How to use Labour in a sentence
He liked neither the labour itself nor its object.
This subsequently formed the first plank of the Labour platform.
The general administration of the Factories and Shops Acts, to which the special boards owe their being, is vested in a chief inspector of factories, subject to the control of the minister of Labour in matters of policy.
His early years were spent in the performance of such labour as fell to the lot of every farmer's son in the new states, and in the acquisition of such education as could be had in the district schools held for a few weeks each winter.
The antagonism between free labour and slave labour became the theme of many of his speeches.Advertisement
On the formation of the Commonwealth a Labour party was established in the federal houses.
In 1920 she went to Russia as a member of one of the various Labour delegations invited to inspect Soviet conditions of government.
The Labour movement in Australia may be traced back to the early days when transportation was in vogue, and the free immigrant and the time-expired convict objected to the competition of the bond labourer.
Free labour was discountenanced.
By means of bond labour roads and bridges were con structed, and a route opened into the interior beyond Rise of the Blue Mountains.Advertisement
Before coming, however, to the history of federation, and the evolution of the Labour party, we must refer briefly to some other questions which have been of general interest very soon after the gold discoveries, the European miners objecting strongly to the presence of these aliens upon the diggings.
A strike of the Newcastle miners, after lasting twenty-nine weeks, came to an end in January 1890, and throughout the rest of the year there was great unrest in Labour circles.
It supports the government as the power alone capable of promoting legislation, but its support is given only so long as the measures of the government are consistent with the Labour policy.
Either party, or the minister for Labour, may refer a determination to the court of industrial appeals, and the court, in the event of a special board failing to make a determination, may itself be called upon to frame one.
After ten years' graduated labour the convict is given a ticket-of-leave and becomes selfsupporting.Advertisement
They ensure absolute regularity in form and save both time and labour.
The introduction of trades-union representatives on the Supreme Labour Council, the organization of local labour councils, and the instructions to factory inspectors to put themselves in communication with the councils of the trades-unions, were valuable concessions to labour, and he further secured the rigorous application of earlier laws devised for the protection of the working-classes.
Here a remnant of the Borinquenos, assisted by the Caribs, maintained a severe struggle with the conquerors, but in the end their Indian allies were subdued by English and French corsairs, and the unfortunate natives of Porto Rico were left alone to experience the full effect of forced labour, disastrous hurricanes, natural plagues and new diseases introduced by the conquerors.
Of recent years the introduction of various organic compounds as precipitants or reagents has reduced the labour of the process; and advantage has also been taken of the fairly complex double salts which these metals form with compounds.
In manufactures and commerce, also, servile gradually displaced free labour.Advertisement
The industrial activity of the state has required more labour than has been available.
This commission reported in 1909, its general conclusion being that in the interests of Natal the importation of indentured Indian labour should not be discontinued.
The ruthless methods by which the Spaniards forced the natives to labour for them caused a change in the attitude of the erstwhile friendly Borinquenos.
Hence the world will last for six thousand years of toil and labour; then will come one thousand years of Sabbath rest for the people of God in the kingdom of the Messiah."
In the hunter period the savage warrior does not enslave his vanquished enemy, but slays him; the women of a conquered tribe he may, however, carry off and appropriate as wives or as servants, for in this period domestic labour falls almost altogether on their sex.Advertisement
It is in proportion as a sedentary life prevails, and agricultural exploitation is practised on a larger scale, whilst warlike habits continue to exist, that the labour of slaves is increasingly introduced to provide food for the master, and at the same time save him from irksome toil.
It is not merely that in its first establishment slavery was an immense advance by substituting for the immolation of captives, often accompanied by cannibalism, their occupation in labour for the benefit of the victor.
But it is not so well understood that slavery discharged important offices in the later social evolution - first, by enabling military action to prevail with the degree of intensity and continuity requisite for the system of incorporation by conquest which was its final destination; and, secondly, by forcing the captives, who with their descendants came to form the majority of the population in the conquering community, to an industrial life, in spite of the antipathy to regular and sustained labour which is deeply rooted in human nature.
If ransomed, the victim became by Athenian law the slave of his redeemer till he paid in money or labour the price which had been given for him.
But the extension of properties in the hands of the patricians, and the continued absences of citizens required by the expanding system of conquest, necessarily brought with them a demand for slave labour, which was increasingly supplied by captives taken in war.
The lighter punish ments inflicted by masters were commonly personal chastisement or banishment from the town house to rural labour; the severer were employment in the mill (pistrinum) or relegation to the mines or quarries.
Cato, Varro and Columella all agree that slave labour was to be preferred to free except in unhealthy regions and for large occasional operations, which probably transcended the capacity of the permanent familia rustica.
In no case could the rent or the labour dues be increased.
The natives were decoyed into the labour ships under false pretences, and then detained by force; or they were seized on shore or in their canoes and carried on board.
For its economic effects, when it is regarded as an organization of labour, reference may be had to Smith's Wealth of Nations, book iii.
He says, "From the year 1725 to 1729, I preached much, but saw no fruit to my labour.
John was sent out by the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, and hoped to labour as a missionary among the Indians, but though he had many interesting conversations with them the mission was found to be impracticable.
The memorable arrangement in Bristol was made a few weeks before Wesley's field of labour was extended to the north of England in May 1742.
His childhood and youth were passed in poverty, and his health was early impaired by hard manual labour.
He was back in Johannesburg in December 1903, and had to consider the crisis in the gold-mining industry caused by the shortage of native labour.
A confiscation bill was passed in August 1861 discharging from his service or labour any slave employed in aiding or promoting any insurrection against the government of the United States.
Owing to the inadequate supply of labour two important immigration leagues of business men were formed in 1904 and 1905, and in 1907 the state government began officially to attempt to secure desirable foreign immigration, sending agents abroad to foster it.
Under the conditions of free labour, the development of railways abroad, the improvement of machinery both in cane and beet producing countries, the general competition of the beet, and the fall of prices, it was impossible for the Cuban industry to survive without radical betterment of methods.
A comparatively low cost of labour, the fact that labour is not, as in the days of slavery, that of unintelligent blacks but of intelligent free labourers, the centralized organization and modern methods that prevail on the plantations, the remarkable fertility of the soil (which yields 5 or 6 crops on good soil and with good management, without replanting), and the proximity of the United States, in whose markets Cuba disposes of almost all her crop, have long enabled her to distance her smaller West Indian rivals and to compete with the bounty-fed beet.
Even in the time of slavery tobacco was generally a white-man's crop; for it requires intelligent labour and intensive care.
In 1544 the Indians, so far as they had not succumbed to the labour of the mines and fields to which they were put by the Spaniards, were proclaimed emancipated.
This position he founded on the law of wages formulated by Ricardo, and accepted by all the leading economists, that wages are controlled by the ordinary relations of supply and demand, that a rise in wages leads to an increase in the labouring population, which, by increasing the supply of labour, is followed by a corresponding fall of wages.
Ovando, the governor of Hispaniola (Haiti), who had exhausted the labour of that island, turned his thoughts to the Bahamas, and in 1509 Ferdinand authorized him to procure labourers from these islands.
In the effort to reduce the practice of economy to a fine art he arrived at the conviction that the less labour a man did, over and above the positive demands of necessity, the better for him and for the community at large; he would have had the order of the week reversed - six days of rest for one of labour.
Desirous of proving to himself and others that man could be as independent of this kind as the nest-building bird, Thoreau retired to a hut of his own construction on the pine-slope over against the shores of Walden Pond - a but which he built, furnished and kept in order entirely by the labour of his own hands.
A vast sum of money and the labour of thousands of men were employed to clear harbours for them, at and near Boulogne.
At the same time he was prominent in the movement for the formation of labour unions, and at the congress of working men at Nantes in 1894 he secured the adoption of the labour union idea against the adherents of Jules Guesde.
At the same time it was decided that the deputies to that convention should be elected by all Frenchmen 25 years old, domiciled for a year and living by the product of their labour.
His character developed unanticipated strength on the practical side; he became a vigorous employer of labour, an active planter, above all a powerful and benignant island chieftain.
A law of 1909 provides for a women's and children's department in the state bureau of labour.
After five years' labour he completed his play, which he took to London for Garrick's opinion.
The bulk of the foreign trade of Servia passes through Belgrade, but the industrial output of the city itself is not large, owing to the scarcity both of labour and capital.
Among these are the precise extent of demand, the limit of the inevitable fall in price with largely increased production, the cost of labour as increasing amounts are required, and the effect of changed conditions on the output of " wild " rubber and the competition of the new plantations which are being established in tropical America.
Difficulties in the supply of labour in the East may hinder the further development of the rubber-planting industry, especially at a period when a reduction in the cost of production may be the chief problem.
Having regard to the present cost of producing " plantation " rubber, and to the probability that, apart from a possible increase in the price of labour, this cost is susceptible of further reduction, it may be concluded that rubber production will continue to be profitable even should a considerable fall in market value take place.
He represented " Centre " thought in Australian politics and for a long time was a reconciling influence between the Conservatives and the Labour party.
In working downwards in open quarries and in tortuous shafts and passages much of the mica is damaged, and a large amount of labour is expended in hauling waste material to the surface.
He also presided, as an eminent constitutional lawyer, over a committee set up in that year to consider the reconstruction of the House of Lords, and spent much labour in a task which all parties were disposed to shirk.
For forty-five years his labour was incessant; his first memoir was published in 1825 when he was yet a student; his last appeared shortly after his death on the 4th of April 1870.
The original Pattinson process has been in many cases replaced by the LuceRozan process (1870), which does away with arduous labour and attains a more satisfactory crystallization.
In 1892 he presided over the Labour Commission, but his health never recovered an attack of influenza which he had in 1891, and he died at Knowsley on the 21st of April 1893.
In the Democratic national convention at Chicago in 1896, during a long and heated debate with regard to the party platform, Bryan, in advocating the "plank" declaring for the free coinage of silver, of which he was the author, delivered a celebrated speech containing the passage, "You shall not press down upon the brow of labour this crown of thorns; you shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold."
No purely astronomical enterprise was ever carried out on so Transits of P large a scale or at so great an expenditure of money and labour as was devoted to the observations of these transits, and for several years before their occurrence the astronomers of every leading nation were busy in discussing methods of observation and working out the multifarious details necessary to their successful application.
In order to save arithmetical labour it is convenient to be provided with conversion factors for reducing variously expressed results to the standard form.
Other colonies were founded in Bahia, Espirito Santo and Rio de Janeiro during the same period, but they were unsuccessful, partly because of the competition of slave labour.
No other country has been able to equal Brazil in the production of coffee, and under better labour conditions the country might compete with the foremost in the production of cane sugar, cotton and tobacco.
All this excessive labour for the stage had undermined the great poet's health, and in 1725 he had determined to take the baths at Aix-la-Chapelle; but instead of going thither he wandered through Belgium to Paris, and spent the winter there.
To deepen the channel over the bar at Durban so that steamers might enter the harbour was the cause of labour and expenditure for many years.
The finest work is excessively trying to the eyes of the plaiters, who can at most give to it two or three hours' labour daily.
At last, however, after nearly twelve months' incessant labour, the work was completed in November 1860.
He advocated the repeal of the corn-laws, not essentially in order to make food cheaper, but because it would develop industry and enable the manufacturers to get labour at low but sufficient wages; and he assumed that other countries would be unable to compete with England in manufactures under free trade, at the prices which would be possible for English manufactured products.
Their importance is out of all proportion to their number, since they monopolize a large portion of the trade, are with the Germans the chief employers of labour, and control not only the finances but to a great extent the government and press of the country.
During his primacy (1616-1637), when he had the whole influence of the court, and the sympathy and the assistance of the Catholic world behind him, he put the finishing touches to his life's labour by founding a great Catholic university at Nagyszombat (1635), and publishing a Hungarian translation of the Bible to counteract the influence of Gaspar Karoli's widely spread Protestant version.
Biot, who assisted in the correction of its proof sheets, remarked that it would have extended, had the demonstrations been fully developed, to eight or ten instead of five volumes; and he saw at times the author himself obliged to devote an hour's labour to recovering the dropped links in the chain of reasoning covered by the recurring formula.
Bodin showed a more rational appreciation than many of his contemporaries of the causes of this revolution, and the relation of the variations in money to the market values of wares in general as well as to the wages of labour.
At Mile End the king met Wat Tyler; a lengthy and tumultuous conference, during which several persons were slain, took place, in which Tyler demanded the immediate abolition of serfdom and all feudal services, and the removal of all restrictions on freedom of labour and trade, as well as a general amnesty for the insurgents.
He sent the celebrated Franciscan missionary, John of Monte Corvino, with some companions to labour among the Tatars and Chinese.
In 1905 when a full supply of labour was again available the output was 4,760,000 oz., in which year the sum distributed in dividends to shareholders in the Rand mines was over £4,800,000.
The result is that practically all the trade of these states is in the hands of Bangkok Chinese firms, of a certain number of European houses and others, while most of the manual labour connected with the teak industry is done by Ka Mus, who migrate in large numbers from the left bank of the Mekong.
After many years of labour and at a great expenditure of money the Great Western railway has constructed a fine breakwater and railway pier at Goodwick across the lower end of the bay, and an important passenger and goods traffic with Rosslare on the opposite Irish coast was inaugurated in 1906.
In these his language is vigorous and dignified; he states the results of his labour and thought with freshness and lucidity; tells numberless stories in a most delightful manner, and exhibits a wonderful talent for the representation of personal character; the many portraits of historic persons of all orders which he draws in these prefaces are as brilliant in execution as they are exact and convincing.
The plant is indigenous and grows well, but, unlike cacau, it requires much manual labour in its cultivation and picking and does not seem to be favoured by the planters.
The marshes near the Danube and Theiss were cleared, roads and canals were built at great expense of labour, German artisans and other settlers were attracted to colonize the district, and agriculture and trade encouraged.
He now set to work to repair his fortune by unremitting literary labour.
Thus the reciprocity of the various organs, maintained throughout the divisions of physiological labour, is not merely a mechanical stability; it is also a mutual equilibration in functions incessantly at work on chemical levels, and on those levels of still higher complexity which seem to rise as far beyond chemistry as chemistry beyond physics.
In spite, therefore, of the encyclopaedic tradition which has persisted from Aristotle through the Arab and medieval schools down to Herbert Spencer, it is forced upon us in our own day that in a pursuit so manysided as medicine, whether in its scientific or in its practical aspect, we have to submit more and more to that division of labour which has been a condition of advance in all other walks of life.
That the division of labour, which may seem to disintegrate the calling of the physician, really unites it, is well seen in the clinical laboratories which were initiated in the later 19th century, and which are destined to a great future.
At the general election in January 1906 an overwhelming Liberal majority was returned, irrespective of the Labour and Nationalist vote, and Sir Henry himself was again elected for Stirling.
The Liberals numbered 379, the Labour members 51, the Nationalists 83, and the Unionists only 157.
From a party-political point of view the period of Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman's premiership was chiefly marked by the continued controversies remaining from the general election of 1906, - tariff reform and free trade, the South African question and the allied Liberal policy for abolishing Chinese labour, the administration of Ireland, and the amendment of the Education Act of 1902 so as to remove its supposed denominational character.
Besides attending to the spiritual needs of the lepers, he managed, by the labour of his own hands and by appeals to the Hawaian government, to improve materially the water-supply, the dwellings, and the victualling of the settlement.
The first of these divisions in order, not the least in bulk, and, though not the first in merit, inferior to none in the amount of congenial labour spent on it, is the theatre.
The Board of Trade and the County Council must each, under the act, consult with representatives of labour as to the appointment of one of the members, in order that labour may be represented on the Port Authority.
But though the plans of Wren and Hooke were not adopted, it was to these two fellows of the Royal Society that the labour of rebuilding London was committed.
The principal item in mining cost is that of labour, which is expended chiefly in breaking down the mineral, either by the use of hand tools or with the aid of powder.
Labour is also expended in handling the mineral in the workingplaces and in bringing it to the mine-cars in which it is brought to the surface.
This can be done in inclined deposits, it can often be done by the aid of mechanical appliances, though sometimes at an expense not warranted in the saving in the labour of loading.
In this method of mining the different stopes must be kept close together; otherwise there is much added labour in shovelling the broken ore down to the main level.
With soft material, pillars must be large, even at moderate depths below the surface, and it involves less labour to leave long rectangular pillars than to form numerous Pillar- square ones.
When loaded by shovel the car is made low to economize labour.
As rice has to be transplanted as well as sown and irrigated, it needs a considerable amount of labour expended on it; and the Burman has the reputation of being a somewhat indolent cultivator.
In works, however, in which most of the goods are moulded, and where less skilled labour is required, the proportion of boy labour is increased.
Although spherical forms can be obtained without the use of moulds, moulds are now largely used for even the simplest kinds of tableware in order to economize time and skilled labour.
Finding himself unequal to the labour of teaching, he resigned his professorship in 1785, and devoted himself to the revision of his lectures, which he published (1792) under the title of Principles of Moral and Political Science.
Care was taken that the natives enjoyed security of land tenure - though ownership remained with the State - and the right to dispose of their own labour freely.
Labour disturbances are frequent, for, like Barcelona, Alcoy has become one of the centres of socialistic and revolutionary agitation, while preserving many old-fashioned customs and traditions, such as the curious festival held annually in April in honour of St George, the patron saint of the town.
The protection afforded to the planters by their government, however, enables them to pursue the industry with considerable profit, notwithstanding the poor return for their labour in saleable produce.
Great improvements have been made in the means of feeding the mills with canes by doing away with hand labour and substituting mechanical feeders or rakes, which by means of a simple steam-driven mechanism will rake the canes from the cane waggons on to the cane-carriers.
By the adoption of this system in one large plantation in the West Indies, crushing upwards of 1200 tons of canes per day, the labour of sixty-four hands was dispensed with, and was thus made available for employment in the fields.
The claying system involved the expense of large curing houses and the employment of many hands, and forty days at least were required for completing the operation and making the sugar fit for the market, whereas with centrifugals sugar cooked to-day can go to market to-morrow, and the labour employed is reduced to a minimum.
The vacuum pan is erected at a height which commands the crystallizers, each of which will, as in days gone by in Cuba, hold the contents of the pan, and these in their turn are set high enough to allow the charge to fall into the feeding-trough of the centrifugals, thus obviating the necessity of any labour to remove the raw sugar from the time it leaves the vacuum pan to the time it falls into the centrifugals.
The use of sulphurous acid gas is entirely abandoned, and instead of three carbonatations with corresponding labour and plant only one is required.
Large doors at the side of the cistern are then opened, and as soon as the bags are cool enough they are removed at the expense of very exacting labour and considerable time, and fresh bags and sheaths are fixed in their places ready for filtering fresh liquor.
The former perhaps produce a little better char, but the latter, working almost automatically, require less labour and attention for an equal amount of work, and on the whole have proved very satisfactory.
The greater the commercial and industrial prosperity of a town, the more rapid was the multiplication of craft gilds, which was a natural result of the ever-increasing division of labour.
Many master craftsmen now became wealthy employers of labour, dealing extensively in the wares which they produced.
Officers, commonly called wardens in England, were elected by the members, and their chief function was to supervise the quality of the wares produced, so as to secure good and honest workmanship. Therefore, ordinances were made regulating the hours of labour and the terms of admission to the gild, including apprenticeship. Other ordinances required members to make periodical payments to a common fund, and to participate in certain common religious observances, festivities and pageants.
The journeymen combined to protect their special interests, notably as regards hours of work and rates of wages, and they fought with the masters over the labour question in all its aspects.
During this period, until the plants begin to ripen, the tilth is maintained and weeds checked first by horse cultivators or horsehoes, and, as the plants increase in size, by hand labour.
The use of gas-fired furnaces greatly simplifies manual labour.
On a direct-fired furnace at least one man, the brigadier, must be an expert in all the operations involved; but with a gas furnace a division of labour is possible.
Furthermore, with the large furnaces which gas-firing makes possible mechanical appliances may be substituted for manual labour in many operations, such as removing and replacing broken retorts, mixing and conveying the charge, drawing and casting the metal, charging and emptying the retorts, and removing the residues and products.
These later historians had valuable help from the biographies of famous men and special histories of countries and cities, dynasties and princes, on which much labour was spent from the 4th century from the Flight onwards.
The whole field of labour and contracts was covered by minute regulations, which, good in theory, were absurd in practice, and which failed altogether, but not until labour had been disorganized for several years.
His Geschichte des Volkes Israel, the result of thirty years' labour, was epoch-making in that branch of research.
He joined Mr. Watson's Labour Cabinet of 1904 as Minister for Trade and Customs, and when Mr. Watson in 1907 resigned his leadership of the Labour party Mr. Fisher succeeded him.
Others were afterwards supplied by Benozzo Gozzoli and men of lesser note, and the labour of ornamentation was only discontinued in 1464.
His great work, Britannia Romana, or the Roman Antiquities of Britain (London, 1732), one of the scarcest and most valuable of its class, contains the result of patient labour.
All the heavy labour in the coast provinces was performed by them down to 1855, when African slavery was abolished.
These works appear to have been erected by powerful sovereigns with unlimited command of labour, possibly with the object of giving employment to subjugated people, while feeding the vanity or pleasing the taste of the conqueror.
In addition to the tribute, which was in accordance with native usage, there was the " mita," or forced labour in mines, farms and manufactories.
During her short course she gathered round her a devoted company of men and women trained to labour for the reformation of the individual, the church and the state.
It has recently become the seat of a considerable manufacture of carpets, owing to the cheapness of labour.
He relegated many of the brethren to a quieter retreat outside the city, only retaining in Florence those best fitted to aid in intellectual labour.
Horses do not live, and all wheeled traffic is done by manual labour - hammocks and sedan-chairs are the customary means of locomotion.
Under an act of the 12th of April 1883, as amended on the 4th of April 1902, education is compulsory for children between the ages of seven and fifteen, but the maximum limit is reduced to thirteen for children who are employed at lawful labour.
The results of this enthusiasm and this labour of the artist appeared in the volume of Poems, chiefly Lyrical, published in 1830.
The condition of the poor demanded special attention; labour should receive adequate remuneration; and he thought favourably of the " allotment of cottage grounds."
The general election resulted o in a majority of forty for Home Rule, heterogeneously composed of Liberals, Labour members and Irish.
He was selected by the Records Commission to re-edit Rymer's Foedera, a task which after ten years' labour (1808-1818) he had to resign.
He also supervised the compilation of a comprehensive series of volumes by various writers on Descriptive Sociology, of which by 1881 eight parts on different racial areas had been published (at a loss to him of £3250) as the result of fourteen years of labour.
The writings of Cassiodorus evince great erudition, ingenuity and labour, but are disfigured by incorrectness and an affected artificiality, and his Latin partakes much of the corruptions of the age.
Sparta in particular remained, even after the reforms of Lycurgus, and on into historic times, simply the isolated camp of a compact army of occupation, of some s000 families, bearing traces still of the fusion of several bands of invaders, and maintained as an exclusive political aristocracy of professional soldiers by the labour of a whole population of agricultural and industrial serfs.
Then, in addition to this, Christians were already found in all ranks and occupations - in the Imperial palace, among the officials, in the abodes of labour and the halls of learning, amongst slaves and freemen.
Its causes and results are fundamental for the study of ethnology (formation and mixture of races), of political and social history (formation of states and survival of institutions), and of political economy (mobility of labour and utilization of productive forces).
It is difficult to analyse closely the economic effect of emigration, because so much depends upon the character of the emigrants and the condition of the labour market.
The supply of labour is somewhat reduced, but wages are kept up for those who remain.
It adds directly to their available labour force, that is, to the number of adults engaged in the work of producing wealth.
If we add to these the native whites of foreign parentage (5,300,924) we have 11,152,323 persons of foreign extraction or 39'4% of the total labour force.
The labour force of the United States is thus made up very largely of immigrants and the children of immigrants.
So, too, the immigrant is worth his future net earnings to the community only if there is a demand for his labour.
In 1885 the United States passed what is called the Contract Labor Law, forbidding the landing of any person who is under contract to perform labour in the United States.
With the growth of manufactures, industrial centres spring up where the division of labour can be fully provided for.
The old handicraftsman has been superseded by machine labour and the village artisan by the factory hand.
At the same time improvements in agriculture and the opening up of new countries have enabled the modern community to gain its food and raw material with a less expenditure of labour force, and the surplus agricultural population has gone to the city.
With him, however, Manning found less sympathy than with his predecessor, though Manning's advocacy of the claims of labour attracted Leo's attention, and influenced the encyclical which he issued on the subject.
In the cause of labour he was active for many years, and in 1872 he set an example to the clergy of all the churches by taking a prominent part in a meeting held in Exeter Hall on behalf of the newly established Agricultural Labourers' Union, Joseph Arch and Charles Bradlaugh being among those who sat with him on the platform.
The result of all this labour was the Latin translation of the Scriptures which, in spite of much opposition from the more conservative party in the church, afterwards became the Vulgate or authorized version; but the Vulgate as we have it now is not exactly Jerome's Vulgate, for it suffered a good deal from changes made under the influence of the older translations; the text became very corrupt during the middle ages, and in particular all the Apocrypha, except Tobit and Judith, which Jerome translated from the Chaldee, were added from the older versions.
The increased freedom of trade with which Ireland was favoured, the introduction of the cotton manufacture by Robert Joy and Thomas M`Cabe in 1777, the establishment in 1791 of shipbuilding on an extensive scale by William Ritchie, an energetic Scotsman, combined with the rope and canvas manufacture already existing, supplied the inhabitants with employments and increased the demand for skilled labour.
The fields are small and composed of terraces by which the soil has been walled up along the contours of the hills, with enormous labour, to save it from being washed away.
But such inferences as these are but a vague return for the labour expended, and an almost cruelly inadequate response to seemingly well-founded expectations.
The labour devoted to an investigation is with Hallam no excuse for dwelling on the result, unless that is in itself important.
The farms are generally small, and are for the most part tilled by manual labour.
In the hive-bee and among ants, on the other hand, there are constant structural distinctions between queen and worker, and the function of the queen bee in a hive is confined to egg-laying, the labour, of the community being entirely done by the workers.
Corporations cannot be created by a special act of the legislature, and no corporation may issue stock except for an equivalent value of money, labour or property.
In 1899 a county workhouse was established in New Castle county, in which persons under sentence must labour eight hours a day, pay being allowed for extra hours, and a diminution of sentence for good behaviour.
The actual cutting of the coal is chiefly performed by manual labour, the tool employed being a sharp-pointed double-armed pick, which is nearly straight, except when required for use in hard rock, when the arms are made with an « „ inclination or anchored.
The process of holing in coal is one of the severest kinds of human labour.
The substitution of machinery for hand labour in cutting coal has long been a favourite problem with inventors, the earliest plan being that of Michael Meinzies, in 1761, who proposed to work a heavy pick underground by power transmitted from an engine at the surface, through the agencies of spear-rods and chains passing over pulleys; but none of the methods suggested proved to be practically successful until the general introduction of compressed air into mines furnished a convenient motive power, susceptible of being carried to considerable distances without any great loss of pressure.
The removal of the coal broken at the working face to the pit bottom may in small mines be effected by hand labour, but more Under.
He was appointed secretary of the Labour party in 1900 and held the position for r r years; and editor of the " Socialist Library " in 1905.
In 1906 he was elected to Parliament as Labour member for Leicester, and held the seat for a dozen years.
It was as chairman of the Independent Labour party - the section led by Mr. Keir Hardie - that he entered the House of Commons; and he explained at the congress of the party in April 1907 that its object was to mould society into the socialist State.
In that year he became the chairman of the Labour party in Parliament.
His devotion, indeed, to the ideal of international socialism caused him, at the outbreak of the World War, to lose touch not only with British public feeling in general, but even with the sentiment of the Labour party which he led.
He found, however, that the bulk of the Labour party were convinced by the words of Sir Edward Grey and by the action of Germany; and he resigned the leadership of his party, being succeeded by Mr. Arthur Henderson.
He remained a pacifist throughout the war, and used his influence in this direction in the labour and socialist movement, but he seldom spoke in Parliament, though he associated himself with the occasional anti-war demonstrations of Mr. Snowden and Mr. Arthur Ponsonby, and claimed the right of public meeting and free speech for pacifists.
He endeavoured unsuccessfully to prevent the Labour Conference in Jan.
He was active in the summer of 1917 in promoting the participation of representatives of the English Labour and Socialist parties in an International Socialist Conference at Stockholm, to which German representatives were coming, and he went to Paris with bIr.
Mr. Macdonald published several works on socialism and labour, besides a couple of books on India, which he visited in 1913 as a member of the Public Services Commission.
Gold, copper, iron and manganese are also found in various parts of the district, and there are tin mines at Maliwun, upon which European methods have been tried without much profit, owing to the cost of labour.
For certain public works the Germans enforce a system of compulsory labour.
The plantations are all worked by native labour.
It was the fruit of twenty years' labour, and exhibits with a brevity of expression, which, it has been said, "condenses more matter into a line than can be extracted from pages of other writers," the results of his study.
Species of Palaquium, the genus from which, in the Indian Archipelago, the best gutta-percha is obtained, occur on the hills, and from their cultivation there might in time be obtained a large revenue independently of European labour.
The " parsons " must be killed, and the lords reduced to earn their bread by daily labour.
As there proved to be a large number in the town councils who did not sympathize with the plans of organization recommended by Calvin and his colleagues, the town preachers were, after a year and a half of unsatisfactory labour, forced to leave Geneva.
Natives heavily predominated in agriculture and the professions, slightly in trade, and held barely more than half of all governmental positions; but in transportation, personal service, manufactures, labour and domestic service, the predominance of the foreign element warranted the assertion of the state Bureau of Statistics of Labour that " the strong industrial condition of Massachusetts has been secured and is held not by the labour of what is called the 'native stock,' but by that of the immigrants."
In the settlement of labour disputes conciliatory methods were successful in the formative period, when the parties to disputes adopted customary attitudes of hostility and fought to the end unless they were reconciled by the Board to a final agreement or to an agreement to arbitrate.
In the same period the mediation of the Board settled disputes affecting 5560 establishments; and in the latter half of this period labour disputes involving hostilities and of the magnitude contemplatedby the statute governing the Board of Conciliation and Arbitration had almost disappeared.
The laws relating to labour are full, but, as compared with those of other states, present few features calling for comment.
Stringent legislation controls prison labour.
Since 1885 a large expenditure has been incurred in the abolition of grade For a summary statement of state labour laws in the United States in 1903 see Bulletin 54 of the United States Bureau of Labor, September 1904; and for a summary of labour laws in force at the end of 1907 see 22nd Annual Report (for 1907) of the U.S. Commissioner of Labor (Washington, 1908).
Since 1850 truant and compulsory attendance laws (the first compulsory education law was passed in 1642) have been enforced in conjunction with laws against child labour.
European plants and animals were introduced into Hispaniola and Cuba, and sugar plantations were set up. But the main object of the Spaniards, who could not labour in the tropics even if they had wished to do so, was always gold, to be won by slave labour.
Forced labour was required to work them and the natives were driven to the toil.
An encomienda was required by anyone who wished to exact labour, i.e.
A great majority of all the family names in America were from animal totems. The division of labour among the sexes was based on zootechny.
Labour organizations for hunting, communal hunt and migrations had to do with the animal world.
However, looking over the whole field of North American achievement, architectural and non-architectural, composite and monolithic, the palm for boldness, magnitude of proportions and infinity of labour, must go to the sculptured mosaics of Yucatan.
In 1900 he contested West Ham unsuccessfully in the Labour interest, but in 1906 was elected to Parliament and came to the front as an active and energetic member of his party.
Among the consequences of the panic was a reduction of wages in many employments, accompanied by labour troubles more or less serious.
Modern writers rather dwell on the perfect organization demanded by his scheme, the training of a nation to combined labour, the level attained here by art and in the fitting of masonry, and finally the fact that the Great Pyramid was the oldest of the seven wonders of the ancient world and now alone of them survives.
He had still to go on doing literary task-work, but his labour was much worse paid in Leipzig than in Leiden.
Irrespective of the large number of clerks, village scribes and state and municipal employes which can be drawn upon with but slight interruption of official routine, there is a fair supply of casual literary labour up to the moderate standard required.
The law has allowed the Federal census office in its discretion to compile and publish the birth statistics of divisions in which they are accurately kept; one Federal report on the statistics of marriages and divorces throughout the country from 1867 to 1886 inclusive was published in 1889, and a second for the succeeding twenty-year period was published in part in 1908; an annual volume gives the statistics of deaths for about half the population of the country, including all the states and cities which have approximately complete records of deaths; Federal agencies like the bureau of labour and the bureau of corporations have been created for the purpose of gathering certain social and industrial statistics, and the bureau of the census has been made a permanent statistical office.
He must be credited with the finest and most original treatment of division of labour since the Wealth of Nations.
The fifth labour seems to symbolize some great improvement in the drainage of Elis.
Under the present system, therefore, there is a biennial election (in even-numbered years) of a governor, a lieutenant-governor, a secretary of state, a state comptroller, a state treasurer, an attorney-general and a state engineer and surveyor; and the governor appoints, subject to the approval of the Senate, a superintendent of public works, a superintendent of state prisons, a superintendent of insurance, a superintendent of banks, a commissioner of excise, a commissioner of agriculture, a forest, fish and game commissioner, a commissioner of health, a commissioner of labour, a state architect, a state historian, a state librarian, two public service commissions, a civil service commission, a board of charities, a commission of prisons, a commission in lunacy, three tax commissioners and several other boards and commissions.
Eight hours constitute a legal day's work for all employees except those engaged in farm labour or domestic service.
For children under sixteen years of age who are so employed the hours of labour are limited to eight a day and the days to six a week, and such children must not begin work before eight o'clock in the morning or continue after five o'clock in the evening.
For children between sixteen and eighteen years of age and for women the hours of labour in a factory are limited to ten a day, unless to prepare for a short day or a holiday, and the days to six a week.
In order to minimize competition between prison labour and free labour, articles manufactured in the state prisons, the reformatories and the penitentiaries, are sold only to the institutions and departments of the state and its political divisions.
It may eve nbe stacked without tying into sheaves, though this course involves greater expenditure of labour in carrying and afterwards in threshing.
Broken as is the surface, poor as is the soil of certain tracts, there is but little of the island which will not ultimately be cultivated with profit as pumice and clay-marl yield to labour.
But the socialistic labour wave of later years had not yet gathered strength.
The number of labour members thus elected to the general assembly was small, never more than six, and no independent labour party of any size was formed.
But the influence of labour in the Progressive or, as it preferred to be called, Liberal party, was considerable, and the legislative results noteworthy.
Before this the Ballance ministry had organized two new departments, those of labour and agriculture.
The former supervises the labour laws and endeavours to deal with unemployment; the latter has done much practical teaching, inspection, &c. Butter, cheese and New Zealand hemp are by law graded and branded by departmental inspectors before export.
The party headed by Ballance, Seddon and Ward held office without a break for more than seventeen years, a result mainly due to the general support given to its agrarian and labour policy by the smaller farmers and the working classes.
After the suppression of the Kapp troubles and the return of the Ministry to Berlin it was impossible for Noske to remain in office, as the labour masses, who by the general strike against the Kapp " Government " had for the moment obtained a decisive influence upon affairs, regarded him as having been too tolerant of reaction in the army and as having manifested excessive ruthlessness in the suppression of the Communist bands.
Say is considered to have brought out the importance of capital as a factor in production more distinctly than the English economists, who unduly emphasized labour.
Objecting, as Germain Gamier had, to Smith's distinction between productive and unproductive labour, he maintains that, production consisting in the creation or addition of a utility, all useful labour is productive.
Greeley dissented from many of Fourier's propositions, and in later years was careful to explain that the principle of association for the common good of working men and the elevation of labour was the chief feature which attracted him.
A series of popular essays on the subject were published over his own signature in The Tribune in 1869, and subsequently republished in book form, with a title-page describing protection to home industry as a system of national co-operation for the elevation of labour.
For the settlement of disputes between labourers and employers there is a state board, appointed by the governor and consisting of an employer of labour, a labourer and a disinterested citizen.
The present article is restricted to arbitration under municipal law; but a separate article is also devoted to the use of arbitration in labour disputes (see Arbitration And Conciliation).
Ample provision is made in America for the arbitration of labour disputes.
At present, besides the president, who has usually a seat in the cabinet,' and whose salary is 5000 a year, there is a parliamentary secretary with a salary of 1200, a permanent secretary (salary X1500, rising to £1800), and four assistant secretaries (each with a salary of i 200) for the harbour, marine, commercial, labour and statistical, and railway departments.
The Commercial, Labour and Statistical Department is the real remains of the original board of trade, as it combines the charge of the trade statistics with the general consultative duties with which King Charles II.'s board was originally entrusted.
The statistical work includes compiling abstracts, memoranda, tables and charts relating to the trade and industrial conditions of the United Kingdom, the colonies and foreign countries, the supervision of the trade accounts, the preparation of monthly and annual accounts of shipping and navigation, statistics as to labour, cotton, emigration and foreign and colonial customs, tariffs and regulations.
The labour statistics published by the department are exhaustive, dealing with hours of labour, the state of the labour market, the condition of the working classes and the prices of commodities; annual reports are also ' Since 1882 there have been only two occasions on which the president of the board was not included in the cabinet.
The staff comprises a controller-general (salary £1200 rising to £1500), a deputy controller-general and labour commissioner, a principal for statistics, a principal of the commercial department, an assistant labour commissioner, a chief staff officer for commercial intelligence, a chief labour correspondent, a special inquiry officer, and a staff of investigators and labour correspondents.
There are also branches which deal with the census of production, labour exchanges, &c.
The central authorities, which as early as the 18th century worked together in a common mother cell of the State chancery, became differentiated so soon as the growing tasks of administration called for specialization; in 1869 there were seven departments, and in the concluding decade of the Austrian Empire there were set up Ministries of Labour, Food, Public Health and Social Care.
A good general impression of the economic situation can easily be gained from the returns of the state of the labour market.
Thus during the first weeks of the war there was very great unemployment in parts of the industrial regions, since the dismissals far exceeded the proportion of enrolments in the army, while agriculture, which was already occupied with the harvest, suffered from a serious shortage of labour.
Tillage was also made compulsory, but this had little effect on production owing to the shortage of labour, draft animals, manures and agricultural implements, together with the oppressive restrictions caused by the fixing of maximum prices.
Neither husband nor wife has any interest in the separate property of the other and the wife may convey her real estate, other than a homestead, without her husband's consent, but the husband must support his wife out of his property or by his labour if he is able, and if he is unable the wife must support him so far as possible out of her property.
Returning to his cell he continued a labour in which he had been engaged, the transcription of the Psalter.
On the ground that the aim of every prosperous community should be to have a large proportion of hardy country yeomen, and that horticulture and agriculture demand such a high ratio of labour, as compared with feeding and breeding cattle, that the country population would be greatly increased by the substitution of a fruit and vegetable for an animal dietary.
The other administrative officers are a secretary of state, auditor, treasurer, superintendent of public instruction, commissioner of insurance, three commissioners of railways, attorney general and commissioner of agriculture and labour; each of these officers is chosen biennially and must be at least twenty-five years of age.
Nearly all the French cathedrals of the 12th and 13th centuries exhibit on their portals a species of rural calendar, in which each month and sign has its corresponding labour.
Though able and intelligent cultivators they do not take kindly to any form of labour other than agricultural, with the result that most of the industries and trades of the country are in the hands of Chinese.
He never conceals nor wilfully misrepresents anything, and he reckoned no labour too great which might help him to draw a truthful picture of the past.
Agricultural labour is very carefully regulated by law, in the enforcement of which the residents and lower officials have wide powers.
One day's gratuitous labour out of seven or more can be demanded of labourers either on private or on government estates; but in 1882 this form of labour was for the most part abolished as far as government estates were concerned, each labourer so exempted paying one guilder per year.
The use of slave labour, and the application of the corvee system to natives who were nominally free, enabled the company to lower the cost of production, while the absence of competition enabled it to raise prices.
In the second half of the 17th century the monopoly system and the employment of slaves and forced labour gave rise to many abuses, and there was a rapid decline in the revenue from sugar, coffee and opium, while the competition of the British East India Company, which now exported spices, indigo, &c. from India to Europe, was severely felt.
The cultivation of pepper, cochineal, cinnamon and indigo for the government had already ceased; De Waal restricted the area of the sugar plantations (carried on by forced native labour) as from 1878, and provided for their abolition after 1890.
In addition to the original Sokol Society (founded in 1862) there are the special organizations of the Labour (Socialist) and the Catholic Gymnastic Unions (under Sokol influence).
It was on his motion that, on the 25th of February, the government undertook "to guarantee the existence of the workmen by work"; and though his demand for the establishment of a ministry of labour was refused - as beyond the competence of a provisional government - he was appointed to preside over the government labour commission (Commission du Gouvernement pour les travailleurs) established at the Luxembourg to inquire into and report on the labour question.
On the 10th of May he renewed, in the National Assembly, his proposal for a ministry of labour, but the temper of the majority was hostile to socialism, and the proposal was again rejected.
Maine's temperament was averse from the labour of minute criticism, and his avoidance of it was no less a matter of prudence.
By exacting forced labour from the peasants he gave France admirable roads, though at the cost of rousing angry discontent.
The chief of the bureau of labour statistics is directed in case of danger of a strike or lockout to seek to mediate between the parties and if unsuccessful in that, then to endeavour to secure their consent to the formation of a board of arbitration.
The kidnapping of natives for the South American and Australian labour markets was common.
Meanwhile the labour traffic, which had been initiated, so far as the, Pacific islands were concerned, by an unsuccessful attempt in 1847 to employ New Hebridean labourers on a settlement near the present township of Eden in New South Wales, had attained considerable proportions, had been improperly exploited and, as already indicated, had led the natives to retaliation, sometimes without discernment, a notorious example of this (as was generally considered) being the murder of Bishop Patteson in 1871.
In 1872 an act was passed by the British government to regulate the labour traffic; Fiji was annexed in 1874, and in 1875 another act established the post of the British high commissioner.
His settlement of the railway dispute in 1906 was universally applauded; and the bills he introduced and passed for reorganizing the port of London, dealing with Merchant Shipping, and enforcing the working in England of patents granted there, and so increasing the employment of British labour, were greeted with satisfaction by the tariff-reformers, who congratulated themselves that a Radical free-trader should thus throw over the policy of laisser faire.
The Unionists gained a hundred seats over their previous numbers, but the constitutional issue undoubtedly helped the government to win a victory, depending indeed solely on the votes of the Labour members and Irish Nationalists, which a year before had seemed improbable.
But the competition of cheaper labour in other countries reduced the profits on this plant and the product of 1899 was a decrease from 78,818,000 lb in 1859.
The executive is composed of a governor, a lieutenant-governor, a treasurer, an auditor of public accounts, a register of the land office, a commissioner of agriculture, labour, and statistics, a secretary of state, an attorney-general and a superintendent of public instruction.
Child labour is regulated by an act passed by the General Assembly in 1908; this act prohibits the employment of children less than 14 years of age in any gainful occupation during the session of school or in stores, factories, mines, offices, hotels or messenger service during vacations, and prohibits the employment of children between 14 and 16 unless they have employment certificates issued by a superintendent of schools or some other properly authorized person, showing the child's ability to read and write English, giving information as to the child's age (based upon a birth certificate if possible), and identifying the child by giving height and weight and colour of eyes and hair.
These certificates must be kept on file and lists of children employed must be posted by employers; labour inspectors receive monthly lists from local school boards of children receiving certificates; and children under 16 are not to work more than 10 hours a day or 60 hours a week, or between 7 p.m.
Reinach (Revue archeologique, 1904) finds the origin of the story in a picture, in which Sisyphus was represented rolling a huge stone up Acrocorinthus, symbolical of the labour and skill involved in the building of the Sisypheum.
The labour of rolling the metal by hand was done away with about 1760, by the firm of Tudor, Leader & Sherburn, who first employed horse-power, and for more than half a century the trade both in Sheffield and Birmingham continued to flourish.
The culture of silk, flax, grapes (for wine-making) and fruits and cereals in general, and the manufacture of flour and of woollen, flannel and cotton fabrics, were carried on under a rule requiring every adult to labour 12 or 14 hours each day in field or mill.
In 1872 he was nominated for the presidency by the "Bourbon" Democrats, who refused to support Horace Greeley, awl by the "Labour Reformers"; he declined the nomination but received 21, 559 votes.
Smith sets out from the thought that the annual labour of a nation is the source from which it derives its supply of the necessaries and conveniences of life.
The improvement in the productiveness of labour depends largely on its division; and he proceeds accordingly to give his unrivalled exposition of that principle, of the grounds on which it rests, and of its greater applicability to manufactures than to agriculture, in consequence of which the latter relatively lags behind in the course of economic development.
When the division of labour has been established, each member of the society must have recourse to the others for the supply of most of his wants; a medium of exchange is thus found to be necessary, and money comes into use.
In relation to the earliest social stage, we need consider nothing but the amount of labour employed in the production of an article as determining its exchange value; but in more advanced periods price is complex, and consists in the most general case of three elements - wages, profit and rent.
Wages are the reward of labour.
There is in every society or neighbourhood, an ordinary or average rate of wages and profit in every different employment of labour and stock, regulated by principles to be explained hereafter, as also an ordinary or average rate of rent.
These may be called the natural rates at the time when and the place where they prevail; and the natural price of a commodity is what is sufficient to pay for the rent of the land, the wages of the labour, and the profit of the stock necessary for bringing the commodity to market.
The excess above this will depend on the circumstances of the country, and the consequent demand for labour - wages being high when national wealth is increasing, low when it is declining.
Next comes the distinction of the gross national revenue from the net - the first being the whole produce of the land and labour of a country, the second what remains after deducting the expense of maintaining the fixed capital of the country and that part of its circulating capital which consists of money.
In proceeding to consider the accumulation of capital, he is led to the distinction between productive and unproductive labour - the former being that which is fixed or realized in a particular object or vendible article, the latter that which is not so realized.
The former is exemplified in the labour of the manufacturing workman, the latter in that of the menial servant.
Productive labourers alone are employed out of capital; unproductive labourers, as well as those who do not labour at all, are all maintained by revenue.
The prodigal, encroaching on his capital, diminishes, as far as in him lies, the amount of productive labour, and so the wealth of the country; nor is this result affected by his expenditure being on home-made, as distinct from foreign commodities.
The only mode of increasing the annual produce of the land and labour is to increase either the number of productive labourers or the productive powers of those labourers.
Either process will in general require additional capital, the former to maintain the new labourers, the latter to provide improved machinery or to enable the employer to introduce a more complete division of labour.
In what are commonly called loans of money, it is not really the money, but the money's worth, that the borrower wants; and the lender really assigns to him the right to a certain portion of the annual produce of the land and labour of the country, As the general capital of a country increases, so also does the particular portion of it from which the possessors wish to derive a revenue without being at the trouble of employing it themselves, and, as the quantity of stock thus available for loans is augmented, the interest diminishes, not merely "from the general causes which make the market price of things commonly diminish as their quantity increases," but because, with the increase of capital, "it becomes gradually more and more difficult to find within the country a profitable method of employing any new capital" - whence arises a competition between different capitals, and a lowering of profits, which must diminish the price which can be paid for the use of capital, or in other words the rate of interest.
As to the different employments of capital, the quantity of productive labour put in motion by an equal amount varies extremely according as that amount is employed - (i) in the improvement of lands, mines or fisheries, (2) in manufactures, (3) in wholesale or (4) retail trade.
Briggs continued to labour assiduously at the calculation of logarithms, and in 1624 published his Arithmetica logarithmica, a folio work containing the logarithms of the numbers from to 20,000, and from 00,000 to ioo,000 (and in some copies to roi,000) to 14 places of decimals.
It is evident that Wittich's prosthaphaeresis could not be a good method of practically effecting multiplications unless the quantities to be multiplied were sines, on account of the labour of the interpolations.
The appointment of the revisers was a work of much responsibility and labour, and five months elapsed before they were selected and their7respective portions assigned to them; but the list of those who began the work, and who, with some few changes in consequence of deaths, brought it to a happy conclusion, shows how large an amount of scholarship was enlisted.
The Old Testament revisers were therefore spared much of the labour of deciding between different readings, which formed one of the most important duties of the New Testament company.
A whole literature of criticism and apology made its appearance, and the achievement of so many years of patient labour seemed destined to perish in a storm of resentments.
Many farmers abandoned their sterile farms and made new homes in the West, where soil yielded larger returns for labour, and a foreign-born population, consisting largely of French Canadians, came to the cities in response to the demand for labour in the mills and factories.
It was in conjunction with Marx and Laf argue that he drew up the programme accepted by the national congress of the Labour party at Havre in 1880, which laid stress on the formation of an international labour party working by revolutionary methods.
He brought forward various proposals in social legislation forming the programme of the Labour party, without reference to the divisions among the Socialists, and on the 20th of November 1894 succeeded in raising a two days' discussion of the collectivist principle in the Chamber.
Immediately after the revolution of 1848 he was attached to the royal commission in Saxony appointed to determine the relations between trade and labour.
The cheapness of labour attracted capitalists, who started extensive factories in that quarter of the town known even now as the Liberties.
But it was not until 1609 that, the "great Martian labour" being at length completed, he was able, in his own figurative language, to lead the captive planet to the foot of the imperial throne.
His great work, Le Istorie del regno di Napoli dal 1250 fino al 1498, first appeared at Naples in 1572, and was the fruit of thirty or forty years' labour; but nine more years were devoted to the task before it was issued in its final form at Aquila (1581).
Like the corresponding ammeters, they have the great advantage that the scales are equidivisional and that there is no dead part in the scale, whereas both the electrostatic and electrothermal voltmeters, above described, labour under the disadvantage that the scale divisions are not equal but increase with rise of voltages, hence there is generally a portion of the scale near the zero point where the divisions are so close as to be useless for reading purposes and are therefore omitted.
Here in the spring the half-dozen or more coyote pups are brought forth; and it is said that at this season the old ones systematically drive any large game they may be chasing as near to their burrow, where the young coyotes are waiting to be fed, as possible before killing it, in order to save the labour of dragging it any great distance.
The depth of water at the main entrance is 41 to 5 fathoms and in the western bay 3 to 4 fathoms. For lack of docks and quayage, large vessels lie off Steamer Point and all cargo is handled by means of lighters, the labour being either Somali or Arab.
In the earliest age of Christian monasticism the ascetics were accustomed to live singly, independent of one another, at no great distance from some village, supporting themselves by the labour of their own hands, and distributing the surplus after the supply of their own scanty wants to the poor.
The monks spent all the time, not devoted to religious services or study, in manual labour.
All the produce of the monks' labour was committed to him, and by him shipped to Alexandria.
The base court nearest to the outer wall contained the buildings belonging to the functions of the body as agriculturists and employers of labour.
The methods of cultivation do not involve the application of so much hand labour per acre as in Europe.
The Alaskan boundary, the Atlantic and inland fisheries, the alien labour law, the bonding privilege, the seal fishery in the Bering Sea and reciprocity of trade in certain products were among the subjects considered by the commission.
On one point, however, a fair amount of agreement seems now to have been reached, a result due to the labour in collating documents of Scheffer-Boichorst, namely, that the style of the Constitutum is generally that of the papal chancery in the latter half of the 8th century.
In this position he continued to labour, to write, and to assail the lax Catholics and their clergy until at least the time of Bishop Calixtus in the reign of Elagabalus.
What he mainly wanted was the time, the leisure and the labour, which we have supposed to have been given to the gradual composition of the extant Aristotelian writings.
This was accompanied by an extensive employment of slave labour, and from 1820 until 1860 the rate of increase of the blacks was greater than that of the whites.
The disorganization of labour resulting from the Civil War and the emancipation of slaves, was the cause of a temporary decline in the cotton crop. In 1889 the crop again approximated to 1,000,000 bales (915,210 bales, being 12.2% of the entire crop of the United States), and in 1899 it exceeded that amount, Alabama being fourth among the states of the entire country.
The average yield per acre has also increased under the system of free labour.
Under the civil code of 1897 the earnings of a wife are her separate property, and it is provided that "no woman, nor any boy under age of twelve years, shall be employed to work or labour in or about any mine in this state."
By acts of 1903 child labour under 12 years is forbidden in any factory unless for support of "a widowed mother or aged or disabled father," or unless the child is an indigent orphan; "no child under the age of ten years shall be so employed under any circumstances."
Certificates of children's ages are necessary before a child is employed; false certification is forbidden under penalty of a fine of from $5 to $100 or hard labour not exceeding three months.
An able-bodied parent who does not work when he has the opportunity, unless "idle under strike orders, or lock-outs," and who hires out his minor children, is declared a vagrant and may be fined $50o and imprisoned or sentenced to hard labour for not more than six months.
In addition to the usual method of employing convicts in the penitentiary or on state farms, Alabama, like other southern states, also hires its convicts to labour for private individuals.
In the 1907 state legislature a county local option bill was passed in February, and immediately afterward the Sherrod anti-shipping bill was enacted forbidding the acceptance of liquors for shipment, transportation or delivery to prohibition districts, and penalising the soliciting of orders for liquor in "dry" districts with a punishment of $500 fine and six months' imprisonment with hard labour.
The principal occupation in Georgia is agriculture, which in 'goo engaged seven-tenths of the land surface of the state and the labour of three-fifths of the population, ten years old and over, who are employed in profitable occupations.
This growth in cotton manufactures is due to various causes, among them being_ the proximity of raw material, convenient water-power, municipal exemption from taxation and the cheapness of labour.
As the result of the general campaign against child labour, an act was passed in 1906 providing that no child under 10 shall be employed or allowed to labour in or about any factory, under any circumstances; after the 1st of January 1907 no child under 12 shall be so employed, unless an orphan with no other means of support, or unless a widowed mother or disabled or aged father is dependent on the child's labour, in which case a certificate to the facts, holding good for one year only, is required; after the 1st of January 1908 no child under 14 shall be employed in a factory between the hours of 7 P.M.
In 1897 this was supplanted by the contract system, by which a prison commission accepted contracts for convict labour, but the prisoners were cared for by state officials.