or both of them.

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  • To speak of " additional labour and capital " without reference to the kind and quality of the labour and capital, and the manner in which they are employed, organized and directed, throws very little light on agriculture.

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  • We may mention particularly Charles Booth's Life and Labour of the People in London, B.

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  • The results of more than twenty years' labour were set forth in his Hexapla and Tetrapla, in which he placed the Hebrew text side by side with the various Greek versions, examined their mutual relations in detail, and tried to find the basis for a more reliable text of the LXX.

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  • Engels and Karl Marx, were leaders in the revolt of labour against the power of capital.

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  • 2 The existence of the Mandaeans has been known since the middle 'of the 17th century, when the first Christian missionaries, Ignatius a Jesu and Angelus a Sancto, began to labour among them at Basra; further information was gathered at a somewhat later date by Pietro della Valle' and Jean de Thevenot 5 (1633-1667), and in the following century by Engelbrecht Kaempfer (1651-1716), Jean Chardin (1643-1713) and Carsten Niebuhr.

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  • The extreme of this " division of labour " is seen, in those insects whose jaws are vestigial in the winged state, when, the need for feeding all behind them, they have but to pair, to lay eggs and to die.

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  • The enormous labour required for this work seems scarcely to have been appreciated, though it remains to this day one of the most useful books in an ornithologist's library.

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  • Macleay indeed never pretended to a high position in this branch of science, his tastes lying in the direction of Entomology; but few of their countrymen knew more of birds than did Swainson and Vigors; and, while the latter, as editor for many years of the Zoological Journal, and the first secretary of the Zoological Society, has especial claims to the regard of all zoologists, so the former's indefatigable pursuit of Natural History, and conscientious labour in its behalf-among other ways by means of his graceful pencil-deserve to be remembered as a set-off against the injury he unwittingly caused.

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  • Its line to some extent may be partly made out - very clearly, for the matter of that, so far as its details have been published in the series of papers to which reference has been given - and some traces of its features are probably preserved in his Catalogue of the specimens of birds in the museum of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, which, after several years of severe labour, made its appearance at Calcutta in 1849; but, from the time of his arrival in India, the onerous duties imposed upon Blyth, together with the want of sufficient books of reference, seem to have hindered him from seriously continuing his former researches, which, interrupted as they were, and born out of due time, had no appreciable effect on the views of systematisers generally.

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  • This Tentamen, containing his complete method of classifying birds in general, naturally received much attention, the more so perhaps, since, with its appendices, it was nearly the last labour of its respected author, whose industrious life came to an end in the course of the following year.

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  • The corn spirit is also said to be hiding in the barn till the corn is threshed, or it may be said to reappear at midwinter, when the farmer begins to think of his new year of labour and harvest.

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  • Leland said that it is easier to collect the leaves of the Sibyl than the titles of the works written by Roger Bacon; and though the labour has been somewhat lightened by the publications of Brewer and Charles, referred to below, it is no easy matter even now to form an accurate idea of his actual productions.

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  • It is probable that up to 1875, at least, there had been a larger outlay of labour, material and money, in reducing, levelling and reclaiming territory, and in straightening and widening thoroughfares 1 in Boston, than had been expended for the same purposes in all the other chief cities of the United States together.

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  • The basin here excavated by ten years of labour, lying 385 ft.

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  • In Plymouth alone a fleet of some two hundred boats,assembles; and on the French side of the Channel no less capital and labour are invested in it, the vessels employed being, though less in number, larger in size than on the English side.

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  • The tenant may have added to its value by buildings, by labour applied to the land, or by the use of fertilizing manures, but, whatever be the amount of the additional value, he is not entitled to any compensation whatever.

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  • He and his family escaped, but his material possessions were destroyed and the labour of years annihilated.

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  • Slave labour disappeared, and under new and more promising auspices a fresh career of progress began.

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  • The cultivation of cotton on a commercial scale is quite new in Nyasaland, and although general conditions of soil and climate appear favourable the question of transport is serious and labour is not abundant.

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  • If the fishing operation is unsuccessful the well has to be abandoned, often after months of labour, unless it is found possible to drill past the tools which have been lost.

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  • There is no penitentiary; the convicts are hired to the one highest bidder who contracts for their labour, and who undertakes, moreover, to lease all other persons convicted during the term of the lease, and sub-leases the prisoners.

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  • Manual labour was adopted at first as a means for students to defray their college expenses.

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  • 2 The coffer is of fine hard sandstone of superior quality, and has been hollowed out, at the cost of vast labour and expense, from a solid block of rock.

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  • His programme included the collective ownership of the means of production and the international association of labour, but when in June 1899 he entered Waldeck-Rousseau's cabinet of "republican defence" as minister of commerce he limited himself to practical reforms, devoting his attention to the improvement of the mercantile marine, to the development of trade, of technical education, of the postal system, and to the amelioration of the conditions of labour.

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  • Labour questions were entrusted to a separate department, the Direction du Travail, and the pension and insurance office was also raised to the status of a "direction."

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  • The introduction of trades-union representatives on the Supreme Labour Council, the organization of local labour councils, and the instructions to factory inspectors to put themselves in communication with the councils of the trades-unions, were valuable concessions to labour, and he further secured the rigorous application of earlier laws devised for the protection of the working-classes.

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  • The ruthless methods by which the Spaniards forced the natives to labour for them caused a change in the attitude of the erstwhile friendly Borinquenos.

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  • Here a remnant of the Borinquenos, assisted by the Caribs, maintained a severe struggle with the conquerors, but in the end their Indian allies were subdued by English and French corsairs, and the unfortunate natives of Porto Rico were left alone to experience the full effect of forced labour, disastrous hurricanes, natural plagues and new diseases introduced by the conquerors.

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  • Of recent years the introduction of various organic compounds as precipitants or reagents has reduced the labour of the process; and advantage has also been taken of the fairly complex double salts which these metals form with compounds.

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  • 40 The first season's labour, under the direction of Prof. T.

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  • Hence the world will last for six thousand years of toil and labour; then will come one thousand years of Sabbath rest for the people of God in the kingdom of the Messiah."

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  • In the hunter period the savage warrior does not enslave his vanquished enemy, but slays him; the women of a conquered tribe he may, however, carry off and appropriate as wives or as servants, for in this period domestic labour falls almost altogether on their sex.

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  • It is in proportion as a sedentary life prevails, and agricultural exploitation is practised on a larger scale, whilst warlike habits continue to exist, that the labour of slaves is increasingly introduced to provide food for the master, and at the same time save him from irksome toil.

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  • It is not merely that in its first establishment slavery was an immense advance by substituting for the immolation of captives, often accompanied by cannibalism, their occupation in labour for the benefit of the victor.

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  • But it is not so well understood that slavery discharged important offices in the later social evolution - first, by enabling military action to prevail with the degree of intensity and continuity requisite for the system of incorporation by conquest which was its final destination; and, secondly, by forcing the captives, who with their descendants came to form the majority of the population in the conquering community, to an industrial life, in spite of the antipathy to regular and sustained labour which is deeply rooted in human nature.

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  • It was in general cheaper to buy a slave than to rear one to the age of labour.

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  • If ransomed, the victim became by Athenian law the slave of his redeemer till he paid in money or labour the price which had been given for him.

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  • In manufactures and commerce, also, servile gradually displaced free labour.

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  • But the extension of properties in the hands of the patricians, and the continued absences of citizens required by the expanding system of conquest, necessarily brought with them a demand for slave labour, which was increasingly supplied by captives taken in war.

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  • The lighter punish ments inflicted by masters were commonly personal chastisement or banishment from the town house to rural labour; the severer were employment in the mill (pistrinum) or relegation to the mines or quarries.

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  • Free labour was discountenanced.

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  • Cato, Varro and Columella all agree that slave labour was to be preferred to free except in unhealthy regions and for large occasional operations, which probably transcended the capacity of the permanent familia rustica.

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  • Freedmen of humbler rank, on the other hand, filled the minor offices in the administrative service, in the city cohorts, and in the army; and we shall find that they entered largely into the trades and professions when free labour began to revive.

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  • (2) The diminished supply of slaves further acted in the direction of the rehabilitation of free labour.

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  • In the factories or workshops kept by wealthy persons slave labour was mainly employed; but free artisans sometimes offered their services to these establishments or formed associations to compete with them.

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  • They paid a fixed proportion of the produce (pars agraria) to the owner of the estate, and gave a determinate amount of labour (operae) on the portion of the domain which he kept in his own hands (mansus dominicus).

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  • In no case could the rent or the labour dues be increased.

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  • The slaves were bound to work for their masters during this period for three-fourths of the day, and were to be liable to corporal punishment if they did not give the due amount of labour.

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  • The closing of the traffic made the labour of the slaves more severe, and led to the employment on the plantations of many who before had been engaged in domestic work; but the slavery of Brazil had always been lighter than that of the United States.

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  • The natives were decoyed into the labour ships under false pretences, and then detained by force; or they were seized on shore or in their canoes and carried on board.

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  • For its economic effects, when it is regarded as an organization of labour, reference may be had to Smith's Wealth of Nations, book iii.

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  • He says, "From the year 1725 to 1729, I preached much, but saw no fruit to my labour.

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  • John was sent out by the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, and hoped to labour as a missionary among the Indians, but though he had many interesting conversations with them the mission was found to be impracticable.

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  • The memorable arrangement in Bristol was made a few weeks before Wesley's field of labour was extended to the north of England in May 1742.

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  • His childhood and youth were passed in poverty, and his health was early impaired by hard manual labour.

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  • He was back in Johannesburg in December 1903, and had to consider the crisis in the gold-mining industry caused by the shortage of native labour.

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  • A confiscation bill was passed in August 1861 discharging from his service or labour any slave employed in aiding or promoting any insurrection against the government of the United States.

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  • The industrial activity of the state has required more labour than has been available.

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  • Owing to the inadequate supply of labour two important immigration leagues of business men were formed in 1904 and 1905, and in 1907 the state government began officially to attempt to secure desirable foreign immigration, sending agents abroad to foster it.

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  • Under the conditions of free labour, the development of railways abroad, the improvement of machinery both in cane and beet producing countries, the general competition of the beet, and the fall of prices, it was impossible for the Cuban industry to survive without radical betterment of methods.

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  • A comparatively low cost of labour, the fact that labour is not, as in the days of slavery, that of unintelligent blacks but of intelligent free labourers, the centralized organization and modern methods that prevail on the plantations, the remarkable fertility of the soil (which yields 5 or 6 crops on good soil and with good management, without replanting), and the proximity of the United States, in whose markets Cuba disposes of almost all her crop, have long enabled her to distance her smaller West Indian rivals and to compete with the bounty-fed beet.

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  • Even in the time of slavery tobacco was generally a white-man's crop; for it requires intelligent labour and intensive care.

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  • In 1544 the Indians, so far as they had not succumbed to the labour of the mines and fields to which they were put by the Spaniards, were proclaimed emancipated.

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  • Like a true Hegelian he saw three stages in the development of labour: the ancient and feudal period, which, through the subjection of the labourer, sought solidarity without freedom; the reign of capital and the middle classes, established in 1789, which sought freedom by destroying solidarity; and the new era, beginning in 1848, which would reconcile solidarity with freedom by introducing the principle of association.

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  • This position he founded on the law of wages formulated by Ricardo, and accepted by all the leading economists, that wages are controlled by the ordinary relations of supply and demand, that a rise in wages leads to an increase in the labouring population, which, by increasing the supply of labour, is followed by a corresponding fall of wages.

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  • Unfortunately the want both of labour and of roads renders it.

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  • Ovando, the governor of Hispaniola (Haiti), who had exhausted the labour of that island, turned his thoughts to the Bahamas, and in 1509 Ferdinand authorized him to procure labourers from these islands.

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  • Family ties are strong, and the women are not ill-treated, although they share in all kinds of manual labour.

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